Page 1


An Active Pathway to Communication & Innovation

Jiaru Shi | Master of Design for Services | University of Dundee

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my deep gratitude to Professor Mike Press and Hazel White, my research supervisors for their patient guidance, enthusiastic encouragement and useful critiques of this research work. I would like to thank Adam Lawrence (Work|Play|Experience), Allan Carlsen (Director of Healthcare Theatre Program), Isabel McCue (Founder and Chief Executive of Theatre Nemo), all participants of individual interviews and observations, and the participants who contributed to the workshops to share their experiences and knowledge. I would also like to extend my thanks to Michael Zhang and Steven Zhou for documenting workshops and prototypes. Thanks to all my colleagues for your support and encouragement.


Executive Summary Theatre, which uses live performers to present the experience of a real or imagined story before live audiences in a specific place, is extremely powerful in simulation, exploration, presentation and communication. Can theatre as a creative approach have the same impact on service design process, in which people and experiences are highly involved to explore problems and innovative solutions? In the current service design industry, most of the tools and methods have a certain level of abstraction. They create a space for participants to explore problems in a creative way and


communicate the insights and ideas tangibly. However, theatre, with its special and powerful techniques in storytelling, has a huge and immediate impact on empathy development and engaging communication. The “Prototype Theatre” project mainly explores two questions (1)Can theatrical methods really simulate experience and build empathy to promote communication in a service design context?(2)Can we use theatrical methods in service design effectively? Interviews, observations and workshops were conducted to gain a  basic understanding of theatrical methods. In the mean while, iterative prototypes and conversations were constantly proceeded in ideation process  to get feedback and modification. A

Jiaru Shi Email: Skype: jiarushi111 Project blog: Prototype Theatre website: Personal website:

blog was set up to document the design process and insights from the beginning of the project. Tools were designed for service designers who are not familiar with theatrical methods but willing to use them as innovative approaches and have been tested in 3 workshops to check usability. All of them can be downloaded from Prototype Theatre website: Two real examples are currently available from the website to guide users go through simulation and exploration including videos and step by step instructions. Tools can be downloaded both in instruction page and tool page. More tests of the tools and the website are required. Everyone is welcome to try these tools in their project and share their own journey of Prototype Theatre through texts, pictures or videos.

Contents 1



Executive Summary



4 5 6 7 9

Background and Context Context and Opportunity Research Questions Secondary Research Conclusion +Models

10 11 12 15 16 17 18

Rreach and Insights Methods Selection Individual interviews Observation Personal Prototype Insights Analysis Conclusion+Insights

20 21 21 23 24

Idea Generation Idea Bank Prototypes Conversation Presentation Outcomes

25 26 34 35 36

Final Design and Outcome Workshop Testing Branding Promotion Logo Design Website Design

37 Nexr Step and Future 38 Insights Review

39 Next Steps 40 Learning Process 41 Bibliography Appendix i


BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT Literatures were reviewed to gain a global understanding of the definition around theatre in service design, and map the landscape around the practice of theatrical methods in design process. All the literatures were chosen from academic and non-academic articles, organization websites, and social media relevant to the practice of theatrical methods and the current environment of the tools and methods in service design. And those related to communication and innovation were emphasized.

Context Opportunity RED, a ‘do tank’ that develops new thinking and practice on social and economic problems through design-led innovation, claims in their Transformation Design report( C. Burns) that the modern problems in our new world have changed from complicated to complex. These complex problems are connected to each other and reflect on each other. To face this new challenge, designers have to come up with a new style of thinking and work collaboratively to support each other. Service design has emerged in response to the time and conditions. According to Stickdorn and Schneider (2011), service design is defined as an inter-disciplinary practice where the entire service should be considered as an iterative process. In this context, empathic understanding and communication becomes significant as each discipline speaks various languages and has different perspectives on a same situation. Frameworks and creative methods have been designed to build a common language for collaboration. However, most of the methods have limitations in involvement as they present a certain level of literacy and abstraction which might not be understood by all the stakeholders.A neutral, simple and explanatory pathway to communication and innovation is required for more stakeholders. Using live performers to present the experience of a real or imagined story before live audiences in a specific place, theatre is powerful in simulation, presentation and communication. Simulation “Theatre is really the only way of modeling human behavior that I know which can deal with emotion. “ Adam StJohn Lawrence from Work|Play|Experience talked about the unique aspect of theatrical methods when he was asked why they choose to use them to help companies creating memorable service experiences. (WorkPlayExperience: Bringing Drama to Service Design, Design Transitions, 2012) With the help of props, lines and storyboards, actors interact with objects or other characters to simulate the experience. By modeling the environment as well as behaviors ,theatre provides an extremely similar condition for actors to build empathy on characters both in physical and emotional levels. Presentation& Communication Theatre is an active form of presentation which has a lager and more immediate impact on audiences. Messages are lively passing to the audiences from lines, expressions and body languages without any other platform. Christopher Ferguson, the design strategist from cooler solutions stated “…the experience creates a heightened level of intimacy, far beyond watching slides or even a video on a screen.” Theatre can express the opinions of the writer and director in a vivid way, and communicate with audiences through various attractive approaches.


Research Questions As theatrical methods are strong in simulating experiences to build empathy, presenting stories to get massages through and communicating ideas to be investigative, the questions came as

(1) Can theatrical methods really simulate experience and build empathy and communication in a service design context? (2) How to use theatrical methods in service design context successfully?


Secondary Research

Previous research show that theatre has the potential to be implemented with service design in different design process. According to Roger Manix and Lara Penin (Strategy Execution Heroes. (2011). A great communication model. Available), improv exercises, as one theatrical method, is valuable in collaboration, communication and innovation to discover and define stages of the Double Diamond. This framework from the Design Council maps design process into 4 stages: discover, define, develop and deliver. Empathy and synthesis can be generated during problem framing, insights developing and idea generation and provide the base for further service design prototypes. On the other hand, theatrical methods are applied in service design as an approach to prototype ideas in develop stage of Double Dimond. Work|Play|Experience is a theatre consulting company which help companies create

memorable service experience by using theatrical methods. They identified prototypes into three levels -storyboard customer journey, desk top walk through and human-being simulation. As a higher level of walk through, what humanbeing simulation provides is not only the experience of service touchpoints, but also an emotional interaction which desk top walk through can never show. The implementation of theatre is successful in McDonalds’ restaurant new service investigating process. Before a new service is on, it should be prototyped in 4 different steps including Empty Room, Lo-Fi Mock-up, Technical Mock-up and Field Test. There are no real customers being involved in the first 3 steps. Designers and staff use theatrical methods to investigate new ideas and modify the service experience by simulating both behaviors and emotions of the interaction between service deliverer and customers. These simulations help designers build a deep understanding of the new service

by actually being as a customer and test the new service rapidly and iteratively before it comes to the market in order to reduce the risks for the company. Cooler Solutions, which known as Bridgeable, is a boutique research and design firm focused on helping clients bridge the gap between what is known about a complex problem and what can be done to solve it. They used live-action play to deliver the design of a drug launching service for diabetes in 2007 was a big success of appling theatre as a way of presentation and communication. Having professional actors and producers, a play which based on ethnographic field studies was able to present a multilayered story that represented different point of views of diabetic marketing from diverse stakeholders. Additionally, it also helped to communicate the social relationships between diabetic patients, their friends and family and their physicians with the large group of audiences in a memorable way. (Ferguson. C. (2012). Providing Patients With a Big Stage.Touchpoint. 4 (2).)


