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14

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16

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„π∑“ß°≈—∫°—π ‡¡◊ËÕ‡√“‰¥â‡ÀÁπ¢Õß «¬ß“¡ ‰¥â¬‘π‡ ’¬ß∑’Ë∂Ÿ°„® ‰¥â°≈‘ËπÀÕ¡∂Ÿ°„® ‰¥â≈‘È¡√ ∑’ËÕ√àÕ¬ ‰¥â√—∫ ‘Ëß —¡º— √à“ß°“¬∑’Ëπÿà¡π«≈ ¡’Õÿ≥À¿Ÿ¡‘æÕ‡À¡“– ‰¡à√âÕπÀ√◊ÕÀ𓫇°‘π‰ª ‰¥â§‘¥∂÷ß ‘Ëß∑’ËæÕ„® ‡√“®–‡°‘¥§«“¡√—°„§√àæ÷ßæÕ„®„π ‘Ëß∑’ˉ¥â‡ÀÁπ ‰¥â¬‘π ‰¥â°≈‘Ëπ† ‰¥â√  ‰¥â —¡º—  ·≈–‰¥â§‘¥π÷°π—Èπ °Á„Àâ‡√“√Ÿâ‡∑à“∑—𧫓¡√—°„§√àæÕ„®∑’ˇ°‘¥¢÷Èππ—Èπ æÕ‡√“√Ÿâ®—°§«“¡‚°√∏À√◊Õ§«“¡√—°„§√àæÕ„®·≈â« ‡√“°Á “¡“√∂√Ÿâ®—°°—∫Õ“√¡≥åÕ¬à“ßÕ◊ËπÊ ‰¥â¥â«¬ ‡™à𠧫“¡≈—߇≈ ß —¬ §«“¡Õ“¶“µæ¬“∫“∑ §«“¡À¥ÀŸà„® §«“¡Õ‘®©“√‘…¬“ §«“¡§‘¥≈∫À≈ŸàºŸâÕ◊Ë𠧫“¡ºàÕß„ Õ‘Ë¡‡Õ‘∫¢Õß®‘µ„® §«“¡ ß∫„𮑵„® œ≈œ ‡¡◊ËÕ‡√“‡√’¬π√ŸâÕ“√¡≥åÀ√◊Õ§«“¡√Ÿâ ÷°‡À≈à“π’È¡“°¢÷ÈπÊ

20

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∂÷ßµÕππ’È ‡√“®–√Ÿâ™—¥«à“ √à“ß°“¬°Á‡ªìπ·§àÀÿàπ¬πµåµ—«Àπ÷Ëß §«“¡√Ÿâ ÷° ÿ¢∑ÿ°¢å ·≈–Õ“√¡≥å∑—ÈßÀ≈“¬ °Á‡ªìπ ‘Ëß∑’Ë∂Ÿ°√Ÿâ ‰¡à „™àµ—«‡√“ ‡¡◊ËÕÀ—¥ —߇°µ‡√’¬π√Ÿâ®‘µ„®µπ‡Õß¡“°¢÷Èπ §√“«π’È°Á®–‡ÀÁπ°“√∑”ß“π¢Õß®‘µ„®‰¥â™—¥‡®π¢÷Èπ‡√◊ËÕ¬Ê ®π√Ÿâ§«“¡®√‘ß«à“ §«“¡∑ÿ°¢å‡ªìπ‡æ’¬ß ‘Ëß∑’Ë¡’‡Àµÿ∑”„À⇰‘¥¢÷Èπ‡ªìπ§√“«Ê ‡∑à“π—Èπ ‡√“®–æ∫æ≈—ßß“πÀ√◊Õ·√ߺ≈—°¥—π∫“ßÕ¬à“ß„π®‘µ„®¢Õ߇√“ ‡™àπ æÕ‡ÀÁπºŸâÀ≠‘ß «¬∂Ÿ°„® æÕ®‘µ„®‡°‘¥§«“¡√Ÿâ ÷°√—°„§√àæÕ„®·≈â« ¡—π®–‡°‘¥·√ߺ≈—°¥—𮑵„®¢Õ߇√“ „À⇧≈◊ËÕπÕÕ°‰ª¬÷¥‡°“–∑’˺ŸâÀ≠‘ߧππ—Èπ ∑”„Àâ‡√“≈◊¡¥Ÿµ—«‡Õß ‡ÀÁπ·µàºŸâÀ≠‘ߧππ—Èπ‡∑à“π—Èπ

