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SIG GNAG GE Spatial Orientation

Beate Kling Torsten KrĂźger




Spatial Orientation

Beate Kling Torsten KrĂźger






Prologue – Orientation is life


Beate Kling

Integrated signage Hubert Nienhoff














Red doors, green doors, yellow doors


Falk Jaeger







Corporate identity – Building identity Torsten Krüger











Integration of signs and space STACHUS PASSAGEN, D






Universal design


Analogue communi­ cation of information








Digital communication of information Michael Schwanke-Seer







Analysis and systematic specifica­ tion of information requirements Beate Kling








Orientation design Torsten Krüger








Project data


Standards, guidelines, regulations

Beate Kling

Beate Kling




Ruedi Baur










Epilogue – The ­iconography of the third millennium Torsten Krüger




Photo credits











Prologue – Orientation is Life Beate Kling








Red Doors, Green Doors, Yellow Doors Falk Jaeger








KATTA CIVIC POLYCLINIC SHIROISHI, J Signage: Hara Design Institute, Tokyo

POLYCLINIC Minimalistic Red as a signal colour

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The white surfaces used throughout the building create an immediate association with the idea of health. The colour red chosen for the signage in the examination and consultation rooms as well as the modified logo of the International Red Cross symbolise assistance and healing. All necessary information, reduced to the essential, is marked on the floor and walls, performing the role of guidance. The lettering on the floor is inlaid with red linoleum in the white flooring; the red crosses point to intersecting main corridors within the clinic and combine direction indicators, information signs and escape route directions in a single signage system. The signage is minimalistic in concept, using a clear language of words and symbols, and reflects the demands of the medical environment, in particular the restrictions and obstacles which are often encountered in such a setting. The oversized symbols and different designs of arrow symbol as well as the clear contrast between the information and the surroundings facilitate problem-free orientation. The colour used for the information signs varies; in the examination and consultation rooms area they are red, whereas on the wards they are green.

The signage is easy to follow because the information displays are restricted to the essential and work in similar way to an illustrated user manual.

KATTA CIVIC The signage information is fully integrated into the floor surface as red linoleum, making it more durable than if it were merely applied.


FORUM NOVÁ KAROLINA OSTRAVA, CZ Signage: Gourdin & Müller, Leipzig/Hamburg Architecture: OMA, Rotterdam (design concept); Floris Alkemade Architect; Heinrich Böll, Essen; T + T Design

KAROLINA Simulated glow effect Colours as metaphors

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By 2015, a new quarter containing residential, office and commercial buildings will be created on the disused colliery site adjacent to the city centre of Ostrava, a centre of the Czech coal and steel industries. A signage system was developed, both for the quarter and for the already opened Forum Nová Karolina shopping centre, which, using the colours black and blue as metaphors for coal and steel, refers to the history of the place. The system consists of information points in the form of portals, free-standing “steles” showing a location plan, floor overviews and service information signs as well as directional information displays and destination confirmations. Slim, black rectangles with glowing steelblue edges define the minimalist, technical visual theme of the information ­elements, creating a striking appearance in combination with a steely cool typography. The direction arrows have an accentuated long shaft; their unusual arrangement on the signs emphasising the reference to movement. The interplay of form, materials, light and graphics makes reference to the fascinating fusion of the material with the intangible, as manifested in the transformation of coal into steel and electricity. An expressive, futuristic visualisation of this theme is found in the floor numbers on the overview panels and the large format pictograms used for the sanitary areas. Due to its immediate proximity to Poland and Slovakia, many foreignspeaking visitors are expected in Ostrava, which is why additional pictograms are included, to provide information on different means of transport, infrastructural links and leisure facilities.

´ FORUM NOVA The typography is distinguished by its consistent form and strict ­g eometry, the graphic design is inspired by steel and coal industries ­a ssociated with the region.


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Falk Jaeger

Red doors, green doors, yellow doors

In the first instance, familiarity with places enables us to orient ourselves within urban and architectural spaces. If we stray into unknown spaces, we first attempt to recognise familiar patterns of order. Intuitively we find the way from the edge of the city, with its marginal structures, along the arterial roads and into the dense and busy inner city much as we find the way from the railway station to the town hall. We have learnt how a central European city is organised. We can also confidently find our way to the lift in a hotel or to the bathroom in an unfamiliar house because we have learnt to deal with typical floor plans. Only if the structures are unique, unconventional or confusing, or if complex structures become too large, do we need to resort to systems of signs. Signage provides assistance where we can no longer recognise any codified indicators.

Development of signage ­s ystems

That signage systems for orientation only advanced beyond the traditional signpost in the early 19th century is attributable to the radical social transformations of that time. Although cities with populations numbering tens of thousands had already existed in the past, mobility was limited in those eras, so inhabitants’ intensive local knowledge was sufficient for a functioning urban society. The few outsiders managed to find their way around by asking for directions. In contrast, traditional oriental patterns of urban development, without centre or hierarchy of roads or alleyways, cannot be “read” by strangers, either intuitively or consciously, and thus represent an extreme case of lack of orientation. Yet they still function because the inhabitants know every nook and cranny. In earlier times, labyrinths of alleyways offered a certain degree of protection, since attackers could neither orient nor organise themselves. The Kasbah is chaotic, but only to outsiders. Visi-

tors can always find a child ready to serve as their guide and lead them to their desired destination. In the 19th century, Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann cut the now admired boulevards like aisles through medieval Paris with its maze of streets, partly in order to create an imposing city plan, but above all to create clarity and order and thus allow the rebellious population to be more readily controlled. The Place de l’Étoile, with its connecting streets radiating out in a star pattern, is nothing less than a Baroque “Jagdstern” or hunting star, from the centre of which hunters could spot game crossing the forest rides. Game or insurrectionists, it was open season.