(Figure 1) The model of imptov excersise in service design process from Beyond the Service Journey: How Improvisation Can Enable Better Services and Better Service Designers


(Figure 2) Picture of McDonalds’ Empty Room Prototype from Byron Stewart

Conclusion +Models According to the desk research, theatrical methods are valuable to simulate experience and build empathy as well as communication in a service design context. The power of theatrical methods can be divided into 3 levels as simulation, presentation & communication and innovation according to functions. The models on the right show the 3 powers of theatrical methods and the applications of theatrical methods in Double Diamond design process. From the models we can see that theatrical methods are playing flexible roles in design process to provide simulation, presentation, communication and innovation. The huge opportunity for theatre is showed in service design context.


tion+Communicatio Presenta n Co-creation

Empathy Building




Empathy Building Understanding

(Figure 3) The Powers of Theatrical Implementation Model 1

(Figure 4) Theatrical Implementation id Double Diamond


RESEARCH AND INSIGHTS Individual interviews, field observations and personal prototypes have run through the whole primary research process to generate new insights and helped redefine design questions.

Methods Selection As presented in the Background and Context section, the goal of the research are (1) to explore the theatrical methods through the lens of design thinking in order to discover explicit and implicit benefits of using theatrical methods, (2) to explore the challenges of applying theatrical methods in service design context and (3) to use this information to identify opportunities for practical implementation of theatrical methods in design process. To meet these goals, individual interviews, field observations and personal prototypes run through the whole project to generate new insights and helped redefine design questions.

(Figure 5) Individual interview with an actor

(Figure 6) Personal prototype with poor eyesight

(Figure 7) Sketch of workshop aftrer observation


Individual interviews


Objectives To understand the experience and perspectives of selected participants related to theatre implementation which present their attitudes and practices on theatrical methods, including (1) the power of theatre in terms of empathy building and communication(2) their main concerns, and coping strategies; (3) the tools and techniques of their theatrical approach; (4) the role played by theatrical methods within the process (5) their measurement of the outcomes from theatrical exercise; (6) the impact of the theatrical implements on empathy, communication and innovation. People who recognize themselves among or know someone identifying with the targeted groups (theatrical professionals; service designers who lack of confidence to use the theatrical methods; service designers who have rich experiences on theatrical methods; organizations using theatrical approach) were invited, on a voluntary basis, to

Through individual in-depth interviews with relevant professionals including theatre professionals , service designers and other people who are using theatrical in their professional work, valuable first hand experiences and insights have been discussed and reflect on the later prototypes. Interviews have been documented as audio recordings and hot reports.

take part in individual in-depth, semi-structured face to face or Skype interviews. Recruitment notice (see in appendix) was sent to potential participants. All the participants that were contacted to take part in the research accepted the invitation. The duration of each interview was longer than 30 minutes and with the permission of the participants, most the interviews were recorded and notes were taken in order to document the conversation and insights. Follow ups were conducted as workshop observation and feedback discussion. Theatre Professionals 3 actor groups from France, 2 production designer from China, 1 performing artist and 1 director They are people who use theatrical methods and understand the best part of theatre through everyday work. Insights were gained from the interviews with actors in Avignon Theatre Festival and theatre students from The Hong

Kong Academy for Performing Arts have shared perspectives (1) what makes theatre different from other media is that theatre is directly connected with people, the audience can receive the message without other platforms and get into the story as they are part of it, (2) the expression and body languages can reduce the distance between actors and audiences and encourage audiences to interact with the story. Opportunities can be seen here as service design just have a need of involving everyone in the same context and discussing the problem in an interactive way. Service Designers(unfamiliar with thearical methods) 5 service design students, 2 ethnographers, 2 UX designer in China They are a group of service designers who are interested in theatrical methods but not ready to use it in their professional work. Interviews were conducted to find out the main challenges of

applying the methods in service design. The finding show that the main concern that stops them using theatrical methods  is the nonacceptance by clients. The situation is similar as when creative methods like crafting firstly being used in business set. People do not believe the power of playful methods which looks ridiculous and childish for a serious problem, although they are looking forward to solve problems enjoyably. Additionally, theatre, normally appears as an on-stage show, is new and terrifying for lots of people, even for service designer themselves. It requires high level of facilitating skills which can only be developed in practice. (1) How to prove the benefits of doing these activities are significant, (2) how to encourage people to bravely step out of their comfort zone (3) and how to develop the facilitating skill is the three main challenges now and in the future. Service Designers(tried before) 5 service designers in UK and Germany They are 4 service designers using theatrical methods in

service design in different sets. The objective of talking with them is to compare the difference between the challenges, process, and outcomes in social work, business and education. Interviews show that there are not many differences among these three sets. The challenges are always around making participants trusting the methods and being comfortable to open their mind, and the processes are similar as it is always good to start from some small and specific tasks and grow gradually into a larger concept. Outcomes are various but it depends on where the team is in design process and what the objectives are of the team rather than the topic. Slight difference is shown in business. Due to the importance of profit and strategy in a company in business situations, it is important to make sure that objectives of the project meet not only a service through customers perspective, but also meet the business objective. To deal with this challenge, designers need to be careful about the balance between the benefit of users and the benefit of the company when

designing workshops and tools. Organizations As education, social works and business are the main departments that are usually be seen in service design-as in healthcare and education applications, for example - 4 organizations were selected to explore the implementation of theatrical methods in training, healthcare, community integration and business through Individual interviews and workshop observations. Healthcare Theatre (Healthcare) Interviews have been done with Allan Edgar Carlsen, the director of Healthcare Theatre and Sepehr Sedigh Haghighat, one of their first graduates. Healthcare Theatre is an interdisciplinary program in Delaware University which co-operate by Medical Department and Theatre Department. Theatre students are trained to be professional “patients” and “families” to simulate the real world clinical stories with medical students in simulating room and give feedback to medical students in terms of their interpersonal


and communication skills. From a mini scope of 4 enrolled students in 2010 till now working with medical organizations in and out of the university, the success of Healthcare Theatre proves that theatrical methods do help participants get a higher level of communication skills and do better job in the real field. The ideas of doing observation to understand the situation and using real stories as scripts was taken in the next prototype.


Theatre Nemo (Community) Theatre Nemo is a non-profit organization based in Glasgow using theatre and creative arts as approaches to support people who have mental health problems. They work with local communities, psychiatric hospitals and prison to help people get their voices through and have social connections. Isabel, the director of Theatre Nemo claimed that people who have mental health issues need more understanding besides medical support. Using theatre and animation as methods to show public the real life of people who have mental health problems is powerful and

straightforward. Members from Theatre Nemo talked about the change that theatre has made in their lives, “In an engaging and fun way, theatrical methods help us speak out our stories bravely” “ we got friendships here” “This is my social life”. And the carer of one community member who comes to Theatre Nemo every week from hospital indicated that their service user has become more willing to talk and more comfortable to be with her friends.“she loves being here!” The idea of transforming real stories to scripts which is the same as Healthcare Theatre, shows the importance of “real” in using theatrical methods off the stage. And using theatre as a presentation way to generate empathy has been considered in following prototypes.