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§«“¡®√‘ß°“√∑’ÀË ≈ß √â“ßÕ“√¡≥åÕÕ°¡“Õ—πÀπ÷ßË ·≈⫵π‡Õß ‡¢â“‰ªµ‘¥Õ¬Ÿà¿“¬„ππ—Èπ °Á‡ªìπ°“√ àß®‘µÕÕ°πÕ°·≈â« §◊ÕÕÕ°‰ª πÕ°®“°√Ÿâ º¡æ¬“¬“¡·°â°“√ àß®‘µÕÕ°‰ª √â“ß¿æ‚¥¬‰¡à√Ÿâµ—«„Àâ ‰¡à‰¥âª√“√∂π“®–„ÀâÀ—¥ àß®‘µÕÕ°πÕ°·µàÕ¬à“ß„¥ ªí≠À“Õ’°Õ¬à“ßÀπ÷Ëß∑’Ëæ«°‡√“ à«ππâÕ¬‡ªìπ°—π ‰¥â·°à°“√ À≈ßµ“¡Õ“°“√¢Õß®‘µ ‡™àπ À≈ß„ππ‘¡‘µ · ß  ’ ‡ ’¬ßµà“ßÊ À√◊Õ À≈ß„π°“√°√–µÿ°¢Õß√à“ß°“¬ œ≈œ æÕ‡°‘¥Õ“°“√¢÷πÈ ∫“ߧπ°Á¬π‘ ¥’ ∫“ߧπ°Á¬π‘ √⓬ µâÕߧլª≈Õ∫§Õ¬·π–„ÀâÀπ— ¡“ —߇°µ√Ÿ§â «“¡¬‘π¥’ ¬‘π√⓬¢Õß®‘µ ®π®‘µ‡¢â“∂÷ߧ«“¡‡ªìπ°≈“߇Õß ·∑π°“√‰ª‡æàß„ à Õ“°“√µà“ßÊ ‡À≈à“π—πÈ ·≈–¡’√“§– ‚∑ – À√◊Õ‚¡À–§√Õ∫ß”‚¥¬‰¡à√µâŸ «— °“√ªØ‘∫—µ‘π—Èπ ∂â“®–ªÑÕß°—𧫓¡º‘¥æ≈“¥ °Á§«√®—∫À≈—° „Àâ·¡àπÊ «à“ ç‡√“ªØ‘∫µ— ‡‘ æ◊ÕË √Ÿ∑â π— °‘‡≈ µ—≥À“ ∑’§Ë Õ¬·µà®–§√Õ∫ß” ®‘µ„® ªØ‘∫—µ‘ ‰ª®π®‘µ©≈“¥ æâπ®“°Õ”π“®¢Õß°‘‡≈ µ—≥À“é ‰¡à „™àªØ‘∫—µ‘‡æ◊ËÕ ‘ËßÕ◊Ëπ À“°ªØ‘∫—µ‘‚¥¬·Ωß ‘ËßÕ◊Ëπ‡¢â“‰ª ‡™à𠧫“¡

42

·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à: ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡–

