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The Magazine Of The Institution Of Engineers, Singapore September 2016 MCI (P) 002/03/2016

Celebrating 50 Years of Engineering Excellence



SUSTAINABILITY Singapore Sustainability Academy set up to support the low carbon economy

IMPORTANT! From the November issue onwards, only the e-version of TSE will be distributed to members. If you prefer to receive the hard copy, kindly visit and indicate as such by 31 October 2016. Preview it here:

CONTENTS Celebrating 50 Years of Engineering Excellence

Founded in 1966

FEATURES 17 SUSTAINABILITY: COVER STORY: Singapore Sustainability Academy set up to support the low carbon economy It will be a major training and networking facility.

22 SUSTAINABILITY: Singapore Zoo to test evaporative cooler The smart innovation provides thermal comfort under hot and humid conditions.

24 POWER GENERATION: Volatile grid requirements and answers for flexible and dynamic operation of coal-fired power plants up to 1,000 MW Conventional power plants have to adjust to the intermittency of renewable energy production.

30 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: Electric flight takes off The electrification of aviation has significant environmental benefits.

32 BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING: MEDICAL FAIR ASIA 2016 registers strong response Held in Singapore, the event attracted exhibitors and visitors as well as conference speakers and delegates, from all over the world.


Chief Editor T Bhaskaran CEO Angie Ng Publications Manager Desmond Teo Publications Executive Queek Jiayu Media Consultants Roland Ang Desmond Chander Published by The Institution of Engineers, Singapore 70 Bukit Tinggi Road Singapore 289758 Tel: 6469 5000 Fax: 6467 1108 Cover designed by Irin Kuah

GE Healthcare launches digital molecular imaging systems

Cover image by City Developments Limited

These ‘next-generation’ systems offer a number of benefits.

34 EDUCATION: PSB Academy defines the future of learning with new city campus A range of features will contribute to an enriching experience for the student community.

36 INFORMATION & COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY: Key lessons from the IoT journey The opportunities and challenges presented by the ‘disruptive’ developments are assessed.


The Singapore Engineer is published monthly by The Institution of Engineers, Singapore (IES). The publication is distributed free-of-charge to IES members and affiliates. Views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of the Editor or IES. All rights reserved. No part of this magazine shall be reproduced, mechanically or electronically, without the prior consent of IES. Whilst every care is taken to ensure accuracy of the content at press time, IES will not be liable for any discrepancies. Unsolicited contributions are welcome but their inclusion in the magazine is at the discretion of the Editor.

Design & layout by 2EZ Asia Pte Ltd Printed in Singapore




Message from the IES President The United States and China, the world’s top two emitters of greenhouse gases, formally ratified the Paris Climate Change Agreement on 3 September 2016, at a ceremony held in the Chinese city of Hangzhou. The ratification documents were signed by US President Barack Obama and Chinese President Xi Jinping. In the words of Ms Patricia Espinosa Cantellano, Executive Secretary of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, this is an “agreement on which rests the opportunity for a sustainable future for every nation and every person”. The US and China also announced that they are working together to secure a comprehensive and ambitious amendment to the Montreal Protocol, aimed at reducing the use of Hydroflurocarbons (HFCs) which are greenhouse gases currently being used in air-conditioning and refrigeration. Further, the leaders of the two countries expressed their support for action, under the auspices of the International Civil Aviation Organization, that would reduce greenhouse gas emissions from aircraft. These initiatives taken at the highest levels of political leadership indicate, on the one hand, the seriousness of the problem of Climate Change and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions urgently, and on the other hand, the bold steps that world leaders must take, to combat it. The above developments present both challenges and opportunities for engineers all over the world, as many cities globally have to consider, urgently, adaptation and making the cities resilient to the effects of climate change, otherwise, these cities will be adversely affected by rising sea levels as well as extreme weather conditions like intense typhoons, rainfall, snow and draughts etc. Each of these extreme weather phenomena will require engineering solutions, like the widening and deepening of drains and the construction of underground reservoirs, the building of seawalls to prevent rising sea levels that would cause flooding of the cities etc. The skills of engineers will be needed to design, install, operate and maintain the plants and systems required, as the whole world transits to a low-carbon economy through the adoption of sustainable, energy-efficient and renewable-energy-based technologies. At COP 21, 195 nations agreed to keep the global temperature rise this century well below 2° C and to drive efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5° C above preindustrial levels. It is projected that if temperatures increase by 2° C, most islands and coastal cities will be knee-deep in water. At 1.5° C there will still be patches of dry land. The major concluding points from COP 21 are as follows: • Mitigation – reducing emissions fast enough to achieve the temperature goal • A transparency system and global stock-take – accounting for climate action • Adaptation – strengthening ability of countries to deal with climate impacts • Loss and damage – strengthening ability to recover from climate impacts • Support – including finance, for nations to build clean, resilient futures For Singapore to continue to grow and prosper into the next century, it will need engineers to help the country transit into a Smart Nation and to manage and implement a whole range of deep technologies in the next 10 to 20 years and beyond. Singapore will also need engineers to keep the country dry and operational as an island state so that we do continue to grow and prosper economically as a technologically advanced nation in all aspects, well into the 22nd century.

Er. Edwin TF Khew, PBM IES President



IES Council Members 2016 / 2017 President Er. Edwin Khew Vice Presidents Er. Chan Ewe Jin Mr Mervyn Sirisena Er. Ng Say Cheong Er. Ong See Ho Er. Seow Kang Seng Dr Yeoh Lean Weng Honorary Secretary Dr Boh Jaw Woei Honorary Treasurer Er. Joseph Goh Immediate Past President Er. Chong Kee Sen Past Presidents Prof Chou Siaw Kiang Er. Ho Siong Hin Assistant Honorary Secretary Mr Joseph William Eades Er. Joseph Toh Dr Lim Kok Hwa Assistant Honorary Treasurer Mr Tan Sim Chuan Council Members Prof Chan Eng Soon Dr Chew Soon Hoe Mr Dalson Chung Mr David So Prof Er Meng Joo Mr Goh Yang Miang Ms Jasmine Foo Mr Lee Kwok Weng A/Prof Lee Poh Seng Mr Norman Lee Prof Ramakrishna Seeram Er. Teo Chor Kok Dr Zhou Yi Honorary Council Members Er. Dr Lee Bee Wah Er. Ong Ser Huan Er. Tan Seng Chuan




Continental contributes to Singapore’s Smart Nation and Smart Mobility 2030 initiatives At an event held recently, Continental, the international automotive supplier and technology company, signed an MOU with the Singapore Institute of Technology (SIT) to support a threeyear degree programme in intelligent transportation systems engineering, leading to the Bachelor of Engineering with Honours in Telematics. At the same event, Continental, together with its Intelligent Transportation Systems Lab (ITS Lab) partners, A*STAR’s Institute for Infocomm Research (I²R) and Technische Universität München (Technical University of Munich,TUM CREATE), also launched the new Park&Go @SG iOS parking app and its enhanced Android version. Degree programme in telematics Continental is one of the contributors to the development of the curriculum for the Bachelor of Engineering with Honours in Telematics Programme conducted by SIT. This is the ‘first of its kind’ to be offered in Singapore; the collaboration with a local university is also Continental’s first. The degree programme focuses on the development of core skills in electrical engineering and computer science as well as the acquisition of ITS knowledge. In addition, specialist skills in vehicular communication, telematics technologies and ITS engineering will be emphasised. This will prepare students for a future in ITS engineering. Continental will also provide adjunct lecturers to assist SIT’s teaching staff in conducting the programme. In line with Singapore’s Smart Nation and Smart Mobility 2030 initiatives, students enrolled in the programme will study not only transport and traffic management systems, connectivity and technology modules, but will also gain familiarity with the latest innovations from R&D and university centres worldwide. Additionally, they will gain exposure to the work done by leading-


edge and telematics-driven companies such as Continental, enabling them to be better able to respond and deal with the challenges in developing more efficient transport systems and vehicular communications technologies as well as smart mobility and connectivity devices. Park&Go @SG Park&Go @SG is another illustration of Continental’s involvement in Singapore’s Smart Nation and Smart Mobility 2030 initiatives. The app was developed by Continental in collaboration with I²R and TUM CREATE, through the ITS Lab, to improve the safety, efficiency, and performance of transport systems in Singapore. Using information made available by the Housing & Development Board (HDB), Land Transport Authority (LTA) and Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA), the app helps drivers find available parking places in advance, in all major entertainment, F&B, retail, commercial and government buildings and in public car parks, in Singapore. The prediction methodology in identifying parking space is unique

to Continental and the company has launched a patent for the mobile app. The new iOS parking app and the enhanced version of the Android parking app will cover an increased number of ‘live’ parking spaces - said to be seven times the number of parking lots covered when it was first launched in 2015. The app also allows users to provide feedback and inputs on unlisted car park venues for Continental to review and update its current data, enabling users to avoid parking congestions in these areas. Another new component of the Park&Go @SG app is its improved predictive capability through the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to provide motorists with real-time information on available parking spaces in vicinities where events and food places attract crowds. The new Park&Go @SG app now also allows users to find locations of washing bays in HDB car parks. In the near future, the reservation feature for washing bay lots will be available to car owners, so that they will no longer need to physically queue for slots.

Launching the new Park&Go @SG iOS parking app and the enhanced Android version of the app are, from left, Mr Steven Loh, Director, Industry Development Group, A*STAR Institute for Infocomm Research (I2R); Mr Lo Kien Foh; Prof Alois Knoll, Chair of Robotics and Embedded Systems Department of Informatics TUM CREATE; and Mr Ralf Lenninger. Photo: Continental





NTU and JTC test-bed new bendable concrete that is stronger and more durable

With the new concrete, the time needed for road works can be reduced by more than 50 per cent. Photo: NTU

Scientists from the NTU-JTC Industrial Infrastructure Innovation Centre (I³C) have invented a new type of concrete called ConFlexPave that is bendable yet stronger and longer lasting than regular concrete which is heavy, brittle and breaks under tension. This innovation allows the creation of slim precast pavement slabs for quick installation, thus halving the time needed for road works and new pavements. It is also more sustainable, requiring less maintenance. Mr Koh Chwee, Director, Technical Services Division of JTC and Co-Director of the NTU-JTC I3C, said that the invention of this game-changing technology will not only enable the construction industry to reduce labour intensive on-site work, enhance workers’ safety and reduce construction time, it also benefits road users by cutting down the inconvenience


caused by road resurfacing and construction works. How bendable concrete works Typical concrete comprises cement, water, gravel and sand. While this mixture makes concrete hard and strong, it does not promote flexibility. Thus concrete is brittle and prone to cracks if too much weight is applied. ConFlexPave is specifically engineered to have certain types of hard materials mixed with polymer microfibres. The inclusion of these special synthetic fibres, besides allowing the concrete to flex and bend under tension, also enhances skid resistance. The key breakthrough was understanding how the components of the materials interact with one another mechanically on a microscopic level, said Asst Prof Yang En-Hua from NTU’s School of Civil and Environmental Engineering who led the


research at the NTU-JTC I³C. “With detailed understanding, we can then deliberately select ingredients and engineer the tailoring of components, so our final material can fulfill specific requirements needed for road and pavement applications,” explained Prof Yang. “The hard materials give a non-slip surface texture while the microfibres which are thinner than the width of a human hair, distribute the load across the whole slab, resulting in a concrete that is tough as metal and at least twice as strong as conventional concrete under bending,” he added. ConFlexPave has been successfully tested as tablet-sized slabs at NTU laboratories. It will be scaled up for further testing over the next three years, in partnership with JTC, at suitable locations within JTC’s industrial estates and in NTU where there will be human and vehicular traffic.