Observation Theatre Nemo The workshop is one of a series workshops aiming at making improvised sketches which will become a show for Mental Health Arts and Film Festival in October 2014. Two facilitators were cooperating to conduct in an informal but effective theatre workshop. The workshop consisted of body stretch warm up, previous outcomes review, themes discussion, team building, script development and short play presentation. There was lots of laughter and creating coming through these activities and participants showed their satisfaction particularly in warm up and improvisational rehearsal. Timetable could be seen on facilitator’s notebook but is flexible according to participants’ reaction. Themes had been written on papers and put on the ground for participants to discuss, which was visually and physically divided participants into team in a short time. This part was taken and adapted in next stage in the Job-seeking

To supplement the individual interviews and understand some facilitation skills and participants reactions about the application of theatrical methods in education and mental health in a workshop phase, observations were taken in Theatre Nemo community workshop in Glasgow and Rep Creative Learning workshop in Dundee with the permission of both facilitators and participants.

Workshop. The Rep Creative Learning The workshop is open for teachers who are willing to use theatre in class. Activities were facilitated by Gemma Nicol, the Acting Head of Creative Learning, who is a great energizer and using body languages in an exacting way. Learning by doing had been fully applied in this workshop. The space was large and comfortable. Many participants knew each other before they came to the workshop and trusted the facilitator. It made them really engage in the activities and learn facilitation skills by being a participant. Pens and slides were not seen in the whole workshop. The heart of the workshop was about standing up and doing rather than reading and imagining. Materials including explanation and instruction of all the activities were sent by email after the workshop, which was excellent and remarked as one takeaway for further design of



Personal Prototype In order to explore the impact of theatrical methods on empathy building, I decided to do a simple simulation to experience poor eyesight condition. Instead of simulating blind people, I chose to act as a person with cataract, which is difficult for me to imagine. And I participated in a shoe shining experience prototype which was facilitated by Fraser Bruce with service design students to explore how can theatrical methods contribute to a service experience design. Bodystorming of cataract The objective of this prototype is to learn bodystorming by doing it and to test if it can build empathic understanding of the simulated group. Facial cleanser was put on the glasses to simulate the poor eyesight of elder people. Surprisingly, instead of physical discomfort,


Iterative personal prototypes explained the experience in a practical way which fed new insights to the project. To understand the challenges and benefits of using theatrical methods to build empathy and discuss a service process, two personal explorations have been done and documented as film and photos.

the emotional discomfort was stronger. From the audio recordings of the immediate thoughts during the prototype, the most difficult thing was how to control the shock of being into a blurry world and adapt to it. The experience is unforgettable and vivid. The empathic understanding of the inconvenience caused by poor eyesight had definitely been generated by this prototype. This prototype proves that bodystorming as a theatrical methods do help creating empathy in physical situations. At the same time, it generated the idea of conducting role swatch exercise in later workshops. Video: Experience prototype of Shoe Shining Experience prototyping of shoe shining has been done with service design

students and facilitated by Fraser Bruce. Participants are all know each other and are familiar with creative methods. They are open to step out of their comfort zone to try new things. Most of them had never tried theatrical methods before and were curious about the outcomes of this method. The exercise came up with theme introducing, team building, improvisational rehearsal, presentation and discussion. Participants found that the role play was helpful in problem defining and idea generating. Good and bad points were talked through the discussion. The good part was that unexpected ideas were generated during a short time and be tested iteratively with immediate feedback. confused during the process.

Insights Analysis All field works were translated into tangible results such as empathy maps, swatch cards and business canvas and were analyzed qualitatively and synthesized. It allowed identifying implications of theatrical methods for communication and innovation in the areas of tools and activities, and having ideas on the final product to help service designers developing theatrical skills. In the meantime, documentary videos make the research sharable for colleges and stakeholders and accessible for a larger range of audiences.

(Figure 8) Screenshhoot of the poor eyesight bodystorming prototype

(Figure 9) Experience prototyping of shoe shining

(Figure 10) Analysis of research results


Conclusion +Insights Insights and feedback from the primary research constituted a concrete understanding of theatrical methods. The power of implementation of theatrical methods in exploration was addressed according to the research. The model 2( Figure 11) was developed based on the previous model. Before presenting the stories and experiences, theatrical methods help participants explore the services and stories in both physical and emotional phases by simulating them and help participants build empathy on other stakeholders and develop a holistic understanding.


According to the secondary and primary research, the challenges of theatrical implementation are For participants 1. the lack of understanding of theatrical methods 2. the fear of being on stage and presenting in front of people 3. the doubt of the benefits and outcomes of theatrical exercise 4. the time limitation For facilitators 1. the lack of tools and frameworks


tion+Communicatio Presenta n Co-creation


Empathy Building



Empathy Building Understanding



Exploration Co-creating

Story Prensenting

Empathy Building

Simulation Story Building

Holistic Understanding

Insights Prototyping Developing


(Figure 11) The Powers of Theatrical Implementation Model 2

with clear instruction and field examples 2. the lack of support groups to discuss and explore theatrical methods together The opportunity can be seen in (1) Tools with clear instructions that facilitate service designers build a safe space for participants to be comfortable and confident in using theatrical methods. (2) Tools to show tangible outcomes from the theatrical workshop. (3) Accessible platforms for service designers to share examples and insights on theatrical methods.


IDEA GENERATION I would characterize my approach to ideation as Idea Bag - a way of capturing ideas and conversations with internal and external audiences, which can then be fed into the ideation process and developed further through prototyping. Playful and painful, ideation achieved to make the research results into design concepts, and developed the concept into a doable plan.

Idea Bag Ideas always jump up anywhere at anytime. But paying too much attention to ideas in the early stage of design might restrict the project. Inspired by Visualizing Diabetes group, an Idea Bank which can keep

Prototypes For tools Tools were designed to facilitate service designers who are not familiar with theatrical methods using them as innovative approaches in workshop phases. Initial sketches Sketches were done to make the ideas tangible from developing from words to images on paper. Basic elements and formats had been initially tested with colleagues and service designers to see the understandability of the tools. Feedback was valuable.

ideas simply by writing them down on a post it and throwing them in to the bag has been made at the beginning of the project. As the Idea Bank would travel around with the designer everyday and capture those “wow”s immediately, it should be light and tiny enough to be kept in a backpack and easily to carry. Digital documentation

had been tried, but a bag is more tangible and touchable for people who prefer having something in hand. The Idea Bag provided a rich range of initial inspirations for later discussion and idea generation. It also provided a sense of achievement by looking at the growth of ideas.

From sketches to digitalized version, different fidelity of prototypes were testing according to audiences and design stages. These prototypes assisted the process of transferring ideas from designer’s mind to the real world. There is no right or wrong. The more mistakes, the more useful feedbacks.

