Overfishing in the Pacific Devin Bush Brett Evans Jeremy Meredith Bridget Vallejo
Table of Contents Background About the Fish...
People are the Problem
Regulations arenâ€™t Regulated
Alaska Fish Co. Interview
Background The ocean makes up three-fourths of the earth’s surface, and with that comes the creation of a habitat for more than half of the world’s wildlife. Since grade school, we have all been warned about the problems with pollution, over using our resources, and what would happen when our resources are used up.But until the 1980s, we did not become aware of just how much of the ocean’s wildlife we were using. Overfishing in the Pacific Ocean is becoming a real problem. According to the Green Peace Organization’s marine ecologists, overfishing is the biggest threat to the ecosystem. “Populations of top predators, a key indicator of ecosystem health, are disappearing at a frightening rate, and 90 percent of the large fish that many of us love to eat, such as tuna, swordfish, marlin, cod, halibut, skate, and flounder have been fished out since large scale industrial fishing began in the 1950s.”
About the Fish... Key for next page: EX: EXTINCT – No reasonable doubt that the last individual has died EW: EXTINCT IN THE WILD – Known only to survive in cultivation, in captivity or as a naturalized population CR: CRITICALLY ENDANGERED – Facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the Wild EN: ENDANGERED – Facing a [very] high risk of extinction in the Wild VU: VULNERABLE – Facing a high risk of extinction in the Wild NT: NEAR THREATENED – Likely to qualify for a threatened category in the near future LC: LEAST CONCERN – Does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable, or Near Threatened
As many as 90% of the Pacific Bluefin tuna have been fished. This number may actually have been underestimated, as it’s not always in commerce’s best interest to report numbers accurately. The nation of Japan is responsible for more than half of the world’s Bluefin consumption, where it is served as a highpriced sushi delicacy
About the Fish...
Tuna: LC - EN
Tuna are remarkable and impressive wild animals. Some species of tuna can swim as fast as 43 miles per hour. Tuna swim incredible distances as they migrate. Some tuna are born in the Gulf of Mexico; cross the entire Atlantic Ocean to feed off the coast of Europe, and then swim all the way back to the Gulf to breed. Tuna are among the most commercially valuable fish on the planet. The Atlantic Bluefin is a highly sought-after delicacy for sushi and sashimi in Asia—a single fish has sold for over $700,000! Driven by such high prices, fishermen use even more refined techniques to catch tuna. And the fish are disappearing as a result. According to information collected by the International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF), the Eastern Pacific stock of Yellowfin is overfished and some overfishing is occurring in the Indian Ocean. The northern and southern Atlantic Ocean stocks of albacore are also overfished. The skipjack tuna, while quite resilient, could easily slip into a vulnerable state due to overfishing if improperly managed.
Illegal fishing of Atlantic Bluefin tuna is a big problem and the fishery has been plagued by lack of enforcement and control. As the methods of catching tuna have improved over the years, the conservation and management of tuna has not evolved as quickly. Albacore: NT
Albacore is one of the smaller tuna species, reaching sizes between skipjack and Yellowfin. They are bullet-shaped with a dark blue back and lighter blue-gray sides and belly. Albacore tuna also have very long pectoral fins and live for around 12 years. They tend to travel in single species schools, without the level of mixing as seen in other species and migrate throughout all ocean waters and the Mediterranean. Although tuna do provide food and livelihoods for people, they are more than just seafood. Tuna are a top predator in the marine food chain, maintaining a balance in the ocean environment. These fish are important commercially, as they are one of the two main canned tuna species (along with skipjack), and labeled as ‘solid white’ tuna.
About the Fish...
Bigeye tuna are generally smaller than Bluefin and larger than Yellowfin. They are long and streamlined, have dark metallic blue on their backs and upper sides, and are nearly white on their lower sides and belly. They can live as long as 10 to 12 years. Bigeye are found in the subtropical and tropical areas of the Atlantic (but not in the Mediterranean), Indian and Pacific Oceans.
Bluefin are the largest tuna and can live up to 40 years. They migrate across oceans and can dive more than 4,000 feet. Bluefin tuna are made for speed: built like torpedoes, have retractable fins and their eyes are set flush to their body. They are tremendous predators from the moment they hatch, seeking out schools of fish like herring, mackerel and even eels. They hunt by sight and have the sharpest vision of any bony fish. There are three species of Bluefin: Atlantic (the largest and most endangered), Pacific, and Southern. Most catches of the Atlantic Bluefin tuna are taken from the Mediterranean Sea, which is the most important Bluefin tuna fishery in the world.
Bigeye tuna are an important commercial fish, usually marketed as fresh or frozen. Juvenile Bigeye tuna are increasingly caught as by catch in skipjack tuna fisheries because they school with skipack. Bigeye tuna are prized in Asia for sashimi as well as frozen and fresh in other markets. Like Albacore Tuna, Bigeye tuna also provide food and livelihoods for people. They are more than just seafood; they are a top predator in the marine food chain, maintaining a balance in the ocean environment. As Bluefin tuna populations shrink around the world, pressure on Bigeye fisheries is increasing. According to information collected by the International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF) Scientific Advisory Committee, overfishing is occurring in Eastern and Western Pacific Oceans.
Like Albacore Tuna, Bluefin tuna also provide food and livelihoods for people. They are more than just seafood; they are a top predator in the marine food chain, maintaining a balance in the ocean environment. This disappearance is affecting more than just the oceanic environment; it is effecting economies throughout the world.
About the Fish...
About the Fish...
Bluefin tuna populations have declined severely from overfishing and illegal fishing over the past few decades â€“not just Atlantic Bluefin tuna, but also Pacific Bluefin tuna and Southern Bluefin tuna. Population declines have been largely driven by the demand for this fish in high end sushi markets.
Since juvenile Yellowfin school with adult skipjack, they are increasingly caught as by catch by vessels that target skipjack. The removal of these juveniles before they have a chance to spawn could lead to fewer Yellowfin in the long term.
Skipjack are the smallest and most abundant of the major commercial tuna species. They have a streamlined body that is mostly without scales. Their backs are dark purple-blue and their lower sides and bellies are silver with four to six dark bands. Skipjack can live as long as 8-10 years. They are found mainly in the tropical areas of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, with the greatest abundance seen near the equator. Skipjack usually swim near the surface at night and can dive up to 850 feet during the day. Large schools of adult skipjack tuna often mix with juvenile Yellowfin and Bigeye tuna. Skipjack are commercially important as the main species of canned tuna. The skipjack tuna, while quite resilient, could easily slip into a vulnerable state due to overfishing if improperly managed.
Skipjack tuna are abundant throughout their range and populations appear healthy. However, since juvenile Yellowfin and Bigeye tuna often school with adult skipjack, they are caught by purse seine vessels that target skipjack. Yellowfin: NT
Yellowfin tuna are torpedo-shaped with dark metallic blue backs, yellow sides, and a silver belly. They have very long anal and dorsal fins and finlets that are bright yellow. Yellowfin can live up to six or seven years. They are highly migratory and are found throughout the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans. They form schools with other tunas like skipjack and Bigeye, and are also known to associate with dolphins. Yellowfin are an important commercial tuna species, particularly the raw sashimi market. According to information collected by the ISSF Scientific Advisory Committee, the Eastern Pacific stock of Yellowfin is overfished and some overfishing is occurring in the Indian Ocean.
People are the problem
In the last 55 years, humans have wiped out 90% of the ocean’s top predators. It is not just the fish who are caught in these enormous nets; animals like turtles, dolphins, sharks and sea birds frequently get tangled up in these nets. They are part of what the industry calls a bycatch. Often times these animals are pulled up by the nets and then tossed back into the sea either dead or dying. To make matters worse, some governments provide subsidies to fisheries, encouraging even more overfishing!
What can be done to aid in the replenishing of the world fish stocks? Under new regulations given by the Commission for Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna, (comprising Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Taiwan and South Korea) each fish company will be allotted a specific quota and require all fish to be tagged with where and when it was caught.
With the increase of fishing on the predatory level of the ocean’s ecosystem, there is a need that is not being met. If fish like salmon or tuna are to be farmed, an estimated four to eleven pounds of prey fish need to be consumed for the fish to grow just one pound. That is a lot of prey fish, with ships dragging nets over the seafloor to catch fish regularly- they are destroying the very environment that needs to be preserved.
According to Pew Research, the “Pacific 6” are responsible for the catch of 111,482 metric tons of tuna in 2011. All the blame cannot be placed on Japan’s shoulders alone. Pew Charitable Trust have devised a “shame list” for contributors of the overfishing in the Pacific Ocean; at the top of this list are Indonesia, Chinese, Taipei and South Korea.
Organizations like the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) are demanding to see a change by the year 2018. They state that countries have a responsibility to end overfishing of tuna by 2018 and take action to rebuild the severely depleted Pacific Bluefin population – now at just 3.6 percent of unfished levels.
Many wonder where the problem can be pinpointed; Taipei Times has the answer. Japan is the world’ top fish consumer claiming more that 99% of the world’s catch yearly. In 2005 the country exceeded its fishing quota by over 25% to keep up with growing demands. While many people have reason to worry about their fresh sushi supplies, measurements have been taken and find that at this point in time over 70% of the world’s commercial fish stock has been depleted.
Grocer Interview This interview was conducted by Bridget Vallejo. She interviewed a local grocer who has worked in the fish section of the market for seven years.
Q: Where do most of the fish that are sold in this store come from? A: They are shipped from places like Alaska for our salmon and the rest come from fisheries. That is the only way to get fish in these parts. Q: I know that Bluefin tuna is already hard to come by here, but have you seen any affects on the fish produce that you do receive? A: Yes, there is a constant price increase. We get most of our produce from farms these days just because those are the only places that can sell at a reasonable price. Q: What do you think should happen with the current fish situations? Like with the bigger, predatory fish we only find in the ocean. A: Everyone is dying to get their hands on that quality of fish. It is the best you will ever taste. I would love to be able to provide that experience for my customers. But we can’t afford it. We need to find alternative resources. We need to find other fish that the people will love. That’s what I would do anyway.
This chart shows the rapid increase in tuna fishing up to the year 2000. At almost any year, the amount of tuna caught is twice as much as other fish in the sea. In the year 2000 we can see that amount of tuna caught more than triples the amount of deep water species caught.
Q: Do you believe that ocean fishing should be put on a “stand still” until these fish are better sustained again? A: Absolutely, the quality of fish that you can get from the ocean is unparalleled. I would love to see Pacific Ocean beauties in my cases in the future. But from where I’m sitting that is just not going to happen right now.
Regulations arenâ€™t regulated The ultimate problem surrounding overfishing of Pacific bluefin tuna is that of high customer demand and low supply. If people chose alternatives to bluefin sushi or steak, then the lower demand for the tuna would help reduce the strain on tuna populations. In addition to the human-interest solution, an enforcement of the fishing laws and restrictions can solve the overfishing problem. Marine sanctuaries are designed to give tuna and other fish safe places to congregate and help their populations recover from the effects of fishing. These sanctuaries are usually found in the fishâ€™s natural spawning grounds, which give the fish a prime location to be born and grow into adulthood. Ideally, fish should only be caught as adults, because it gives the entire fish population an opportunity to reproduce before being caught, thereby keeping the population stable.
The draw to fishing in these areas is that they are densely populated with fish; however, this means that most of the fish being caught are adolescents. This also means that many of them do not have the opportunity to reproduce before being caught, causing the population to be thrown into free-fall.
Solution Swift, strict prosecution of fishing in those protected sanctuaries is a quick solution, followed by legislation to restrict fishing in other protected sanctuaries. Palau and the island nations of Micronesia are enforcing this currently. These measures will slow the fishing of protected bluefin tuna while also driving the prices of tuna higher, which will in turn drive demand down, solving that issue as well. Another quick, easy solution is to open bluefin farms. This is not an adequate replacement for fishing, as the amount of space required to farm bluefin at the same rate they are eaten would be far too much to be realistic; however, bluefin farming is an adequate supplement to the supply of edible bluefin, while also reducing strain on the wild bluefin population.
However, fishing at these sanctuaries is generally not prohibited by law; fishing is merely discouraged at these sanctuaries. Even in places where sanctuary fishing is prohibited, the laws can sometimes be ignored without fear of punishment.
Alaska Fish Co. Interview This interview was conducted by Brett Evans. He interviewed Harry Inacio, of the Alaska Fish Co. He asked Inacio, “What is your attitude towards overfishing”? This was his response.
Well, my business depends on fish, so obviously overfishing is a conflicting issue for me. On one hand, I don’t want to be limited in fishing, because that eats into my profits. Additionally, a rarity of fish drives prices up, so I can make more money. On the other hand, if we kill all the fish in the sea, where does that leave our business? I guess I’d like to see demand and supply roughly equal each other. Right now, in Colorado, the demand for fresh-caught halibut and salmon is high. But the supplies of these healthy, strong fish are also high. I guess I can’t say the same for Bluefin tuna, because I don’t really know how long the fish population can support the runaway demand for it. I don’t know if that makes a ton of sense; I don’t really know how the Bluefin market works since I don’t catch Bluefin.
This graph shows the average lifespan of various fish and their ability to reproduce and repopulate. The smaller fish tend to have a shorter lifespan due to overfishing throughout the ocean. Even though these fish can produce a mass amount of offspring at a high rate their, life expectancy is rather short when compared to other fish.
The Arctic covers eight countries, including the United States. Within the Arctic region of the United States, the remarkable waters of the Bering Sea attract marine mammals, such as gray whales, which travel great distances to forage and raise their young. Almost half of the fish caught in the United States comes from this sea. Its fisheries are vital to local communities, whose livelihoods depend on fishing, and millions of people worldwide. Across the Bering Sea in Russia, the Kamchatka Peninsula’s river systems produce up to one-quarter of all wild Pacific salmon. The salmon provide nourishment to other wildlife, including the Kamchatka brown bear.
The Coral Triangle is a marine area located in the western Pacific Ocean. It includes the waters of Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Timor Leste and Solomon Islands. Named for its staggering number of corals (nearly 600 different species of reefbuilding corals alone), the region nurtures six of the world’s seven marine turtle species and more than 2000 species of reef fish. The Coral Triangle also supports large populations of commercially important tuna, fueling a multibillion dollar global tuna industry.
The Arctic, including the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, now faces an uncertain future due to climate change, mining, shipping, oil and gas development and overfishing in key areas. Regional environmental threats include: Oil and Gas development, Fisheries Management, Mining, Climate Change, and Shipping Traffic. Coastal East Africa encompasses a beautiful tapestry of land and sea—from mountains and grasslands to mangroves and fringing coral reefs. This region includes parts of Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique and the western part of the Indian Ocean. People here depend on the region’s natural resources: clean freshwater; healthy forests and mangroves; and abundant fish and wildlife. Elephants,
rhinos, lions, wild dogs and more iconic species roam the landscape. Dugongs, whale sharks, dolphins, whales and five species of marine turtles are often found along the coasts. The Western Indian Ocean waters support the shrimp and tuna industries. This region and its communities face issues with uncertain resource management, illegal activities, and high poverty rates. Regional environmental threats include: Overfishing, Bycatch, Illegal Fishing including Unreported, Unregulated and Pirate Fishing, Deforestation, Climate Change, Illegal Wildlife Trade, and Human-Wildlife conflict.
Over 120 million people live in the Coral Triangle and rely on its coral reefs for food, income and protection from storms. Current levels and methods of harvesting fish and other resources are not sustainable and place this important marine area and its people in jeopardy. Regional environmental threats include: Overfishing, Bycatch, Destructive Fishing, and Climate Change
The Gulf of California stretches over 900 miles and supports an extraordinary diversity of marine life, including many species of reef fish, sharks, whales, marine turtles, and the Vaquita, the world’s smallest porpoise. Beautiful beaches and colorful reefs as well as sport fishing of billfishes and tuna attract many tourists every year. Commercial species of shrimp, sardine and giant squid are all found in the Gulf of California, making it Mexico’s most important fisheries region. Regional environmental threats include: Overfishing, Bycatch, and Coastal Development The global decline in fish catches, combined with rising demand, is leading to a global fisheries crisis that threatens the Gulf of California ecosystem as well as nearly six million people who depend on fish for sustenance and livelihoods. The Gulf is the source of nearly 75 percent of Mexico’s total annual fish catch, but overfishing (both industrial and artisanal) is now blamed for dramatic declines in cetaceans, sharks, rays and other fish stocks. The accidental capture of marine animals in fishing operations is a major threat to endangered species such as marine turtles, whales, vaquitas, as well as vulnerable species such as sharks and dolphins. In the case of the critically endangered vaquita, the entire population will be lost if fishing practices are not reformed.
Solution Overfishing is literally a worldwide problem, particularly in the Pacific Ocean. One solution may be to create and increase designated no fishing zones. Irresponsible fishing practices have not only had the effect of depleting many previously strong fish populations, they have also either led to the increase of other marine species or to the total depletion of a marine environment. Along the United States’ New England coastline, the severe reductions of Cod and Bluefin Tuna have resulted in the increase of the lobster population. This may seem like an okay trade, but scientists are seeing signs that the entire region is slowly degrading. One solution that has found great success in Micronesian Island nations of the Pacific is that of rotating fishing zones. Long ago, when these islands were ruled by the elders of their communities, “Village elders would rotate fishing on reefs” to allow the fish to grow. By the 1980’s commercialized fishing and tourism had damaged the reefs and fishing areas. In 1994, in the village of Ngiwal, Palau, the elders had had enough. “They banned fishing in a small area of reef that was partly accessible on foot. The village… noticed how the fish became more plentiful there in a few years. The reef became locally famous, and other villages started to do the same. In 2005, President Tommy Remengesau Jr. of Palau… [issued] his so-called Micronesian Challenge: a call to the Pacific island region to set aside for conservation 30 percent of coastal waters and 20 percent of land areas by 2020.
Author Boris Worm of Dalhousie University in Nova Scotia said of “the rapid spread of marine protected areas in the Pacific” that “Those bottom-up ones (community developed programs) work a lot better than top-down ones; they have better compliance and work well long-term.” Worm made the conclusion that, “Now that we are reaching a global limit, people are asking how can we fix the problem, and they are rediscovering that the old methods really work. It’s very significant.” While illegal fishing and related practices may still be an issue, rotating open and closed fishing areas will, not only reduce the burden on some areas while increasing the production in others, it will help keep the entire eco-system balanced and healthy.
Each of these numbers represents a fishing zone. As was disucssed on the previous page, rotating through the fishing zones can allow species of tuna to replenish their numbers and repopulate.
Appendix Devin Bush Contact Information: Email: email@example.com Phone: 510.304.9558
I am a senior at Brigham Young University - Idaho gradutaing in July 2014 with a B.S. in Communication emphasizing in Public Relations and a minor in graphic design. I believe that it is important for everyone to understand persuasion. When you understand the core principles you can successfully make or counter arguements. Persuasion is part of everyday life so to not understand it is like choosing not understand life itself. I was the editor and designer for this project. My duties were to edit each of the writerâ€™s sections and then compile all of the writing into a book that was presentable. This was a very difficult job because looking through sets and sets of papers is tedious work. This issue was selected because it is often overlooked by society. We often take what we have right now for granted. We also picked this issue because it is a light and refreshing topic that would spark some interest and hopefully inform people who knew nothing about overfishing issues. While reading over all of the writing I learened a lot about how big of an issue this is. I began to wonder why this does not receive much coverage from the media. I learend that not all issues have to be controversial or divisive. This issue really does have relevance to everyone because it has the potential to affect more than just our food supply: it can effect entire ecosystems and economies.
Appendix Bridget Vallejo Contact Information: Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Phone: 208-419-9375
I will be graduating from Brigham Young University - Idaho with a Bachelorâ€™s Degree in Communication. I hope to become a Public Relations Specialist for a Republican politician on a community level. It is important to have balance and logic behind all arguments. The only way to accurately persuade people to value your point of view is by having all the facts and presenting them in an appropriate fashion. I was one of three assigned writers for the research and analysis of the overfishing epidemic currently causing a crash in the fish population. My assignment was to provide the background information and a brief history of the issue at hand. After seeing numerous documentaries about overfishing and the lack of Bluefin tuna and other predatory fish in the Pacific Ocean, my eyes have been opened. While documentaries make it sound like all fish markets in the world can feel the effects- I have seen a different view. As a result of the increased cost of some fish, there have been an increased number of fisheries created to combat the decline in supply from the ocean. In addition to this the attitude of the public has changed. Initially people were opposed to alternatives offered, but with the cost inflation, fishing quotas enforced etc. people are warming up to the idea of other supplies of fish. While it is natural to want the best of the best, there always effects to every action. The supply of fish has only gotten worse since the 1980s and it will continue to worsen unless actions are taken to address the crisis that is overfishing. I like the idea of more fisheries being used to avoid use of the small populations of tuna, sharks, swordfish, cod and halibut still in existence.
Brett Evans Contact info Email: Eva11009@byui.edu Phone: 303-847-8502
Jeremy Meredith Contact information: Email: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Phone: (509) 460-1349
I am a communication major at BYU-Idaho, emphasizing journalism. Given that so much of my career will involve the written word, much of it on controversial or divisive topics, knowing how to accurately and compellingly convey an opinion is vital. Hence, I take persuasion. Eventually I would like to work for an automotive journalism outlet, using my opinions to evaluate and test new cars. The team selected this issue because it was a unique, uncommon issue that many of us hadn’t considered before. Having done research and looked into it more, I find that it’s something I really care about. Overfishing in the Pacific is a significant problem and it’s one that’s largely preventable and manageable. The group member who first suggested the issue was well-informed and she made this issue something that each of us could care about and relate to. We also selected this issue because it wasn’t as “hot” as others; i.e., most people don’t have as strong of an opinion on it. We didn’t want to be too divisive and instead wanted to educate a public on the issue and persuade them to behave differently because of it, rather than alienate half our audience with an opinion they may not hold. With this issue, I contributed an interesting interview with a man who makes his living off of Pacific and freshwater fish found in the western hemisphere, particularly Alaska and the Pacific Northwest. I also contributed by supplying eight unique professional articles and case studies on the issue. In doing research for this project, I learned a great deal about the issue of overfishing. I was somewhat aware of it, as I’d attended a show at my hometown zoo that discussed “sustainable seafood” and what types of fish were good for the body and the environment; however, in doing research for this project, I noticed that there are a great many kinds of fish that are supposedly safe and sustainable that are still being overfished or that lead to collateral damage to marine life. What was more troubling was how damaging reckless seafood fishing has done due to sheer negligence. There is a huge seafood market in most countries, and yet, fishing practice is poorly regulated on local and international levels. Certain fisheries are declared “safe zones,” meaning that fishermen should avoid them to allow the fish population the opportunity to grow and sustain itself. However, many of these safe zones are not actually enforced, and in some of them, it’s merely a suggestion to avoid fishing there, not law. This negligence is one that can be educated against. If the general public is informed on where their seafood may be coming from, they can push for enforcing more sustainable fishing practice. Additionally, they can substitute unsustainable seafood with other foods, like inland hatchery fish, which will lower demand for the ocean fish, whose future is uncertain.
I am at Senior Brigham Young University-Idaho in the online degree program. I will graduate in July of 2014 with my B.S. in University Studies with a minor in Communication.I am the Jack of all Trades type of guy; I will do almost anything and like to learn a little about everything. My career aspirations include law enforcement; disaster relief; and politics. I enjoy interacting with others, helping them to explore ideas, and work through conflicts. I have studied Communication and Persuasion because whether we are in small group settings; large corporations; or on the world’s stages, good communication practices are important and learning to be a good communicator is an invaluable skill. While overfishing is not explored as much as other issues like gun control or abortion, it is a unique and very important issue. Our team chose this topic for these reasons. We wanted something that is not covered that often and is not divisive. This is a great topic to educate others on and give us an opportunity to research the issue, develop both team and individual opinions, and then try to persuade others to consider the far reaching scope of the issue and its ramifications. My primary task was to focus on the ramifications of the topic. My secondary task was to identify or develop one or more ideas or methods for correcting the issue. I contributed by pulling information from wellknown resources that have already compiled large volumes of work identifying the impact of overfishing in the Pacific. While it has nearly become common knowledge that Tuna, whales, and some parts of the world are overfished, I was surprised to learn just how far reaching the issue really is. I originally agreed to this topic because it seemed relatively easy and straightforward: the Bluefin Tuna are in danger of extinction. This topic extends far beyond fishing and the world of marine life. Damage to critical areas even affects life on land. Since delving into the project, my attitude has changed. I learned that Tuna are among the top predator fish in the oceans and that they help keep them balanced. I also learned that the various nations of the Micronesian Islands are leading the world in the balance, conservation, and preservation of their marine populations and eco-systems. I feel like I have only scratched at the surface of this issue and am interested in learning more.
Appendix Bibliography -Croswell, Alexis. “10 Alarming Facts About Overfishing | One Green Planet.” One Green Planet. One Green Planet, 22 Nov. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2014. <http://www. onegreenplanet.org/animalsandnature/10-alarming-facts-about-overfishing/>.
-Treehugger.com. “How Bad Is Overfishing & What Can We Do To Stop It?” 16 Aug. 2010. Web. 14 March 2014. <http://www.treehugger.com/green-food/howbad-is-overfishing-what-can-we-do-to-stop-it.html>.
-Fisheries and Oceans Canada. “Underwater World: Pacific Salmon.” Government of Canada, n.d. Web. 13 March 2014. <http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/science/ publications/uww-msm/articles/pacificsalmon-saumonpacifique-eng.htm>.
-World Wildlife Fund. “Threats: Overfishing.” N.d. Web. 13 March 2014. <https:// worldwildlife.org/threats/overfishing>.
-Harvey, Fiona. “Overfishing causes Pacific Bluefin tuna numbers to drop 96%.” The Guardian. 9 Jan. 2013. Web. 14 March 2014. <http://www.theguardian.com/ environment/2013/jan/09/overfishing-pacific-bluefin-tuna>. -“Japan Admits to Overfishing Bluefin Tuna by 25 Percent.” Taipei Times. N.p., 03 Mar. 2006. Web. 14 Mar. 2014. <http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/world/ archives/2006/03/03/2003295497>. -“Overfishing.” Greenpeace International. Greenpeace International, n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2014. <http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/campaigns/oceans/ overfishing/>. -Pala, Christopher, “In a Pacific island village, a solution to overfishing.” http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/17/world/asia/17iht-fish.1.5316234. html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 -“Pew: Japan, China, US, Others Overfishing Pacific Tuna.” SeafoodSource.com. N.p., 02 Dec. 2013. Web. 14 Mar. 2014. <http://www.seafoodsource.com/en/news/ environment-sustainability/24909-pew-japan-china-us-more-overfishing-pacifictuna>. -“Price of over-fishing: one tuna sells for £1m.” 6 Jan. 2013. London: The Independent. Web. 14 March 2014. <http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/foodand-drink/news/price-of-overfishing-one-tuna-sells-for-1m-8439857.html>. -Stanford University News Service. “Scientists urge world leaders to respond cooperatively to Pacific Ocean threats.” Stanford, California: Stanford University, 12 May 2009. Web. 13 March 2014. <http://news.stanford.edu/pr/2009/prpacific-051309.html>.