S$27.0 billion

CONSTRUCTION 4.8% share of GDP


35.5 30.8










This year, construction demand from the private sector is expected to slow down from previous years due to less favourable economic conditions and an increased supply of completed private housing projects and ofďŹ ces. However, this is supported by a higher level of construction demand from the public sector, largely due to an increase in civil engineering projects. If the forecasted estimates for 2016 are met, this will be the highest proportion of construction demand from the public sector since 2002. Last year, the total construction demand was approximately $27 billion, with public sector projects accounting for about half of the total construction demand. The average construction demand is expected to sustain between $26 billion and $35 billion in 2017 and 2018, and $26 billion to $37 billion between 2019 and 2020. BCA estimates public sector demand to be between $16 billion and $20 billion annually from 2017 to 2020, with about 60% of the total demand coming from building projects and the remaining from civil engineering projects.


Value of contracts awarded (in billions)

The total projected value of construction contracts to be awarded this year is between $27 billion and $34 billion, with 65% of the demand driven by the public sector.


2016 CIVIL ENGINEERING S$10.7 – 12.9b Both public and private sector demand to increase, supported by major infrastructure projects



RESIDENTIAL S$6.6 – 8.1b

INDUSTRIAL S$4.0 – 5.4b

Increase in public housing demand due to ramp-up in Home Improvement Programme to offset slowdown in private residential demand

Private sector demand to moderate due to uncertain economic outlook but supported by an increase in public industrial projects

INSTITUTIONAL & OTHERS S$3.9 – 5.2b Total demand to moderate, with the bulk of demand coming from the public sector

COMMERCIAL S$1.9-2.5b Remain subdued but supported by upcoming asset enhancement projects and construction of mixed developments



KEY PROJECTS • Home Improvement programme for HDB flats


• New National Cancer Centre • State Courts’ new building

Public Sector

• JTC’s integrated Logistics Hub • PUB’s water reclamation and sewerage projects

65% Construction Output* to moderate between

S$32-34 billion

• Changi Airport’s 3-runway system • Improvement works to PIE and KJE • Remaining Thomson-East Coasr MRT line contracts


2017-2018 S$26-35 BILLION

2019-2020 S$26-37 BILLION

*Construction output is measured in terms of certified progress payments for work done Data republished with permission from the Building and Construction Authority (BCA).




Renesas Synergy Platform extended to IoT markets in Asia Pacific Renesas Electronics Singapore, a leading international supplier of micro-controllers and a leading global innovator of advanced semiconductor solutions, recently announced that the Renesas Synergy Platform is now available in Asia Pacific markets. Renesas Synergy is a complete and qualified platform with fully integrated software, a scalable family of microcontrollers (MCUs), and unified development tools to speed embedded system developers’ time to market as they innovate new products for IoT device applications. The Synergy Platform comprises five main elements, integrated to achieve optimised functionality and good customer experience: Synergy Software, Synergy Microcontrollers, Synergy Tools and Kits, Synergy Solutions and Synergy Gallery.

At the heart of the Synergy Platform is the Synergy Software Package (SSP) which is qualified, supported, warranted, and maintained by Renesas. The SSP consists of a real-time operating system (RTOS), extensive middleware, communications stacks, and more - all accessible through a robust Application Programming Interface (API) to free customers from struggling with lower-level details. This enables developers to start MCU software development immediately at the API level so that they can focus on product differentiation instead of doing repetitive non-differentiating work. Meanwhile, Renesas Electronics Singapore has announced that a network of Independent Design Houses (IDHs) in Southeast Asia,

Oceania, and India is now ready to support the Renesas Synergy Platform to help system designers drive innovation and differentiation in their products with accelerated development and lower total cost of ownership. The network comprises 16 leading IDHs and is set to expand further with the local launch of the Synergy Platform in the various regions. Their capabilities range from special skills such as graphical user interface designs all the way up to complete turn-key product developments, covering a wide range of IoT applications and embedded system designs required in the industrial, healthcare, and home automation markets. For more information, visit http://

Two luminaries to present keynote speeches at SIEW 2016 Rachel Kyte, CEO of Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) and Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary General, and David Gray, Chairman of the Office of Gas and Electricity Markets (Ofgem) of the UK, will be sharing their perspectives on the opportunities and challenges in the face of today’s ‘New Energy Realities' at the Opening Keynote Address for Singapore International Energy Week 2016 (SIEW 2016). To be held from 24 to 28 October 2016 at Marina Bay Sands, Singapore, SIEW 2016 will address the theme ‘New Energy Realities’. At the event, which is in its 9th edition, Ms Kyte will share insights from the United Nations (UN) on sustainable energy, and how global energy


cooperation can address the need for greener and smarter energy solutions. Mr Gray will speak on the evolving role of the regulator in energy markets, especially in the transition to a low-carbon economy. For the first time, the critical issue of energy access in Asia Pacific will be addressed at SIEW, through the inaugural Energy Access Forum. Jointly organised by the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the Energy Market Authority of Singapore, the forum brings together international organisations, governments, industry and other stakeholders to develop new and innovative policy options and business models for enhanced energy access.


Singapore International Energy Week Singapore International Energy Week (SIEW), a premier platform in Asia for energy insights, partnerships and dialogue, comprises conferences, exhibitions and roundtables, all held during one week and at one location. During the event, political, business, academic and energy industry thought-leaders will address the world’s leading challenges across the energy spectrum, covering oil & gas, clean and renewable energy, and energy infrastructure financing, in order to determine solutions and actions. More information on SIEW 2016 can be obtained from


Singapore houses Connected Lighting for IoT with Philips Lighting Application Center Philips Lighting, a global leader in lighting, announced on 1 September 2016 the official opening of its new Lighting Application Center (LAC), located at its regional headquarters in Toa Payoh. Philips LAC is supported by the Economic Development Board (EDB) and serves growing demands for the Internet of Things (IoT) and connected systems in growth markets – ASEAN Pacific, India, Japan, Middle East & Turkey, Russia & Central Asia, and the Africas. With Singapore as the company’s regional hub, its LAC supports the testing and development of innovative applications for connected and sustainable systems. In fact, Philips Lighting is already in collaboration with CapitaLand, Toll Holdings, as well as Temasek Polytechnic and Admiralty Secondary School to demonstrate the value of such systems and drive the next wave of innovation. In addition, the LAC will showcase the latest digital lighting innovations: interactive multimedia pixel wall, multi-experience stadium lighting, visual light communications for indoor positioning, warehouse lighting, Power-over-Ethernet for offices, luminous panels and textiles, connected street lighting, and more. “Connected lighting is poised to serve as the backbone of the smart city, where LED light points can be connected be managed wirelessly in the Internet of Things. Lighting has proven to be an ideal platform for systems and software that enable people to see, feel and function better, while allowing individual structures and entire cities to operate more efficiently and sustainably than ever before,” said Patricia Yim, Philips Lighting’s Market Leader for the ASEAN Pacific.

EDB Assistant Managing Director Lim Kok Kiang noted that the centre epitomised Singapore’s ideal ‘living lab’ conditions for companies to develop, test, and commercialise smart and sustainable solutions before scaling up for Asia and beyond. The LAC serves as the largest and only demonstration space for Philips Lighting in ASEAN Pacific with indoor and outdoor applications for innovative lighting, with 80 per cent of the centre covered with

technologically-advanced LED luminaires that are programmed with interactive and connected features. Quick facts and figures Fourth and most-updated LAC for Philips. Other LAC facilities are in Eindhoven (the Netherlands), Lyon (France) and Chengdu (China) Floor area of 492 sq m (5,296 sq ft), or about six 4-room HDB flats Built at an investment of close to S$1.8 million

One of the many innovations that are showcased at the Philips LAC is its ‘smart’, customisable lighting solutions for both interior and exterior warehouse spaces.

From left: Ms Patricia Yim, Market Leader, Philips Lighting ASEAN Pacific; Mr Lim Kok Kiang, Assistant Managing Director, EDB; and Mr Eric Rondolat, Chief Executive Officer, Philips Lighting, at the opening of the Philips LAC. Photo: Philips Lighting












Singapore Sustainability Academy set up to support the low carbon economy City Developments Limited (CDL) and the Sustainable Energy Association of Singapore (SEAS) announced the launch of the Singapore Sustainability Academy (SSA) recently, the first major People, Public and Private (3P) ground-up initiative in support of the national goals to tackle climate change articulated in the Sustainable Singapore Blueprint and the recentlyreleased Climate Action Plan. This is also the first time a local private property developer and a non-profit organisation have teamed up to create a major training and networking facility for promoting sustainability. The SSA aims to promote a low-carbon economy, resource efficiency, and sustainable practices among businesses and the community, in particular, among youths. Located on the roof terrace of CDL’s City Square Mall, Singapore’s first eco-mall, the SSA will consolidate all of SEAS’ operations for Asia and serve as the platform from which the organisation will implement its plans under its existing mission. The academy’s premises are expected to be completed in March 2017. Supported by the Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources (MEWR), the National Environment Agency (NEA), the Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) and the Building and Construction Authority (BCA), this timely initiative is aligned with Singapore’s efforts to address climate change. Ahead of the Paris Agreement adopted in December 2015, Singapore

had pledged to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions intensity by 36% compared to 2005 levels, by 2030. The

republic is also working towards stabilising its emissions, with the aim of peaking around 2030. The Climate

After unveiling the model of the Singapore Sustainability Academy premises are, from left, Er. Edwin Khew, Chairman, SEAS; Dr Amy Khor, Senior Minister of State, Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources; and Mr Grant Kelley, Chief Executive Officer, CDL.

Located on the roof terrace of CDL’s City Square Mall, the SSA will be a major training and networking facility for promoting sustainability.



COVER STORY Action Plan, released on 10 July 2016, details actions that Singapore will take to become more carbon-efficient and climate-resilient. Dr Amy Khor, Senior Minister of State, Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources, graced the event held at Tower Club in Republic Plaza, to mark the launch of the SSA. ADVANCING SUSTAINABILITY The SSA will focus on the key areas of advocacy, building capacity and collaboration, education and training, information and resource as well as user engagement. SEAS, operating from the new SSA, will continue to work with local industry and business as well as on key initiatives with the Asian Development Bank and International Enterprise Singapore, to provide policy makers in the region with insights and share experiences on policy, technology and project financing, in the areas of energy efficiency, renewable energy and energy access. It will invite senior policy- and decision-makers to share on these subjects and explore other crucial sustainability topics pertaining to the banking, power, building and infrastructure sectors. To build capacity and collaboration among businesses and supply chains, practitioners and youths, academics and the industry as well as solution providers and adopters, the SSA will harness the collective knowledge and expertise of thought- and industryleaders through multiple training and engagement initiatives. The SSA will also look into offering a suite of education and mentorship programmes for students from tertiary educational institutions, focussing on energy efficiency, solar power, climate change and sustainability. It will further forge partnerships with relevant educational institutions to provide high quality and practical education to build knowledge capacity, foster understanding and promote adoption of sustainability. SEAS training programmes equip


“There is tremendous potential for the private sector to play a major role in our journey towards mitigating and adapting to the devastating effects of climate change. The Singapore Sustainability Academy by CDL and SEAS is an excellent 3P ground-up initiative in the push forward to become a more sustainable Singapore.” - Dr Amy Khor, Senior Minister of State, Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources.

“CDL has always firmly believed in sustainability which creates value for our business, investors, customers, and the community. Sustainability is strategically integrated into CDL’s business and operations - from design, construction, procurement, and maintenance, to building user engagement. As part of our commitment to sustainability for over two decades now, CDL has also continued to promote eco-friendly practices and green solutions among stakeholders. The SSA will provide a platform to further engage more stakeholders for greater impact in building a sustainable future. We look forward to sharing CDL’s best practices with the industry and community at the SSA.” - Mr Grant Kelley, Chief Executive Officer, CDL.

“Over the last 10 years, SEAS has reached out to the sustainable energy industry as well as businesses that adopt our member technologies, solutions and services, to meet the goals of the Sustainable Singapore Blueprint. Harnessing the expertise and extensive network of both CDL and SEAS, a collaboration in the form of an academy will serve as an effective platform to expand this outreach via education and an experiential laboratory, to all industrial sectors and the community-at-large, to work towards this common goal. We will also reach out to all our other stakeholders in the area of Corporate Social Responsibility to promote best practices, sustainability and awareness.” - Er. Edwin Khew, Chairman, SEAS.

the industry professionals with capabilities in the areas of energy efficiency as well as renewable energy technologies, financing and best practices. SEAS has trained over 7,000 participants, to-date, and has been cited by Frost & Sullivan as a case study for successful implementation of training services for sustainability.