(1) The size of the tools should be big enough to write or draw things on and small enough to be carried and hold easily. (2) The languages should be understandable by participants who have never use theatrical methods. Low-fidelity Prototypes Cheap and easy, no matter whether it was a drawing of modified sketches or a paper model of a revolving stage, low fidelity prototypes were extremely effective for idea

testing and definitely move the project forward rapidly. Although lots of them would not be seen in the final design, but all of them had contributed to the final outcome. Feedback from these low fidelity prototypes were focus on the usability and accessibility of tools. (1) All the tools could be divided according to the power of theatrical methods or the stages of double diamond design process . (2) To make the tool which



could be used in different stages specific, small change of elements could be modified by the particular function of the tool. (3) The tools should provide motivation for participants to move around and be active as they are designed for theatrical methods. Digitalized Prototypes After revising prototypes toward feedback, tools with high usability and understandability were digitalized and uploaded online to be professional and shareable for workshops and conversations with external audiences. A Workshop Plan Sheet was shown to theatrical workshop facilitators from Theatre Nemo. Feedback was centred on the flexibility of timetable plan and the diversity of tools to choose from. (1) Time scale of each exercises could not be designed for users but need to be flexible according to the reaction of their participants in that day. Other tools were digitalized to be used in later workshops were showed to designers and non-designers for format and illustration test. Feedback showed that (2) a logo

is required for branding the project as well as the tools and (3)a better recognition could be generated if all the tools were in the same style with same fronts.

(Figure 12) Idea Bag

(Figure 13) Sketches

(Figure 14) Low-fi Prototypes

Conversation Presentation Internal Talking with colleagues, tutors and other people who are doing theatre or service design promoted the insights which added the professional languages to the project. The feedback gained was professional and focused. Effective reflections were generated during discussion, resulting in some wonderful ideas. Borrowing experiences from professionals, tool and workshop design became more considerable and mature. External No matter whether they are a business manager met on a train, an athlete met in a hostel, a doctor met in an appointment or a performance artist facilitated in a workshop, or a friend doing computer science, talking about “prototype theatre� with people who have no idea of the project required a simple and understandable explanation without any jargon. Every time the description was different

from the previous one. The more conversations happened, the more accurate the explanation was. There was some great inspiration and support from these external audiences, such as the information of black stage in India and the idea of set a stage to make participants falling to the character.

(Figure 15) Talk about bodystorming in service jam


Outcomes The outcomes of the ideation process have two directions: Tools Design Tools had been adujsted into 4 levels according to the simulation, exploration, presentation & communication and innovation. Persona Template Exploration, Presentation+Communication A template which could be used to create a person who we are trying to explore with a simple story on the bottom to have a holistic view about relationship between participant and other characters in the story.


Storyboard Template Simulation, Exploration A template of to facilitate participants make up stories by drawing ordered scenarios. This template is specific for theatre workshops. The relationship between simulated condition and the scenarios is addressed in the template. The tool forms the experiences by dividing the

The outcomes of the ideation process have two directions, tools and guiding formate.Tools had been divided into 3 levels according to the Theatrical Method Model, and the formate of guidance had been prototyped as sketches and showed to design thinkers to get feedback.

story into opening, development, highlight and ending, which is usually used in theatre choreography. Simulation Tips Simulation A handbook to show how to use simple objects to simulate some common conditions. It supposed to be visual and simple with icons and some explanation illustrations. Talk Talk Card Exploration, Presentation and Communication, Innovation A tool to encourage participants who are not prototyping the story to be involved in the process by contributing common experiences or suggestions. Revolving Stage Template This is a template for service designers to design theatrical workshops. Inspired by revolving stage in theatre, the round stage can be divided into different sections according to time and importance of the scenarios which are being explored. Little

people can be cut down from the template and stick onto the stage to simulate activities and process. When the stage revolving, the whole process of the workshop would be seen tangibly and clearly. Guidance Format The format of the guidance had been prototyped as sketches and showed to designers to get feedback. A website which introduces the project and theatrical methods to anyone who are interested, provides a guidance to lead them try the methods and share live experiences of theatrical methods implementations got the most votes. Chosen from 7 ideas including a physical product, a guide book, training workshops and free downloadable toolset, the advantage of a website is that the high mobility and accessibility which could influence a wilder audiences.


Workshop Testing Empathy Building Workshop Date: 8 MAY 2014 Time: 1:45-3:15 Participants: 8 design thinkers Approach to participangts: Personal network Facilitator: Jiaru Shi Tools to be test: Persona Template Objective: Empathy Building workshop aims at giving participants an overview of what theatrical methods are and lead them go through the story between a young carer and a tough service user in care home to build empathic understanding for both sides. Agenda 1. Choose characters At the very beginning of the workshop, participants were asked to choose one character which they will simulate later in the workshop. The details of characters were not shown until the rehearsal stage.


To test the usability of tools prototyped in ideation stage, 3 workshops with design thinkers, graduates and travelers were conducted along the project.

2.Introduction Facilitator talked through the agenda and introduced theatrical methods in general. 3. Ice Breaker Activity is “Excuse me…” which could be found from the handbook of Creative Learning Team Workshop. Participants stander in a circle and asked 3 questions to the person in front of him/her in 2 minutes and share the answer with everybody. Everyone had to asking and answer questions in parallel and remember the answers at the same time. 4. Warm Up The activity was “Lights on”. Participants were asked to stand on colored pad and speak lines, acting the gestures to simulate the roles of the color represented. Role swatch was included to experience the difference of being different roles which lightly build empathy in the story. 5. Rehearsal

Participants received the matching personas of the character they chose at the beginning of the workshop. (Persona Template) A same story were printed in the bottom of each persona templates. Participants were divided into two teams and had 30 mins to build up the lines and do rehearsal. 6. Performance Each team had 3 mins’ filmed performance. 7. Discussion Group discussion about the feelings and insights generated through workshop. Great feedback of tools and activities were gathered after the discussion. Feedback (1)Persona Template worked well in scenario rehearsal. The template instructed participants to simulate the physical and emotional experiences in a formed story and helped

(Figure 17) Warm ups for Empathy Building Workshop

(Figure 18) Persona Template was used in Empathy Building Workshop as references to build up simulation.

structure the process of empathy building. (2) Warm up activities were liked by participants who have no experience on theatre, but the time was too long and the theme should be related to the simulated story. (3) More simulating instructions for physical conditions should be added in the workshop. (4) Time was not enough.

Communication and Innovation Workshop (Job Seeker)


Date: 23 June 2014 Time: 3.30-5.00 Participants: 4 graduates Approach to participants: Personal network Facilitator: Jiaru Shi Tools to be test: Prototype Theatre Toolset (Revolving Stage,Action Board,Talk Talk Card) Objective: Job Seeker workshop aims at using Prototype Theatre Toolset with graduates to share experiences in job seeking and come up with tips for graduates finding a suitable job with a

strategic plan. Agenda 1. Introduction Facilitator talked through the topic and the activities would be done in the workshop. 2.Warm Up Body stretching activities were facilitated in a casual atmosphere. 3.Aspects Ideation Participants were asked to do idea generation about the essential aspects of job seeking in four different stages showed in a reformed Revolving Stage Template on the ground. 4. Worst experience of job seeking Each participant was asked to pick up one stage and structured the story with the help of Action Boards in 10 mins. A 2 mins presentation were required for participants to do public speak. 5. Rehearsal Divided the participants in 2 teams. Each team chose one stage and presented the story to the other. “Talk Talk Card� was used

for the audiences to speak their common experiences and talked about the situation. 7. Discussion Group discussion about the feelings and insights generated through workshop and the feedback for the tools. Feedback (1) The Revolving Stage Template worked well on the ground. It became a common focus which attracted the participants and made everyone move around the same circle. (2) The Action Board framed the story into 4 parts which made it clear and easy for participants make scripts. (3) Talk Talk Card were too small to be seen in the rehearsal. (4) Time was not enough to do more rehearsal.