Õ¬“°√Ÿâ Õ¬“°‡ÀÁπ Õ¬“°‡ªìπ Õ¬“°‰¥â Õ¬“°‡¥àπ Õ¬“°¥—ß Õ¬“° À≈ÿ¥æâπ ‚Õ°“ æ≈“¥°Á¡’ Ÿß ‡æ√“–®‘µ¡—°®– √â“ß∫“ß ‘Ëß∫“ßÕ¬à“ß ¢÷Èπ¡“ ·∑π∑’Ë®–√Ÿâ∑ÿ°Õ¬à“ßµ“¡§«“¡‡ªìπ®√‘ß ·≈â«°Á§«√ —߇°µ®‘µ„®µπ‡Õ߉«â∫â“ß À“°√Ÿâ ÷°«à“ ®‘µ„® ‡°‘¥§«“¡Àπ—°∑’Ë·µ°µà“ßÀ√◊Õ·ª≈°·¬°®“°∏√√¡™“µ‘·«¥≈âÕ¡ °Á· ¥ß«à“®‘µ‰ªÀ≈߬÷¥Õ–‰√‡¢â“„Àâ·≈â« ‡æ√“–‚¥¬∏√√¡™“µ‘¢Õß  ‘Ëß¿“¬„π¿“¬πÕ°π—Èπ ¡—π‰¡à¡’πÈ”Àπ—°Õ–‰√‡≈¬ ∑’Ë¡’πÈ”Àπ—°¢÷Èπ¡“ °Á‡æ√“–‡√“‰ª·∫°‰ª∂◊Õ‰«â‡∑à“π—Èπ‡Õß ≈Õß —߇°µ¥ŸµÕππ’È°Á‰¥â§√—∫ ≈Õß∑”„®„Àâ ∫“¬Ê  —߇°µ‰ª¬—ß ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡¿“¬πÕ° ‡™àπ Õ“§“√ ∫â“π‡√◊Õπ ‚µä–‡°â“Õ’È µâπÀ¡“°√“°‰¡â ®–‡ÀÁπ«à“  ‘Ëß¿“¬πÕ°π—È𠂪√àß ‡∫“ ‰¡à¡’πÈ”Àπ—° ‡æ√“–‡√“‰¡à ‰¥â‡¢â“‰ª·∫°À“¡‡Õ“‰«â  à«π ®‘µ„®¢Õ߇√“π—Èπ ¡Õ߬âÕπ‡¢â“¡“®–‡ÀÁπ«à“¡—πÀπ—°¡“°∫â“ßπâÕ¬∫â“ß ∂⓬÷¥¡“°°ÁÀπ—°¡“° ¬÷¥πâÕ¬°ÁÀπ—°πâÕ¬ ¡—π¬—ß·ª≈°·¬°ÕÕ°®“° ∏√√¡™“µ‘ ∏√√¡¥“  ‘Ëß∑’Ë·ª≈°·¬°π—Ëπ·À≈–§√—∫ §◊Õ à«π‡°‘π∑’ˇ√“ À≈ß √â“ߢ÷Èπ¡“‚¥¬√Ÿâ‰¡à‡∑à“∑—π¡“¬“¢Õß°‘‡≈ 

·π«∑“ߪؑ∫—µ‘∏√√¡‚¥¬ —߇¢ª 43


‡¡◊ËÕ√Ÿâ·≈â« °Á —߇°µ®‘µµπ‡ÕßµàÕ‰ª«à“¡—π¬‘π¥’ ¬‘π√⓬µàÕ ‘ßË ∑’·Ë ª≈°ª≈Õ¡‡¢â“¡“π—πÈ À√◊Õ‰¡à ·≈â«°Á√‡âŸ √◊ÕË ¬‰ª ®π®‘µ‡ªìπ°≈“ßµàÕÕ“√¡≥å∑—Èߪ«ß ∏√√¡™“µ‘¿“¬„π°—∫ ∏√√¡™“µ‘¿“¬πÕ°°Á®–‡ ¡Õ°—π §◊Õ‰¡à¡’πÈ”Àπ—°„ÀâµâÕß ·∫°À“¡µàÕ‰ª æ√–»“ ¥“∑√ß Õπ«à“ ¢—π∏å∑—Èß ı ‡ªìπ¢ÕßÀπ—° ∫ÿ§§≈·∫°¢ÕßÀπ—°æ“‰ª ‡¢“¬àÕ¡‰¡àæ∫§«“¡ ÿ¢‡≈¬ §” Õπ¢Õßæ√–ÕߧåππÈ— §”‰Àπ°Á§”π—πÈ ¢—π∏凪ìπ¢ÕßÀπ—° ®√‘ßÊ  ”À√—∫∫“ߧπ∑’Ë¡’µ“∑’Ë®–¥ŸÕÕ°‰¥â

44

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·π«∑“ߪؑ∫—µ‘∏√√¡‚¥¬ —߇¢ª 45


æ√–æÿ∑∏‡®â“∑à“π Õπ«à“ §«“¡‡°‘¥ §«“¡·°à §«“¡‡®Á∫‰¢â‰¥âªÉ«¬ §«“¡µ“¬°Á‡ªìπ∑ÿ°¢å πâÕ¬§ππ—°∑’Ëøíß∏√√¡–µ√ßπ’È·≈â«®–‡¢â“„®®√‘ßÊ  à«π„À≠àøíß·≈â«°Á®–‡¢â“„®‡ªìπ«à“ ‡√“‡°‘¥ ‡√“·°à ‡√“‡®Á∫ ‡√“µ“¬ ‡ªìπ∑ÿ°¢å ‰¡à¡’„§√‡¢â“„®®√‘ßÊ «à“§«“¡®√‘ß·≈â«  ¿“«–¢Õߧ«“¡‡°‘¥  ¿“«–¢Õߧ«“¡·°à  ¿“«–¢Õߧ«“¡‡®Á∫  ¿“«–¢Õߧ«“¡µ“¬ µà“ßÀ“°∑’ˇªìπ∑ÿ°¢å ‰¡à¡’ ‡√“ ∑’ˇªìπ∑ÿ°¢å ¡’‡æ’¬ß ¿“«–¢Õß√Ÿªπ“¡∑’Ë· ¥ß∂÷߉µ√≈—°…≥å ‡°‘¥¢÷Èπ µ—ÈßÕ¬Ÿà ·≈â«°Á¥—∫‰ª §«∫§ÿ¡‰¡à‰¥â ∫—ߧ—∫„ÀâÕ¬Ÿà „πÕ”π“®µ“¡„®ª√“√∂π“‰¡à‰¥â

46

·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à: ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡–

·π«∑“ߪؑ∫—µ‘∏√√¡‚¥¬ —߇¢ª 47


‡¡◊ËÕ‡¢â“„®º‘¥ ¡’§«“¡‡ÀÁπº‘¥«à“ √Ÿªπ“¡/°“¬„®‡ªìπµ—«‡√“ ‡¡◊ËÕ√Ÿªπ“¡·°à ‡®Á∫ µ“¬ °Á欓¬“¡¥‘Èπ√πÀπ’ ·µà¬‘Ëß欓¬“¡¥‘Èπ°Á¬‘Ëß∑ÿ°¢å ‡¡◊ËÕ¬‘Ëß∑ÿ°¢å°Á¬‘Ëߥ‘Èπ ·∑π∑’Ë®–‡ÀÁ𧫓¡®√‘ß«à“ §«“¡∑ÿ°¢å¡’Õ¬Ÿà·µà ‰¡à¡’ºŸâ∑ÿ°¢å ‡¡◊ËÕ„¥∑’ˇ√“ªØ‘∫—µ‘∏√√¡ ®π “¡“√∂‡À��π·µà ¿“«–≈â«πÊ Õ—πª√“»®“° —µ«å ∫ÿ§§≈ µ—«µπ ‡√“‡¢“ ‡√“®–‡¢â“„®„πÕ√‘¬ —® Ù Õ¬à“ß·®à¡·®âß

48

·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à: ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡–

®“°‡¥‘¡∑’ˇÀÁπ·µà«à“ ‡æ√“–¡’ ¡ÿ∑—¬§◊Õµ—≥À“ ®÷ß∑”„À⇰‘¥∑ÿ°¢å ‡√“°Á®–·®à¡·®â߇¢â“„®«à“ ‡æ√“–‡√“‰¡à√Ÿâ®—°∑ÿ°¢å§◊Õ√Ÿªπ“¡ ‚¥¬‰ª ”§—≠º‘¥«à“√Ÿªπ“¡§◊Õµ—«‡√“ ®÷ß∑”„À⇰‘¥µ—≥À“Õ—π‡ªì𧫓¡Õ¬“° ∑’Ë®–„Àâµ—«‡√“æâπ∑ÿ°¢å·≈–¡’§«“¡ ÿ¢ ·≈–µ—≥À“π—Èπ‡Õß∑”„À⇰‘¥§«“¡∑ÿ°¢å∑“ß„® ∑—∫´âÕπ¢÷Èπ¡“Õ’° Õ√‘¬ —®π’ȇªìπ∏√√¡–∑’Ë≈÷°´÷Èß≈–‡Õ’¬¥‡ ’¬®√‘ß ‡æ√“–§«“¡‰¡à‡¢â“„®Õ√‘¬ —®  —µ«å∑—ÈßÀ≈“¬®÷ßµâÕ߇«’¬π«à“¬µ“¬‡°‘¥ Õ¬à“߉¡à¡’∑’Ë ‘Èπ ÿ¥

·π«∑“ߪؑ∫—µ‘∏√√¡‚¥¬ —߇¢ª 49


·µàÀ“°√Ÿâ∑ÿ°¢å·®à¡·®âß  ¡ÿ∑—¬°Á‡ªìπÕ—π∂Ÿ°≈–‚¥¬Õ—µ‚π¡—µ‘ ·≈â«π‘‚√∏®–ª√“°ØµàÕÀπ⓵àÕµ“„π©—∫æ≈—π °“√√Ÿâ∑ÿ°¢å®π≈– ¡ÿ∑—¬·®âßπ‘‚√∏ π’È·À≈–§◊ÕÕ√‘¬¡√√§ Õ—π‡ªìπ∑“ß “¬‡¥’¬«∑’Ë®–𔉪 Ÿà §«“¡æâπ∑ÿ°¢å∂“«√‰¥â

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50

·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à: ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡–

·π«∑“ߪؑ∫—µ‘∏√√¡‚¥¬ —߇¢ª 51


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