SUSTAINABLE PREMISES FOR SSA The academy’s 4,300 ft2 premises comprises classrooms, a verandah, an office, and an exhibition gallery. Jointly designed by CDL and ONG&ONG Pte Limited, and built by Woh Hup (Private) Limited, the SSA premises will be the first in Singapore to have

COVER STORY Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) and Glued Laminated Timber (Glulam), materials to be used for its construction, verified by the Nature’s Barcode system, as coming from responsible sources. This entails scientific tests like DNA analysis, to reduce the risk that the wood comes from illegal logging. CLT is a sustainable material harvested from sustainably managed forests and fabricated by binding layers of timber, perpendicular to each other, with structural adhesive, whereas Glulam’s layers of timber are bonded together with the grain aligned in one direction. Both CLT and Glulam are light yet structurally robust, making them a lightweight alternative to steel or concrete. They also provide a high level of thermal performance which will reduce cooling costs. The use of CLT and Glulam encourages advance planning and coordination, as part of the Design for Manufacturing and Assembly process. Pre-fabricating the timber components off-site improves efficacy in assembly, and keeps on-site pollution to a minimum.This results in a cleaner and safer worksite. In the construction of the SSA premises, the use of CLT is expected to increase productivity by more than 30% and save around 130 man days. A zero-energy building, the SSA will incorporate 3,230 ft2 of photovoltaic panels, and monitors will be installed to track real-time energy generation and consumption. The Made-inSingapore solar panels from REC are expected to generate over 60,000 kilowatt hours (kWh) of energy annually. This is more than the SSA’s estimated annual energy consumption of about 50,000 kWh. There will also be an automation control and energy monitoring system that adapts lighting and air-conditioning to situations, providing maximum energy savings while maintaining full comfort. CDL, together with SEAS, has galvanised 11 like-minded partners, who are leaders in their own fields of expertise, to jointly develop the SSA.

The SSA premises will be the first in Singapore to have Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) and Glued Laminated Timber (Glulam), materials to be used for its construction, verified by the Nature’s Barcode system, as coming from responsible sources.

CITY DEVELOPMENTS LIMITED City Developments Limited (CDL) is a Singapore-listed international real estate operating company with a global presence spanning 94 locations in 26 countries. As one of Singapore's largest companies by market capitalisation, its income-stable and geographically-diversified portfolio comprises residences, offices, hotels, serviced apartments, integrated developments and shopping malls, totalling over 18 million ft2 of floor area globally. Having established its ethos of ‘Conserving as we Construct’ in 1995, CDL has been leading the industry with green building innovation from first-of-its-kind sustainable developments that inspire eco-friendly lifestyles, to industry-changing methods that promote recycling, reduce waste and raise productivity. CDL’s sustainability efforts have gained international recognition. The SSA is CDL’s third major 3P initiative. In 2013, the CDL Green Gallery @ Singapore Botanic Gardens Heritage Museum, Singapore’s first purpose-built, zero energy, green gallery, was opened. Created through a partnership between CDL and National Parks Board, the green gallery is a community space for the public to learn about the environment and

the heritage of Singapore’s gardens. My Tree House, created by CDL and National Library Board, and said to be the world’s first green library for children, also opened in 2013. Located within Singapore’s Central Public Library, My Tree House has an ecocentric collection, as well as interactive green features and programmes, to encourage children to learn about and care for the environment. SUSTAINABLE ENERGY ASSOCIATION OF SINGAPORE Sustainable Energy Association of Singapore (SEAS) represents the interests of, and provides a common platform for, companies involved in renewable energy and energy efficiency as well as financial institutions, to meet, discuss, collaborate and undertake viable projects together. The association is a non-profit, nongovernment business association, and its mission is to assist its members in achieving sustainable growth locally and regionally through business development, market development as well as training and learning platforms. SEAS plays a strategic role in aiding the realisation of Singapore’s vision to be a global centre for sustainable energy, where products and solutions are developed and exported.




Services / systems to be provided

Building System & Diagnostics Pte Ltd

Energy and environmentally sustainable design consultancy services

Langdon & Seah Singapore Pte Ltd

Quantity surveying consultancy services

Meinhardt Singapore Pte Ltd

Civil and structural consultancy services

Mitsubishi Electric Asia Pte Ltd

Air-conditioning systems

ONG&ONG Pte Limited

Architectural consultancy services

Rankine&Hill Pte Ltd

Mechanical and electrical consultancy services


Rooftop solar system and ground-mounted demonstration sets

Schneider Electric Singapore Pte Ltd

Automation control and energy monitoring systems

Venturer Pte Ltd

Specialist contracting services for engineered wood structures

VMW Group - Visualmediaworks

Architectural visualisation

Woh Hup (Private) Limited

Main contracting services

Building System & Diagnostics Pte Ltd Building System & Diagnostics Pte Ltd (BSD) started as a spin-off company of the National University of Singapore, pioneering the use of high performance building simulation tools to optimise building design. Since then, it has evolved into an independent building consultancy firm that provides specialised advisory services in the fields of sustainable built environment, from design, construction, operation and maintenance, to upgrading, in order to enhance the energy and environmental performance of the development. BSD’s quest to innovate and create has allowed the company to add value to more than 300 projects for which it has provided advisory services, both locally and internationally. BSD also collaborates with government agencies, tertiary institutions and major industry players on research and application projects. Todate, it has successfully completed more than 10 such projects that are focused on energy efficiency, human


comfort conditions and the urban heat island effect. BSD has offices in Singapore, Malaysia and China (Beijing and Chengdu). Langdon & Seah Singapore Pte Ltd Langdon & Seah Singapore Pte Ltd, an Arcadis Company, is an established quantity surveying practice with a strong background as well as a variety of specialist skills acquired from more than 80 years of experience. It is well placed to provide expert financial, contract and project management services, in traditional contracting and in design-and-build, develop-and-construct as well as various hybrid custom-made procurement arrangements for construction projects. Langdon & Seah leverages knowledge, skills, and experience from its international markets, into the local environments where it operates. Meinhardt Singapore Pte Ltd Meinhardt Group International is the largest global engineering company owned and headquartered in Singa-


pore. Employing over 4,300 staff in 45 offices worldwide, the company has worked on some of the largest and most complex building and infrastructure projects. Taking into consideration the commercial objectives of clients as well as global environmental concerns, Meinhardt offers innovative and sustainable solutions. Mitsubishi Electric Asia Pte Ltd A subsidiary of Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Mitsubishi Electric Asia has been providing reliable, highquality products to homes, businesses and industries in the Asia Pacific region, since 1977. With over 90 years of experience, Mitsubishi Electric is a recognised world leader in the manufacture, marketing and sales of electrical and electronic equipment used in information processing and communications, space development and satellite communications, consumer electronics, industrial technology, energy, transportation and building equipment.

COVER STORY ONG&ONG Pte Limited With a track record of more than four decades in the industry, ONG&ONG has earned a reputation for integrating skilled architecture, clever interior design, and creative landscape design. Its success lies in the high level of creativity, excellence, and commitment provided to clients. Currently operating in 13 cities, ONG&ONG is managing projects in over 20 cities spread over three continents. Par tnering with clients, ONG&ONG now offers a complete 360º Solution - i.e. a parcelled cross-discipline integrated solution, encompassing all aspects of the construction business. Rankine&Hill Pte Ltd Rankine&Hill’s space-saving and environmentally sensitive designs are installed in business establishments, institutional complexes, residential developments, places of worship and in infrastructural projects throughout Asia. With a greater emphasis on life safety, performance-based fire safety engineering analyses provide unique solutions for the complex buildings of today. Rankine&Hill is now able to provide consultancy expertise in this vital area. REC A Bluestar Elkem company, with headquarters in Norway and operational headquarters in Singapore, REC, which was founded in 1996, is a leading international producer of solar panels. Through integrated manufacturing of the panels, from polysilicon to wafers, cells and panels, and the provision of turnkey solar solutions, REC strives to help meet the world’s growing energy needs. REC concluded 2015 with 2,000 employees worldwide and a 1.3 GW solar panel production capacity. Schneider Electric Singapore Pte Ltd Schneider Electric is a global specialist in energy management and automation. The company’s more than

160,000 employees serve customers in over 100 countries, helping them to manage their energy and processes in ways that are safe, reliable, efficient and sustainable.The company's products, software and services, from the simplest of switches to complex operational systems, improve the way customers manage and automate their operations, to reshape industries, transform cities and enrich lives. Venturer Pte Ltd Headquartered in Singapore, Venturer has been serving customer requirements in timber, since 1995. It specialises in design, supply and installation of timber-hybrid and prefabricated structural systems.Venturer operates in Southeast Asia, the Maldives, India, UAE and Europe, and is expanding steadily into new markets. Its regional contracting activities extend from resorts and bridges to commercial structures and residential projects. It is equipped to interpret customers’ needs to achieve attractive, practical, and economic solutions using cuttingedge construction methodologies whilst remaining sensitive to environmental issues and influences. VMW Group - Visualmediaworks VMW Group is a collective of creative entities comprising Visualmediaworks (VMW), Attic Films, Obilia and Blanct. With the core of its enterprises gravi-

tating towards architectural visualisation, the group’s expertise has expanded to include visual consultancy, 3D rendering, video production, branding and interactive design, thereby providing a one-stop service in customised real estate visual marketing. VMW is a pioneer in popularising computerised architectural rendering, animation and virtual content in Southeast Asia. Whilst remaining at the forefront of architectural visualisation, the group continues to embrace and explore the applications of new technologies. Woh Hup (Private) Limited Established in 1927, Woh Hup is Singapore’s largest privately owned construction and civil engineering specialist, with a dedicated 1,000-strong workforce and a body of work spanning many of Singapore’s most notable and iconic developments. In its efforts to continuously improve, Woh Hup introduces innovative building solutions and broadens its skills through strategic joint-venture partnerships with overseas counterparts. This has seen the company emerge in recent years, from being a principal player in the building of private residential and commercial developments, to becoming a leader in largescale civil engineering works, cementing its position at the forefront of the construction industry, locally and regionally.

The SSA will be housed in a zero-energy building that features an extensive solar installation as well as monitors to track real-time energy generation and consumption.




Singapore Zoo to test evaporative cooler Mandai Park Holdings (MPH) and Innosparks, a subsidiary of ST Engineering, recently installed four trial units of Airbitat Smart Coolers at the Singapore Zoo. They are placed at the ticketing area near the entrance, so that visitors to the zoo will be assured of thermal comfort, with the temperature reduced to as low as 24° C even when ambient temperatures across the country reaches as high as 35° C. Humid conditions often limit the effectiveness of conventional coolers, such that there is no tangible cooling. According to Innosparks, Airbitat is the only outdoor cooler in the world that cools comfortably in challenging hot and humid tropical climates, like that of Singapore. MPH is driving the rejuvenation of Mandai into an integrated nature and wildlife destination. The organisation also oversees the business and strategic development of Wildlife Reserves Singapore, the operator of Singapore’s award-winning Jurong Bird Park, Night Safari, River Safari and Singapore Zoo. Finding that Singapore’s outdoor heat and humidity can discourage guests from extending the duration of their visits to its four wildlife parks, MPH seeks to address this issue in a sustainable and energy-efficient manner. Accordingly, it is supporting the trial of the eco-friendly and energy smart Airbitat Smart Coolers at the Singapore Zoo, with the intention of installing them at all the four wildlife parks, in the near future. The Airbitat Smart Cooler took about 18 months to develop, from concept to production.

TECHNICAL FEATURES DEEP COOLING The Airbitat Smart Cooler delivers cool air from 24º C at its source. COMPACTNESS The cooler is 40% smaller than typical coolers of a similar capacity.


Four trial units of Airbitat Smart Coolers have been placed in the ticketing area, near the entrance to the Singapore Zoo.

SUPERCHARGED COOLING CYCLE The cooler is built around a ‘cold water core’ that allows it to continually produce chilled water to supercharge the cooling cycle. The chilled water flows through an ultra-efficient heat exchanger which rapidly cools ambient air streams. These air streams are then passed through a high performance evaporative cooling medium, to emerge as super cooled air streams. MAXIMUM COOLING The range of components used in the Airbitat Smart Cooler, as well as its internal configuration and engineering layout are all designed to maximise the cooling generated. Specifically, the cooler incorporates an unconventional framework of nozzles, designed to increase the throw, by up to 10 m, whilst precisely embedded louvres behind the nozzles direct air flow as it exits - widening the coverage. ENERGY EFFICIENCY The Airbitat Smart Cooler’s innovative two-stage cooling technology is said to generate energy savings of up to 80% when compared to an average airconditioner of an equivalent capacity.


SMART ENGINEERING At the core of its smart technology is an intelligent operating system which detects ambient environment conditions and adjusts its modes of cooling to always deliver energyefficient cooling. A smart monitoring feature facilitates easy operation and maintenance. Smart cooling The Airbitat Smart Cooler operates in Eco Mode and Boost Mode, and uses intelligent sensors to deliver the right mode of cooling as ambient conditions change. Smart dashboard A quick snapshot of the Airbitat Smart Cooler’s performance can be obtained from its output temperature, energy efficiency, power consumption and other parameters, all at the tap of an iOS or Androidenabled smart phone (applicable to selected models). Smart maintenance The Smart Maintenance module is critical to reducing operation downtime. It allows for precise monitoring and sends out prompts for early maintenance (applicable to selected models).





Volatile grid requirements and answers for flexible and dynamic operation of coal-fired power plants up to 1,000 MW by Thomas Achter, Wolfgang Wiesenmüller and Michael Wechsung, Siemens AG, Germany The amount of volatile renewable energy, such as wind and solar power is increasing. Therefore, large conventional power plants have to compensate these grid fluctuations. We can already observe these changes in some parts of the world. On the one hand, the load change rate and the number of load changes and starts will increase. On the other hand, the number of full load operation hours will decrease. That implies that the power plants will be operated in part load for a longer period of time than today. State-of-the-art coal-fired power plants are mainly designed to operate with optimised efficiency at base load. There are many possibilities to enhance power plants to handle these challenges. Some of these measures need close cooperation between turbine, boiler and balance of plant supplier, in an early phase of large steam power plant projects. Siemens provides an overview of measures that will ensure the requirements of primary/secondary frequency control, increased efficiency in part load operation and fast start-up times are realised in the most beneficial way.


The typical operating modes of thermal power plants are undergoing changes, both as a result of the liberalisation of the power generation markets, but also especially as a result of the increasing percentage of renewables in electric power generation (Figure 1). In some parts of the world, these changes affect the conventional power plant operation mode significantly. To push the expansion of renewable power generation, the technology and production, have been adapted to allow for mass production. For this reason, renewable power generation is not only financially subsidied, but also promoted as 'must feed-in

to the electric power grid', through administrative stipulations. Thereby, the installed renewable power generation capacity increases by fluctuating sources of renewable energy. As a result, renewable power generation queries the classical fractions. The former base load, intermediate load and peak load, more and more split into renewable power generation and residual load. Minimising carbon footprint by maximising renewable power generation is the future trend, whilst residual load will be minimised by reasonable grid stability. The future trend comes along with expanding the grid, increasing power storage capacity, participation of renewable power generation in grid control and

residual load generation by thermal power plants. But residual load generation by thermal power plants means that thermal power plants will stand in for fluctuating renewable power generation. The main challenges are the fast start-ups, fast load change rates as well as efficient low load operation and high demand of primary frequency response. This article introduces various measures for coal-fired power plants, that serve the afore-mentioned circumstances. Furthermore, it displays what support Siemens can provide in combining various measures to help customers to optimise their plants for their specific requirements, in a more and more volatile power market.


Figure 1: Future change in load demand of fossil fired power plants [1]



Swallowing capacity is defined as the steam flow rate which can be processed by the steam turbine at specific inlet steam parameters - pressure and temperature. The blading itself has a constant swallowing capacity. As a first approximation, at constant tempera-

POWER GENERATION ture, the mass flow rate which can flow through it is proportional to the inlet pressure. One possibility to enable fast load changes is to raise the swallowing capacity. At nearly constant pressure, this increases the mass flow that is proportional to the turbine output. The load increase can be realised by using energy that is accumulated in the boiler. To increase the swallowing capacity, there are various measures possible. REMOVE THROTTLING OF MAIN STEAM CONTROL VALVES The most common method is to throttle the main steam control valves. The main steam control valves are throttled to the extent of the demanded primary frequency response duty. Normally, main steam valve throttling is used up to a 3% instantaneous load increase requirement. The advantage of this method is that there is no additional hardware required, since the control valves are used for throttling. The negative impact is the significant heat rate increase during operation in the primary frequency control mode. OPENING OF LAST MAIN STEAM VALVE Another method to increase the swallowing capacity is to open another main steam valve. Due to different construction principles, there are two main possibilities. One pos-

sibility is to use the last valve of the impulse turbines, that releases the steam to the last segment of the Cur tis wheel. Another possibility is to use the third main steam valve that might be used in reaction type turbines to bypass the few first stages of the HP-blading. Opening of last valve of impulse turbines Generally, the design of impulse turbines is categorised by a certain number of valves that are assigned to a certain segment of a circle in the first stage of the impulse blading (Figure 2). The order of opening the individual valves is sequential. The rated load is achieved when all valves, but one, are fully open and rated pressure and temperature are reached. The last valve is used to accomplish the valves’ wide open load point and is used for primary frequency response. The amount of additional swallowing capacity is regarded in design

by the size of the last segment. The advantage of this method is that the amount of additional output can be designed over a relatively wide range. On the negative side, we see the fact that the first row must be designed to be very robust. It has to withstand the shocks that each blade has to suffer during operation in areas of flow and calm areas of the nozzle group. Therefore, the potential of efficiency optimisation is limited. Opening of last valve of reaction turbines The design of reaction turbines is categorised by a certain number of control valves that are directly connected to the ring chamber, prior to the first stage of the HP-turbine. This first stage experiences a full arc admission. The order of opening of individual valves is that all valves, but one, open in parallel until they are fully open. In this situation, at full pressure and temperature, the rated

Figure 2: Principle of impulse turbine for maximum steam turbine output

Figure 3: HP turbine with additional main steam valve (the former so called ‘Over Load Valve’ or ‘HP stage bypass’ is now regarded as additional main steam valve, by Siemens).



POWER GENERATION output is reached. The last valve leads steam to a position in the HP blading a few stages downstream of the first stage. It is used to accomplish the valves’ wide open load point and is used for primary frequency response. The amount of additional swallowing capacity is regarded in the design of the last HP valve. The advantage of this method is that the amount of additional output can be designed over a relatively wide range. The turbine operates without throttling losses, while being able to provide reserve power at any load point. Due to the full arc admission, the stress to the blading of the first row is comparably low. The focus in designing these rows can be more targeted to optimised efficiency than to robustness, meeting the same design live-time targets.


Condensate throttling is a proven measure to enable fast increase of turbine power in case of high grid frequency decrease. In this case, the main condensate control valve is throttled to a calculated position, allowing a reduced condensate mass flow flowing through the LP feed water heaters. Considering a certain response time, the extraction steam mass flows of the LP feed water heaters and the deaerator/feed water tank are reduced. The surplus steam remains in the turbine and generates additional power. A principle system sketch of the related components is shown in Figure 4. This condensate throttling compensates the transient time behaviour of the boiler. The accumulated condensate is stored in the condenser hotwell or in a separate condensate collecting tank. Parallel to the above-mentioned measures, the firing rate of the boiler has to be increased to meet the load requirements.The feeding of the boiler is continued and increased. Thus the level of the feed water storage tank is decreased accordingly. During this time, the condensate flow reduction is gradually released and it reaches steady state conditions again. Refilling of the feed water stor26

Figure 4: Principle sketch of condensate throttling

age tank is initiated by releasing the condensate control valve to control the level of the hotwell or condensate collecting tank. The maximum allowable condensate mass flow is monitored and the refill flow is limited to a maximum value. Due to the increased condensate flow through the LP feed water heaters and into the deaerator, the steam extraction from the affected turbine extractions is increased. The generator output decreases correspondingly. To compensate this influence, the boilerfiring rate is increased. However, the maximum allowable superheater outlet flow is limited to 100 % BMCR (Boiler Maximum Continuous Rating). The strategic effect of this method is to utilise the stored energy of the preheated feed water stored in a feed water storage tank. One benefit is that heat rate is not increased during normal plant operation. Furthermore, no additional life-time consumption is caused by usage of condensate throttling. Additional investment for extra buffer volumes and fast-acting control valves is required. RESPONSE TIME The response time of condensate throttling depends on the time required for reduction of condensate mass flow. Therefore, normally, a fastacting main condensate control valve is used. By means of additional fast-acting valves in the extraction steam lines, the response time behaviour can be optimised.


CAPACITY The resulting turbine power increase depends on the amount of throttling of the main condensate control valve and the actual unit load. The higher the unit load, the higher is the amount of additional turbine power which can be generated by condensate throttling. DURATION The duration of the condensate throttling operation depends on the amount of buffer volumes provided for condensate and feed water. The slower the boiler increases the load, the larger the buffer volumes have to be.


Another method to increase the swallowing capacity of the steam turbine is to open an already existing bypass from main steam to the cold reheat steam line (Figure 5). For steam power plants with cascading bypass system, an HP-bypass-station is usually provided within the boiler scope. It comprises a valve and a spray attemperator and is usually only used for bypass operation. Nevertheless, fast opening of this aggregate during load operation results in a transient mass flow and thus results in power increase since energy stored in the boiler is unloaded. The reduction of the HP-turbine power and the losses in the HP bypass station are temporarily more than compensated by the increase of power at the IP- and LP-turbine.

POWER GENERATION Compared to the ‘opening of the last valve’, this option shows higher throttling losses during activation but no additional aggregates or pipes are required. If frequently used for peak load or for primary frequency control, the HPbypass-station has to be designed according to these requirements.


Additionally or isolated from other methods, one can use HP and RH spray water coolers for a sudden intermediate increase of the steam turbine power output. This method is, contrary to throttling of the main steam control valve, not limited to reduced load points, but is also efficient at base load. This measure can be implemented very easily without additional hardware investment. However, in this measure, one has to consider certain limits on spray water flow, in order not to reach saturation conditions and to prevent too high temperature transients. In case the method is used very frequently, one has to pay attention to additional strain of HP headers and manifolds in the water-steam-cycle as well as to the steam turbine due to fluctuating HP and RH steam temperatures.


There are different types of HP feed water heater operations which can be used for provision of additional turbine output.

Figure 5: Schematic of HP bypass

PARTIAL BYPASS OF HP FEED WATER HEATERS A planned increase in turbine power can be achieved by flexible setting of the preheat temperature according to demand, by means of mixing partial flows of feed water. To do this, the feed water is divided into a first partial flow being preheated and a second partial flow which is routed in a bypass line to the HP feed water heaters and is then re-mixed with the preheated first partial flow (Figure 6). The remaining feed water still flowing through the preheating line, keeps the HP feed water heaters warm and thus prevents unwanted thermal stress. Switching over from normal to maximum overload operation is done slowly in respect of the allowable temperature gradient of the HP feed water heaters. Thereby, the HP feed water heater design, U-type or header type or solutions with two parallel HP feed water heater lines, influence the switch over capability. By preheating only a partial flow, a smaller amount of heat is required compared with preheating the complete feed water. Thus, process heat in the form of a higher steam mass flow through the turbine is available to increase the turbine power as required, up to the boiler reserve of the steam power plant. In doing so, the main steam mass flow is slightly reduced and plant efficiency decreases. Siemens successfully installed this feature in the coal-fired Kogan Creek Power Station in Australia.

Figure 6: Schematic of controlled partial (red) and full (blue) HP feed water heater bypasses

FULL BYPASS OF HP FEED WATER HEATERS A fast increase of turbine power can be achieved by using the usually provided full bypass around the HP feed water heaters. It bypasses all feed water mass flow around the heaters (Figure 6). While the steam mass flow through the extraction of the steam turbine to the HP feed water heater is terminated, the economiser feed water inlet temperature is significantly decreased.The surplus steam remains in the turbine and generates additional power. The resulting turbine power increase depends only on the actual unit load and cannot be controlled. The advantage is that no additional hardware is required. It has to be taken into account that this measure causes a significant life-time consumption of the components, in particular the HP feed water heaters and the boiler economiser. Therefore, this measure should only be used a few times during the lifetime of the plant. REDUCTION OF HP FEED WATER HEATER EXTRACTION STEAM FLOWS In order to limit unallowable (life-time consuming) stress in the components, steam flows of the extractions can be partially reduced, instead of bypassing the preheaters on the feed water side. The criteria are the maximum allowable reduction of feed water temperature upstream of the economiser and the selection of temperature transients for the HP feed water heaters. This can be realised by using control valves provided for the extraction



POWER GENERATION an extraordinary high frequency decrease. Therefore, the measures with no impact on life-time consumptions should be activated first, with the measures with higher impact on lifetime consumption activated last.


Figure 7: HP extraction control valves

lines or by closing HP heater extractions step-wise, starting with the last HP heater stage. In comparison to HP feed water heater bypass operation, this measure limits life-time consumption of the components, depending on the amount of extraction steam flow reduction.


The selection of measures, which are the most beneficial for the individual project needs, depends on a few key parameters. AMOUNT OF LOAD INCREASE The amount of increased power output is the key information and decides whether one measure is sufficient or a combination of various measures should be considered. So it would be sufficient for a 2% primary frequency response to operate with slightly throttled main steam valves. Whereas, a 10% load jump would need a combination of several afore-mentioned measures. NUMBER OF LOAD CHANGES DURING LIFE TIME The number of expected load changes has an impact on what measures should be selected. If a rapid load change has to be conducted only a few times during the life-time, eg a 100% HP feed water heater bypass operation might be the right selection. If rapid load changes are expected to occur frequently, less life-time consuming measures should be selected.


REQUIRED LOAD TRANSIENTS The required load transients (i.e. load change rates) are normally defined in the grid code but also grid-specific circumstances have an influence on what measures should be selected or combined. For a scenario, where a noon peak occurs frequently, low load transients are feasible. In this case, a partial bypass of the HP feed water heaters is a good solution. For high load transients, main steam valves, in combination with condensate throttling including fast acting valves in the steam extractions, are a proper solution.

FREQUENCY RESPONSE CONCEPT COMBINING DIFFERENT MEASURES In order to fulfil challenging requirements, with regard to frequency response, it is necessary to combine several measures for fast load increase. The selection of measures has to consider project-specific boundary conditions like stability of grid, local grid code requirements, plant specification and plant configuration. The different measures are activated in a staggered way, depending on the amount of frequency deviation. The outcome is superimposed. The higher the frequency decrease, the more measures that are used in parallel to achieve the required increase of turbine output. Thus, the last measures are only activated in the very rare case of


There are many technical solutions to adapt coal-fired power plants to the upcoming volatile grid requirements. To get optimised economical results based on the project-specific requirements, it is necessary to have early and close cooperation with the boiler, balance of plant and steam turbine generator suppliers. None of them alone can provide a comprehensive optimised solution. Based on its turnkey experience, Siemens offers support to find the best combination of measures for specific needs.


Spliethoff Prof Dr H, 2011: ‘Advanced Power Plants - Coal Fired Steam Power Plant’, ICEPE 2011, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. (This article is based on a paper authored by Thomas Achter, Wolfgang Wiesenmüller and Michael Wechsung, Siemens AG, Germany, and presented at POWER-GEN Asia 2015. POWER-GEN Asia 2015, Renewable Energy World Asia 2015, and POWERGEN Asia Financial Forum 2015 were held at the IMPACT Exhibition & Convention Center, Bangkok, Thailand, from 1 to 3 September 2015, as part of the ASEAN Power Week 2015. POWER-GEN Asia is the region’s premier conference and exhibition for the power generation, transmission and distribution industries. Renewable Energy World Asia is a leading conference and exhibition for the Asian renewable and alternative energy industry. POWER-GEN Asia Financial Forum is a conference devoted to all aspects of financing of all types of power infrastructure in the ASEAN region. ASEAN Power Week is organised by PennWell Corporation).




Electric flight takes off by Ulrich Kreutzer Hybrid-electric propulsion has become a reality for aircraft.

The maiden flight of the Extra 330LE aerobatic plane marked a milestone in aviation history. It was the first time an electric airplane took off with one fourth of a MW of output.

Siemens researchers have developed a new type of electric motor that, with a weight of just 50 kg, delivers a continuous output of about 260 KW - five times more than comparable drive systems. This record-setting propulsion system successfully completed its first public flight on 4 July 2016, at Schwarze Heide Airport near Dinslaken, Germany, where it, almost silently, powered an Extra 330LE aerobatic airplane. This advance means that hybridelectric aircraft with four or more seats will now be possible. In addition, the company will be contributing this technology to the cooperative project that Siemens and Airbus agreed to, in April 2016, for driving the development of electrically powered flight. Electric drives are scalable, and Siemens and Airbus will be using the record-setting motor as a basis for developing regional airliners powered by hybrid-electric propulsion systems.


Siemens is determined to establish hybrid-electric propulsion systems for aircraft as a future area of business. “This first flight is a milestone in the history of electric aviation drives”, says Frank Anton from Corporate Technology (CT), Siemens’ central research and development department. Anton and his team got the first electric airplane, with an output of one fourth of a MW, airborne, and they did so in accordance with the flight conditions of the European Aviation Safety Agency and a permit-to-flight from Germany’s Federal Aviation Office. Milestone in aviation history The plane first lifted off on 24 June 2016, from an airfield in north-central Germany near the town of Hünxe, and landed safely after 10 minutes of flight. Since then, it has undergone several test flights, meaning that Siemens now has an air-worthy electric motor in the medium-power class.


The project is also very special for Extra, the aircraft builder. “We are proud that one of our aerobatic aircraft has flown for the first time on an electric motor”, said Walter Extra, Founder and Managing Director of the company. Aerobatic aircraft: ideal for testing electric motors Why is Siemens interested in an aerobatic aircraft? This kind of aircraft is especially well suited for testing electric drive systems. That is because it is robust enough to take the power train to its limits in flight, by making sharp accelerations on all three axes. In coming years, the plane will be ideal for analysing and refining how its components work together. The aircraft features the SP260D electric motor and an inverter from Siemens, plus battery blocks from Pipistrel, a Slovenian company. The propeller was made by MT Propeller, a Bavarian company. Siemens

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING developed the SP260D motor in cooperation with its partner, Grob Aircraft. The project was subsidised by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, as part of the German Aviation Research Program. In order for these drive components to be installed, the aircraft had to meet several conditions. “One condition was that it must be a very robust machine in the category of fully certified aircraft that can carry as much weight as possible”, Anton explained. The solution was a production aircraft equipped with a tubular lattice frame designed to make it easier to install components and modify them at any time. Powerful enough for regional flights? Extra Aircraft is not the only partner Siemens is working with, in its quest to electrify aviation. It is collaborating with other medium-sized manufacturers on pilot projects to raise awareness of the practical benefits of electrical drive systems. In April 2016, for example, a two-seater training aircraft called the Magnus eFusion successfully made its maiden flight. The plane will be used to explore how battery systems can be adapted to serve the needs of electric aviation. In addition, Siemens and Airbus are pursuing a much larger-scale cooperation project: The two companies want to prove the technical feasibility of hybrid-electric drive systems for regional flights for up to 100 passengers by 2020 - a development that will require power classes as high as 10 MW. Why the environment needs electric drives “We are convinced that electric drives will become irreplaceable in aviation”, says Anton. Driving his optimism is the fact that the European Commission wants to lower total CO2 emissions in aviation by up to 75%, by 2050. The only way to achieve this, in the face of steadily increasing air traffic volume, is through

Shortly before the plane’s maiden flight, Siemens’ eAircraft ProjectMmanager ran a final check of its propulsion system.

The Extra 330LE's maiden flight was the first-ever flight of a category CS23 Permit-to-Fly electric plane.

the implementation of new technologies. The solution is the electrification of aviation. “Hybrid-electric drive systems drive propellers or ducted fans electrically and generate power with gas turbines that can be optimised for constant travel performance”, explains Anton. Additional battery power can be used for ascent. This concept separates energy conversion from thrust generation, which yields new possibilities for aircraft development because the central energy conversion system and the distributed electrical thrust generation system can be optimised individually. The savings potential of such systems is enormous. Siemens experts expect that it will be possible to reduce fuel consumption and pollutant emissions by up to 50%. Furthermore, electric aircraft are

much quieter than conventional aircraft. This will benefit not only those who live near airports but also flight operators, because quiet drive systems may make it possible to offer evening and night flights that are now banned for noise reasons. This could significantly increase aircraft capacity utilisation and therefore the profitability of business models. The Siemens experts want to continuously improve the power density, efficiency and reliability of their components. But their motivation goes beyond just optimisation. They always visualise the maiden flight of their drive system on the horizon. German aviation pioneer Otto Lilienthal described this aspiration as follows: “It means little to invent an aircraft, more to build one, but flying one means everything”.




MEDICAL FAIR ASIA 2016 registers strong response MEDICAL FAIR ASIA 2016, the 11th International Exhibition on Hospital, Diagnostic, Pharmaceutical, Medical & Rehabilitation Equipment & Supplies, was held at the Sands Expo and Convention Centre, Marina Bay Sands, Singapore, from 31 August to 2 September 2016. The exhibition, which was 30% larger than the previous edition in 2014, presented the products and solutions from 830 international companies from 40 countries. MEDICAL FAIR ASIA 2016 featured international brand names such as Perry Baromedical, Swann-Morton, and Hitachi, and 17 national pavilions and country groups. Local companies like RAS Pharma and Yeap Medical Supplies were also strongly represented at the exhibition. Visitor numbers also increased this year to 12,000, with 40% of visitors coming from abroad. The overseas visitors came from all over Southeast Asia as well as from India, Japan, South Korea, China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Australia. Over the three days, the organisers also facilitated 1,100 prescheduled meetings via the synergistic business matching service, with many formal business deals coming to fruition during the exhibition. Considered as an international marketplace for the healthcare and medical sector, MEDICAL FAIR ASIA 2016 hosted returning national pavilions and country groups from North America, Europe and Asia, whilst also welcoming two new first-time national pavilion participants - Turkey and Saudi Arabia. Recent editions of MEDICAL FAIR ASIA have seen growing interest shown by exhibitors from North America and the Middle East, due to the attractive growth in Southeast Asia. The co-location of MEDICAL FAIR ASIA with MEDICAL MANUFACTURING ASIA, the region’s

leading event for the manufacturing processes for the medtech sector, provided a strong platform for interaction among key decision-makers in the medical and healthcare sectors. Making their debut alongside theexhibition were a series of expert conferences and seminars, technical presentations and product demonstrations, that represented a significant milestone for MEDICAL FAIR ASIA as they were all well-attended. The inaugural staging of the MEDICAL FAIR ASIA MEDICINE + SPORTS CONFERENCE, Disaster and Military Medicine (DiMiMED) Asia Conference and the Medical Innovation and Technology Forum, saw 300 attendees from 24 countries take part across 11 sessions. Delegates were able to assess recent develop-

ments in various disciplines, from preventive and rehabilitative medicine as well as the latest generation sports equipment, to vector-borne diseases and issues related to natural disasters as well as healthcare wearables and telemedicine solutions. Mr Gernot Ringling, Managing Director of Messe Düsseldorf Asia, organiser of MEDICAL FAIR ASIA, said, “We are very happy with the results and feedback from the 11th edition of MEDICAL FAIR ASIA and the well-attended series of conferences and concurrent events. Many of our stakeholders have reported doing real business at MEDICAL FAIR ASIA 2016, which bodes well for developing business opportunities”. The next edition of MEDICAL FAIR ASIA will be held in 2018.

MEDICAL FAIR ASIA 2016 attracted 830 exhibiting companies from 40 countries as well as 12,000 visitors.




GE Healthcare launches digital molecular imaging systems GE Healthcare showcased new molecular imaging technologies at the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 2016, that will enable clinicians to deliver personalised, quantitative results to patients. The Discovery MI system and Discovery NM/CT 670 CZT will help clinicians guide treatment, support patients with sensitive care and create an environment for compelling research. Both systems feature groundbreaking digital detectors that represent the next generation of molecular imaging systems. Xeleris 4.0 is the new nuclear medicine workstation supporting Discovery NM/CT 670 CZT and other nuclear medicine systems. Its quantitative applications help clinicians achieve greater confidence in customisable, easy-toread reports across multiple care areas. Discovery MI was created to help clinicians continue efforts to diagnose and stage disease earlier and better guide treatment strategies while also enabling more compelling research with more novel, faster decaying tracers. Discovery MI is said to be the industry’s only PET/CT system that brings together the sensitivity of digital detection, with the most innovative reconstruction technology available - the combination of Time-of-Flight (TOF) and Q.Clear. The result is outstanding resolution to improve the detection of small lesions. This system will enable clinicians to conduct more compelling research, such as quantitative brain studies, facilitated by an expanded field-of-view (FOV). Discovery MI may also expand clinicians’ diagnostic service offerings by enhancing their clinical excellence in oncology or by pushing the boundaries of PET in neurology, cardiology and beyond. These expanded capabilities are enabled by the ability to increase lowyield tracer capability with protocols that reduce dosage by up to 50%. This

will allow clinicians to pursue groundbreaking research without impacting image quality. Discovery MI’s new LightBurst Digital Detector represents the next-generation for GE Healthcare’s vision for a digital future for PET. With this new detector, the system delivers up to two times improvement in volumetric resolution, enabling small lesion detectability and is said to have the highest NEMA sensitivity of any TOF/PET system in the industry. This system also features the latest diagnostic CT innovations. Discovery NM/CT 670 CZT was engineered to deliver improvements in lesion detection, image quality and patient comfort, and combined with advanced quantitative applications provided through Xeleris 4.0, it can help clinicians better diagnose and monitor diseases earlier. The new SPECT/CT is said to be the world’s first general purpose SPECT/CT imaging system with a new digital detector powered by cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) technology. This enables direct conversion of photons into a digital signal that eliminates the signal loss and noise inherent in conventional SPECT/CT detection technology, therefore making the technology more efficient. Until now,

CZT technology has been limited to organ-dedicated devices, whereas Discovery NM/CT 670 CZT is the first to allow doctors to perform examinations on every organ, including whole-body examinations. This system is intended to help improve the clinicians’ confidence and patient experience. The combined capabilities will allow clinicians to detect smaller lesions and quantify them more accurately, due to the increased spatial and contrast resolution. This may have a significant role in assessing and monitoring responses to therapies. Having the ability to complete multiple scans in a single visit and reduce the injected dose or the scan time by 50%, will improve patient experience. Optimising the duration of the examinations or the injected dose represents not only an improvement for the patient experience, but also could provide economic and clinical benefits. Also, with GE’s new Discovery NM/ CT 670 CZT, clinicians will be able to simultaneously visualise and analyse multiple physiological processes in a patient, gaining insights into multiple dimensions of the patient’s anatomy and physiology at the same time.

Discovery NM/CT 670 CZT delivers improvements in lesion detection, image quality and patient comfort, and combined with advanced quantitative applications provided through Xeleris 4.0, it can help clinicians better diagnose and monitor diseases earlier.




PSB Academy defines the future of learning with new city campus PSB Academy’s new city campus in Marina Square marks a milestone in the academy’s mission of grooming industry-ready graduates for the future economies of Singapore and beyond. Drawing much inspiration from Singapore’s identity as an innovation hub and a garden city, and occupying more than 100,000 ft2 across two floors, PSB Academy’s centrally located new city campus will incorporate a blend of advanced technology features in a refreshingly lush and open environment with natural plants and lighting. The academy’s new campus will host diploma, degree and postgraduate programmes for esteemed university partners such as the University of Newcastle, Australia, the University of Wollongong, the University of Hull, the University of Nottingham, among others. Oasis of learning Students can look forward to spaces that are designed and engineered for both learning and leisure, in spite of the constraints of a city campus. There are plans for dynamic lighting that will automatically adjust to suit the time of day, to simulate an outdoor campus experience, indoors. More breakout areas have also been planned, which provide students ample spaces for discussions in-between classes or for self-study. The new, fully Wi-Fi-enabled campus will provide students and staff with a glass-housed radio and television studio, a town hall, a student hub, classroom configurations which allow for better collaborative learning, acoustically-treated executive rooms for Master’s programmes, that will not require microphones for voice amplification and auditoriums that can seat more than 300 people, amongst other features. Designs for these new facilities are centred on the theme of mak-


At the ground-breaking ceremony held on 14 July 2016 to mark the start of construction of PSB Academy’s new city campus at Marina Square are, from left, the academy’s Acting CEO, Derrick Chang; Executive Chairman, Viva Sinniah; and Dean and Senior Vice President, Eur. Ing. João Paulo Ponciano.

The auditoriums can seat more than 300 people.

ing ‘learning an adventure’, one that would encourage curiosity and exploration as part of the students’ educational journey at PSB Academy. These are expressed through design features inspired by natural landscapes from across the world, such as trekking trails, cliff faces and caverns.


Universal design a key feature in the new campus PSB Academy’s new campus environment is also built for simple and intuitive use, with barrier-free concepts aimed at making the new facilities accessible to its diverse and cosmopolitan student community. The

EDUCATION school’s location is in itself a perk for all commuters - they can now benefit from a direct route to school from City Hall and Promenade MRT - taking the latter would mean only a five-minute, completely sheltered, walk in air-conditioned comfort. Wheel-chair friendly features, for example, have been built into classrooms, lecture theatres and auditoriums. For added convenience in school services, there will also be e-payment and ticketing systems - a first for the school - that will help students make appointments with academic staff or student services. In a bid to make learning online and offline a contemporary, seamless experience, the school will also be launching a new version of Moodle, an e-learning platform, across all its classrooms. This learning platform gives educators, administrators and learners access to a single robust, secure and integrated system that automatically synchronises video recording of lessons and lectures with the school’s scheduling systems, to create downloadable content, thereby enabling students to access more online learning and revision material. Academy of the future PSB Academy is seizing this opportunity to unveil its next phase of transformation as a leading education institution of higher learning for students from Singapore and beyond, with a new marketing campaign for the new campus, titled ‘Future Academy’. The theme reflects the academy’s mission to groom and equip students for the future economy. “With our expansion into Marina Square, we are taking PSB Academy’s unique brand of industry-ready education to the heart of Singapore’s city centre. Our new campus is a destination that will offer a fun and enriching education experience for our students. The future of learning needs to be one that is fully attuned to the needs of the future economy and a campus experience

The library will provide students with ample space for discussions in-between classes or for self-study.

Students and staff can gather at PSB Academy’s new foyer.

that is reminiscent of the continuous adventure of learning, one which inspires students to make connections, collaborate and co-create”, said Derrick Chang, Acting CEO, PSB Academy. “In our vision as a Future Academy, we, along with our world-class partner universities, will be breaking new ground into more areas of academic teaching and student-learning as we continue to gear up our graduates with an industry-ready education to thrive in our Smart Nation and beyond”, he added. “We look forward to welcoming PSB Academy to Marina Square, and

are confident that both students and staff will enjoy being at the heart of the city. We are proud to offer the convenience of many facilities in and around their new city campus, where they can expect to create new memories, as they also break ground into fresh possibilities in quality higher education”, said Ms Chan Yien Mei, General Manager, Marina Centre Holdings Pte Ltd. The move to the new campus is slated to start from the fourth quarter of 2016 (subject to approval by CPE). More information about the new campus and the Future Academy campaign can be found on




Key lessons from the IoT journey Manoj Kumar Rai, Head of M2M Solutions, South Asia and Japan, Gemalto, talks to ‘The Singapore Engineer’ on the immense possibilities being opened up by the Internet of Things (IoT). He also highlights the challenges that will be created by its expected rapid growth and how to overcome them. Leading the way IoT will become the heart-beat of business operations in all verticals and specifically in the automotive industry. Outside of Asia, countries such as Denmark, Switzerland, Netherlands, and the United States, have come on top in this space, thanks to their high industrialisation and advanced economies. In Asia Pacific, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand are the most mature in IoT adoption, with Japan and China trailing not far behind, with the implementation of Smart Nation solutions. Leading in the space, South Korea has just recently launched its first commercial, low-cost Internet of Things (IoT) network. Aimed at making the country even more connected, the network would allow smart devices to communicate and could reach up to 99% of the country’s population. Japan, being one of the early adopters of IoT, has more than 624 million IoT devices currently deployed across the country. The applications span across vending machines, transportation management and surveillance. While we expect IoT applications to multiply, driven by local smart cities like Kashiwa-no-ha, more connections will be added in the future. The local utilities industry also has a huge part to play with 80 million smart meters which will be installed in all Japanese households by 2025. In China, 202 cities were selected to pilot smart city projects back in 2014. Big cities like Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Hangzhou have established extensive databases and sensor networks to collect, store and analyse information related to transportation, electricity, public safety, and environmental factors. Logistics companies,


Manoj Kumar Rai

utilities, and manufacturers in China are increasingly harnessing the realtime information provided by connectivity, to increase efficiency, lower costs, and better manage infrastructure. Gemalto’s expertise Gemalto is a digital security company that aims to deliver easy-to-use technologies and services to businesses and governments. We authenticate identities and protect data so companies can prevent data breaches. In addition, we enable services in personal devices, connected objects and authentication in the cloud. The IoT technology ecosystem is extremely diverse, and spans across the consumer and enterprise sectors. Gemalto is present in every step of the IoT ecosystem including the provision of hardware, connectivity, applications, lifecycle management solutions etc. We offer a comprehensive suite of M2M (Machine-to-Machine) services via wireless connectivity modules like Gemalto’s Cinterion M2M modules and terminals that provide connectivity to the ‘thing’, eSim cards on top of On-Demand-Connectivity (ODC) solutions for devices such as wearables and Machine Identification Modules (MIMs) which are built with longevity and ruggedness in mind to ensure reliable connectivity on cellu-


lar networks, in order to keep data safe in harsh environments. Gartner predicts that 6.4 billion connected ‘things’ will be used in 2016, up 30% from 2015. This number will only continue to grow and it is predicted to reach 20.8 billion in 2020. This will cause a sudden surge of issues due to the growing number of devices, which our preventive maintenance capabilities can counter. This can be done via IoT quality of service which enables service providers with the tools to monitor cellular connectivity of smart static and mobile objects in real-time. Our MIM Service Platform also enables regular MIM audits and hardware monitoring that detects issues so that adjustments can be made over-the-air to pre-empt service failure. We also develop applications to ensure collected data is transformed into actionable insights that can be used to drive better business operations. The solutions include the SensorLogic Application, a cloud-based enablement program that operates with any device within any vertical market. It allows organisations to rapidly build and deploy M2M software applications, reducing time-to-market at a lower cost. Also, there are software monetisation applications that are used to increase the profitability of M2M solutions and protection of intellectual property.This is done by packaging data, controlling access, and monitoring rights with software licensing and authorisation management solutions. Some projects in Japan In the past year, Gemalto has been involved in several M2M and IoT projects in Japan, implementing our solutions to ensure seamless installation with minimal disruption to everyday life.