(Figure 19) Storyboard Template were tested in Communication and Innovation Workshop

(Figure 20) Revolving Stage Template was applied on the groud. Participants moved around the template to do ideation.

(Figure 21) Participants were presenting their simulation of the worst exoerience of job seeking.

(Figure 22) Talk Talk Card was tested in Communication and Innovation Worshops

Communication and Innovation Workshop (Travel Planner) Date: 4 July 2014 Time: 19:00-2:00 Participants: 5 travelers Approach to participants: Hostel Annecy Facilitator: Jiaru Shi Tools to be test: Prototype Theatre Toolset (Revolving Stage,Action Board,Talk Talk Card) Objective: Travel Planner workshop aims at using Prototype Theatre Toolset with travelers who plan their routine by travel planner to share good stories in using travel planner apps and come up with an ideal travel planner. The agenda was the same as the Job Seeker Workshop. However,due to the limitation of space, Revolving Stage Template was implemented on paper instead of on the ground. Feedback from the participants including(1) the workshop was great fun and trust was built in a very short time. (2)Toolset helped participants who have no background in creative industry capable to do story telling in an active way. However it would be better if the Revolving Stage Template were divided into parts by the participants rather than divided by facilitator beforehand.


Understanding Holistic + Di scu

loping Deve ghts

ping Prototy

+ ting

Story Building

Co-c rea

tion nica mu

(Figure 23)

Presentation + C om



n vatio o n In


+ athy

ng+P Storytelli resenting +



g ssin

Insights Resulting from the work testing, a new modified model which represents different power of theatrical implementation was built. Instead of ranking the 4 powers- simulation, exploration, presentation & communication and innovation, into 4 levels, the new model identified simulation as the base of the other three powers. By simulating the experiences of a target group, explorations, presentations+ communications and innovations appeared in parallel in theatrical workshops to generate empathic and holistic understanding, present experiences for insights developing and promote collaborative prototypes.

Tools Modification Feedback from participants showed that the elements of tools should be slightly changed specific for different purpose. At the same time, tools should be simple enough to be transformed into different materials and sizes due to the workshop space and chosen topics. Tools have been finalized and a persona template specific for simulation Persona Template (Simulation) A modified template combined persona and empathy map which specifically designed for people who are willing to simulate a group of people with similar conditions. The aim of this tool is to understand the simulated group and gather necessary information for later empathy building activities. . Storyboard Template Colors are added to distinguish the 4 part of story (opening, development, highlight, ending). A script section is added on the bottom of the template to help participants present the story and prepare for later rehearsal.

Revolving Stage Template Instead of using it as a workshop plan tool, the Revolving Stage Template is used to build up stories and explore the relationship between different aspects in an experience. The round stage is divided into 4 section which refers to the 4 elements of a story. Storyboard Template is used to form experience of each section. Paper cut people are used to do the desktop walk through before rehearsal.


Branding Promotion

To make the project recognizable, a logo and show the value behind this project, a logo has been developed and applied in website and tool templates.

Logo Design As the project is aiming at applying theatrical methods in service design innovative prototypes and the main tool of the project is Revolving Stage Toolset, the logo should represent features of both theatre and innovative prototypes.


Revolving, rapid, iterative and theatre are the key points should be shown in the logo. Ideas were chosen to be prototyped for feedback and test. Figure 25 shows the 4 further developed logo. The curve shows the principle of rapid and changeable, and the illustrates on top of the curve represent that innovation happens in repeat rehearsals and prototypes. Popular ideas were further developed and digitalized in Illustrator for further modification.(Figuar 24, sketching of initial design. Figuar 25, quick prototypes. Figure 26, developed design.)

(Figure 24)

(Figure 25)

(Figure 26)

Finalizing Logo Design

The final design is a simple logo with only a dot curve which represents iterative revolving stage both in theatre and in design process, and texts of “Prototype Theatre� adjusted along the curve. Colors were applied on the begining of the curve to add kinetic. Logo are used in all tools and prototyped to conduct on the websites.

(Figure 27) Figure 27, Final Logo Figure 28, 29, Prototype in website Figure 30, Logo on tool

(Figure 28)






(Figure 29)

(Figure 30)


Website Design Website Design As the objectives of the website are (1) introduces the project and theatrical methods to anyone who are interested, (2) provides a guidance to lead them go through the process and try the methods and (3) creates a platform to share and discuss live experiences of using the tools, the website has to contain at least three elements: About Prototype Theatre, Start Your Journey and Share your story. From the paper prototyping of the website, the home page showed all the three elements briefly and have buttons linked with set pages. The Start Your Journey page have 3 levels of prototype journey, Monologue, Scene and Play. Choose one level and click the “start” button, there is an example lead the users to go through the activities step by step. Templates of the tools can be download freely by clicking “download the tool” buttons.


(Figure 31) Paper Prototypes

(Figure 32) Website Home Page

(Figure 33) Website Sub Pages


Insights Review


According to the research and final design tests, the opportunities of Prototype Theatre can be concluded as (1) Implementing the power of theatre in exploration to build empathy for a target group in both physical and emotional phases by applying simulation tools to understand an existing or an imaginary service experience . (2) Taking the advantage of theatrical methods in live presentation as an engaging way to show vivid experiences and get interactive tangible feedback lively in front of a diverse group of stakeholders. (3) Using the power of inclusive communication conducted by theatrical methods to develop tools which could build trust and safe environment for team work. (4) Having investigative and innovative prototypes by providing co-creation design process in action through theatrical methods as there are always unexpected “wow�s jumping out through the

workshops. (5) Training service by building a sharable platform for both knowledge and experience exchange. Main challenges of using theatrical methods are various for both service designers( as facilitation role) and participants. Service designers: (1) The risk of rejection by participants who are not willing to do the activities. (2) The difficulty of time control as the duration of activities are highly depends on various Participants. (3) The lack of way to measure the impact and value of process and outcomes. (4) The lack of confidence on tool selection and workshop plan. Participants: (1) The lack of confidence to do theatrical activities. (2) The fear of being wrong. The lack of time to take part in longer exercise. In addition, the limitations are also shown in time scale. Extra 1-2 hours are required to build a safe space that allow participants trust each other

and be able to get out of their comfort zone and share stories due to the unfamiliarity of theatrical methods, which make time as a limitation for theatrical implantation in service design. Outcomes Tools were designed for service designers who are not familiar with theatrical methods but willing to use them as innovative approaches to have a clear structure of the simulation steps, build a safe space for participants and have a tangible outcome. Prototype Theatre website were designed to create an accessible and sharable platform for users to learn theatrical methods by doing the exercise step by step according to the instructions. All of the tools can be downloaded from Prototype Theatre website (prototypetheatre.weebly. com). Two real examples are currently available from the website to guide users go through simulation and exploration including videos and step by step instructions. The link of tools are both come with the steps and listed in Tools Download subpage.