House numbers, introduced in central Europe during the 18th century as conscription numbers for fiscal or military purposes, were only generally assigned street by street in the mid-19th century and thereafter could also serve the purpose of orientation. Standardised number plates soon replaced the numbers which had orginally been painted on the walls of buildings. In some cities, each plate also carries the street name (in Vienna, for example, preceded by the number of the district), in others an arrow points in the direction of the ascending numbers. Street signs, place-name signs on roads entering a town, welcome signs posted on autobahns on federal state boundaries as well as the coats of arms displayed at national borders are expressions of a topological-organisational hierarchy. The standardisation of these signs emphasises their character as signals, which also applies to the signposting system: white for local destinations, yellow for nonlocal, blue for autobahns, brown for tourist information. Through everyday familiarity we have absorbed this principle to the extent that when travelling abroad – anticipating something similar – we rapidly learn the system in use there. Interestingly, this transfer process also functions in other contexts. Signage in large complexes and buildings such as airports, exhibition sites, sports facilities and suchlike frequently makes use of familiar routines and uses hierarchically ordered, differently coloured verbal and graphic signage systems. The colour guidance ­s ystem devised by the painter Max Buchartz for the Hans-Sachs-Haus in Gelsenkirchen. partially reconstructed or reinterpreted in 1995, originally ran through all the stairwells. Each floor is assigned a particular ­colour. Architect: Alfred Fischer, 1927

1972 Olympic Games

For the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich, the graphic designer Otl Aicher developed a signage system combining text and graphics, which became internationally the best-known and influential of such systems, setting standards which still serve us today. Aicher had found the family of pictograms which the Japanese graphic designer Katsumi Masaru had designed for the Olympic Games in Tokyo in 1964 too complicated and figurative, so in his designs, he reduced athletes to matchstick men which people from all countries would be able to recognise at a glance – be it runners, fencers, cyclists, sailors, canoeists or riders. He supplemented this language of symbols with a colour system which is indelibly associated with the Games: coloured stripes in different widths – in yellow, green, blue and orange, as well as silver and white – appeared on all posters, programmes, admission tickets and even on Waldi the striped dachshund, the first Olympic mascot. Naturally, the comprehensive corporate identity also included all signposts and direction signs on routes to and on the Olympic site – supplemented, incidentally, by Hans Hollein’s media lines in the Olympic village, a communication and guidance system in the form of coloured pipes running above the paths. With remarkable consistency unprecedented in its universality, Otl Aicher’s system ensured that athletes, distinguished guests and spectators were literally always kept in the picture, and were informed, oriented and organised as efficiently as possible. Since then, all aspects of such major events have been thoroughly designed, but only rarely has Aicher’s work been surpassed. It may be that, compared with new current developments, his pictograms may no longer appear very contemporary in stylistic terms; however, the new ones are certainly no easier to read.

Signage ­s ystems and architecture

Signage and architecture do not always make the best partners. Signage systems are semantic systems which initially compete with architecture, because architecture itself represents a system of symbols which communicates messages, sometimes abstract, sometimes narrative. This is why distinctive signage that is introduced afterwards or that was not considered in the original design usually ends up conflicting with the architecture.




Signage: design stauss grillmeier, Munich Architecture: ARGE Werner Wirsing bogevischs buero, Munich

Historical reference Colour system Codification through letters and numbers

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The accomodation developed in the late 1960s by the architect Werner Wirsing for the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich, afterwards used as student accommodation, were demolished and rebuilt in 2009, as a renovation would have been too expensive. For the student ­village the designers picked up on the original guidance and orientation system, which had been based on the design guidelines for the 1972 Olympic Games, reconceived it, and translated the historical references in terms of content and design for contemporary purposes;,correcting functional weaknesses. For example, a simplified system of house numbering was introduced and the former block system was replaced with an alphabetical pattern of lanes or alleyways. Orientation is additionally improved through right-angled signage elements running around the corners of the buildings which identify the lanes like road signs. The front panel of the light green signs shows the letter assigned to the lane and also, on the right hand side of the lane, a north-aligned location plan identifying the lane as well as a list of its occupants during the Olympic Games, with the corresponding initial letters. The side panel points into the lane and shows the house numbers on that side of the lane in the order in which a visitor walking along the lane passes them. The concept continues the principle of “information-friendliness” introduced for the Olympic Games in 1972: frequent information, friendly colours and a clear, legible typography are key elements of the signage.

ENT QUARTER AGE The Olympic Village is structured by a network of lanes and alleys. Brilliant green plaques which wrap around the corners of buildings mark the alphabetically ordered lanes.








r40 Lane name plaque



365 Fahrradabstellplatz


1888,48 Door markings

230 350



Lane name plaque on a protected building

Markings for service area






The brilliant colours of the signage system are oriented on the spectrum of colours used for the 1972 Olympic Games and divide the ­s tudent quarter into different areas.



3 68 69

Ruedi Baur

Integration of signs and space

View from the terrace of a café in the centre of Vienna

In fact, the particular location in which we find ourselves is not really critical, because the phenomenon in question can be encountered wherever our modern age is confronted with relics of the past. So this is just an example. Now let’s focus our attention on the visual symbols of the present. The kind of heterogeneity which we are talking about can be seen more frequently in Vienna than in other cities. If we deliberately look out for examples of intrusive signage, as if “spotting the differences” in a puzzle picture, they catch the eye immediately. Nonetheless, we would simply not have registered them had we not concentrated on doing so. We are too used to living our lives in an environment which is, happily, imperfect. However, let’s leave aside for the moment all those standard signs which can be ordered anywhere in the world, from a catalogue or via the internet, and which seem to display utter contempt for the context in which they are planted. Let’s also ignore the signs used by big retail chains which are the same in every city – with their corporate logos, the world’s leading brands apply prefabricated concepts to a reality which, in its complexity, is in fact quite unpredictable. Let us therefore concentrate on those elements which were conceived for a quite specific context in the here and now. I accuse the designers of these visual signs of simply creating the corresponding artwork on their computer screen using graphics programs rather than looking at the situation on site, and thus transferring their creations to a reality which they do not really take into consideration. At best, they may go on to adapt the dimensions of the signs, to one degree or another. And here too, as an observer of urban nuances I have to say that I often encounter the opposite. These adjustments are more in the nature of approximations, they rarely relate to the graphic

aspects. They appear to be independent of the context, ­ eterogeneous, unintegrated, that is to say purely functional. h All this is completely pointless if the context is not observed, and in the end the results appear trivial and uninspired, in fact superfluous. These observations remind me of a film about Indian sign-writers who, despite their extraordinary skill, were forced to work with the computer in order to remain credible. These “specialists” thus ended up creating visual signs of incredible mediocrity. One may develop a message which relates to the surrounding location, designed true to scale for the specific situation, while the other sits in front of a screen, a surface, which is then transferred to the location – a  cultural catastrophe, brought about by the industry for printed products; a question of contextualisation, which finds itself in crisis here. By way of contrast, the fantastic cinema posters of the 1950s and 60s from California or Las Vegas show (is this proof really necessary?) that no fundamental dichotomy exists between the modern and graphic symbols. Why, then, do we see so