INFORMATION & COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY Included are projects between Gemalto and the following organisations: • KDDI Corporation: Gemalto provided a connectivity management solution along with embedded SIMs to enable smart cars. This partnership allowed motorists to gain access to optimised real-time information about traffic, nearby amenities, vehicle diagnostics, and emergency services. Through this partnership, Gemalto enabled the cars to be connected to the Internet. • Dai Nippon Printing (DNP): DNP is a leading financial solutions provider in Japan. We provided cloudbased authentication for secure mobile payments and internet

banking in Japan. With this solution, Japanese consumers can safely authenticate themselves and conduct transactions on their computers or on their mobile devices. In fact, Gemalto also recently rolled out a security solution developed for the IoT market with DNP, to authenticate both server and communication devices to ensure a highly secure connection for IoT devices like smart meters, point-of-sale terminals, and cash-handling machines, delivering superior protection against fraud and hacking. • NTT: In Japan, Gemalto recently announced the certification of two of our IoT wireless modules - the ELS31J and ELS51J by NTT DOCOMO. Now, Japanese companies

can purchase and embed these modules and immediately connect to NTT’s LTE network. The connectivity can be delivered to consumer wearables, smart meters, remote sensors, and any enterprise backend system. Relevance to Singapore and the region While the IoT is viewed as the essential element that will enable Singapore to realise its vision in becoming a Smart Nation, the country, along with the other non-mature markets in the APAC are increasingly studying and adopting best practices from neighbouring markets such as China and Japan. As IoT in Singapore is in its infancy, there is huge potential for us



INFORMATION & COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY to change the landscape and grow. In fact, the Singapore government launched S$2.2 billion worth of ICT tenders in digital, data and web services, and IT infrastructure, in 2015. It is also encouraging firms to embrace cloud computing, with the market expected to grow to about US$1 billion, by 2017. Measures have also been taken to include IoT projects across various sectors. One example is SMRT buses which seek to enhance the experience of commuters through more frequent services and commutercentric initiatives at bus interchanges and on-board buses. This has been done through the installation of IoTenabled technologies such as a passenger alighting bay guidance system and bus parking allocation system to reduce traffic congestion at the Woodlands Temporary Bus Interchange . Gemalto also recently implemented its UpTeq Multi-Tenant NFC SIM in Singapore, which allows commuters to pay for public transport using an embedded EZ-Link application with their phones. Aside from transport usage, the new mobile payment service is compatible with an existing contactless infrastructure, featuring over 30,000 ez-link terminals at retail stores, food & beverage outlets and a fleet of taxis. IoT is turning from hype to reality. However, regardless of the sector, industrial or consumer, successful IoT applications require collaboration of multiple industry players. In order for such collaborations to work, three capabilities are imperative - connectivity, security, and monetisation. With Singapore being one of the more advanced markets, the country can most definitely lift off some of the best practices from Japan and other countries that have embarked on the IoT journey. Connectivity has already matured significantly in Singapore, and with 5G around the corner, bandwidth will be optimised even further. Connectivity infra-


structure, now, needs to focus on quality of service and experience, with smart objects in mind. This is paramount for developing IoT applications that truly deliver enhanced user experience and gain consumers’ trust to increase IoT adoption. The scope of IoT will be exponential over the next couple of years as we embrace new and mature technologies. Specifically in Singapore, with the assistance from IDA and the JTC LaunchPad @ one-north initiative, SMEs and start-ups will also have more leverage on innovations, competitiveness and growth. The importance of IoT security IoT security is also going to be paramount in an era of growing attacks, as we move into the next five years. There are four fundamentals of IoT security to have on every organisation’s IoT/M2M checklist. They are: • Authentication / identification: Devices need to reliably identify themselves and prove that they can securely communicate with other devices in the system. This can be achieved using a combination of digital certificates and hardware-based anchors of trust. Strong authentication is also used to control user access. • Confidentiality: All data, in physical networks, virtualised environments, the cloud, or in motion, should be encrypted, to protect it from unwanted disclosure. Data encryption obscures vital information, making it useless even when it is compromised. Hackers will not be able to decipher the content without the encryption key. • Integrity: It is important to protect data from unauthorised modification such as malicious code injections. Code signed with digital certificates can be used to verify the integrity of the data and make sure the content has not been tampered with, or altered, during transmission.


• Non-repudiation: This serves as irrefutable proof of the validity and origin of all data transmitted. Digitally-signed documents and transactions using a hardware security device can provide strong non-repudiation of the data and origin of transaction. As technology and connectivity take over the world we live in, it is increasingly vital to recognise that the IoT will eventually become the backbone of all business operations in any verticals, moving into the future. According to Cisco, we will have close to 50 to 200 billion connected devices by the year 2020. Global spending on IoT devices and services will also rise to US$1.7 trillion in 2020, fuelled by growth in devices, connectivity solutions, and IT services, for connected cars, wearables and the Industrial Internet where connected industrial machinery will add US$10 to US$16 trillion to the global GDP within the next 20 years, making more factory tasks automated and connected to the cloud. As promising as these initiatives may sound, IoT security should never be compromised. Data breaches are creeping up at every corner. According to Gemalto’s Data Security Confidence Index, published in June 2016, 3.9 billion data records worldwide has been lost or stolen since 2013. Such hacking activities often have a huge business impact. If such breaches are not dealt with properly, home appliances could also be hacked. While protecting the perimeter is important, we need to realise that we require a layered approach to security, which encompasses both perimeter and data security measures. To ensure data protection, the adoption of IoT and M2M should go hand-in-hand with end-to-end encryption and two-factor authentication as security measures across the network and the cloud.


National Engineers Day 2016: Bringing engineering into the heartlands by Yue Kok Sun Edited by Queek Jiayu Hosted by IES for the seventh consecutive year, National Engineers Day (NED) has become a key platform for students to discover the marvels of engineering and the many unfolding opportunities in an engineering career. This year’s edition was held over the weekend of 23 and 24 July 2016, at the HDB Hub in Toa Payoh. Venturing out into the heartlands for the first time, the engineering festival for youths, with the theme “Engineers - Innovators & Creators of the Future”, served up a weekend of fun and engaging workshops and talks for both students and their parents. Addressing talent pool growth right at the source Mr Ng Chee Meng, Acting Minister for Education (Schools), presided over the opening ceremony, which was attended by some 150 delegates from both local and overseas business and engineering firms, as well as staff members from various government agencies and supporting partners. In his opening address, Mr Ng spoke about the importance of the

need for engineering capabilities in Singapore, as well as aligning training programmes to the SkillsFuture movement and lifelong learning. To further nurture students’ interests in engineering, the Ministry of Education (MOE) has been collaborating with many partners such as IES to bring students out of their classrooms and engaging them through competitions like the Energy Innovation Challenge (EIC).

This exposes exposing students to real world problems such as climate change and energy depletion and challenges them to deepen their engineering knowledge and to innovate in order to help the human race overcome such problems, he said. Setting high Standards in innovation Mr Ng was later given a tour of the exhibition area, where he met the

Mr Ng reviewing the EIC project submission from Victoria Junior College.




A team from ITE College West (I-12) presenting their project to the audience.

various NED partners and saw firsthand the many different projects from the EIC participants this year. Numbering some 80 teams of students, both local and foreign, the bumper crop of participants pit their talent against each other to create alternative energy solutions to address the issues of climate change and environmental sustainability. In the preceding months before the final competition, the participating students attended workshops and master-classes to pick up technical skills relevant to their preparation for EIC. Some of these include an interactive trail featuring locations or sites which represented various energy and sustainable initiatives in Singapore; a workshop on distance and motion sensors, and a crash course on prototyping. At the NED’s two-day fair, they showcased their prototypes to the panel of EIC judges, from which the top 10 teams from each category were shortlisted. The three most outstanding teams for each category were then selected by EIC Chief Judge Professor Lui Pao Chuen, after which they each had to make a 90-second stage presentation to the guests at the NED Closing Ceremony. Audience votes during their presentations were then used to determine the category champion. For their efforts, the top winners of the various competition categories (see page 41) earned themselves field trips to BMW facilities in Germany, as well as cash prizes. In addition, this year saw the addition of a new award by SPRING Singapore to cultivate amongst students an appreciation of


The inaugural Standards Award, supported by SPRING Singapore, was presented to team J-14 from AngloChinese Junior College. Here, they pose for a group photo with Mr Sim Choon Siong, Group Director, SPRING Singpore, and Ms Indranee.

the importance of standards in realising a cleaner, sustainable future for humankind. The prizes were presented by Ms Indranee Rajah, Senior Minister of State for Law and Finance. EIC was jointly-organised by Science Centre Singapore and IES, supported by MOE as well as the National Research Foundation. Something for everyone Rounding out the plethora of activities at NED were a series of talks, workshops and performances which were open to both students and the public. These covered topics such as additive manufacturing and future transport concepts. A regular crowdpleaser, Mr Tan Jui Kuan’s magic show based on engineering concepts made its return at NED again this year! In addition, a number of exhibitors and industry leaders were invited to

Mr Tan Jui Kuan’s magic show wowing the kids at NED.


showcase interesting products and share career prospects in the field of engineering. During the two-day event, students and attendees visited booths from the Defence, Science and Technology Agency, DSO National Laboratories, Singapore University of Technology and Design, SIM University, Singapore Institute of Technology, Building and Construction Authority, JTC Corporation and Land Transport Authority. In total, nearly 1,800 people were engaged through NED and its peripheral activities. In a poignant message to the EIC participants, Er. Edwin Khew, IES President, remarked, “How many of you believe that you have what it takes to be part of this exciting future, not just as bystanders but as contributors? We hope that NED will be the starting point for many of you in a career in engineering – the creators of our future.” TSE


EIC 2016 Results for all categories: Category 1 (Secondary Schools) Team






Light Sensitive Circuits

Raffles Girls’ School (Secondary)



Harvesting KE to generate electricity

Tanjong Katong Girls’ Secondary School



Wind Turbine

School of Science and Technology

Category 2 (Junior Colleges) Team




Anglo-Chinese Junior College



Kinetic Energy Saver – An Innovative Way of Restoring and Utilizing Kinetic Energy of Moving Vehicles during Acceleration and Deceleration



Piezoelectric Escalator

Temasek Junior College



Harnessing Friction to Produce Electricity

Temasek Junior College

Category 3 (Polytechnics and ITEs) Team






Charge while you bathe

ITE College West (Mechanical Engineering)



Energy Extension + App

ITE College East (Electrical Engineering)



Breathing House

Republic Polytechnic (Diploma in Renewable Energy Engineering)

Category 4 (Universities) Team






CelHar: optimising the Use of Lahar to provide an alternative source of electrical energy in rural areas

Polytechnic University of the Philippines



Sustainable Energy from Brine Flow Electrodynamics

Technological Institute of the Philippines, Quezon City



An Improved Biomass Cookstove for Developing Countries

University of Newcastle, Australia (Singapore)




Thirteen outstanding local engineering teams lauded for exemplary contributions to Singapore Acting Minister for Education (Schools) Mr Ng Chee Meng presented the IES Prestigious Engineering Achievement Awards 2016 at the opening ceremony of the National Engineers Day (NED) 2016 In a nod to the significant impact of local engineering efforts, IES honoured 13 engineering teams with the Prestigious Engineering Achievement Awards, recognising them for their prominent contributions to advancing engineering and enhancing the quality of life in Singapore. Mr Ng Chee Meng, Acting Minister for Education (Schools), bestowed the esteemed awards to the winning teams at the NED 2016 opening ceremony. For delivering distinct, positive influences to the well-being of people and communities, these winners emerged from 26 project submissions that entered into an intensive round of evaluation by a judging panel comprising industry experts. Hailing from a variety of engineering fields from healthcare and defence to infocommunications and satellite technology, the winning projects exhibited excellence in adopting breakthrough methods in planning and solving design problems, inventiveness in the use of materials and methods, innovations in planning, design and construction as well as unique aspects and aesthetic values. “The high calibre of this year’s winning projects and the diversity of fields they represent are true reflections of the presence of dynamic, creative and inventive engineering talents in Singapore. We congratulate every one of them and hope that the awards will motivate them to continue to use their ingenuity to transform our lives and inspire our younger generation to strive to do the same or better,” said Er. Edwin Khew, President of IES. The winning projects in the four award categories and their citations follow:


CATEGORY: Applied Research A Biophilic Waterway@Punggol – Innovative floating wetlands and freshwater-tolerant mangroves by HDB

As an Eco-Town, Punggol serves as a living laboratory to test-bed new urban solutions, in support of Singapore’s efforts to become a liveable and sustainable city.The Freshwater-tolerant Mangroves and Floating Wetland System are two of the key sustainable innovations that HDB has developed in-house for My Waterway @ Punggol. Besides enhancing greenery, these initiatives also help to improve water quality, stabilize slope embankments and promote biodiversity.