Next Steps Looking at the design process as a series of iterative divergent and convergent proccesses , the project is now on the end of the second convergent stage. Preliminary tests have been done on the tools in workshop phases, and need to be further developed in order to meet objectives below: (1) Building a further understanding of theatrical methods in clinical and business phases. (2) Having more workshops to test and modify the tools in practical implementations. (3) Getting feedback from professionals and participants who were involved in the project. (4) Getting feedback from external people. (5) Enlarging the impact of the project and make it known by others. To achieve the objectives, further steps will be taken in next convergent stage. (1) More desk and field researches will be done around

theatre consulting, improv investigation tools and creative approach in business. (2) This report will be sent to participants and stakeholders who showed their interest in the project and provided support as follow up and knowledge share. (3) Presentation about the project will be done in the Master Finale for more feedback from internal and external people. (4) Contact the clinical school in Dundee who are using trained simulated patients to develop practical skills for medical students for a visit to have more understanding the limitation and opportunities for theatrical methods in healthcare design. (5) Continually recruiting for further test of the tools with more participants in different contexts, ideally in business and social care. (6) Test the influence of time scale on the process and outcomes by conducting a whole day workshop and detached short workshops for the same purpose. (7) Apply for volunteer work in community social care groups as a creative facilitator to develop facilitating skill.

(8) Recruitment for people who are willing to try simulation tools and make videos for the prototypes. (9) Complete Prototype Website website design and test the accessibility and usability of the website. (10) Plan for a social media campaign to get more sharable videos.


Learning Process


As an 3 months individual project exploring methods specifically from theatre, Prototype Theatre gave me a chance to develop my own work style which influenced me a lot in the professional life. Instead of continually being fixed in a room, I gave myself an active approach of learning and ideating by dancing and running use the name of “bodystorming�. The movement of body helped me to keep my mind working to come up with lots of good analysis and ideas in my mind secretly and unconsciously. Individual interviewing skills and facilitating skills have improved greatly during the project. Making interview recruitments from personal networks, organization websites, social media and public events, project were explained in different languages from diverse media. Coping strategies were developed towards various audiences and questions were designed personalized according to the research I have done in advance. Through 3 workshops being as the facilitator, I

developed the facilitating skills which made able to conduct workshop individually in service design phase. The key learning of the project is the ability to transfer research into tangible model and sketches which could contribute to a strategic design thinking process and a mindful design results. Hundred of sketches and 3 videos were made during these 3 months. They helped me illustrating the key insights from research, capture the ideas of tools and document the process of the project.


Bibliography C. Burns, et al. (2006). RED Paper 02: Transformation Design. Design Council [PDF] Available at: [Accessed on 19 February 2014] M. Buchenau, J. Suri, (2000). Experience Prototyping. IDEO. BIS ’00: New York. Ferguson. C. (2012). Providing Patients With a Big Stage.Touchpoint. 4 (2), 48.http://coolersolutionsincblog. com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/TP4-2_Chris-Ferguson.pdf Hormeß. M., Lawrence. A., (2012). Boom! Wow. Wow! WOW! BOOOOM!!! James Bond, Miss Marple and Dramatic Arcs in Services.Touchpoint. 4 (2), 24. Strategy Execution Heroes. (2011). A great communication model.Available: Last accessed 15th April 2014. The Design Transitions Team. (2012). WorkPlayExperience: Bringing Drama to Service Design. Available: Last accessed 23th May 2014. Manix. R., Penin. L.. (2012). Beyond the Service Journey: How Improvisation Can Enable Better Services and Better Service Designers. touchpoint. 4 (2), 52. Merdes. C. , (2012). Service Design meets Event Management.Available: http://www.christophmerdes. com/2012/08/publication-in-touchpoint-magazine-service-design-meets-event-management/. Last accessed 15th June. Kelly. L. , (2012). Empathic Conversations. Available: Last accessed 19th March 2014. Yee. J. , Jefferies. E. , Tan. L., (2013). Design Transitions. BIS. Wray. J. , (2013). The play’s the thing. Design Academy Eindhoven. 14-42. Hung. S. , Spencer. S. M , Dronamraju. R., (2012). Selective mutism: practice and intervention strategies for children.Children&school advance access .


Fritsch. J., Judice. A., Soini. K., Tretten. P. . (2007).Storytelling and repetitive narratives for design empathy:

case suomenlinna. Available: Last accessed 10 May,2014. Nesta. (2011). Prototyping public services. Available: Last accessed 15th June. Warburton.A.(2010). Some kind of magic. [PDF] Available at: files/publications/2011-06-27/Theatre%20Sandbox%20FINAL%20Report%20110311.pdf [Accessed on 27 March 2014] Fraser Bruce, Seaton Baxter. (2013) 3 the imaginative use of fictional bio-prototypes. Availavle: http:// +use+of+fictional+bio-prototypes&source=bl&ots=bGxscrCEUm&sig=NyrDKrjQNzqQJdWe_ b1107RRZR0&hl=en&sa=X&ei=dGjnU6apN4bD7AbEx4GIDg&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=3%20the%20 imaginative%20use%20of%20fictional%20bio-prototypes&f=false. Wikipedia, Theatre Technique, Available: Wikipedia, Available: Theatre, Raymond P.Fisk, Stephen J. Grove. (2012). A Performing Arts Perspective on Service Design. TOUCHPOINT. 4 (2), 18. Stickdorn. M. (2011). This is service design thinking. BIS. Witthoft. S, Geehr.C. (2010). Bodystorming. Available: Bodystorming.html. Last accessed 14th March. Ross. I, Bohleman. M. (2013). Bodystorming: Getting the Awkward Out Early. Available: http://www. Last accessed 10 April 2014.

Oulasvirta. A,Kurvinen. E, Kankainen. T (2003). Understanding contexts by being there: case studies in bodystorming. London: Springer-Verlag. 125-134.


Appendix Notes and interpretation of Interview with Isabel of TheaterNemo


how did they start? “it’s quite difficult when you go back to 14 years ago, there was not so much understanding of arts and mental health. we have to take it quite slowly.” They started in community to do sunday workshops, drama workshops. In 2003, they got fundings to go in to psychiatrical hospitals. They started work with 3 different hospitals, and tried to build up confidence for people in hospital, build up trust to avoid isolation when they come back to the society. In 2004, they managed to get funding to do the workshops and started working in Barlinnie Prison. The first workshop was actually asked to be a performance, but they thought it might be better to have a workshop with the guys in prison so they could build a performance other than just do the performance. After lots of meetings, they eventually got the chance to go ahead. The obvious befits and achievements had been seen and they have been working with Barlinnie HMP for 10 years till now. What activities do they have? They do three projects every year, and do quite a lot of work in hospital.Building up trust, getting people to know and understand what they are trying to do. “We are not drama therapist, we just using drama as a therapy. What we are looking to do is helping people feel good about themselves, to build up confidence, and feel they can do things.” Because sometimes they are not able to concentrate and get close conversations when doing meditations. They started with drama and build up, along the journey, people feel they are capable of doing drama. Theatre Nemo does a lot of animations which have many elements, so people come to make stories, build characters, sets, voices. It’s build a confidence for people to tell a story they don’t need to talk to people face to face. Because there is not a good condition for doing a drama, such as a big room and the regular attendant participants, the good things of dong animation is that it could involve as many as people without giving them the stress that they need to doing something. Theatre Nemo does Media Secure and tries to bring people back to community when they come out from hospital and make them feel connected. Why Drama? Son of the founder, John is a very creative person. But he was not be treated as a normal person and felt that he could not do anything and hopeless. So what they try to do is to pull people out of what they are suffer from to do something interesting and creative, such as guitar. Huel, the other funder of Theatre Nemo is an actor, he does work on theatre management and teach people theatre skills. They also try to help young people like young carers explain their feelings, give them a voice. They also had workshops in local school and college, which give students skills to hold conversation and build confidence for them. Normally people will attend a 2-hour workshop per week for 10 weeks and then have a devised theatre as an presentation. Fundings? They have to search for fundings constantly. “Funders are always waiting to see you plan.” So they need to have proposals shown to potential funders. At the same time they do fundraise activities. But it doesn’t work very well because “people are not care about these people.” These people have no families backing them. Theatre Nemo had many awards which let people values the project and they invite people come and see the show, using social media to spread words and show the impact.