The winning competition entry for the Europaallee in the city centre of Zurich was developed jointly with the landscape architect. In the end, the graphic design only played a subor­ dinate role in the design and was expressly kept minimalistic, because in the somewhat purist Zurich any prominent signage or image is viewed critically. The rows of trees assist orien­ tation and deliberately conceal the signs. They also have a calming effect on the nearby railway station quarter. Urban development master plan: KCAP Architects and Planners, Kees Christiaanse; landscape architecture: Rotzler Krebs Partner; graphic design: Intégral Ruedi Baur, Zurich, Ruedi Baur, Axel Steinberger, Jana Strozinsky; lighting design: Rolf Derrer

much mediocrity? What has changed? Why are visual signs regarded as environmental pollution? Ultimately, it is clear that a dreadful mess has been created. Due to a completely justified rejection of a flood of repeated and decontextualised symbols, something is being forbidden which makes it possible for people to recognise special meanings and orient and inform themselves. The passing of laws to this effect prevents one aspect having a profound effect on the other. Out of fear of aggressive advertising by major brands, an important dimension of the dynamics of city centres is increasingly vanishing. Instead of discussing the quality of the visual signs – as was the case in the past – nowadays the debate revolves around the question of whether or not these signs should be allowed. Now that we have established that a crisis has been reached, let us now analyse the complex relationships between architecture and graphic design by turning our attention now from our historical city centres to take a look at the developing city.



Integration of signs and space

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At a table in the TGV from Strasbourg to Paris

Different context, different project: we have come away from a meeting to discuss the signage for a large media library somewhat baffled. The building was virtually finished, the fixtures and fittings ordered, the furnishings chosen. Moreover, the entire facility was dominated by a striking colour design. During the meeting, the client had expressed his fear that the different departments of the media library did not differ sufficiently from one another as well as his concerns regarding the whole atmosphere of the building. How can a connection be created between the building, its function and its contents? Although both of the main players regarded a signage system as being necessary, one could discern a certain contradiction between their respective wishes. Time was short – the media library was scheduled to open in six months time – so swift action was necessary. Naturally, the signage must always be based on respect for the architectural project. However, the word respect is not to be understood as being synonymous with reticence. In such a situation, when one doesn’t yet really know the architects, everything is at stake. I remember that the idea of an additional typographic level came up at this meeting. It resulted from a series of insoluble requirements and ultimately from the reading of the architecture. The use of colour was intended literally to connect the old parts of the building with the new, as well as integrating the fixtures and fittings. The proposal was developed further over the following weeks.

I personally was rather worried when we first presented our ideas, fearing the reaction of the architects, who might see the coherence of their almost completed project as being compromised. In contrast, the clients, I imagined, would probably be quite happy with our answer, as far as the allocation of uses went. I would have liked to have discussed this with the architects at an earlier stage in the project. However, even before the end of the presentation it was clear to me that we had pulled it off. The architects were delighted, because they had very quickly grasped the potential which our proposal offered. It was immediately arranged that it should be possible for the signage to be embedded in the screed, which at the time was just being poured. From this moment on, a fruitful collaboration continued until the completion of the project. A typographic level was superimposed on the facades and

interiors consisting of quotations from works held in the library, which in turn contain terms important in terms of signage. The point here is not to present a project but to show how the graphic expression can be integrated with an architectural project at a late stage. If one of the two already exists, the interaction with the other can only develop unilaterally. The precision with which one discipline is adapted to the other is all the more important in this case. Incidentally, consideration of the context affects not only the architect, but also the graphic designer who, through their intervention, frequently builds a bridge between container and content. They cannot be content with reinforcing the spatial solution and the materials, the dimensions, the forms, the dominant colours, they must also take into account the way the site is going to be used. And this in turn involves a bringing-together of the disciplines.

Around a ­conference table at a Paris architectural practice

Competition for the renovation of the AP2, an old ship­ yard fabrication hall in the French city of Dunkirk known as the “Cathedral”. Instead of squeezing the planned allocation of space for the FRAC Nord-Pas de Calais, a collection of contemporary art, into the existing build­ ing and thus destroying the spatial effect of the hall, the architects decided during the course of the competition to build a second hall with the same dimensions and to preserve the “Cathedral” in its present condition. The graphic design was intended to make the layout of the building legible through the transparent facade; after winning the competition this intention was taken up by the institution’s in-house graphic designers. It was crucial that the architects were able to implement their planned concept. Architecture: Lacaton & Vassal; graphic design competition: Intégral Ruedi Baur, Paris, Ruedi Baur, Olivier Duzelier, Sébastien Thiery; client: Communauté Urbaine de Dunkerque, FRAC Nord-Pas de Calais

Yet another project. Here too the location is largely immaterial. Rather, it serves to illustrate the kind of interdisciplinary exchange which is typical in competitions or in the initial phases of architectural projects. Various well-known figures sit around the rather drab conference table. The architects have invited a landscape designer and myself as lighting designer. It looks set to be a prolonged and very intensive working meeting. To begin with, we are presented with a summary of the requirements of the competition. The architects outline their impressions and produce sketches showing their initial ideas. The issues involved and the potential of the situation gradually become clear. Although the architects are ahead of the other participants in their knowledge, they still remain very attentive, even hesitant; they are prepared to develop their own proposal with the aid of the ideas which are maturing during the course of the discussion. However, their presentation sets the tone. Anyone is free to develop their own concept of the project on the basis of these ideas. The original designs are ultimately strengthened through the attempts to improve them or question them constructively. Finally, then, the time comes to respond to the specific requirements of the project, with the risk that the nature of the dialogue might change. Each consultant will address the brief in their own way on the basis of their specialist knowledge. They contribute their own point of view without losing sight of the overall brief and thus exceeding the boundaries of their discipline. The ideas bubble forth. Some succeed in establishing themselves. In this way, a synergy gradually develops around a proposal. The proposals align with one another, a consensus appears to have been reached. At this point, thinking within the bounds of one’s own discipline would be wholly inappropriate. The prime objective is to approach the brief and the overall interests of the project appropriately. The role of the architects here is one of synthesis. Each participant in the overall process must examine the correctness of the design in terms of their own sphere of competence, with the architect retaining their central role irrespective of the visibility of the original design. In the present case it was decided to opt for a facade design in the form of a vertical garden. The vegetation thus became one of the most important forms of expression in the project. Lighting and graphic design are subordinate to this, and in fact seek to enhance this aspect. This apparently simple solution creates a mood of elation around the conference table. However, this appearance can be misleading. Even though it is assumed at this meeting that the concept will be created on an interdisciplinary basis and the project developed jointly, continued progress depends on a structured exchange between the individual disciplines