Highly flexible and wearable sensors for real-time healthcare monitoring applications by NUS

Researchers from the National University of Singapore have developed highly flexible and wearable tactile sensors using liquid as a novel sensing element.These sensors can be mounted on the skin and used for realtime monitoring of grip strength, hand movement, and even localised foot pressure. Other applications include rehabilitation, prosthetics and robotics.



Innovative LED-based communications and privacy windows for Smart Nation living by Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), A*STAR IMRE presents a novel LED-based communications and privacy windows for Smart Nation living in a populated urban country like Singapore. In order to help relieve the congested Wi-Fi traffic, the team developed fast switching light emitting diodes with GHz intrinsic speeds for fast visible light communications.The team also developed a new light control technology for a true one-wayview privacy window, which has not been done before.

Rapid diagnosis of sepsis using a plasmonic sensor-based point-ofcare system by Temasek Polytechnic, IMRE - A*STAR and Tan Tock Seng Hospital An automated point-of-care system was developed to reduce the cost and turn-around time of the procalcitonin detection, which helps guide the therapy for infectious diseases such as sepsis. Nanotechnology and microfluidics are incorporated in the pointof-care system to enhance the detection sensitivity using minimum amount of blood.The point-of-care system will take the clinical validation to go to market in the near future to benefit infectious disease patients.

CATEGORY: Engineering Project

Galassia – NUS’ first nanosatellite by NUS Nanosatellite Galassia is the first NUS student-centric nanosatellite that was successfully launched on 16 December 2015. It features a 2U Cubesat bus design with Passive Magnetic Attitude Control and comprises three scientific mission payloads, the primary two being the Total Electron Content payload (TEC) and a Quantum Science payload from the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT). Galassia’s secondary payload was an Active Attitude Determination & Control Subsystem module.




Development of Semakau Landfill Phase II by NEA Adopting an innovative single-cell design for Phase II Semakau Landfill resulted in significant savings in construction and sand costs as there was no longer a need to build internal sand bunds. This design also increased the landfill’s capacity and extended its lifespan. Phase II features two engineering feats: a 200-metre long floating platform and a floating wastewater treatment plant. In order to protect Semakau Island’s vibrant ecosystem and rich biodiversity, over 700 colonies of corals in the Phase II lagoon were harvested and transplanted to Sisters’ Island.

Next Generation Data Centre by Defence Science and Technology Agency (DSTA) DSTA developed the Next Generation Data Centre to be highly resilient, reliable and secure. It incorporated unique features to enhance security and operational efficiency as well as accommodate future growth.This forward-looking modular design adopted by DSTA provided not only flexibility for deployment of new and better technologies, but also prudence for data centre equipping.Technologies such as RFID personnel tracking were used to strengthen security of the centre without stretching limited manpower resources.

CATEGORY: Technology Innovation

Anti-reflective glass – Engineering large surfaces with nano solutions by Wangi Industrial & IMRE - A*STAR The anti-reflective glass mimics the compound eye of a moth. With nanoimprinting technologies, nanoscale moth eye lens are engineered onto the glass, creating an anti-reflective glass which gives clearer and brighter images.

Large-scale command post systems integration for overseas military exercise – Forging Sabre by DSTA and DSO National Laboratories DSTA developed a new Command Post System that has enabled the SAF to strike as one in overseas live-firing exercises.This result was accomplished by integrating diverse sensors and weapon systems to facilitate timely information exchange, and adopting a modular design to accommodate the SAF’s wide spectrum of exercises.This approach ensures realistic and challenging training for the SAF.




Seeing is believing: From microscope to nanoscope by NUS and Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD) Light enables us to capture the beauty of this world. By employing this novel imaging technique, an optical resolution of 25 nm, which is far beyond the diffraction limit (~200 nm), can be achieved.This optical microsphere nanoscope extends our vision from the current micro-world down to the nano-world in our homes, schools, production lines, clinics and laboratories.

The future of auditing: early detection & prevention of significant trading irregularities by Institute for Infocomm Research (I2R), A*STAR and Group Audit, DBS Bank Ltd The DBS-I2R Joint Lab has developed a data analytics-driven solution for the early detection and prevention of trading irregularities.This system now monitors all traders and their key activities at all times, significantly augmenting the bank’s surveillance capabilities by detecting irregularities that would have been difficult to identify using traditional methods.This system has also attracted foreign interest and press coverage.

CATEGORY: Young Creators Design & development of digital in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) device for oocyte retrieval by Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, NUS The innovative medical device is designed and developed to assist doctors in the Oocyte Retrieval (OR) process for in-vitro fertilization (IVF) application leading to potentially higher birth rate in the country. It combines all the required functions (such as aspiration unit, flushing unit and test tube warmer) for OR into a single unit.This device can improve the efficiency and success rate on OR/IVF as well as reduce the cost, which can help the country’s low birth rate and also encourage more women to take up IVF channel of production or to have the oocytes frozen for future usage.

Smart White Cane by Engineering Science Programme, Faculty of Engineering, NUS The white cane, used by a visually impaired individual to navigate, does not detect objects of raised heights. Ultrasonic sensors are incorporated at the middle and top of the cane for obstacle detection through vibration feedback. Conductivity sensor on the end tip of the cane adds wet surface detection functionality with sound feedback.




In Case You Missed It: Number of Engineering Talks hit the big five-oh; more to come 1







Launched last year to celebrate both SG- and IES-50, the IES-SG50 Engineering Talks were intended to help the public to know more about engineering.The talks featured a wide range of industry experts who shared their knowledge, personal experiences and the lessons learnt throughout their careers. The 50-talk milestone was officially crossed in August 2016, with more to be held in the coming months. Couldn’t catch them all? Check out the highlights from the latest ones below! 1. The ‘New’ Engineer’s Challenge – Enhancing Living Experience in the Built Environment through Excellence in Design, Technology Development and Behavioural Science Research Speaker: Dr Johnny Wong, Group Director, Building & Research Institute (BRI), HDB When/Where: 15 July 2016, Library@Orchard Dr Wong enlightened the audience on the research efforts and challenges faced by HDB’s BRI in driving innovation and design excellence towards enhancing the living environment in HDB’s towns and estates. 2. Cognitive Robotics: Recent Developments and Futuristic Trends Speaker: Professor Er Meng Joo, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, NTU When/Where: 21 July 2016, Bishan Public Library The quest to build sentient, artificial intelligences in the recent decades, coupled with the rapid developments in science, engineering and technology, have facilitated the appearance of machines that mimic human intelligence today. In his talk, Prof Er elaborated on the recent developments, futuristic trends and challenges of cognitive robotics application in logistics engineering and the healthcare industry.


3. Engineering – More than just a Job! Speaker: Dr David Woon, Head of Operations, Airbus Group Innovations Singapore When/Where: 23 July 2016, Jurong Regional Library Are engineering jobs fun? Is the pay good? Should I be an engineer? Dr Woon revealed his honest thoughts being a career engineer while showcasing to participants the aerospace projects he has worked on over the past 10 years in Airbus Singapore. 4. Career Progression Talk Speaker: Mr Fong Kok Wai, Executive Vice President, Engineering & Development, Changi Airport Group When/Where: 3 August 2016, Singapore Polytechnic A group of Singapore Polytechnic students were treated to a story on Mr Fong’s personal career journey and the lessons he learnt. He also discussed with them the personal attributes required to be successful leaders and the types of challenges often faced by engineers as they progress in their careers. 5. Career Progression Talk - Conversations with C-Level Executives Speakers: Mr Choo Chiau Beng, Chairman, M1 Limited; Ms Leong Wai Leng, CFO, Temasek Holdings; Mr Fong Saik Hay, CTO, ST Engineering When/Where: 17 August 2016, NTU The panel of 3 C-suite executives talked to a group of engineering undergraduates about their personal career journeys and dispensed some tips on how to cultivate oneself to lead others effectively. 6. Entrepreneurship Speaker: Mr Ong Peng Tsin, Managing Partner, Monk’s Hill Ventures When/Where: 17 August 2016, NTU In a self-styled ‘fireside chat session’, Mr Ong engaged in dialogue with his audience, drawing on his experiences as an entrepreneur-turned-investor. He also shared some pointers about the Southeast Asia tech ecosystem, emerging opportunities with new tech innovations, and business models that are transforming the region. TSE


To all our volunteers: Thank you! IES Appreciation Night is an annual affair during which the achievements and contributions of volunteers, partners and staff are honoured.This year, it was held on 29 July 2016 at Downtown East. It was an evening to remember as members from the youngest student to the oldest engineer mingled and caught up over dinner. Bagging the inaugural Special Recognition Awards were the Engineering Feats @ IES-SG50 Organising Committee and the IES Building Redevelopment Task Force. This is awarded to outstanding projects which have contributed to the engineering profession and society at large, and have also raised the profile of the Institution. An award was also presented to Mdm Tammy Ang, acknowledging her husband, the late Mr Tan Kai Hong’s, many years of hard work for IES. That evening, attendees were also treated to a superb performance by a four-piece band from NTUC’s U-Live Band, who serenaded all with classic 80s hits such as When You Say Nothing At All and Uptown Girl. The Singapore Engineer presents some choice moments from the evening. For more photos and the full list of awardees, kindly visit http://tinyurl. com/IESApprNite16. Congratulations to all award winners and thank you for your service. TSE

Many members gamely sat down to have their caricatures made, each with a unique, quirky twist added by the talented artist.

Student chapter volunteers sharing a light moment together.

Members from the Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Technical Committee posing with Er. Chong and their Outstanding Committee Award plaque.

The crowd listening attentively to IES Immediate Past President Er. Chong Kee Sen, as he gives thanks to all IES volunteers and staff for their efforts over the past year.

Having a quick chat before dinner.

Er. Emily Tan, Ms Jasmine Foo, Er. Sharron Ng and Er. Sam Tan taking a wefie during one of the breaks in the evening’s proceedings.




NTUC National Day Observance Ceremony 2016

Mr Vivek Kumar, NTUC Director of U Associate and U Future Leaders (extreme left, in red) gamely trying out the Rubik’s Cube Challenge.

During the month of August, Singapore becomes awash in the national colours of red and white as we celebrate our independence. Apart from the biggest bash held on National Day itself, many organisations and grassroots bodies also hold National Day Observance Ceremonies during the month. This year, to commemorate Singapore’s 51 years of independence, IES did just that, but as part of something bigger: The Institution participated in NTUC’s National Day Observance Ceremony (NDOC) as a U Associate partner of the labour movement. The ceremony was held at BIGBOX in Jurong East, on 16 August 2016. The IES booth, with interactive activities such as threeminute Rubik’s Cube challenge and a mini voting activity on Engineering Feats, sought to engage participants and show that engineers were ‘cool’ problem solvers instead of dour, detail-obsessed pedants. Apart from IES, there were 23 other booths set up by various NTUC communities (e.g. U Associates, U SMEs, U Creative), union partners and associations, NTUC social enterprises and e2i (Employment and Employability Institute). This enabled the various partners to network with each other, and for guests to see for themselves the many facets of the labour movement’s extensive network and work out how they can leverage on what is offered for the benefit of workers and businesses. Some 2,000 people attended the event.


Minister of State for Manpower Teo Ser Luck (foreground, second from left), NTUC Secretary-General Chan Chun Sing (middleground) and NTUC President Mary Liew (foreground, second from right) waving Singapore flags together with some of the 2,000 NDOC attendees in a show of national pride.



The Singapore Engineer September 2016