They didn’t apply for these awards, it is people that coming to find them and give them the award which is really great. They also show the information to government to get more support. ( Second 30 min) How does your teamwork? 2 full time staff They have sessional workers, animations, drummer, drama… Call them an check for availability just few volunteers because they cannot attend regularly Are there  also people come and ask to collaborate with you? Sometimes. For example recently they had collaborate with Young Careers through GAMH.(Glasgow association of mental health) TN applied for funding from CV Part of the mental health festival The activity aimed to Showing options to handle the situation. Trying to understand what is happening, why is happening Where is the support You have projects with hospital,prison and community, how do you approach the community, do you work with community centres, individuals… Nwsletter Contact with people working in the community Social workers Worth of the mouth All of this events are free? The sessions here are 2 pounds per session That includes cafe & tea,biscuits, cake Since  they started charging people attend more regularly Do you have any specific projects targeted to older people? No, is not that we don’t want to but the groups that come here are aged from 25 to 70 ,they work all together About projects: Words in: a year before for mental health festival Idea behind people have to communicate and have to tell a story. It is difficult because they feel they are going to be victimize or stigmatize because they have been in prison. Group will work in it together.  At the end they will have 3 words to work with Fight against insecurity and fear to speak working with people doesn’t matter they are come from Drama is better tool, because there is more contact more communication and it makes that the relationship happen also outside of the program. It doesn’t happen with other classes like guitar Sometimes they find difficult to concentrate.


Kate Dowling Interview Hot Report

What inspired they to use role play in this project? Why do you think it might help? They were at the point in the design process. We were looking for the group to come up the ideas relating to start small business using SDS. They’ve got a co-design group of people who deliver services and who use services. “Role play with a particular good thing for us to use, because it’s a really natural way to start exploring ideas, but also it’s a really fun and engaging method that everybody can get involved in.” What do they want the participants get? “It’s not only to have ideas, but also to understand the process a bit better.” They had role play the scenario of social workers, service providers and users and the key relationships of how they work. “Role play is not only a way to explore new ideas for how systems and process be designed, but also a good way to develop the learning( gain insight).” (It’s very important for the social worker to be involved in an very early stage with individual to really identified having good social support network.)———one insight they got from the role play. What if people are not engaging? How to avoid/deal with that? “It’s always a risk that some people aren’t really feeling comfortable doing that.” “We always mix the group up so we have a balance of people who use services and people who deliver services, so that each side gets to see what the other side think. It’s an equal equal development of opinion and learning.” “It’s important to know your group.” They try to balance of strong characters and pair up people who feel comfortable with another person. They’ve already run five workshops and the participants know each other quite well. “With in a design project It’s important to that those relationship has sort of form already.” How to explain why do role play to participants? They are very clear that they were in the stage of develop in double diamond and this was another way to develop new ideas. The participants had used creative tools before and have used to these methods “They do trust us!” They usually send letters before the workshop which include agenda and things to bring. In that letter they use “story-telling” instead of role play to reduce the confusion. And they asked participants to bring props that related to their small enterprises and let them dress up to get more into the characters, and added the scenes of fun.


Any main challenges to facilitate the session? When working with people with different needs. EX: The group getting very energized and became noise. Next time they might encourage breakout room where ppl could practice by themselves. Give people enough time so ppl can see why they do it and the process. They’ve done lots of personas before and let the characters to choose which they would like to role play.(easy start)

But with time there is a change of behaviour from can’t do to want to make more (have more lines) Example with Scottish songs. They just have done….. (like getting feedback) People pointed out that the most important thing was to socialise. They come there and meet people and chat, and after they can go for coffee or go to the pictures while before they were sitting at their homes by their own. Is a safe place to go “I have somewhere to go” something that is consistent and least Rewind Another project to learn how to do the things in another way. They work through 3 or 4 scenarios and they go through the situation repeating but changing things (rewind like in the old cassettes) Bag of worries For young careers. 8 years ago.  With adults pretending to be children. Mentoship programme.  That was a pilot. Needs to be directed more by professionals , they ask for degree  Most of the prisioners are about quite soon Main challenges Funding is always a challenge Make the people come, specially when they go out (from prison) because they don’t feel in the community Exprisioners are on their own: Not house, no money, no job, no family. They have to go to very different places to get support,which is minimal and not interconnected. They are not interested in the people they know very few about them. So although when offenders go out and they don’t want to come back to prison,with all off these obstacles they give up. (it is like prison is a safer place for them, they know the place and the people there) Objective/Vision To build an holistic centre for ex prisoners, to help them to start again. Drama, Yoga, Mindfulness. Give them a place to go  It is needed ask people what they want instead of think for them what they need.(I think she was speaking more about government) People need to open perspectives, sometimes we don’t know which are our possibilities. Other organisations There are a lot of organisations work with drama The difference is like they are like an old business that is worried about their old clients.  They have real interest in people, if somebody doesn’t come fora couple of weeks, she call them and tell them that they still there to help, that they have a place in Theatre Nemo.


Give participants a scenario and a challenge (task) with the scenario. “always give them activities and prompt tasks.” “When you give them sort of design challenges, they are more inclined to come up some design ideas(solutions)”and they planed to develop these solutions in the next session. Any other example of using role play? Co-design project on mental health SDS, the users felt that the assessment process for SDS was not really mental health friendly. They asked one person to be a social worker, one to be a service user and a support worker. Left them to decide who to be which character. Encourage the rest of group to feed in to say “stop here” and to give some comment. Good way to see the barrier in an existing process and system. Anything you want to in Divided them into different stage in design process. Have some top-tips: Working guide to show how can role play be used successfully. Not A.B.C, BUT more examples. Tools. Output of the role plays. Scripts of the role play to be used Not just looking for ideas but also looking at the process.