Signage: Intégral Ruedi Baur, Zurich Architecture: Allmann Sattler Wappner Architekten, Munich


Tow mai ards t n st he atio n

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The mall-like underpass on the Karlsplatz known as the Stachus is one of the busiest interfaces in Munich’s public transport network, providing access to the U-Bahn, S-Bahn and tram. It also contains busy shopping and gastronomic zones. The object of the reconception of the concourse was to redesign the very confused circulation level on the lower ground floor, dating from the 1970s, to create a contemporary, attractive public urban space offering functional added value and a quality user experience. The form of the encircling Stachus rondel in the square above was referenced in the underground concourse and forms its key creative principle. These references between above and below ground make it easier for visitors to orient themselves within the underground “roundabout”. The circular central structure is an identity-defining element at which all important routes converge. The geometrical form of the circle is also the determining design feature of the multifunctional, reflective ceiling which, together with the light ­terrazzo floor, creates a space providing the maximum sense of daylight. The metal ceiling rings of different diameters carry the signage and are integrated into the design of the ceiling on the first lower ground level. Guiding elements such as texts, arrows and pictograms are applied to the outside and inside of the ceiling rings in opaque film lettering. The application of the guidance elements to the ceiling as a free spatial area means that they remain readable without obstruction, thus providing the user with orientation, even at busy times of day. They are guided in a simple way through clear visual relationships.

Towards the main station

In the same way that the public urban space is continued underground, the underground space “surfaces” through the signage and design of the entrances and exits.

Circular form as ­guiding element Ceiling as information carrier

Towards the Sendlinger Tor Karl s (Sta platz chu s)

Towa Marie rds npla tz



To Al war tst ds ad th tri e ng


Pos. 2

Pos. 3

Pos. 4

Visible surface 400 mm

Visible surface 400 mm

Pos. 1

Pos. 3

Pos. 2

Pos. 4

In order to facilitate orientation, the stairways are visible from every point. The signage elements are located on the wall surfaces at the foot of the escalators or on the front ­s urfaces of the escalators.

Pos. 1 The ceiling rings are painted brown on the outside and white on the inside, with directional information Pos. 3 provided on each side – directions to public transport on the outside, directions to the exits on the inside.

Pos. 2

Pos. 4 Pos. 1

Floor plan of 1st lower ground level  Scale  1:3000

Floor plan of 2nd lower ground level  Scale  1:3000


HOLON DESIGN MUSEUM HOLON, IL Signage: Adi Stern Design, Jerusalem Architecture: Ron Arad Architects, London

DESIGN Fluid transition from 2D to 3D Play with light and shade Multilingualism

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Signage and architecture enter into an unusual symbiosis in the Holon Design Museum. The iconography of the flowing and moving bands of weatherproof steel which dominate the external form of the museum is reiterated in the formal language of the signage, which is not, however, intended to compete with the dynamic architecture of the building. The guidance and orientation system transforms two-dimensional arrows into three-dimensional elements of different lengths emerging progressively from the wall surface so that – as white forms against a white background – they primarily stand out through their shadows. In doing so they pick up on the flow and movement of the steel band and, together with the grey-toned lettering and pictograms, generate a subtle texture which nonetheless lends the signage a presence of its own. All information – where not presented as universally understandable pictograms – is communicated in the three main languages used in Israel: Hebrew, English and Arabic, which at the same time involves the use of three different kinds of script. In order to integrate these in a nonhierarchical system, a new Hebrew font was developed which produces a harmonic overall effect with the Arabic and Latin characters.

Shades of white and grey underline the subtle character of the orientation system.


Light and shadows are key design elements of the signage.


3 84 85

Beate Kling

Universal design

What is universal design?

Universal design is an international design concept which demands that all spaces and products should be usable under all circumstances by all people, irrespective of age, ability and situation. “Universal design means neither standardisation nor cultural uniformity. Rather, the concept of universal design is based on a social, i.e. people-oriented, approach to design, the aim of which is to make the entire environment which is designed by people for people accessible and usable for as many people as possible. Irrespective of their individual abilities, their age and gender or their ­cultural background, it should be made possible for all people to participate equally in society. Stigmatisation through a design which excludes people from the availment and use of certain services, spaces and products should be avoided from the outset.”1 Universal design, as a concept and term, was formulated in the 1980s by the Center of Universal Design at North Carolina State University in Raleigh. The key figure and founder is the  American designer and architect Ronald L. Mace. As a general concept and sustainable approach, universal design combines a series of conceptual ideas. Since it is a global ­concept, the aims differ according to the cultural background of the different countries. Terms such as “accessible design”, “freedom from barriers” and “design for all” express different embodiments of the approach. Universal design, with its alignment towards market orientation and individual rights, is seen as reflecting the American perspective, whereas the expression “design for all”, which stands for integration and participation in society with integrative group thinking can be seen as a more European approach. These terms represent the poles which characterise the different cultures and their respective interests. The principles of universal design were defined in 1997 by the Universal Design Institute and sum-

marised in the following keywords: “1. Equitable use, 2. Flexibility in use, 3. Simple and intuitive use, 4. Perceptible information, 5. Tolerance for error, 6. Low physical effort, 7. Size and space for approach and use”. 2 Detailed guidelines explain these principles more precisely and highlight important aspects which a design should fulfil according to this approach.3

Universal thinking – a process

The fundamental approach of universal design requires a mindset which aims at integrated, comprehensive solutions. These should, as far as possible, enable as many users as possible to cope with and understand their environment – both as an end product and in conjunction with the user’s surroundings and different products, forms of communication, information technologies and services. This conceptual approach is highly complex and demands a comprehensive, multilayered, in fact universal way of thinking. Universal design should be understood as a process which, in its implementation, involves approaching the optimum. It is therefore necessary to consider at the beginning of the project which design goals are being pursued and should be given priority, and which should be treated as being of more secondary importance. This objective, and what constitutes its successful achievement, have already been decided at the outset. By today's standards, universal design must be the implicit objective of any project and thus has implications for the entire planning and design process. It should promote individual autonomy, support independence and thus automatically integrate all users.

Signage in the context of universal design

Top: Along the paths of the Eifel National Park, information is provided in raised capital letters, in Braille or in acoustic form. Above: Sound Space signs visually indicate available acoustic signals. Concept: Davide Tidoni, graphic design: Left and below: The media steles in the Bode Museum and in the New Museum in Berlin provide information according to the principles of universal design. The height-adjustable monitors can be used from both a standing and seated ­p osition. Concept: polyform – planen und gestalten


170 Height adjustment Eye level, standing 1500

Eye level, seated






Wheelchair clearance


The principles of universal design formulated by Ronald L. Mace positively imply the right to and necessity of integrated signage which is designed to facilitate as far as possible the autonomous, simple use of spaces. Although the importance of universal design has been recognised, its level of implementation is rather limited in relation to the entire scope of creative processes. However, the objectives and stipulations with regard to the design of barrier-free spaces are formulated in very concrete terms. Ease of access for all users and, in the wider context, freedom from barriers are important considerations which, due to the particular planning requirements relating to these, have a great influence on the design of spaces and signs as well as their effect. The implementation of these aspects in the built environment has been enforced for some years. Freedom from barriers, as a performance criterion, is a fixed component of standards and public law regulations which, reflecting public attitudes, is continually being adjusted to social conditions.

300–500 Viewing and operating distance

Signage is linked directly with a building in terms of both design and building law and is necessarily subject to its ­choreography. DIN 18 040-1 “Barrier-free Building – Basis for Planning – Part 1: Publicly Accessible Buildings”, updated in October 2010, includes for the first time, in the section “Warning / Orientation / Information / Guidance” remarks on sensory requirements as well as stipulations regarding visual, auditory and tactile conditions which make direct reference to the concept of universal design. For the first time, in what had hitherto been virtually a pure construction standard, aspects of construction planning are interwoven with specific requirements concerning signage. Universal design means addressing the needs of all users. In addition to persons with impaired vision and hearing, as well as motor disabilities which require the use of mobility aids or wheelchairs, these also include, for example, persons who are larger or smaller


FAMILY BOX BEIJING, CN Signage: Didelidi studio, Beijing Architecture: crossboundaries architects, Beijing

Child-friendly symbols Comic elements Large typography Simple word formulas

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The motif of the Box is continued in the logo; the website also uses the comic figures which identify the different areas.

The concept of the Family Box, a building providing different leisure activities for families with children up to 12 years old, offers a mixture of interactive activity centre and kindergarten. Freestanding boxes serve as spaces for the individual activities such as musicmaking, dancing, handicrafts or cooking; there is also a swimming pool, a cafĂŠ and a reading zone. Because of its small size and limited number of clearly structured spaces, the building did not require a typical information system. The starting point for the planning of the room descriptions and direction signs were the different sizes and viewing heights of children and adults. And so the architects have played with the levels, creating different visual relationships through specifically positioned openings. The diverse uses of the boxes are highlighted visually through pictures and typographic elements. The graphic design of the interior makes use of forms, language and colours taken from comics and decorates the walls with cartoon figures and large typography made of thick felt. The children and their parents become part of this stimulating fantasy world in which information is communicated using icons in a child-friendly way. The idea of the Box is continued through the logo on flyers and brochures as well as in the design of the Family Box website. Viewed from afar, line drawings of children appear on the translucent glass facade, indicating the function of the building.



3 96 97

Beate Kling

Analysis and systematic specification of infor­ mation requirements

Analysis – cause and effect

Before the design of signage can begin, the framework conditions under which an orientation system is to be designed and developed must be determined and analysed. These form the basis for the system concept; the guiding principles for the design are ­formulated with reference to these conditions, which can be derived from the following six areas:  – the data obtained from the analysis of the spatial and building type  –  the building itself and its architecture  – the projected circulation routes with traffic flows, routing and overlaps  – the definition of the target group and users with their ­specific characteristics  – conditions from the viewpoint of the client, owner and operator  –  regulations and standards

Spatial and building type   The nature of the space is the constant which must always be referred to directly in the planning of signage before any other requirement is evaluated and considered; it has the greatest and most direct influence on the signage concepts. Turn left, turn right, go up and straight ahead again – all too often the desire to develop holistic concepts is already exhausted at this stage. Types differentiate buildings and spaces according to criteria of use and structural designs with their associated circulation structures, which can be horizontal, vertical, directionless or interwoven. Whether floor plans are geometrical or amorphous has different effects on orientation. The arrangement of spaces and sequences of rooms as well as the resulting visual relationships represent a crucial factor for ease of orientation. So the formal and spatial characteristics associated

The systematic information specification for the University Hospital Greifswald lists the desti­ nations alphabetically and links them with the information necessary to get there. The complex route layouts are transformed into a clear graphic design. Signage: Beate Kling Architekten

with the typologies and their contexts in terms of the use of space must be recognised in order to respond to these characteristics through the design of guidance and orientation systems.

Architecture   Irregular forms and complex floor plans impose different requirements on guidance systems than intuitively readable room layouts in symmetrical arrangements. For example, an H-form with its inner logic is more self-explanatory than an amorphous form with many changes in direction. This is shown by examples like the central building of the BMW plant in Leipzig, in which the signage reflects the form of the building, as well as the Bernaqua leisure spa complex with its direction arrows guiding the visitor through the building from space to space (p. 106 /107).

Circulation routes   Circulation routes are the arteries of buildings, connecting the individual spaces. Their design influences the way people move and find their way around in buildings and to a significant degree determines how well a building functions. The more organised circulation routes are, the more self-explanatory the relationship between spaces. Circulation routes can intersect, overlay or run parallel to one another. The efficiency of access is determined by the conjunction of the horizontal and vertical structure of a building. In order to combine the horizontal and vertical routes effectively it is necessary to analyse their relationship,  for example the accessibility of steps, lifts, ramps or bridges, the lengths of a routes, their directness or freedom from intersections. Signage can explain or differentiate the connections, combine or divide traffic flows (see Signterior,

p. 108/109), define hierarchies, mark intersections (see Katta Civic Polyclinic, p. 14/15) and visualise distances (see Storehagen Atrium, p. 87). Even today, digital information technologies are able to analyse individual or current peripheral conditions and on this basis show a virtually unlimited number of routes in real time, as for example in the Alexandrinum Woonmall shopping centre in Rotterdam (see p. 142). In the Zeilgalerie in Frankfurt am Main, visitors can use a terminal with touchscreen function to select their desired destination within the shopping centre, whereupon the route is displayed. Using a QR code, this three-dimensional sequence of directions can also be transferred to and displayed on a smartphone.

Target groups and users   In order to adapt signage specifically to the clientele who are to be guided or addressed, it is necessary to define a user profile. For this purpose, the characteristics of the target group need to be analysed. In addition to the general public, users may, for example, be visitors to and customers of various institutions, patients, exclusively staff and persons with access authorisation, suppliers with and without knowledge of the location, children, the young or the elderly or those with individual or multiple disabilities. The group-specific characteristics and the age structure of the target group have effects on the design and visual appearance of the information system. From the users’ viewpoint, what they require from the signage is that it should convey information in a simple, uncomplicated way, that the information, signs and symbols should be readily understandable and that they should be able to find their way to their destination quickly.

The overview floor plan of the University ­Hospital Greifswald shows the destination coding using letters and numbers. In order to develop the information system, the areas of influence of the individual destinations were determined. Signage: Beate Kling Architekten




Analysis and systematic specification of infor­ mation requirements

100 101



Given directions

d Floor

1. Starting information digital/analogue information source

2. Define distance, ­c reate visual ­relationship

3. Begin specific route guidance

4. Create vertical references

5. Guidance onwards by means of specific route guidance via intermediate information

Systematic basis of a route guidance system

 – The provision and adaptation in a design/overall concept in a second phase with final approval by clients, management boards, senior management, supervisory boards and/or other important bodies  – Successive implementation within the agreed scope of performance, defined planning steps, performance phases etc.

Systematic ­information specification and implementation

tion of the systematic information specification can be helpful for internal coordination purposes. The result is later transformed into a readable, customised form using the orientation design (see Orientation Design, p. 110 – 115). The goal definition developed through the initial analysis is the starting point for the systematic information specification; the successful communication of information in turn depends directly on the underlying philosophy and well-conceived nature of this specification. Sufficient space should be allowed for its conception during the initial phase of a project. The involvement of all partners participating in the development of the concept is essential during this important phase.

Systematic information specification   At the heart of any information, guidance and orientation system is the systematic information specification. It forms the entire basis for the content of the signage. For this purpose, purely in terms of content, the relationships between all the parameters which are of decisive importance for the project are analysed; these parameters are hierarchised and systematised, guidance information which is formulated in language needs to be semantically defined and the number and density of additional sources of instructive information decided upon. In logistical and organisational terms, quantities and flows of information are determined and structured, circulation routes determined, room directories compiled, the system of room numbering and vertical and horizontal relationships defined and fundamental programming decisions made. A visualisa-

All findings and requirements from the systematic information specification are embodied, visually and materially, in the information, orientation and guidance system. The function of the information system is above all to prepare the information content derived from the systematic information specification and the other requirements and present this visually. For example, it provides information on all the functional contents of a building, the destinations to be reached, the location of entrances, stairs, lifts, toilets and departments or individual rooms etc. and places elements of information in relation to one another, such as the combination of an exit with a particular service. The orientation system translates and visualises the information from the systematic information specification and the information system with the aid of graphic and typographic means and is supplemented by the components providing direction and orientation. These can be arrows, pictograms or symbols as well as floor plan representations positioned on walls, on the ceiling or on the floor. They show the way to quite specific destinations.

Signage systems consist of an information system, orientation system and guidance system, and each of these components performs a different function. Nonetheless, the boundaries between these components are fluid and cannot always be clearly defined. The weighting of the individual components is determined by the nature of the ­design brief. The basis for the signage is provided by the systematic information specification.

Information, orientation and guidance system

6. Destination confirmation

Larger companies or institutions frequently consist of subbrands or company divisions with their own visual appearance which need to be integrated in the design of the ­signage. These sub-brands can be subject to a constant process of change: new brands, users or departments are added, others dropped. The signage should be able to respond neutrally to changes without losing its fundamental functionality, identity and modernity. The guidance system transfers all visualised information to material, structural components, and into digital signage and supplementary possibilities. The term signage is increasingly used to refer to the representation of spatial orientation in buildings or open areas. In a wider sense, this is particularly true if, in addition to the pure processing of information, as well as its ordering and allocation, this involves the use, processing and linking together of components of corporate identity, building identity and brand management.

Intelligent information systems

The design development of an information and orientation system starts with the hierarchy of all the elements derived from the brief. It defines the levels which are to be designed and relates them to one another in terms of content and design. In the case of underground car parks for example, floor levels, exits and parking space numbering must be related to one another and indicating and guiding hierarchical levels defined. In stadia, block units need to be defined, categorised and visually differentiated in terms of their accessibility and provision of access to other blocks, as do indicating and directing hierarchies in airports, from check-in to the individual gate. The information relating to functional and routing relationships, spatial-architectural circumstances and the requirements of the target groups are thereby brought together. At the same time, in an integrative process, the client and designers identify administrative organisational units and functional areas which are then taken into consideration in the concept. The levels of hierarchy make it possible for the users to orient themselves clearly within the overall system, since individual levels are characterised by elements which can be clearly distinguished from one another . Information systems are represented by recurring and precisely selected control elements. The selection of the control elements for the communication of information must guarantee the continuity of the whole information chain – from the starting point to the confirmation of destination. It essentially depends on the size and complexity of the building, ­cultural context, fixed and variable information, their quantitative relationships as well as the quantity of the information. Generally speaking: the more information there is, the less this can be passed on without being filtered and the sooner it needs to be systematised and hierarchised (see University Hospital Greifswald, p. 96 / 97, 102 – 105, Vienna airport, p.  146 – 149). The interplay of macroelements which are already readable from afar, as well as microelements which can only be read close-up allows the users a differentiated perception of the information. In this way, the signage can respond to the users’ sequence of movement, and at the same time the sequence of spatially staggered information elements enhances the spatial experience and thus becomes an important element of the interior design. The layering of the information in design levels makes it possible to read ­interior design and information separately, without the architectural connection being lost, so improving the way the information is processed by the users. In addition, threedimensional design elements of the signage create a level of perception which can strengthen the overall concept of the architecture.

Groupings of information and hierarchies offer the possibility of bundling a number of information elements in order to ­isolate and specify these as the user approaches the destination. Thus, for example, the inclusion of a checkout pictogram conveys the concept “checkout”. Or several destinations can be indicated in combination by means of an abbreviation and can be distinguished at the destination with specific information such as “B2 Internal Medicine” and “B2 Internal Medicine – Dialysis”.

Coding   The systematisation of information is the basis for developing information systems which allow the simple and rapid communication of information. Codes are tools which can be used directly for this purpose. They can be used individually or as combinations of letters, numbers, colours and materials as well as pictograms and arrows, and can, for example, characterise special functions, spaces, floors or buildings. Coding allows a large number of forms of information to be systematically integrated in the information and orientation hierarchies. It can be used to organise information hierarchically or give structure to equivalent destinations such as gates at airports or entrance doors in exhibition halls. If a lot of information is involved or provision needs to be made for changes of occupier and relocations, an address can be formed which is fixed and tied to a particular location through the definition of destination points. It is assigned the corresponding destination information and users find their way there using the guidance system. Since the address is permanently assigned to a location, its use is highly flexible, analogous to residential addresses. The success of a combination of abbreviations or letters/ numerical codes depends on simple readability. The more elements are linked, the greater the tendency to intervene through the use of additional symbols such as hyphens or full stops. However, this is more likely to make it harder to organise and recognise chains of information, whereas simple codes which are limited to the absolutely essential make it easier to take in the information. If additional symbols are necessary, they should be designed so as to be easy to read and should be used sparingly. A room numbering code for a part of the building with level and room number can, for example, be “L/EG-078” or – more legibly, a simplified formula divided with spaces such as “L EG 078”.

Positioning   The way information can be applied, and at what height, what interval, how frequently and in which position, depends on various parameters such as the architecture, the design, the visual means and the requirements specified in the standards, which in some cases differ, for example with regard to contrast, the height of symbols in relation to viewing distances, levels of illumination, the determination of the viewing distance, possible colour combinations etc. The intensity with which spaces are used is the key factor for the positioning of information in terms of general visibility. The visibility height for information in congested buildings such as airports, railways stations, sporting venues and trade fairs is set above 2 m, so that it is not obstructed by people. In less frequented areas, information can be positioned exactly where it is required in the specific context and can best be accommodated without interference (see Systematic basis of a route guidance system, p. 100). When developing signage, the aim must always be to translate the complex requirements into ordered simplicity – or, to put it another way, to strive for simplicity in complexity. If this is achieved successfully, one can speak of an intelligent information system.



Signage: Beate Kling Architekten, Berlin Architecture: Arkitekter Dall & Lindhardtsen, Helsingør; HWP Planungsgesellschaft, ­Stuttgart

Fixed and variable information Destination coding through letters and numbers

102 103

The main building of the University Hospital Greifswald consists of the new central building as well as adjoining ward wings and bridge connections leading to several existing buildings. The orientation system developed for this purpose makes use of the chessboard-like structure on which the major part of the building complex is based. The destination points are defined by means of a combination of letters and numbers which links together the orthogonally intersecting circulation routes. The successive commissioning of the complex and the building structure itself requires a flexible system and a decentralised layout. Two different colours of lettering were introduced for this purpose – light grey for variable information and green for fixed information. The system which was introduced in the existing buildings was conceived as a family of signs, the elements of which are integrated into the structural context in different ways: through brackets which create a visual connection with the high ceilings, through wall mounting and as free-standing information panels. The graphic concept makes use of the greatest possible contrast between the colour values: the anthracite-coloured background makes the information stand out against the mostly white setting of the hospital; free-standing information panels in green with anthracitecoloured lettering display information which is not related to clinical operations. The use of the same size typeface on virtually all signs creates a calm visual appearance and makes it easier to concentrate on the information. The chosen typeface, the colour contrasts and the viewing distances also fulfil the needs of the visually impaired. The green edges on the information carriers make it even easier to recognise them.

The identical graphic design of the signs focuses the visitor's attention on the information and guarantees visual calm as well as ease of recognition. The green and light grey colours respectively indicate fixed and flexible information.

SITY HOSPITAL Brackets of varying heights ensure that the ceiling signs hang at the same height in all locations; at the same time they connect the information elements visually with the building.


3 110 111

Torsten Krüger

Orientation design

The development of the design for an information and orientation system starts with the overall communication concept. This “big idea”, derived from the content of the theme which is to be addressed creatively, forms the link between architecture, design and signage. It builds on the elements of both the corporate identity and the building identity, but in addition creates its own level of design and perception which enhances the value and functional efficiency of the building. Conceptually, signage develops the space further than can generally be achieved through the architecture alone and thus offers the opportunity to optimise the architecture from the user's perspective. The signage can adopt, complement and carefully accentuate the building’s architectural language. However, it can also disrupt an architectural concept, surprise the user, lead to new unaccustomed ways of seeing or consciously dominate the architecture. All strategies are conceivable and are in fact pursued in practice, depending on the design brief. In daily life we are permanently surrounded by elements of signage – we refer to road signs, house numbers, place names or room descriptions for orientation or unconsciously allow ourselves to be guided by them. If it's not necessary to search for orientation elements or consciously focus on them, where we perceive elegant forms, high-quality materials or clear typography more or less incidentally, this has a large influence on whether we respond positively to a location or note. The big design idea needs to take this into consideration and find a convincing solution to this challenge. Signage conveys to us decisive messages about places and organisations: Is the city inviting? Is a building modern? Does the user appear innovative? Are the employees working in a creative atmosphere? The design of signage further develops the design concept embodied in the architecture and the

In the Empire Riverside Hotel in Hamburg, signage elements are implemented in different surface materials – wood on wood, bronze on bronze. A differentiated perception is achieved through colour nuances and shadows. Architecture: David Chipperfield Architects, ­signage: polyform – planen und gestalten

interior design and at the same time sets new individual accents. The relationship between these disciplines determines the way the built environment is perceived. Ideally, the different disciplines develop a common attitude and ­language which can also be applied and adapted in the details in a versatile way. The client’s philosophy is incorporated in the overall design concept through the inclusion of the material, texture, colour and form that make up their brand identity. Appealing and clearly structured orientation systems have a positive effect on this appearance and are closely associated with the public positioning of a city, a company or an institution.

Recessed and projecting textures on the walls of the Ackermannshof in Basel make reference to its former use as a case room and printing shop. Building descriptions are “stamped”, tenants’ names are raised and can be exchanged like type. Architecture: Lost-Architekten, signage: Notice Kommunikation & Design

Various techniques used in analogue and digital applications are available for the design of the signage. The way information is codified and standardised is fundamental to our ability to take in and communicate information rapidly. These aspects form the basis for the conception and realisation of successful signage systems (see Analysis and systematic specification of information requirements, p. 101).


The communication of information essentially takes place using lettering and other symbols. For this reason, the choice of typefaces is of particular importance in the field of signage, in terms of both design and the way the information is taken in by the user. The typefaces which are used should be easily legible in different sizes and applications. However, the typography must also fit in with the surroundings in which it is used and with the architecture. As a rule, a distinction is made in typography between different levels of use, analogous to the hierarchy of the orientation system. Precedence is given to the brand name of the user or of the building, which is defined by the corporate identity of the company. The naming and signing of buildings, functional areas, groups of rooms and individual rooms are specified in a graduated design concept. The choice of typeface, sizes of lettering, the colours of the background and characters as well as additional typographic elements is made with a given viewing distance in mind and should primarily fulfil the main requirement of rapid and clear information and orientation. The greater the viewing distance, the larger and more high-contrast the typographic elements need to be. The definition of spatial height relationships, typefaces and type sizes for information elements which are then standardised and used for the entire design improves the legibility of the information elements, since the user is able to read and interpret repeatedly-used graphic and typographic elements quickly.


Pictograms are symbols which reduce messages in information and orientation systems to small, clearly-readable icons. Their visual language represents a further level of information. ­Although derived from a graphic concept, the abstraction of a function into a pictogram, for example, representing stairs, a lift, a direction or toilet facilities, creates a design language of its own. Pictograms are frequently used together with ­t ypography, for individual design solutions in order to achieve differentiation and individualisation. Apart from standard themes, special pictogram families can be developed for selected buildings which are based on the overall concept for the design of the signage system for a building or event. Pictograms are often an expression of the intellectual aspirations of the client and designer. As symbols or icons, they can develop their own charisma, since they provide orientation independently of language and typeface and are universally understandable. They tell their own visual stories, expressing clarity, humour or formal experimentation and are reminiscent of the origins of written culture, which is largely based on


5 166 167


Accessibility 85 Accessible design 84 Acoustic support 129 Additive information carriers 124 Addressing 101 Advertising displays 115 Analogue information carriers 124 Arrows 112 Assistance personnel 129 Audio guide 129 Audio output 87 Backlighting 115 Back projection 137 Barrier-free building 11 Brand communication 50 Brand messages 51 Brand management 101 Brand staging 53 Building guidance system 34 Building identity 13, 50ff., 101, 110 Building typology 96 Circulation layout 98, 100 Circulation routes 97 Client 98 Coating method 125 Coding 101, 111 Colour 38, 70, 112 Colour coding 54 Colour contrast 86, 113 Colour signage system 22 Communication concept 110 Communication design 53 Conservation 36 Control elements 101 Corporate culture 12, 52 Corporate identity 13, 21, 50, 52, 101, 110 Costs 98 Cultural traditions 55 Cultural identity 38 Daylight 41 Design for All 84 Design goals 85 Design levels 101 Design manual 39, 41, 50, 99 Design principles 39 Digital door signs 142 Digital advertising 136 Digital information technologies 127 Digital information carriers 124 Digital media 11, 129 Digital screens 115 Digital signage 136ff. Digital technologies 138 Displays 136 Employee information systems 136 Enamelling 125 Ergonomic flexibility 86 Etching 125 Functional relationships 101

Genius loci 36, 38 Graphic coding 112 Green IT 142 Grouping of information 101 Guest information system 136, 142 Guidance information 100 Guidelines 87 Guidance system 20f., 101 Hearing impairment 86 Hierarchies 10, 21, 97 Hierarchical levels 54, 101 Holistic design 35 Identity 10, 12, 38 Independent navigation 98 Information chain 101 Information system 100 Inlays 125 Integrated information carriers 125 Integrated signage 36, 99 Integrative planning 125 Intelligent information systems 101 Interactive displays 138 Interactive technology 143 Interdisciplinary conception 72 Key Visuals 113 LCD displays 138 LCD panel 136 LED displays 138 LED monitors 136 LED walls 137 Legibility 111 Lettering 111 Light 115, 126 Material 113 Modular system 39 Monitors 136 Multilingual communication 114 Navigation system 41 Network components 136 OLED 143 Organisational structure 40 Orientation 10ff., 34, 40 Orientation design 100 Orientation system 34, 100 Patterns of order 20 Perception level 101 Perspective effect 126 Pictogram 111 Pictogram family 21 Planning basis 99 Positioning 101 Positioning technologies 138ff. Printed products 50, 129 Projecting components 137 Projection 115, 137 Projection surfaces 136

QR code 97, 140 Ready-made information carriers 127 Room directories 100 Room numbering system 100 Routing 101 Safety requirements 35 Screen printing 125 Self-explanatory space 34 Semantics 114 Shared Spaces 34 Signage 101 Sign families 124 Smartphone 23, 41, 140 Software 136, 140 Spatial typology 96 Supplementary sources of information 129 Sustainability 152 Standards 86, 98 Standardisation 21, 111 Systematic information specification 100 Tactile lettering 87 Target groups 51, 97, 101 Teamwork 55, 99 Temporary signage systems 127 Three-dimensionality 113, 125 Touch displays 138 Touchscreens 115, 129 Traffic flows 97 Two-dimensional applications 125 Typography 53, 111 Understanding of language 114 Universal Design 13, 84 Verbal information 129 Viewing distance 111 Visual appearance 53 Visual coding 112 Visual impairment 86 Visual language 21, 53,111 Visual relationships 96 WLAN 139


Authors: Beate Kling, Torsten Krüger Co-authors: Ruedi Baur, Falk Jaeger, Hubert Nienhoff, Michael Schwanke-Seer Research: Susanne Augustin Editors: Cornelia Hellstern (project management), Sandra Leitte Editorial team: Carola Jacob-Ritz, Michaela Linder, Kai Meyer, Michaela Wengert Drawings: Ralph Donhauser Translation into English: Antoinette Aichele-Platen, D – Munich; Alistair Gray, UK – Whitby Copy editor: Philip Shelley, CH – Zurich Design concept and cover design: Katharina Zettl, D – Berlin Production  / DTP: Simone Soesters Reproduction: ludwig:media, A – Zell am See Printing and binding: Kessler Druck + Medien, D – Bobingen

This work is copyright protected. The associated rights are reserved, in particular those of translation, reprinting, public presentation, the use of illustrations and tables, radio broadcasting, microfilming or copying by other means or storage on data processing systems, even where only extracts are used. In individual cases too, copying of this work or parts of this work is only permissible within the limits of the statutory provisions of the Copyright Act in its valid version. Such copying must always be paid for. Contraventions are subject to the sanctions provided for under the Copyright Act. Bibliographic information held by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek. The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbib­ liografie; detailed bibliographical information is available on the internet at

© 2013, first edition DETAIL – Institut für internationale Architektur-Dokumentation GmbH & Co. KG, Munich ISBN: 978-3-920034-94-2 (printed) ISBN: 978-3-95553-145-4 (e-book) ISBN: 978-3-95553-156-0 (bundle)

Signage – Spatial Orientation  

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