Spehr Interview Hot Report

Personal Information Name: Sepehr Sedigh Haghighat Occupation: Current student in Jefferson Medical College First group of graduations from Healthcare Theatre in Delawere University Interview duration: 30 mins What did you do before taking Healthcare Theatre Course? What inspired you to do this course? He was a undergraduate student of biology major and a theatre minor. He was very open to theatre department. He joined the program in the second semester. “I thought it was very interested, so I tried it. That’s how I started.” How do you like this program? “I love it.” “I’m the huge fan of it. I think it provides a very unique perspective to the students who participate and also on the other side, as a patient and as a person who is put into that situation as a health supervisor “ “It has a huge value in terms of putting the health care provider into the patients seat to be able to observe what it like to come across different medical professionals.” He is very interested in expanding this program to medical school. And the experience he had in Healthcare Theatre shows that different people participant differently, even in the same scenario there were not two simulations were ever same. He was involved in the program from theatre part and training to be an patient, and decided to study in medical school after the program. From the experience he had in the program, the feelings towards the people who were participant the simulation was highly depend on how did the treat him. Medical students eouwd watch on the videos, talk to the theatre students to see how they feel and had these feedbacks they might never get in terms of one day they become professionals on working. “That was a huge experience for me and somebody who gonna to be a medical professional to see upsides downs of some things they we wrong which might never come across to us.” “I really like it and I wanna remember that so one day I want to do the same.” What did you do during the program to be a patient? They were been interview when apply the position and afterwards they were standing a certain role. He was given a role of a patient who has seizure.(ex.wake up in a hospital and confused about the headache and some kind of weakness that just coming.) They were shown some video who have the same situation, and went to the hospital to observe how the patients acting. A lot of the session were improvisational. There were a lot of team work with in multi-displine people. “It is wonderful because it’s not only the professionals learn to how to communicate with their patients, but also teach them how to communicate with each other, with different professionals.” What is the impact of this program in terms of your personal & professional life? “It has an everlasting impact in my life personally!” “It’s not a piece of information that stored in your mind, it’s a skill you learn.” “It’s a lot easy to practice communication because you have people around you.” “Communication has addressed the impact in outcome” “My communication with other people has dramatically improved in personal and professional life.” By interact with the sedated patient in medical school, he learned something from the sedorast patients and built the


trust with his patients. Practitioners have to know about the patients. “if you want to have communication with somebody, you have to listen first.” “It was not just medical, it was personal.” “The biggest impact of communication is to be able to connect to people.” “If they feel that I care, they are able to be communicated and more active in their health.” EX he has remembered till now from the HT. A nurse student was running a sessions came up and set next to me and put her hand on my shoulder talk to me how I’m feeling. Practitioners are always think we are here for you, but the patient may not. Tips Having the research and showing people the difference is huge. Empathy research Jeferson’s Empathy scale “Medical school are focused so much on the disease and illness, and how to treat the illness but not the patients.” Show people the impact to show them the value. Focus on the students, they haven’t been set their ways. Explain to people why are we do that, “It is important, because……” Dr. Mohammadreza hojat, paper about the research shows that doctors with higher scores empathy can help patients have a better outcomes in terms of health.


Email Interview-Andrew

have read your profile on Nile’s website. You have been working a lot in business sector and lead co-design workshops with diverse teams. What is the biggest challenge working with these teams in terms of communication? Usually it is having everyone’s opinions heard about what are the key objectives of a project. We have to make sure that the business objectives are met as well as see the service through the customer’s perception. How do you usually overcome it? Is there any example? By having activities that help people rely on each other stimulation and support, members of business teams and customers start to understand what it’s like to be in the other’s shoes. We try to create activities that not only yield insights and results, but also get people working together to do so. When do you usually use bodystorming? What’s the best part of this method in your perspective? Bodystorming can be a difficult tool to use. On one hand it can produce some very interesting ideas in the context of your scenario, yet it can also be difficult to get people invested in trusting their imagination and creativity. Usually a form of bodystorming is used in icebreakers because it feels so different from what people are use to, it can be passed off as a fun activity. As my project is about bodystorming (theatrical method) helps service designer enable empathy and communication among stakeholders in a complex situation.  Do you have any story about empathy and communication building in your experience of doing bodystorming?  I don’t have a particular story, but I can tell you that the most effective bodystorming can be done when you have people willing to be open and communicative about their opinions. Usually people need to warm up to this type of idea generating tool. Once they do, where you can take it is really up to the positivity and openness of the team. What inspired you to use this method? Why do you think it would work on this situation?  I first saw bodystorming in action at a design conference done by Dennis Schleicher who has a blog called http:// . It inspired me to learn more about the use of body and imagination when dealing with ideation. I think it can work brilliantly with the right setup, or using a prototype of a mobile site in the context of using it within a customer’s experience. How did you use it? I’ve used bodystorming techniques in design events, jams, and some variations with clients. I would always make an effort to understand client’s level of comfort with enacting scenarios before committing to using the technique in my work though. What are the feedbacks from participants?  People find it refreshing, but there can be a slower engagement at first. People need to see the benefits before trying it out. That’s why it’s key to explain the benefits of bodystorming. It also must be done at the right time, when a project still has room to explore options. In this way people enjoy creating novel solutions for things at a rapid pace.


Any challenge when people doing bodystorming?( ex. Embarrassing, unfamiliar with the method) As mentioned, it must show value to them and must be introduced slowly, otherwise people can be reluctant to participate. I suggest starting small, with a very focused task, and gradually building up and out from there. Any challenge for you to facilitate the session? (Ex. People refused to do it. ) The biggest challenges are getting people comfortable with their creativity and continuing to have an open mindset. As soon as someone discounts an idea, it can burst the creative bubble the team had been working in. As people usually treat theatre as a kind of playful thing rather than a serious method for work How did you usually explain the value of doing bodystorming to your participants? It can produce ideas that are well beyond what we could think up in isolation, and at a much faster pace. It’s a very powerful ideation tool. It’s also a good way to test processes to see if they work correctly. Is there any situation you use bodystorming but find it was not that successful? Why it is not successful? What do you think could be improved next time? Going back to the idea of bursting the creative bubble, it can be hard to get people back on track with a flow of ideas if someone is questioning the direction. It’s usually a case of them not being sure with the outcome. When this happens, the team can simply start the process again and make note of where they got stuck, and use this new barrier as a means to exploring ideas around it. What are the top tips of using this methods successfully according to your experience? Start slowly, with a small exercise to get people use to creative enacting Always employ the mindset of “yes, and” Understand there will be setbacks Have fun with it, and be playful to show it’s okay to be creative Do you know any other design thinker using theatrical methods? If yes, is it possible to point me to them for a short conversation? Check out for info on the two gentlemen who do this for a living. They would be happy to have a conversation about it.

Thanks for your time. Have a nice weekend. Best wishes,

Jiaru ShiSpehr Interview Hot Report


Bodystorming with poor eyesight video

A documentary video of the personal prototype to explain the process to people who are interested.

Emoathy Building Workshop


Talk Talk Card

A tool used in exploration and innovation stage. Provide a tangible list of what have been discussed in the process.

This is my story!

Persona Template (A4)

Persona Template

“ Name: Age: Condition: My Story I am...


” Gender: Occupation:

Storyboard Template(A4)

There are 4 boards in one series. According to script writing in theatre, the storyboard template contains opening, development, highlight and ending. STORYBOARD TEMPLATE Opening




















Revolving Stage Template (A4) Using with other templates as a base.

Profile for Design for Services '14

Prototype theatre  

Prototype theatre  

Profile for dfs14

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded