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The Magazine Of The Institution Of Engineers, Singapore August 2016 MCI (P) 002/03/2016

Celebrating 50 Years of Engineering Excellence



CIVIL & STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING Singapore Sports Hub: Incorporating safety in the design and engineering

FEATURES: • Civil & Structural Engineering • Project Application • Education

CONTENTS Celebrating 50 Years of Engineering Excellence

Founded in 1966

FEATURES 07 CIVIL & STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING: COVER STORY: Singapore Sports Hub: incorporating safety in the design and engineering Innovative solutions helped to create the iconic sports venue and lifestyle destination.

17 CIVIL & STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING: Failure modes for RC columns subjected to blast loadings that must be considered in design The design of blast-resistant RC columns, as well as their testing and analysis, requires considerable experience and skill.

The role of private education in engineering the Singapore of tomorrow


CEO Angie Ng Publications Manager Desmond Teo Publications Executive Queek Jiayu Media Consultants Roland Ang

32 EDUCATION: It can make an important contribution.

Chief Editor T Bhaskaran

Desmond Chander Published by The Institution of Engineers, Singapore 70 Bukit Tinggi Road Singapore 289758 Tel: 6469 5000 Fax: 6467 1108 Cover designed by Irin Kuah Cover image by Arup

The Singapore Engineer is published monthly by The Institution of Engineers, Singapore (IES). The publication is distributed free-of-charge to IES members and affiliates. Views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of the Editor or IES. All rights reserved. No part of this magazine shall be reproduced, mechanically or electronically, without the prior consent of IES. Whilst every care is taken to ensure accuracy of the content at press time, IES will not be liable for any discrepancies. Unsolicited contributions are welcome but their inclusion in the magazine is at the discretion of the Editor.

Design & layout by 2EZ Asia Pte Ltd Printed in Singapore




Message from the Chairman, Health & Safety Engineering Technical Committee “Singapore needs to do better in ensuring safe workplaces and in improving the productivity and quality of talent in the construction industry”, said Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong on 20 July 2016. This comment was a response to the unacceptably high number of workplace fatalities. As of 15 August 2016, we have 47 workplace fatalities and about 40% were construction-related. The Workplace Safety and Health (Design for Safety) Regulations 2015 came into effect on 1 August 2016 and it represents an oppor tunity to improve the situation in the industry. Design for Safety (DfS) seeks to identify and manage risks right from the design and planning stage of a building project, through to the construction and maintenance phases. The regulations place duties on all stakeholders, including developers, DfS professionals, designers, contractors and owners, to reduce and even eliminate risks at the workplace. Under the regulations, developers and designers have the duty to identify and address foreseeable risks throughout the lifecycle of a construction project. Where risks cannot be mitigated by design interventions, it will have to be communicated to those involved in the construction project. The regulations require the implementation of a DfS review process throughout every phase of the construction project, or whenever design changes are made, thus ensuring that risks in the design are highlighted and managed in a systematic and coordinated way. The intent of DfS is complemented by the Building and Construction Authority’s (BCA) drive for a higher degree of prefabrication in the construction sector. With more construction work done off-site in a controlled and highly automated factory environment, on-site work will be reduced, thereby improving site safety. However, DfS can easily become a paper exercise if stakeholders are not serious about safety and health. I believe the most impor tant success factor for DfS is the mindset of designers and developers. If designers and developers see workplace safety and health as par t and parcel of their job, I am sure buildings and structures will become safer to build, maintain, operate and demolish. Dr Goh Yang Miang Chairman, Health & Safety Engineering Technical Committee



IES Council Members 2016 / 2017 President Er. Edwin Khew Vice Presidents Er. Chan Ewe Jin Mr Mervyn Sirisena Er. Ng Say Cheong Er. Ong See Ho Er. Seow Kang Seng Dr Yeoh Lean Weng Honorary Secretary Dr Boh Jaw Woei Honorary Treasurer Er. Joseph Goh Immediate Past President Er. Chong Kee Sen Past Presidents Prof Chou Siaw Kiang Er. Ho Siong Hin Assistant Honorary Secretary Mr Joseph William Eades Er. Joseph Toh Dr Lim Kok Hwa Assistant Honorary Treasurer Mr Tan Sim Chuan Council Members Prof Chan Eng Soon Dr Chew Soon Hoe Mr Dalson Chung Mr David So Prof Er Meng Joo Mr Goh Yang Miang Ms Jasmine Foo Mr Lee Kwok Weng A/Prof Lee Poh Seng Mr Norman Lee Prof Ramakrishna Seeram Er. Teo Chor Kok Dr Zhou Yi Honorary Council Members Er. Dr Lee Bee Wah Er. Ong Ser Huan Er. Tan Seng Chuan


Active, Beautiful, Clean Waters – An inclusive philosophy where everybody can play a part by Colin Fong edited by Queek Jiayu More than 120 engineering professionals, from practitioners to academia, gathered at Marina Bay Sands on 13 July 2016 to exchange knowledge and experiences on green infrastructure and sustainable stormwater management. Jointly organised by IES and PUB, this year’s edition of the Seminar on ABC Waters was co-located with Singapore International Water Week 2016. Among the participants were Active, Beautiful, Clean Waters (ABC Waters) Professionals, Qualified Erosion Control Professionals, Professional Engineers, academics and technical experts from various organisations and companies. Dr Amy Khor, Senior Minister of State, Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources & Ministry of Health was the guest of honour at the seminar. During her opening address, Dr Khor noted with pleasure that the concept of ABC Waters was becoming more prevalent. The underlying principle behind ABC Waters is to beautify waterways and other resources with the aim of attracting greater public attention to environmental conservation and beyond. “ABC Waters is a philosophy, a way of life. Water and the environment belong to everyone; everyone has a part to play in taking care of them. I encourage our industry professionals and developers to continue to innovate, and bring ABC Waters to the mainstream and to greater heights,” she said. In recognition of the exemplary efforts of agencies and developers to harness the full potential of Singapore’s water infrastructure through the ABC Waters Certifica-

Dr Khor (centre, in black and red) together with representatives from the 14 agencies and developers who have attained ABC Waters certification for their projects.

Dr Amy Khor sharing a moment of introspection with Mr Henk Ovink, one of the seminar speakers.

tion Scheme, Dr Khor presented certificates of acknowledgement to 14 projects from the public and private sectors. Amongst them is the IES Green Building @ Bukit Tinggi, which has incorporated innovative, locallydesigned measures to treat rainfall within its own catchment area before releasing it into the national water network. The seminar went into full swing soon after. The experts invited to contribute to the discourse of the day included Mr Henk Ovink, Special Envoy for International Water Affairs for the Netherlands, Mr Tan Sze Tiong, head of Environmental Sustainabil-

ity Research at HDB, Mr Tobias Baur from Ramboll Studio Dreiseitl, Dr-Ing. Carsten Dierkes from the Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences, Prof Zhao Li of China Architecture Design Group and Prof Hu Jiangyong from NUS. Together, the various speakers shed light on their experiences within and outside of Singapore in creating resilient, inclusive and sustainable water infrastructure. The seminar was supported by Singapore Institute of Architects, Singapore Institute of Landscape Architects and the Employment and Employability Institute. TSE




ABC Waters Projects certified in 2016 Project Name

Developer / Owner

Status of Construction

Coco Palms

City Developments Limited / Hong Realty (Pte) Ltd / Hong Leong Holdings Ltd

Under construction; Expected TOP: Jan 2018

Dawson C5


Under construction; Expected TOP: Sep 2020

Dawson C6


Under construction; Expected TOP: May 2019

Dawson C7


Under construction; Expected TOP: Sep 2019

Green Berths J10 & J11 and Storage Jurong Port Pte Ltd Yards Y10 & Y11 at Jurong Port

Under construction; Expected TOP: Dec 2016

IES New Annex Building


Completed; TOP: Jan 2016

Kampung Admiralty


Under construction; Expected TOP: Apr 2017

NTU Crescent and Pioneer Halls

NTU – Office of Development & Facilities Management

Completed; TOP: Jul 2014

Oasis Terraces


Under construction; Expected TOP: Dec 2017

Paya Lebar Quarter

Developer: Lendlease Retail Pte Ltd, Building Owner: Roma Central Pte Ltd, Milano Central Pte Ltd, Verona Central Pte Ltd

Under construction; Expected TOP: Sep 2018

Waterway Cascadia

Housing & Development Board

Under construction; Expected TOP: Sep 2016

Singapore Sports Hub

Sports Hub Private Limited

Completed; TOP: Jun 2014

Sky Vue

CapitaLand and Mitsubishi Estate Asia Pte. Ltd.

Under construction; Expected TOP: Jul 2016

Yale-NUS College


Completed; TOP: Jun 2015

Tribute to late Mr Tan Kai Hong, FIES Mr Tan Kai Hong joined IES as a Graduate Member in 1980, when he was still a young engineer. He joined the Graduates & Students Committee as a Committee member for four years and was subsequently appointed as its Vice-Chairman during Council Session 1985/86 and then as its Chairman in the following year. Putting his vast knowledge of workplace safety and health to good use, Mr Tan had served in various other capacities in IES during the past 36 years. He served as an IES Council Member from 2009 to 2010 and from 2010 to 2012. He also chaired the Health & Safety Engineering Tech-



nical Committee from 2009 to 2011, and was involved in the task force for Design for Safety. In addition, he was the principal trainer for the Design for Safety Coordinator Courses in IES. In 2010, Mr Tan became a Fellow of IES. A former corporate health and safety manager for a local multinational contracting company, Mr Tan had more than 30 years of working experience in workplace safety and health in the general, process engineering, and construction industries. He was extremely concerned for the safety of engineers and workers working on sites, as well as public safety. Mr Tan passed away peacefully on 8 July 2016 at the age of 66, survived by his wife and two children. IES is deeply saddened to learn of his passing and extends sincerest condolences to his family. TSE


Engineers Australia confers honorary fellowship on Er. Tan Seng Chuan The FEIAP (Federation of Engineering Institutions of Asia and the Pacific) 24th General Assembly took place between 6 and 8 July 2016. During the sidelines of this event, on 7 July, IES Honorary Council Member Er. Tan Seng Chuan was named Honorary Fellow of Engineers Australia (HonFIEAust). This was in recognition of his outstanding leadership of the engineering community at home and his strong support for Engineers Australia (EA), both in Singapore and internationally, helping to facilitate the mobility of Australian engineers to a variety of jobs in the region. According to the EA International Committee, “recognising Er. Tan as an Honorary Fellow is a fitting accolade for his leadership of the engineering profession and tireless work in promoting engineering in the region”. IES is extremely proud of Er. Tan’s achievements and heartily congratulates him for receiving such a prestigious honour. TSE

Er.Tan (right) receiving his HonFIEAust certificate from Mr John McIntosh, Engineers Australia National President and Chair of the Board 2016.




Zeroing in on crucial climate change challenges for Singapore Standfirst: Experts talk about the way forward for the engineering community post-COP21.

Mr Heng delivering the opening address, where he spoke about the importance of working together to develop human assets to strengthen climate change resilience and build a better future.

The inaugural IES Climate Change Resilience Forum, held on 13 July at Marina Bay Sands, welcomed more than 80 participants, many of whom were engineering professionals and practitioners with a deep-seated interest in protecting the environment. Held as part of Clean Enviro Summit Singapore 2016, the forum explored key business and engineering challenges faced in mitigating and adapting to the impact of climate change, as well as methods on turning the COP21 Paris Agreement into action by the engineering community. Mr Heng Chee How, Deputy Secretary-General of the National Trades Union Congress (NTUC), graced the

event as the guest-of-honour. Co-organised in conjunction with NTUC, the forum was held in response to Singapore’s signing of the landmark Paris Agreement on climate change in April this year. This translates to reducing the intensity of greenhouse gas emissions in Singapore by 36 per cent from 2005 levels, and stabilising them by 2030. This presents new challenges for engineers, as innovative solutions are vital in enabling Singapore to achieve its pledged targets. The expert panel of speakers gathered at the forum gave participants an insight into essential avenues for capacity building in engineering greater climate change resilience, building on critical conversations that took place at the World Engineers Summit on Climate Change 2015. Starting the ball rolling was Ambassador Kwok Fook Seng, Chief Negotiator on Climate Change from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Together with Ms Wang Xueman from the World Bank and Professor Subodh Mhaisalkar from the Energy Research Institute @ NTU (ERI@N), the three spoke about the global situation post-COP21.

The electronic version of TSE is available from this issue onwards! It will be sent to members who are currently subscribed to receiving IES emails. To opt out and continue receiving the print copy, kindly visit by 31 October 2016. To preview how it will look like, please visit:



Offering updates on the latest tools to assess climate exposure was Ms Stella Whittaker from engineering consultancy Ramboll Group. Mr Vivek Kumar, Director of NTUC U Associate and U Future Leaders spoke next on the roles of society and the young in climate change, leading into Prof Lye Lin Heng’s presentation on the way forward in environmental education. The forum was rounded off by two panel discussions, which uncovered valuable perspectives on the core challenges of climate change to the engineering community. These were chaired by Dr Sanjay Kuttan of ERI@N and Er. Tan Seng Chuan, IES Past President & Chairman, International Outreach Committee. Participants whom The Singapore Engineer spoke to felt galvanised by the day’s discourse and affirmed their resolve in combating climate change. Said Ms Roxanne Tan, 28, a civil servant, “It is about coming together, refining the narrative on climate change (in the local context), and sparking off ideas on what to do next.” TSE

(Left to right) Er.Tan, Prof Lye and Mr Kumar listen on as Prof Subodh takes a question from the audience.


Singapore Sports Hub: incorporating safety in the design and engineering The project has won several awards over the years, including the DESIGN AND ENGINEERING SAFETY EXCELLENCE AWARD, in the COMMERICAL CATEGORY, at BCA AWARDS 2016.

At the heart of the Singapore Sports Hub is the National Stadium, a 55,000 seat sports venue. Image by Darren Soh.


Located on a stunning, central, 35-hectare waterfront site, at the pivot between Singapore’s expanding city centre and the wider public community, the Singapore Spor ts Hub comprises nine key spor ts and leisure facilities. Officially opened in June 2014, the Singapore Spor ts Hub is a key project in Spor ts Singapore Vision 2030, the Singapore Government’s urban redevelopment and spor ts facilities masterplan promoting a more sustainable, healthy and active society at all levels of par ticipation nation-wide. Often, large stadia and spor ts developments, with their surrounding precincts, are focused on a specific

major spor ting event, with less consideration given to the long-term use of the facilities. Singapore Spor ts Hub breaks this mould. Its principal focus is to provide venues for a range of worldclass spor ting events whilst, at the same time, presenting itself as a dynamic lifestyle destination for the people of Singapore, with facilities for use throughout the year. At the hear t of the Singapore Spor ts Hub is the National Stadium, a 55,000seat spor ts venue, air-cooled for comfor t and designed with a moveable roof and retractable seating. The design of the precinct capitalises on the strategic site location next to the city centre, to create a well-connected, accessible and in-

clusive destination. Easy access to the Mass Rapid Transpor t (MRT) train network, strategic links to adjacent expressways and a sequence of connected public spaces linked up to the island-wide park connector system, ensure crowd safety during major events, whilst providing easy everyday access to the surroundings. Challenges and overview of response The project team had to overcome the challenge of having to work within the physical constraints of the Nicoll Highway on one side, the KallangPaya Lebar Expressway underground and the existing indoor stadium. In addition, the site geology, with the predominance of soft marine clay in this par t of Singapore,



COVER STORY made excavation work challenging. For the crown jewel of the Spor ts Hub, the National Stadium, the team from Arup (the Civil & Structural Consultant) designed a solid foundation, also known as the ring beam, which is critical in suppor ting the weight of the roof and resisting the lateral thrusting forces of the domed structure. This maximised efficiencies in the roof structure and also eliminated risks related to construction on poor ground conditions. Suppor ting the huge roof and sitting atop the ring beam are 20 elegantly designed thrust blocks which restrain the lateral thrusting forces of the dome roof. Arup’s designers wanted a ‘protective canopy’ that could work as a connector space between all nine

venues and key transpor t routes at the Singapore Spor ts Hub - a concept that created the ‘hub’ itself. The dome form of the National Stadium roof was conceived as a unique architectural response to Singapore’s tropical climate and to achieve the intent of the canopy. The dome was also structurally the most efficient form to achieve these objectives. The dome roof spans 312 m and was determined to be the optimum scale to cover the 55,000-seat seating bowl (which Arup's designers made as compact as possible), and the space outside the bowl. After extensive research into comfor t expectations and energy use, Arup’s designers found that a naturally ventilated stadium with localised cooling would be the best

MULTI-AWARD WINNER IStructE Singapore Regional The Singapore Sports Hub has been conferred several Group. prestigious national and • Structural Steel Excellence international awards, including the Awards - Trophy Award Winner. following: Presented by Singapore 2016 Structural Steel Society BCA Awards - Winner, BCA (SSSS). Design and Engineering Safety • Global BIM Awards – Winner, Excellence Award. Presented Steel Projects. Presented by by Building and Construction Tekla. Authority (BCA) • Fire Safety Design Excellence 2015 Awards - Design Winner, Structural Awards 2015 Excellence Award. Presented Supreme Award for Structural by National Fire and Civil Engineering Excellence and Emergency Preparedness Award for Sports or Leisure Council (NFEC). Structures. Presented by the Institution of Structural Engineers • World Architecture Festival (IStructE). Awards -Winner, Spor ts Building of the Year. Presented 2014 by World Architectural • BCA BIM Awards - Platinum Festival. Award Winner. Presented by Building and Construction • SIA Architectural Design Authority (BCA). Award Winner, Design Award • IStructE Singapore Structural Awards - Winner, Award for Structures. Presented by


(Special Categories). Presented by Singapore Institute of Architects (SIA).


solution for the climate in Singapore. By incorporating a moving roof, the stadium will be fur ther protected from the harsh climatic conditions, allowing events to be hosted even during the hottest par ts of the day. From the outset, the engineering design team from Arup chose to adopt Building Information Modelling (BIM), to automate the flow of information between the engineering analysis and design models, and the documentation models. This was developed also to improve the quality of the information by reducing the oppor tunity for human error. The BIM approach adopted for the Singapore Spor ts Hub was developed in 2010, before the advent of the BCA BIM Roadmap in Singapore. This demonstrates the forward-thinking and innovative approach of the client and design team, who foresaw the benefits that BIM would bring to the project before it became extensively and more commonly adopted.

DESIGN STRUCTURAL DESIGN SOLUTIONS THAT EMPHASISE SAFETY INNOVATIVE FEATURES An architectural and engineering marvel At 312 m, the National Stadium is the largest free-spanning dome roof structure in the world. Its spectacular roof design is the result of the extraordinary vision of the client and the close collaboration between the architects and engineers. For the roof itself, a range of parametric design tools were used to fine-tune the dome truss geometries to achieve both architectural aspirations and structural efficiency. To ensure a safe and buildable design, the design team carried out a detailed analysis of the methodology for the roof erection and temporary propping conditions. This informed the level of ‘locked-

COVER STORY in stresses’ that would be allowed in the design that set parameters for the tendering steel contractors to work within, when developing their construction and erection methods. Another challenge the design team had to overcome was the ground conditions of the site. As the site of the Singapore Spor ts Hub was formed on land reclaimed in the early 1930s, the ability for any foundations to resist lateral thrusting forces from a domed structure was extremely limited. Arup adopted a post-tensioned concrete ring beam, 1.5 m deep and 6 m wide, on Level 3, to contain the spreading forces of the steel domed truss roof. The ring beam, approximately 9 m from ground, together with the column pairs below, form the primary suppor t and is an integral component of the roof structure. This maximised efficiencies in the roof structure and also eliminated risks related to construction on poor ground conditions. A key safety element that was considered at the concept phase was the incorporation of construction access in the design of various buildings in the Singapore Spor ts Hub. This ensured that basements and walls were built to accommodate the large cranes that would be moving in and around the site, during the construction phase. DESIGN SOLUTIONS FOR SAFE CONSTRUCTION Ensuring safety and productivity With its mega scale, complex design and tight deadlines, it was clear from the onset that the adoption of BIM would be critical for the success of the Singapore Spor ts Hub. The realisation that the delivery of the project needed a fully integrated approach to the architectural, structural as well as mechanical, electrical and plumbing (MEP) design, was critical for the construction to be carried out safely and efficiently.

Arup used BIM extensively to tweak the geometry of the design, to achieve the standards of the architects and designers. The firm’s strong BIM capabilities enabled the Architect’s Rhino model to link with the Engineers’ 3D structural model, thus automating the process. BIM allowed the models to ‘talk’ to each other and ensure that changes are communicated to the entire design team, including the Contractor’s team (Figure 1). The BIM models prepared were used extensively by the Contractor and Sub-contractors to plan the construction methodology and sequencing. This was par ticularly impor tant for the roof of the stadium, which included cranage and lifting planning, as well as temporary works design and integration. Using BIM from the star t minimised the likelihood of fur ther coordination being needed after the shop drawings were produced, and vastly speeded up the progress of fabrication and the reviewing process. Critically, clashes in design could be identified immediately, minimising time and cost that would otherwise be spent on rectifications during construction. A key safety issue for the Singapore Spor ts Hub was the extent and depth of excavation across the site. Geologically, the soil in this par t of Singapore typically consists of marine clay - a soft and clayey

soil typology which makes excavations difficult and risky. On the Singapore Spor ts Hub site, the depth of marine clay varies, reaching a maximum of 20 m. Addressing the risks of excavation in such conditions, Arup and Dragages (the Builder) worked together to minimise the extent and depths of excavation across the site. Excavation was deliberately kept clear of the Stadium MRT station and tunnels. The office building and basement were designed to be outside of the MRT second reserve, which assisted in minimising the effects of ground movements on the rail transit structures (RTS). The design also recognised that the construction would be phased across zones of the site, with excavation happening progressively alongside construction. To account for this, larger diameter bored piles were used in zones where ground movements were expected due to future adjacent excavation. This enabled the construction to progress within measured ground movement boundaries and phased according to the safe access and egress limitations of the site. With approximately 450,000 m2 of constructed floor plate, the choice of a framing system for the Singapore Spor ts Hub was of paramount impor tance. The designers took into consideration features

Figure 1: Combined architectural and structural BIM model of the Singapore Sports Hub



COVER STORY such as efficiency in the use of materials, speed of build, and safety through appropriate use of manpower under safe working conditions. Arup worked closely with Dragages to design the selected precast concrete formwork system that was used across approximately 80% of the floor plates throughout the project. This allowed for the precasting of the slab and beam elements to be done on site and on the ground (Figure 2). In this way, handling of heavy items was minimised while the amount of work that was done at the ground level was maximised. The use of precast concrete slab panels also provided a safe and robust working platform for the workers at elevated levels to under take their work. As a result, large areas of floor plate could be constructed quickly and safely, while meeting quality standards.

structural sizing optimisation was complete, the analysis model was conver ted into a 3D Tekla Structure BIM model, from which all the construction and fabrications drawings were produced (Figure 3). The stadium bowl superstructure

was another colossal development that needed meticulous integration between the structural form with the Mechanical and Electrical systems. Arup used Design Link, an internally developed tool to automate the transfer of foundation

Figure 2: Pre-cast concrete slab panels

SYNERGISTIC DESIGN COLLABORATION Harnessing BIM technology Exemplifying the collaboration from design to build was the extensive use of BIM by all key design stakeholders in the National Stadium. For the stadium roof, a parametric model was built in Digital Projects by Arup Associates, allowing the roof to be quickly assessed structurally and re-defined as the design developed. The parametric Digital Projects model was linked to Arup’s structural analysis software, General Structural Analysis, via bespoke inhouse software. This allowed optimisation of the roof ’s form via varying truss depths, layout, arch rise and other parameters that define its geometry. Once impor ted into General Structural Analysis, the structure was optimised using inhouse software developed specifically for the project, that employed an interactive approach based on ‘Fully Stressed Design’. When the


Figure 3: Feedback loop established for information transfer between architecture, engineering and construction models

Figure 4: Integrating models of openings with architectural and structural model. Image by BYME.


COVER STORY design information from engineering models to the BIM model. This also facilitated the transfer of information between Revit and Excel which BYME, the MEP contractor, was working with. The entire process significantly reduced the time taken to manage this information and ensured the accuracy of data that was being transferred (Figure 4 to Figure 6). Compact yet strong support structures Concrete nodes, also known as thrust blocks, sit atop the ring beam, deftly suppor ting the huge roof. The design and construction of these 20 thrust blocks was the highlight of design integration on the project (Figure 7). The competing demands of the architectural geometry, structural forces and construction methodology provided a huge challenge to the design team. Typically, the size of the concrete blocks suppor ting the large longspan roofs would have been of the order of two to three times the size of the space available in the Singapore Spor ts Hub. To overcome this problem, the design and construction teams worked collaboratively to incorporate all elements of the thrust blocks into the defined geometry, ensuring safety and quality of construction. This process involved extensive 3D modelling of the thrust block elements, as well as one-to-one drawings that facilitated the placement of reinforcement within the complex structural units (Figure 8). The thrust blocks are crucial nodes of intersections, that hide the complexity within but fully suppor t the magnificent roof by restraining the lateral thrusting forces exer ted by it. Though petite in size, they speak volumes for what an integrated design and construction team can produce with dedication and commitment (Figure 9).

Figure 5: Combined structural models for the National Stadium. Image by BYME.

Figure 6: Revit version of the roof combined with the bowl - the Revit version was used to carry out design integration of the MEP. Image by BYME.

Figure 7: Ring beam sections and actions

Figure 8: An isometric view of thrust block reinforcement



COVER STORY spread from pipe penetrations through fire compartment walls. • Use of tensile strength test data on OCBC Square Pedestrian Bridge hangers as par t of the structural fire engineering of bridge. In addition to, and independent of the regulatory requirements in Singapore, Arup employed the use of an internal peer review system to ensure that the design was of the highest integrity. These peer review teams worked remotely but were chosen for their specific technical exper tise in the area most appropriate to the design. They included Steelwork Material Specialists, Mechanical Engineers and Bridge Engineers, who could all bring specific exper tise to technical aspects of the design. Specialist input for Building Physics, Geotechnics, Marine, Fire, Acoustics, AV, Multimedia, Security and Risk, Lighting Design, Moving Structures, Bowl Cooling, Spor ts Lighting, Pedestrian Modelling and Arena Consulting were also used extensively in the design of the project.

DETAILS AND SPECIFICATIONS Figure 9:The image, on top, shows the thrust block under construction while the image, below, shows the completed thrust block.

USE OF COMPETENT PERSONNEL AND TEST DATA The best of Arup, globally, were brought together to design the structurally complex roof and ring beam for the National Stadium. Not only was the work extensive and technically difficult, the integration of these elements into a single structural system required detailed knowledge of both lightweight longspan steelwork design, and post-tensioned concrete design. All performance-based fire engneering submissions were peer reviewed by an independent third par ty, as well as audited by the Sin-


gapore Civil Defence Force (SCDF) as par t of the requirements of the Fire Safety Act. Specialist input and verification test results were incorporated into the design, as in the following instances: • Use of fire test data from supplier to determine the impact of heat from a fire shutter in a design fire (non-insulated) on people evacuation in the concourses. • Use of fire test data and section build-up information for fire-rated enclosure from supplier and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling using Fluent, as part of the consideration of fire and heat


COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN ANALYSIS AND CHECKS The National Stadium roof was analysed using a comprehensive design and analysis optimisation engine that was developed specifically for the project. This engine, which was used alongside the analysis software, enabled the most suitable design to be developed in consideration of the thousands of individual load cases that were required for a large-span roof. Due to the shape and size of the roof structure, a wind tunnel study was under taken by the wind engineers CPP, in Sydney, to accurately determine the wind pressures on the structure. Working closely with CPP, the Arup design team recom-


Figure 10: On left, is the critical ‘simple’ patterned wind loading provided by Arup, while on right, is the corresponding simultaneous wind pressure pattern produced by CPP.

Figure 11: Actual welded roof node

Figure 12: Finite Element Analysis model of roof node

mended adopting an ‘Influence Surface method’ to determine critical simultaneous patterned wind loads across the roof (Figure 10). This method applies the most realistic simultaneous wind loads to the roof analysis and design, to maximise the efficiency of the designed structure and minimise the structural steel tonnage, thus reducing the cost of construction. In this analysis, the time-histories of the wind pressure measured simultaneously over the entire roof, from the wind tunnel tests, are combined with structural weighting functions, or influence surfaces, to determine the highest magnitude and worst pressure distribution that cause critical design scenarios for direct application to the structural analysis.

to use profiled fitting and welding of full tube-to-tube welded joints without stiffener plates or end plates. This required thickened ‘can’ segments of the truss chords to be adopted through joints so that transverse forces from intersecting components could be transferred through connections without stiffener plates being required. These complex tube-to-tube connections required a combination of analysis and design to industry standard ‘CIDECT’ guidelines as well as Finite Element Analysis (FEA), to determine the stress levels in them (Figure 12). The finite element modelling in many cases utilised non-linear justification of the joints to ensure that acceptable stress levels were maintained.

PROJECT-SPECIFIC DETAILS AND SPECIFICATIONS To assist in minimising the overall self-weight of the roof structure, the joints to all trusses were formed as fully welded joints (Figure 11). The steel contractor, Yongnam, elected

DESIGN FOR SAFE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE MAINTAINABILITY OF BUILDING ELEMENTS All of the roofs for the buildings in the Singapore Spor ts Hub were de-

signed with maintainability in mind. This is especially impor tant, given the flexibility requirements for the use of the spaces. For the OCBC Aquatic Centre (Figure 13), the access walkways were integrated into the design of the roof trusses, so that the specialist spor ts lighting could be configured and adjusted from a platform at a safe working height. Similarly, the National Stadium roof has walkways which provide access to all of the lighting and loud speaker installations within the roof volume. This also provides safe access to the outside of the roof, to enable external inspection and maintenance. Over the external profile of the roof, harness points are provided to enable workers to access all par ts of the roof in a safe and controlled manner. DESIGN PROVISIONS FOR ENHANCED OCCUPANT SAFETY AND COMFORT In addition to complying with Singapore’s building regulations, the designs of the National Stadium seating bowl and Aquatic Centre seating were prepared in accordance with the ‘Green Guide’ or Guide to Safety at Spor ts Grounds document prepared by the UK government and updated periodically over the past 40 years. While this document is not prescribed in Singapore, it is recognised as a de-facto global standard for the design of spor ts venues, that takes into account the inputs of spectators, venue operators and par ticipants. One simple application of this standard in the Singapore Spor ts Hub project was in the design of the safety barriers for the seating bowl. The design loads on these barriers extend well beyond the standard 1.0 kN/m applied load and take into account the particular design situations that can arise at sports stadia, thus



COVER STORY providing optimum safety to patrons. The incorporation of bowl cooling in the National Stadium seating is an innovation that stands out for its impressive subtlety as well as its proven performance in providing comfort for spectators. As outlined earlier, plenums were incorporated into the design of the seating plats, enabling the airflow within the plenum to be controlled within the defined space, as well as reducing the potential for maintenance (Figure 14 and Figure 15). The result is a system that provides enhanced relative comfor t to patrons in an energyefficient manner.

CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION QUALITY AND SAFETY The supervision team for the construction of the Singapore Spor ts Hub comprised five Qualified Persons (QPs) for Supervision, a Chief Resident Engineer (CRE), three Senior Resident Engineers (SREs) (two for Concrete Works and one for Steel Works), three Resident Engineers (REs) and up to 20 Resident Technical Officers (RTOs). The primary tasks of the supervision team included the following: • Approval of material submissions • Approval of method statements

Figure 13: Elegant roof structure of the Aquatic Centre - a highly scalable venue with a demountable facade. Image by Darren Soh.

Figure 14: Main duct location under the bleachers. Image by BYME.



• Supervision of piling work • Inspection and approval of work before concreting • Maintenance of records of inspections • Supervision of concreting works • Recording of all repairs to defective structural works • Maintenance of Quality Control records of materials used • Checking of steel fabrication work before erection • Maintenance of instrumentation and monitoring repor ts QP(ST)’S DESIGN MANAGEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION METHODS The QP (ST) carried out extensive modelling and analysis of an erection sequence to demonstrate that the roof of the National Stadium could be erected safely and economically. This was extended through liaison with the Steel Contractor’s Construction Engineering Consultant so that an agreed set of monitoring points could be determined for the roof, that would be surveyed and checked against predicted movements during de-propping. These surveyed movements were compared with predicted movements at several stages through the de-propping process, to ensure that the roof structure behaved as predicted. Similarly, Arup carried out analysis of the movements of the posttensioned ring beam to establish what radial movements would take place at key stages of construction,

Figure 15:Air distribution at the fixed tiers. Image by BYME.

COVER STORY such as during pre-stressing, after roof construction and after roof depropping, in order to ensure longterm stability. The ring beam was monitored throughout these stages and the actual movements were compared with predicted values. The results indicated that all movements were less than predicted. Prior to the erection of temporary works, the QP (ST) would review the imposed loads of these works on permanent structures. This was to ensure that there were no adverse effects on the permanent structures. Yongnam also installed extensive working platforms within the roof steel structure for assembly and welding of the steel splice joints, to significantly reduce the risk to staff who were working at that height (Figure 16). The Arup design team carried out significant analysis of the effects of concrete shrinkage and thermal movements of the National Stadium concrete bowl structures, at Level 1 and the suspended superstructure levels. In order to eliminate movement joints in the Level 1 slab and therefore reduce complexity, Arup carried out detailed finite element modelling of the effects of shrinkage on this slab and provided additional slab reinforcement to limit and distribute cracking in the slabs. Similarly at the upper suspended levels (Level 2 to Level 7) of the concrete bowl structure, Arup carried out finite element modelling of the effects of concrete shrinkage and thermal variations to minimise the number of radial movement joints required. Only four radial movement joints were adopted in the entire bowl structure, thereby reducing risk in installation. The QP(ST) for the Aquatic Centre and Arena ensured that structural adequacy was met by scrutinising the construction access needs required by cranes. This involved limiting the size of cranes entering the site and in close proximity to

the basement structure (to avoid overloading the sub-structures). QP(ST)’S SUPERVISION PROGRAMME Arup built a Resident Site Staff (RSS) team whose members had comprehensive experience and were competent for the technical challenges of the project. The team was large enough to provide comprehensive supervision across all aspects of the construction. The RSS provided a body of experience and potential for mentorship that enabled the team to op-

erate effectively across such a large project. The RTOs was organised by the CRE and were based on site to inspect all of the construction works. Additionally, inspectors were placed at the Yongnam fabrication yards in both Tuas, Singapore and Johor Bahru, Malaysia. The team followed comprehensive procedures which were outlined in the Arup Project Execution Plan for site works. This outlined the roles and responsibilities for all parties within the RSS team, and the procedures for the gathering and recording of inspection information.

Figure 16:Working platforms installed within the roof structure (indicated in red in the image)



COVER STORY A key requirement of the Arup RSS team was the reporting of safety risks on site. This was proactively undertaken by the RE team, ably supported by the RTO team, who highlighted issues to Dragages on a prompt and cooperative basis. In the positive spirit of the project, Dragages was proactive in addressing concerns raised by the RSS team, which contributed to the outstanding safety record of the Singapore Sports Hub project. The Arup team was committed to a high standard of safety, as demonstrated by the involvement of the QPs, QP Supervisors and Project Manager in fortnightly meetings with the RSS team to highlight any accidents, suspected foul play and non-compliance. In a systematic manner, minutes of the meetings were taken and circulated, and lists of non-conformance issues were monitored via an elaborate schedule.

PUBLIC SAFETY ENSURING SAFETY AND A CLEAN ENVIRONMENT As the construction of the Singapore Sports Hub was carried out at a site in close proximity to an operational MRT and the Kallang Basin, safety was of paramount importance to the management of the construction. Approval was obtained from the Land Transport Authority (LTA) for the safe operation of all fixed and

mobile cranes within the rail corridor. Standing supervision was put in place for all cranes lifting over the MRT first reserve. Continuous automated monitoring systems were installed in the MRT station and tunnels to monitor any impact from the construction, with negligible movements observed. Close communication with authorities To ensure the life safety of workers, close consultations were held with the Ministry of Manpower (MOM) and LTA, to assess the risks on site and best practices, to prevent incidents. A comprehensive health, safety and environmental risk register, which included a range of preventive measures that can be taken, was also established and made available to site staff so that they would be made aware. All ‘close calls’ were registered, and accidents, investigated by Safety Officers, many of whom were of senior rank. Arup also took part in regular site safety meetings with Dragages. STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS WITH MINIMAL IMPACT ON NEIGHBOURHOOD Protecting the Kallang Basin The Singapore Sports Hub site has a long interface with the freshwater Kallang Basin. It was of vital importance to minimse any disruption to the quality of water and existing

water edge assets. Acknowledging this, the design deliberately avoided impacting on the existing seawall by keeping all structures separate. This meant that the basin was not disrupted by the construction work along the water edge. All images by Arup, unless otherwise stated.


The National Stadium is a 55,000-seat sports venue, air-cooled for comfort and designed with a moveable roof and retractable seating.




Failure modes for RC columns subjected to blast loadings that must be considered in design by John E Crawford, Karagozian & Case Inc, and Kenneth B Morrill In designing RC columns to resist blast loads, several different kinds of failure modes must be considered. Which modes are of concern in a particular design scenario depends on both the design chosen and the blast threats considered. Unlike conventional design, considerable column damage can be incurred in a blast loading scenario and still be acceptable as a design. This gives rise to the need to characterise column damage in terms of residual axial capacity, a more specific and difficult form of column response to compute, as opposed to the more common form of limit criteria related to lateral deformation limits (eg in the form of an allowable ductility or support rotation). This situation results because the residual capacity of an RC column, especially large ones, does not correlate well with a metric like ductility, and larger columns (in a blast environment) are likely to exhibit little in the way of a conventional flexure response. Moreover, the material damage alone (ie without much in the way of lateral deflection) imparted by the blast can cause such a column to lose much of its axial strength if confinement is insufficient. Considerations pertaining to the effects of material damage and localised response, which are pertinent in realistic bomb scenarios, make it all the more important to use a damage metric such as residual axial capacity, as well as develop analytic tools that are able to compute it. Furthermore, many of the response modes of an RC column that might be caused by blast are, at best, poorly captured with conventional analysis models (eg single degree-of-freedom models), because of their focus on flexural behaviours. In this article, examples are shown of the key response and failure modes observed in blast tests by way of illustrating that the design of blast-resistant RC columns, as well as their testing and analysis, requires considerable experience and skill.


For some reinforced concrete (RC) framing system designs, the columns are expected to exhibit some level of blast resistance, and in spite of any damage imparted, continue to play their role in supporting the framing system. In this regard, most of the efforts to develop design procedures to enhance the blast-resistance of RC columns have focused on flexure response and the failure modes associated with it. In this vein, single degreeof-freedom and other simple forms of response models [eg the beam element models generated using the finite element (FE) method] are commonly used to evaluate a column’s blast effects response, even though as shown in this article, columns are not likely to respond in a simple flexure

mode even if bending is the dominant response. The problem for these simplified models is two-fold: (1) that such flexure-centric response considerations are often irrelevant to the performance of RC columns subjected to blast loads and (2) they require the use of some form of external failure criteria (eg those listed in Table 1). Moreover, even when flexure responses predominate, these simplified models have serious deficiencies since they often fail to capture key behaviours likely to manifest in RC columns under blast loadings, including compression-membrane effects, the influence of confinement on concrete strength and ductility, variations in loading which usually is much higher at the column’s base, rate effects,

direct shear and the damage caused to the concrete by the shock front. In this, much of the damage imparted by a blast is related to the extensive fracturing of the concrete impacted directly by the shock front and/or the diagonal shear cracks resulting from arresting the velocity imparted to the column by the blast load. In other words, the blast loading is usually dissipated before the column experiences much deformation and as such the column’s response is largely related to arresting its motion which at the outset is largely governed by rigid body dynamics. In this, if insufficient confinement is present (eg not enough ties), the fracturing is likely to result in a nearly complete loss of axial resistance (as was the case for the column shown in Figure 1).




Value for Failure Criteria Taken from Sources Cited, Given in Order Published FACEDAP


Air Force [2]

ASCE [3]

UFC 4-023-03 [4] UFC 3-340-02 [5] Blast Effects [6]

Handbook [7]

Date Published





















θ = 2º

2º, 4º

θ = 2º-5º

Column bending:


Axial: 1.5

Axial: 4%



Table 1. Comparison of external failure criteria for RC beams and columns. External criteria are commonly used in conjunction with simplified analytic models to establish acceptable response states.These criteria are generally stated using the following forms: μ = ductility, θ = support rotation, δ / L= ratio of deflection to a member’s principal dimension. Such criteria are not employed in high-fidelity physics-based (HFPB) finite element models which model failure explicitly.

The early blast effects studies of column performance (ie starting in the mid-1990s [8]) focused on techniques to improve their blast resistance (ie as compared to the column shown in Figure 1), which was accomplished using techniques originally developed for improving seismic performance. In this, two blast tests were conducted on the same column under the same blast load, as shown in Figure 1, except now one was retrofitted with a steel jacket (Figure 2c) and another with six layers of CFRP hoop wrap and vertical CFRP strips (Figure 2d). Both retrofitted columns responded in a nearly elastic manner. These tests and many of the subsequent tests were for a 14-inch square column with eight #8 bars for vertical reinforcement and ties at a spacing of 12¾ inches. The success in these tests gave rise to a more extensive test programme using blast (as depicted in Figure 3) and quasi-static loadings (as depicted in Figure 4) to study the effects of different retrofit designs and to develop design and the analysis tools for assessing the blast resistance of RC columns. Some results from the quasi-static tests are shown in Figure 5b and summarised in Table 2, which clearly indicate the marked addition to resistance that resulted from using CFRP hoop wrap [Test 2 (two-layers CFRP), Test 3 (six-layers CFRP), and Test 10 (four-layers CFRP)], especially as compared to the response of the bare columns (Tests 4 and 5). This work led to the development of


a design tool [16] to generate blastresistant columns, and data obtained, provided the means to validate K&C’s (Karagozian & Case) HFPB FE models for computing the response of RC columns to blast loads [9-14]. The specimens used in these tests were similar in design to the columns shown in Figure 1, but used a special detail at their supports (Figure 5a) so that their support conditions would mimic their being embedded in a framing system. This development of a design for column specimens was a crucial aspect of the test programme, which allowed for testing columns in a stand-alone configuration (Figure 3) rather than as part of a framing system (Figure 1). To accomplish this, it was important to find a way to support the column in a manner similar to the support condition it would have in an actual framing system (Figure 1), and even more importantly, avoid creating response/failure behaviours that were not representative of actual columns. Similar concerns have arisen in other blast tests when only a component is to be tested separately from the structural system within which it is embedded.This experience and the experience from hundreds of blast effects analyses using HFPB FE models of RC components and systems led to the sort of column support design that is shown in Figure 5a, which was added to the ends of the column. All of these tests (Figures 1 to 4) considered VBIED (Vehicle-Borne Improvised Explosive Device) type loads (ie at stand-offs of the order


of a typical column’s height and relatively large in size). To assess the performance of RC columns for PBIEDs (Person-Borne Improvised Explosive Devices), two other series of tests were conducted to assess the phenomenology associated with RC column response resulting from contact and near-contact detonations. Some results from these tests are presented in Figure 6. These tests revealed quite a different phenomenology than that observed in Figures 1 to 4, in that the close-in charges caused extensive and pervasive fractures in all the concrete in the vicinity of the blast. The resulting fragments varied in size from quite small for close-in stand-offs to fairly large chunks, as shown in Figure 6h. When sufficient confinement is present, these fragments may be held in place (as shown in Figure 6c) trapped within the rebar cage, while, if not, they may be blown away (Figure 6d). For the kinds of loading depicted in Figures 1 to 3 and as verified by observation of the column shown in Figures 1b/c, a key difference in the response mode imparted to an RC column by a blast, as compared to a static load, may be seen in the process zone which commences at a column’s support and migrates toward the column’s centre until the motion stops or the rebars break. In this, the column moves laterally as a rigid body at the outset at a velocity around I/m (ie the impulse of the blast divided by the mass of the column). In this, at least initially, the centre of the column remains relatively flat until either

CIVIL & STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING a shear failure (eg as shown Figure 1c) or yielding in flexure occurs (eg as shown in Figure 3c). Thus, the sort of shear damage depicted in Figure 1c starts at the support and moves over a few milliseconds towards the centre of the column until its rigid body motion is stopped. In a blast environment, RC columns are unlikely to act similarly to beams in their performance and the failure modes of most concern are likely to be quite different from those of concern for RC beams. Moreover, the key metric pertaining to the degradation of a column resulting from a blast loading is loss of axial capacity, which usually cannot be inferred from the lateral deflection of the column, as is implied by the continued use of ductility as damage criteria (Table 1). Furthermore, many column responses to blast are not well addressed with bending theory (eg as shown in Figures 3c/d/e), especially so for columns having large cross sections (Figure 3d).


A clear picture of RC column behaviours has emerged from the data garnered from the extensive series of tests described above, which were conducted by K&C over the last 20 years [9-17] to assess RC column performance in severe blast environments (ie more than 50 tests of full scale columns). RC COLUMN TEST RESULTS The wide array of data collected by K&C pertaining to the behaviours observed in tests of RC columns, and the verification of these behaviours in analytic studies conducted on HFPB FE models, provide a comprehensive and detailed picture of the kinds of behaviours likely to be encountered by RC columns subjected to blast effects loads. This data also depicts the complexities and types of modelling that need to be incorporated into the analyses that might be used to assess a column’s performance under a blast load, or to develop a design for a col-

umn for a specific blast resistance. All of these tests were performed on full-scale column specimens that included specimens that had both close and wide tie spacing, were bare (ie non-retrofitted) and retrofitted with FRP and steel jackets, and employed cross sections ranging in size from 1 foot to 3 feet. In many of these tests, the axial capacity of the column was measured after the test to definitively assess the level of degradation incurred (eg for a column like the one shown in Figure 3d, it is not obvious that it can still carry a large load). Of particular importance in these tests, was the use of full-scale specimens and boundary conditions reflective of the column’s placement in an actual structural system. These are key aspects of the test protocol and are crucial to the ability to obtain results with sufficient fidelity to the actual behaviours of columns when hit with VBIEDs or PBIEDs. The data pertaining to column behaviours, which were alluded to in the Introduction, represents results from four kinds of tests (Figures 1 to 6): • Building tests (Figures 1 and 2): These RC column tests were conducted using ground floor columns of an actual building (Figure 1a) which was designed by K&C to mimic a typical nonseismic flat-slab framing system. These tests are unique in that the columns were par t of an actual framing system (ie as compared to the component tests cited below). This data provided assurance that the setup used for the component tests (Figure 3) truly reflects the response, were the column embedded in an actual structural framing system. • CTRS tests (Figure 3):The column test reaction structure (CTRS) was designed [14-16] to provide a way to perform blast tests on RC columns at a much lower cost [ie as compared to the tests conducted when the column was

par t of the framing system (Figure 2)]. As such, CTRS provided a device to restrain the lateral and rotational motions at the top and base of the column, while still allowing an axial load to be applied so that the constraints and forces on the column would mimic those, had the column been par t of an actual building. • Powell Lab tests (Figure 4): Quasi-static tests were conducted in the lab using the same form of column specimen (Figure 5a) as used in the CTRS tests [11]. Here, the interest was in directly measuring the lateral load-resistance behaviour of the column and the effect of the inplane force impar ted to the column by the lateral deformation which is shown in Figure 5b. The lateral loads were applied using three hydraulic rams that were controlled in such a way as to apply the same force as would occur in a blast test, which was intended to mimic the uniform manner in which a blast might load a column. The column was constrained in rotation and laterally at its top and bottom suppor ts. An initial axial load of 100 kips was applied to the top of the column, and then its axial motion was constrained so as not to change during the test. Test parameters and results are listed in Table 2. • Tests on columns subjected to PBIED blast loads (Figure 6): Several forms of PBIED tests were conducted. In some situations, the same kind of full height column specimen, as used in the VBIED tests (Figure 3), was used, while in other tests, half-height columns were tested. The CTRS was used to hold many of columns in place, as shown in Figure 6. Documentation for these tests may be found in K&C reports [14-16]. The data from these tests was crucial in obtaining an understanding




Number of wraps

Initial Axial Load [kips]

Axial Restraint







Deflection at FRP Rupture, Inches (mm) Measured



4.6 (116.8)

3.8 (96.5)



9.01 (228.6)

9.01 (228.6)












6.7 (170.2)

6.5 (165.1)

Table 2. Description of quasi-static tests of 121-inch tall 14-inch square RC columns (eight #8 vertical bars and ties at 12¾-inch); test setup shown in Figure 4a [14]. 1 Both test and calculation stopped before failure of the FRP. Here, comparisons of the forces would seem more relevant (see Figure 5b).

of RC column behaviours, sufficient enough to develop the design and analysis capability needed for RC columns loaded by blast. Because of the complexities of RC column behaviours under blast loads and the clearly different regimes of RC column response that may result, several forms of column response and failure modes may need to be considered. Moreover, the behaviours caused by VBIED and PBIED threats are generally quite different. Failure modes for VBIED threats, while often global in nature, can be quite localised if the stand-off is significantly less than the column’s height, which is important since such localised responses are difficult to analytically capture without using HFPB FE models composed of solid elements. Generally, the response to the PBIED loads is quite localised and confined to the immediate vicinity of the explosive, as is illustrated in Figures 6c/d. Examples of bomb scenarios and response data illustrative of key response behaviours and failure modes for RC columns are presented in Figures 1 to 6. These figures depict the kinds of blast events and RC column response and failure modes that are associated with both VBIED and PBIED threats. COLUMN RESPONSE/ FAILURE MODES PERTAINING TO VBIED LOADS For VBIED threats, the deficiencies in blast resistance commonly found in extant RC columns are primarily related to a lack of confinement, generally as a result of too few ties,


or in the case of an FRP retrofit, not enough layers to carry the tensile load imparted by the shear dilatancy that is usually exhibited at the columns' bottom support. This dearth of reinforcement leads to columns that are likely to fall far short of their potential capability and perform poorly under a blast, as a result of a premature loss of axial strength related to diagonal shear modes of failure or general loss of cohesion because of the extensive fracturing imparted to the concrete. In other words, under a blast loading, otherwise well-designed RC columns could respond in a quite nonductile fashion and exhibit a severe loss of axial load carrying ability. For example, as illustrated in Figures 1b/c and 3b, a diagonal shear failure occurred over a fairly wide zone near the column’s supports because of an insufficiency in the number of ties, causing catastrophic damage to the column. In a similar vein, the retrofitted column shown in Figure 3e failed due to an insufficient number of layers of FRP. In marked contrast, where sufficient confinement and shear capacity exist, the same column under the same blast loading can exhibit a very high blast resistance and a fully ductile response, as shown in Figures 3c and 4b. The column shown in Figure 3c used a CFRP hoop wrap to obtain the needed confinement - vertical FRP for the most part is unwarranted. In this regard, it is important to realise that the confinement (in this instance provided by just the FRP hoop wrap) is a crucial ingredient to developing resilient and blast-resistant columns, and that the shear-dilatancy


behaviours that result at the column’s supports under the deformation imparted by the blast, actually markedly add to the ductility expressed by the column (this phenomena is discussed in detail elsewhere [14]). A demonstration of the kinds of large-scale responses that a wellconfined column with sufficient shear capacity can exhibit and still carry its axial demand load is illustrated by the quasi-static response obtained in the lab tests shown in Figure 4b. In this case, the confinement and needed shear capacity is supplied by six layers of CFRP hoop wrap which affords a very important means of enhancing the blast resistance of existing RC columns. Similar results can be observed in blast tests (Figure 3c). These kinds of ductile flexure responses tend to require the column to have a relatively large aspect ratio (ie the ratio of the column’s height to its depth), which allows the column to yield in bending ahead of reaching a form of shear failure. Also, as the column becomes larger, it may be advantageous to obtain the plastic part of the response from the crushing of the concrete of the girder it frames into, rather than from the tensile plasticity of the reinforcement. An example of this kind of ductility (ie due to crushing of the concrete instead of yielding of the rebar) is shown in Figure 2e, which is at the top support of the column shown in Figure 1d. Such a mechanism provides an alternative means (ie to steel yielding) to achieve some form of ductile flexure behaviour for the column. continued on Page 25


(a) Typical settings used to conduct VBIED blast effects tests of RC columns embedded in the framing system of a building

(b) Test 11 for column response, tensile membrane, residual capacity < 10%.

(c) Close-up of Test 11 for column response shows diagonal shear cracks.

Figure 1: Example typical of the kinds of diagonal shear failure modes that can be anticipated for reinforced concrete columns struck by a blast load.

(a) Post-test view of framing system.

(c) Post-test view of column retrofit of steel jacket (Test 12).

(b) Post-test view of non-retrofitted column (Test 11).

(d) Post-test view of column retrofit with composite wrap (Test 13).

(e) Crushing of spandrel beam that occurred in Test 13.

Figure 2. Results for Tests 11 to 13, which were performed on 14-inch square columns with the same design (except for retrofits), using the same blast loading.These tests exhibited the two of the most likely behaviour results from a VBIED blast - the brittle diagonal shear failure and ductile flexure response.




(a) Setup for blast tests on columns at CTRS site.

(c) Test 21 response. Here, six layers of CFRP hoop wrap is used for same load and column as shown in Figure 3b.

(b) Results from Test 20. This is the same specimen as shown in Figure 1b.

(d) Results from Test 30, 3ft square, non-retrofitted.

(e) CTEST22 (2 layers of CFRP). This column failed because the CFRP had insufficient strength, compared to Figure 3c, same load, different number of layers.

(f) CTEST22 close-up of FRP failure which occurred just at the base because of an insufficient number of FRP layers.

Figure 3. Responses from VBIED blast effect tests on RC columns.These columns held in place with the column Test Reaction Structure which was designed to test columns having boundary conditions similar to those manifested in columns embedded in a framing system (eg as shown in Figure 1a).

Link beams for controlling rotation at top of column and measuring applied moment Column test specimen Load plates

Three 165 kip actuators

Reaction wall

Tie down floor

(a) Schematic of setup used at Powell Laboratory at UCSD to perform quasi-static column tests to measure the resistance of RC columns to uniformly applied lateral loads.

(b) Lab test of square column showing the large amount of bending possible for well confined concrete (here, accomplished with only CFRP hoop wrap). Even at this large deformation, the columns are still carrying the full axial gravity loading.

Horizontal tie down

Figure 4. Setup used at Powell Laboratory at UCSD to perform quasi-static column tests to measure the resistance of RC columns to uniformly applied lateral loads.Two actuators for applying initial axial load, holding a constant axial displacement throughout the test.




(a) Example of the kinds of specimens used in quasi-static tests conducted at the Powell Lab and for many of the blast tests performed using CTRS.

(b) Results for Test 1 to Test 6 and Test 10. Lateral loads are represented with a heavy line and are plotted on the positive vertical axis. Vertical loads are represented with lighter lines and plotted on the negative vertical axis. No FRP failure occurred even though Test 3 deflection were run out to more than 9 inches.

Figure 5: Results from quasi-static tests RC results.




(a) Pretest setup for bare columns and subjected to PBIED.

(d) Breach: without sufficient confinement only air remains.

(b) Typical PBIED threat that can be easily mitigated with steel jacket.

(e) Typical of capability afforded by steel jacket retrofits. Damage is largely limited to a large dent.

(g) Close-up of base of column shown in Figure 6d.

Figure 6. Examples of responses generated by small close-in charges, CTRS used to support columns.



(c) Partial breach: close tie spacing helps keep concrete from flying off for smaller PBIED threats.

(f) Overall response: the vertical rebar broke at base of column, this column unlike the rest shown (ie in Figures 1 to 4) had only four #6 rebars rather than the eight #8 rebars in the other columns.

(h) Typical of the debris generated from the breakup of the columnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s concrete core in the vicinity of a near contact detonation.


When the confinement is insufficient to achieve a fully ductile flexure response, then a diagonal shear failure mode is likely, as was shown in Figures 1c and 3b. However, as illustrated by the column response shown in Figure 3d, diagonal shear response though appearing serious can, when sufficient confinement is present, be an acceptable form of response to a blast load, since as in this case, there is sufficient axial capacity remaining to carry the framing system load. This conclusion results from the realisation that flexure capacity generally has little to do with a column’s loss of axial resistance. Moreover, even columns that appear highly damaged can continue to exhibit high levels of axial capacity if designed with sufficient confinement. The effect of confinement on concrete strength and its ability to absorb deformation is observed in triaxial tests of concrete specimens. For example, a concrete with an unconfined strength of 6,500 psi and a confinement stress of 5,000 psi would exhibit a strength of 23,000 psi and the ability to absorb perhaps 100 times as much energy as an unconfined specimen. A more extensive discussion concerning such concrete properties and the modelling of them can be found elsewhere [13]. In a recent paper [14], it was demonstrated that shear-dilatancy played a key role in the realisation of ductility exhibited by FRP wrapped columns (Figure 5b). Moreover, it showed that the shear resistance provided by FRP provides little enhancement to a column’s ductility and therefore is not the chief mechanism by which FRP enhances the resilience exhibited by an RC column. Classic column failure modes The most common catastrophic failure mode for an RC column is likely to be the diagonal shear failure (as exhibited in Figure 1c). Probably less likely is the failure mode associated with a ductile flexure response (ie columns are often designed such that they are not fully ductile under lateral

loading since this is not commonly a requirement of conventional design). The ductile flexure type of failure modes are exemplified by performances such as those shown in Figures 2c/d, 3c and 4b and by a rather ductile P-T type of failure, where with increasing lateral deflection, the axial resistance gradually decreases. Many of the response curves shown in Figure 5b indicate the highly ductile nature of the P-T effect with its gradual diminution in the column’s axial load capacity. The flexure response modes for many RC columns must also include compression-membrane effects (ie as shown in the test data depicted in Figure 5b), which can markedly magnify the column’s blast resistance, but also significantly enhance the column’s shear demand over that when just the column’s plastic moment capacity is considered. Closely associated with ductile flexure modes are failures due to a lack of confinement capacity, such as shown in Figures 3e/f, or lack of shear resistance such as shown in Figures 1c and 3b. Another complex response mode is the combined flexure-shear response shown in Figure 3d. Non-classic failure modes Some column failure modes that may be overlooked and perhaps unfamiliar to some (ie as compared to the diagonal shear type of brittle failure mode, as shown in Figure 1c) include those failures related to direct shear, a form of design error, material degradation, and response modes that look awful (Figure 3c), yet the column can still carry large loads. The direct shear response is rarely considered as a failure mode for a column. However, such modes and this failure mode are likely to be of more concern as the possibility of this form of failure is better appreciated. Such a failure mode is likely to be more prevalent as the size and strength of RC columns become larger, for various architectural layouts related to large exposed columns, and for retrofitting of existing columns

with steel jackets. A rare example of direct shear failure obtained in a blast test is depicted in Figure 6f/g. Here, the failure is related to the behaviour induced by a steel jacket that was used to enhance the blast resistance of a relatively small column. In this instance, too much bending stiffness was added by the jacket, which enhanced the direct shear demand so much that the four #6 bars (ie at the column’s base) could not carry the direct shear force into the support (see Figure 6g). Another more subtle failure concern pertains to ignoring the enhanced lateral resistance afforded by compression-membrane behaviour, which is a form of design error. This omission would enhance the risk of the occurrence of diagonal/shear failure, since ignoring the compressionmembrane enhancement of the flexure resistance could result in a gross underestimate of the shear demand. This is likely to be quite a common error for RC columns of high-rise buildings subjected to a blast, since few designers seem to have been exposed to this form of behaviour. Finally, of special concern is a failure mode involving the sudden loss of the column’s axial capacity caused by the extensive cracking imparted to the column’s concrete core by an intense blast. This is another major form of brittle failure (ie besides diagonal shear), which presents a potentially serious risk pertaining to the catastrophic loss of axial capacity caused by the cracking of the column’s concrete core by the blast pulse. Of particular concern are the catastrophic failures that may occur when the concrete core is cracked by an intense blast, when carrying a high compression load and has insufficient confinement. The blast response of the relatively large column (~ 3-foot square) shown in Figure 3d is indicative of the sorts of complications that this kind of RC column represents. The combined flexure-shear behaviour exhibited makes the use of HFPB FE mod-



CIVIL & STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING els mandatory to determine when the column is too damaged to fulfill its function in the framing system. Responses typical of PBIED threats The damage resulting from a PBIED bomb scenario can be quite devastating to a wide spectrum of RC columns. In this regard, the design of such columns is critical to the ability to continue to carry their service loads. Examples demonstrating the kinds of risks emanating from such a threat are given in Figure 6. Depending on the size and stand-off of a charge, the concrete opposite the charge may be completely blown away (eg as shown in Figure 6d) or be highly fractured but remains within the rebar cage (eg as shown in Figure 6c). Even when the concrete core appears to remain intact, as shown in Figure 6c, it may be so severely fractured that its cohesive strength is quite low and may be unable to support the column’s axial loading. The basic damage mechanism in these situations is the pervasive fracturing of the concrete caused by the shock front, which as indicated in Figure 6h can result in the rubblisation of the column’s concrete core. The use of HFPB FE models is mandatory to assess these situations. By way of creating a means to design columns for these situations, K&C built a simplified design tool [17] based on virtual data produced by the HFPB models to compute the residual capacity of a column as a function of charge size and stand-off. Importance of confinement A means to effectuate a high degree of confinement can be used to protect an RC column from most blast threats. The benefit of this has been demonstrated in several of the tests shown, for example, the columns shown in Figures 2c/d, 3c, and 6e, where a steel jacket or FRP wrap is used to prevent the sort of damage shown in Figures 1, 3b, and 4d. The nearly 30 tests run to assess responses and mitigation measures


pertaining to PBIED loads have demonstrated that a ½-inch thick steel jacket performs well in such environments if its vertical seam weld is placed near a 3- to 4-inch wide shallow vertical groove cut on the inside face of the plate, otherwise the weld is just fractured by the intense shock front. FRP wrap may also be used, but is less universally acceptable than the steel jacket. However, steel jacketing can inadvertently introduce another form of failure, the direct shear failure shown in Figures 6f/g. While this failure is quite rare, such circumstances as exhibited by the response of the column retrofit as shown in Figure 6f/g that had little in the way of vertical reinforcement (ie only four #6 bars) needed to prevent direct shear failures, may allow such failures. In this situation, better alternatives would have been the addition of some reinforcement or a design that allowed for more local deformation at the column’s base. The benefits of confinement are clearly exhibited as shown in Figure 6e with respect to keeping the concrete relatively intact, even for PBIEDs in contact with the jacket. In this case, the jacket surrounded the same type of 14-inch column as shown in Figures 1-4, and the dent is largely due to the grout (ie in the interstices between the jacket and the column) that was shifted out of the way, nearly 7 inches in this case (when the jacket was removed the grout remained intact, albeit in a weakened state, while the column itself appeared undamaged). The effects of confinement are profoundly important for columns subjected to a blast, both from VBIEDs and PBIEDs. However, to effectively realise these effects, the designer (or the design tools) must be able to compute the force needed in the confining reinforcement. As indicated by the FRP failure shown in the blast test responses depicted in Figure 3e, not doing so can cause a failure in the reinforcement (ie in this case, the FRP). This tension failure


response was also exhibited in the quasi-static responses shown in Figure 5b, and the tensile load imparted to the FRP was clearly demonstrated to be related to shear dilatancy in analytic studies reported by Crawford [14]. Analytic tools that predict these sorts of FRP failures accurately must be able to correctly account for the effects of shear-dilatancy, which is not the case for most analysis tools [14], but can be done, as demonstrated by Crawford [14] using the K&C concrete model [15] embedded in LSDYNA - the results from LS-DYNA are shown in Table 2. Atypical responses Besides the two categories of response just mentioned (ie related to VBIED and PBIED threats), a third category of response behaviours needs consideration. This category generally is related to large VBIEDs placed in near proximity to a large column. Here a quite localised, nonlinear material response and potentially catastrophic failure may result, as a result of extensive micro-cracking and having reinforcement inadequate to provide the needed confinement, but may leave little in the way of visible evidence. In marked contrast to this concern is the situation where a fairly complex localised flexure-shear behaviour ensues (eg as shown in Figure 3d) that even though appearing quite catastrophic, it is sufficiently well confined that the column can still meet its axial force demand. With regard to these circumstances, large building and bridge columns may be expected to be of most concern, depending on their properties and the particular blast scenarios involved. The point here is that for tall and large columns, some form of mixed response may occur (eg similar in nature to that shown in Figure 3d) and may even be quite localised. These blast-related behaviours, which are somewhere between the global behaviours associated with VBIEDs and the highly localised behaviours associated with PBIEDs, may be difficult

CIVIL & STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING to capture with engineering models. Large RC columns may also fail at ductilities less than one when their confinement design is inadequate.


The tests cited in this article produced several key findings related to the kinds of response/failure modes that might occur for RC columns subjected to blast loads. Four distinct response modes were found: • Flexure modes • Diagonal shear modes • Direct shear modes • Various forms of response/failure modes related to the damage imparted to the concrete by the shock front of the blast (eg breach failures, loss of axial capacity) In these tests, data were obtained for both localised and global response and failure modes, and for both large and small amounts of explosives. These tests demonstrated that RC columns can exhibit remarkably robust resistance to both large and close-in blast if designed appropriately. They also demonstrated that design/analysis approaches that only consider flexure forms of response are woefully inadequate in designing robust RC columns under most realistic blast threats. Also found was that global or localised response/failure modes may dominate depending on the blast and service loadings, and the design of the columns and the structural system. This test data also was crucial to validating the HFPB FE analysis tools. However, in generating these models, care is needed, especially with the modelling of the shear-dilatancy behaviours. HFPB FE models are of particular importance in assessing RC column performance in many of the circumstances associated with blast effects responses of RC columns; many of these are so unusual as to make it inappropriate to use the simplified engineering models. Perhaps of even more importance, these HFPB models are crucial in evaluating the capability and domain of applicability of the sort of simplified engineering models

that are commonly used in design/assessment studies. Finally, these models are important for setting up effective blast and laboratory test protocols, since agreement between pre-test predictions and measured response is the only sure way to assess the quality of the conclusions. Designing blast-resistant RC columns cannot be accomplished unless due consideration is given to the sorts of responses that are likely to occur, of which many are depicted in this article. In this regard, it is important to note that in most instances, simplified design tools, such as the SDOF models and the use of external failure criteria, such as the ductility and deformation limits shown in Table 1, provide little in the way of useful information about a column’s performance under a significant blast loading. REFERENCES [1] ‘Facility and Component Explosive Damage Assessment Program (FACEDAP): Theory Manual, version 1.2’, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Omaha District, Protective Design Mandatory Center of Expertise, Technical Report No 92-2, May 1994. [2] Drake J L et al, Protective Construction Design Manual, Report ESL-TR-87-57, Air Force Engineering and Services Center,Tyndall Air Force Base, FL, November 1989. [3] Conrath E J,T Krauthammer, K A Marchand and P F Mlaker (Task Committee), Structural Design for Physical Security State of the Practice, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Virginia, 1999. [4] UFC 4-023-03 Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) Design of Buildings to Resist Progressive Collapse Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited’, 25 January 2005. [5] UFC 3-340-02 (2008) United Facilities Criteria (UFC) Structures to Resist the Effects of Accidental Explosions. [6] Krauthammer T (2008): ‘Modern protective structures’, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. [7] Dusenberry D O (2010): ‘Handbook for blast-resistant design of buildings’, John Wiley & Sons Inc. [8] Crawford J E, Wesevich J W, Valancius J and Reynolds A D: “Evaluation of Jacketed Columns as a Means to Improve the Resistance of Conventional Structures to Blast Effects”, Proceedings of the 66th Shock and Vibration Symposium, October 1995. [9] Crawford J E, Malvar L J, Dunn B W and Gee D J: “Retrofit of Reinforced Concrete Columns Using Composite Wraps to Resist

Blast Effects”, Proceedings of the 27th Department of Defense Explosive Safety Seminar, DoD Explosive Safety Board, August 1996. [10] Crawford J E, Malvar L J and Morrill K B: “Design Procedures for Retrofitting Columns of Existing Reinforced Concrete Buildings Subjected to Blast Loads”, Proceedings of the Architectural Surety Conference, Washington D C, October 1999. [11] Hegemier G A, Seible F, Rodriguez-Nikl T, Lee C, Budek A M, Dieckmann L and Morrill K B: ‘Results from Laboratory Tests of Rectangular Nonretrofitted Reinforced Concrete Columns: Tests 1-6 and Test 10’, Karagozian & Case, Burbank, CA, TR-03-17, July 2003. [12] Lan S, Crawford J E and Xin X: ‘Assessment of Blast Resistance of Large Bridge Columns and the Effectiveness of Retrofitting Them with CFRP’, Proceedings of the Third Asia-Pacific Specialty Conference on Fiber Reinforced Materials Incorporating FRC, FRP, and Others, Changsha, China, November 2003. [13] Crawford J E, Wu Y, Magallanes J M and Lan S (2012): ‘Modeling of concrete materials under extreme loads’, pp 1-32. In Hong Hao & ZhongXian Li (Ed), Advances in Protective Structures Research. London, UK. CRC Press/Balkema. [14] Crawford J E, Wu Y, Magallanes J M and Choi H J: ‘The Importance of Shear-dilatancy Behaviors’, for the International Journal of Protective Structures, September 2013. [15] Crawford J E, Wu Y, Magallanes J M, Choi H J and Lan S: ‘Use and Validation of the Release III K&C Concrete Material Model in LSDYNA’, Karagozian & Case, Burbank, CA, TR11-36.6, July 2012. [16] Crawford J E, Malvar L J, Ferritto J M, Morrill K B, Dunn B W and Bong P: ‘Description of Design Software for Retrofitting Reinforced Concrete Columns to Improve Their Resistance To Blast’, Karagozian & Case, Burbank, CA, TR-01-16.3, October 2004. [17] Magallanes J M, Crawford J E, Fu S and Yang J: ‘Description of Version 3.0 of the Column Blast Analysis and Retrofit, and Design (CBARD) Code for the Design of Blast-resistant Reinforced Concrete Columns’, Karagozian & Case, Burbank, CA,TR-11-9.3 V1, June 2011.

(This article is based on a Keynote Paper ‘Failure modes for RC columns subjected to blast loadings that must be considered in design’, authored by John E Crawford and Kenneth B Morrill, and presented at the 11th International Conference on Shock & Impact Loads on Structures, held from 14 to 15 May 2015, in Ottawa, Canada. The conference was organised by the Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada and CI-Premier Pte Ltd, Singapore).




The Daniel Libeskind Tower in Milan’s CityLife district A new family of acrylic-based, superplasticising admixtures, patented by Mapei, is facilitating the production of fluid concrete mixes with very low water/cement ratios. This is a crucial characteristic for concrete mixes with workability maintained over an extended period, enabling concrete to be poured continuously, including in hot climates, without having to add more water. It was the use of this new generation of acrylic superplasticisers that enabled the construction of the enormous foundation slab for the CityLife Project in Milan, Italy, and where, amongst other things, it was essential to keep the heat of hydration under control, to prevent cracking.

Rendering of the three towers in the CityLife project. From left, the Generali Tower, designed by Zaha Hadid; the Daniel Libeskind Tower, designed by Daniel Libeskind; and the Allianz Tower, designed by Arata Isozaki.

THE CITYLIFE PROJECT Milan’s new CityLife district, being created in the historical Milan Exhibition hub area, is one of the most impressive urban redevelopment projects in Europe. The project extends over an area of more than 360,000 m2 and is characterised by


a well balanced mix of residential buildings, business units, commercial spaces and a large public garden. The M5 underground railway line has a station in the centre of the CityLife area, at the foot of three iconic towers that will have a strong visual impact, not only because of their sheer


height, but also because of their architectural form - earning them the nicknames ‘The Straight One’ (tower designed by Arata Isozaki in collaboration with Andrea Maffei), ‘The Twisted One’ (tower designed by Zaha Hadid) and ‘The Curved One’ (tower designed by Daniel Libeskind).

PROJECT APPLICATION The Allianz Tower designed by Arata Isozaki, in collaboration with Andrea Maffei, is 202 m high and has 50 floors and 50.000 m2 of office space for more than 3,500 people. Characterised by its straight, slender form and currently the only one of the three towers to have been completed, it hosts the head office of the German insurance group Allianz. The Generali Tower, designed by Zaha Hadid, is a striking building that catches the eye for its dynamic, twisting movement pointing upwards. It is 170 m high, has 44 floors and will become the Milan head office of the Generali insurance group. According to the latest schedule, it will be completed next year. The 175 m high Daniel Libeskind Tower, designed by Daniel Libeskind, is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2018. The CityLife Project, the subject of an international urban redevelopment contest launched in 2004, should have been completed for the star t of Expo 2015, but due to various delays, it is now scheduled to be finished in 2023. THE DANIEL LIBESKIND TOWER Located at the centre of the composition formed by the three towers, the Daniel Libeskind Tower also acts as a link between the other two. Its foundations were built last November, while construction work got underway in the spring of this year. Building work is scheduled to continue until 2018 and, once completed, the skyscraper will have 31 floors for a total height of 175 m and a total commercial surface area of 33,000 m 2. The architectonic design The Libeskind Tower will be linked directly to the CityLife Shopping District and the Three Towers Square and will be served by the new station along the M5 line of the underground rail system, which was inaugurated last year. Vehicle access

A rendering of the Daniel Libeskind Tower

will be by means of a network of underground roads reserved for the towers and the business units in the area. CityLife will be the largest pedestrian area in Milan, thanks to this choice of locating the roads and car parks below ground level. Inside the tower, the lobby will be arranged on two levels, while the shape of each floor of office space and the surface area of each office will vary, depending on which floor the offices are located with respect to the geometric development of the tower. The variation in shape for each floor, which is due to the par ticular volumetric layout of the tower, will be compensated for by the modulated suppor t areas on each floor around the central nucleus. The structure of the tower is made from reinforced concrete up to the 29th floor, while from the 30th floor, the structure is made from steel and glass and forms the crown at the summit of the tower. The building is suppor ted by 20 pillars located around its perimeter and each pillar has a circular section ranging from 60 cm up to a maximum of 140 cm. The pillars are made from reinforced concrete,

except for those used for the twinlevel lobby, which are made from steel profiles. The summit of the building will be characterised by a glass section with metal blades, as if to complete the lines that ‘generate’ the tower. The system of façades has been designed by taking into consideration the geometry of the building, and for this reason, its shell is made from glass panels suppor ted at their ends by a system of metal beams, that blends in seamlessly with the network of pillars in the lower floors. Because the geometry of the building varies, the glass panels used for the façades will have a different size on each floor. A twin-level conference hall will be built on the 27th and 28th floors. Just like the other two towers, the Daniel Libeskind Tower has also been awarded LEED pre-cer tification with a Gold rating. The concrete used for the base slab of the tower The base slab for the Libeskind Tower was cast at the end of November last year. This was a recordbreaking operation with 5,890 m3 of concrete poured in little more than one day. The contractor, Colombo



PROJECT APPLICATION Costruzioni, and the concrete company, Holcim (Italia), divided the 30 hours of work that had been scheduled, into three 10-hour shifts. For each shift, there was one general logistics-production foreman; 45 drivers, each one with a 10 m3 concrete truck; three operators with pumping equipment that have a capacity of 200 m3/hour ; at least three operators controlling and supervising the production and quality of the mix; five operators working in the mixing units; a maintenance technician to look after the equipment; 18 trucks to transpor t the aggregates; nine trucks to transpor t the cement; and around 100 workers on site to lay the concrete and suppor t all the operations while the concrete was being poured. Those involved in this phase, from the contractor to the supplier of the concrete, made sure all the resources required were available, so that each step could be carried out as scheduled, to construct the base slab which has an irregular hexagonal shape, up to 66 m by 40 m, and a thickness of 2.50 m. After carrying out a series of site surveys, Holcim (Italia) designed a unique mix of C32/40 concrete with exposure class XC4 and consistency class SCC/SF1, made from 32.5 R LH SR IV/A Pozzolan cement. This type of cement is specially designed and manufactured to reduce the heat of hydration and the high

thermal gradient, which often leads to cracking from thermal shock, when casting par ticularly large and thick foundation slabs. Special care was also taken to design the most appropriate granulometric curve for the structure and the method chosen to pour the concrete. Further attention was paid to guarantee its workability and limit cracking caused by hygrometric shrinkage. A full scale trial of the mix was carried out and monitored with thermocouples before the planned casting dates - scheduled and carried out on 27 and 28 November, 2015 - to verify its characteristics according to the weather conditions and temperature during that period. The data taken during the trial allowed the development of the heat of hydration in the conglomerate to be measured, in order to verify that the concrete was suitable for use. The base slab was cast in a series of layers, each one around 15 cm to 20 cm thick. The more critical areas of each layer were lightly compacted to help the concrete flow correctly, make sure even layers were formed, and guarantee the homogeneity between consecutive layers. Samples were taken in a specially selected area during pouring, to characterise the concrete, while other tests were carried out to check its consistency, water/cement ratio, density and air content. Also, at the same time, the temperature

Daniel Libeskind (on extreme left), before the commencement of pouring of the concrete.



of the cast concrete was monitored. Because of the time of year the intervention was carried out, Holcim (Italia) also took special care to make sure the temperature of the fresh concrete was at least 5 °C when it was delivered to site. The Mapei admixture All the mixing units were fed with CEM IV A 32.5 R LH SR Pozzolan cement manufactured by Holcim (Italia) at its facility in Merone, Northern Italy. The company also supplied aggregates from its own quarries in Gorla, Pioltello and Segrate, in Northern Italy. As far as the admixtures were concerned, Holcim (Italia) worked closely with Mapei to identify the most appropriate product to comply with all the specifications. In this par ticular case, the acrylicbased superplasticiser DYNAMON XTEND W300 R was tested and approved. This product is a watery solution of modified acrylic polymers, that is par ticularly recommended for the production of high quality ready-mixed concrete in compliance with the requirements of the UNI 11104 - UNI EN 206 standard for high quality concrete in consistency class S4-S5 and selfcompacting concrete. Mapei Technical Services technicians were also present on site, suppor ting Holcim (Italia) technicians, when the concrete was being poured, with experienced engineers from the Mapeiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

The pouring of the concrete for the base slab, by Holcim (Italia), lasted about 30 hours.

PROJECT APPLICATION mobile laboratory unit taking samples of the concrete. Around 12 hours after completing pouring of the concrete, and once the level of the upper layer had been reached, polythene sheets were placed over the concrete to protect it and maintain the correct level of moisture and thermal gradients. The sheets were removed after around seven days. Thermocouples were placed in the concrete to measure the thermal gradient between the core and surface of the slab and the surrounding temperature near the slab. This data allowed the curing period of the slab to be established very accurately.

DYNAMON XTEND W300 R DYNAMON XTEND W300 R is a liquid admixture, made up of modified acrylic polymers, that has been specially formulated to produce concrete with a low water/cement ratio, and to ensure that the workability of the concrete is maintained over an extended period, including in warm climates and high temperatures.



Project Libeskind Tower, Milan, Italy

Year of Intervention 2015

Client CityLife SpA

Contribution by Mapei Supply of admixtures for concrete

Architect Daniel Libeskind Main Contractor Colombo Costruzioni SpA Works Direction Claudio Guido, Studio INPRO Site Management Colombo Costruzioni Concrete Producer Holcim (Italia) Period of Construction 2015-2018

Mapei Product used DYNAMON XTEND W300 R superplasticiser Websites for further information

This editorial feature is based on an article from Realtà MAPEI INTERNATIONAL Issue 58. All images by Mapei.

Mapei’s Mobile Concrete Laboratory

Mapei’s DYNAMON XTEND W300 R liquid superplasticiser has been used in the CityLife Project. The admixture is made up of modified acrylic polymers, that has been specially formulated to produce concrete with a low water/cement ratio, and to ensure that the workability of the concrete is maintained over an extended period.

Construction work in progress on the CityLife project




The role of private education in engineering the Singapore of tomorrow by Derrick Chang, Chief Operating Officer, PSB Academy In 2015, the Ministry of Manpower reported that four of the top 10 professions with the biggest number of vacancies in Singapore were engineering-related. While it seems engineering jobs may have lost their shine over the years, we must not forget that they have played an essential part in nation-building, and will continue to contribute to the growth and success of Singapore. In fact, as a response to the dearth of talent in this area, the country has placed great emphasis on the need to develop strong STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) capabilities in our local talent, as Singapore moves ahead into the next 50 years. TIME magazine and is now used at checkpoints across the globe.

Singapore recognises the need to nur ture home-grown engineers to realise her ambitions to be the world’s first Smar t Nation. Embarking on this Smar t Nation journey will spell a surge in career oppor tunities for Singaporeans, but steps need to be been taken to help bridge the demand for skills in the engineering sector so that we are equipped and ready for the future economy. Engineering growth and innovation in Singapore Engineers have long been torchbearers where it comes to productivity. There are several engineering milestones, from building the first hard disk recording media manufacturing plant outside of the US in the 1980s, to the establishment of the first silicon wafer manufacturing plant in Southeast Asia, that have helped Singapore drive economic growth at an astounding average of 7.7% and double skilled employment from 11% in 1979 to 22% in 1985. Fast-forward to the 21st century, Singapore has become the centre for R&D in the region, with investments from tech giants such as Seagate and Google. Engineers have also been galvanised to help achieve environmental sustainability in the country. Local firm Sky Urban Solutions received the INDEX: Award 2015, for engineering a ver tical farming device that can grow 10 times as


Mr Derrick Chang

many vegetables in the same area as traditional farming methods. In the area of water technology, Singapore’s four NEWater plants can meet up to 30% of the nation’s current water needs. By 2060, NEWater is expected to meet up to 55% of Singapore’s future water demand. Further, tenders have been called for the construction of Singapore’s fourth desalination plant which is expected to be completed by 2019. Our engineers have also championed innovation in speciality industries, propelling Singapore into the world stage. Home-grown brands X-mini and Creative have become globally renowned players in the tech space. Defence Science & Technology Agency (DSTA), Singapore Technologies Electronics (ST Electronics) and Char tered Electrooptics developed the Infrared Fever Screening System (IFSS) which was voted ‘Best Invention of 2003’ by


Nurturing a new generation of nation-builders In a bid to fast-track these developments with its unwavering focus on productivity, Singapore has formulated plans to revive the engineering sector and to develop a new generation of builders to deliver on our Smar t Nation ambitions. The Singapore government, the largest employer here, is setting the stage by campaigning to hire 1,000 engineers this year, expanding the existing pool by more than 13%. As we move surely and steadily into the innovation economy, the call for the constant upgrading of skills is evident. In this regard, employers are eligible for subsidies when they send their workers to masterclasses that specialise in advanced robotics and automation, additive manufacturing, big data analytics, computing, or optical and laser engineering. Structured programmes such as Research Innovation Enterprise 2020 Plan (RIE2020) are aimed at training existing engineers, in order to future-proof them in the changing economy. Quality higher education should continue to remain accessible to individuals seeking to upgrade their qualifications, and in this same vein, PSB Academy, Singapore’s leading private education institution, has committed to offering

EDUCATION S$1.2 million wor th of grants and scholarships for deserving students through our ‘Accessable Initiative’, so students can get ahead in the competitive workforce, no matter their financial background. Hands-on education and industry partnerships To fill in the knowledge-skill gaps that occur as engineering students enter the modern industr y, institutions have to design smar ter education pathways for sustainable engineering careers. Close par tnerships with industry reveal that the study of engineering needs to be centred on practical experience that is above and beyond academic rigour. This is why PSB Academy has invested heavily in testing facilities, laboratories and even a wind tunnel on our very own campus grounds. Employers have shared with us about how practical, hands-on training and exposure to real-world working and laboratory conditions have richly paid off for their hires from PSB Academy. Instead of relying on graphical or computer simulations, for example, students enrolling in UON Singapore's Electrical Engineering degree course, offered at PSB Academy, have the oppor tunity to physically programme micro-controllers to simulate small radars using ultrasonic sensors and use industry-standard software such as LabView, Matlab and Modelsim. UON Singapore is a wholly-owned entity of UON (University of Newcastle, Australia). Companies of the future should similarly be more for thcoming in collaborating with educational institutions and foster active networks on an ongoing basis to build goodwill, while also benefitting from the competence and skills of these industry-ready students who are progressing layer upon layer along their education journey. These col-

laborations can take place on various fronts, to arrive at win-win outcomes for the company, for students and for the institution. These industry collaboration avenues can range from career fairs and networking events to job placements from industry par tners on career por tals and industry visits for students, to name a few. In closing, engineers helped transform Singapore’s economy and our landscape with rapid industrialisation and infrastructure development, and the road to SG100 and beyond yields many more opportunities for growth. As Singapore’s leading private education institute, it is our responsibility to contribute towards

creating the workforce of the future. While employability and hard skills continue to be top of mind for us and our partner universities offering engineering programmes, we also aim to inculcate the softer skills of leadership, constant learning, collaboration and emotional intelligence as proficiencies that help us groom graduates to be industry-ready, par ticularly for Smar t Nation sectors. By offering forward-thinking programmes in this discipline, we hope to forge enduring par tnerships with businesses that want to work with industry-ready talents who can help seize these opportunities to speed innovation and enterprise in our country.

Hands-on learning at PSB Academy’s engineering labs.




Unique integrated platform features urban planning solutions SIWW 2016 emphasises role as leading global water platform Efficient water management, future technologies and talent development emerged high on the global water sustainability agenda at Singapore International Water Week 2016 (SIWW 2016). Held from 10 to 14 July 2016, the global water event also concluded on a record-breaking note, garnering S$15.2 billion in total value for the announcements on projects awarded, tenders, investments and MOUs. SIWW 2016 was held in conjunction with the World Cities Summit 2016 (WCS 2016) and CleanEnviro Summit Singapore 2016 (CESS 2016). The three co-located events attracted more than 21,000 participants from 115 countries and regions. The record-breaking achievement in total value for announcements on company investments, R&D collaborations and project partnerships reaffirmed the continued vibrancy of Singapore as a global hydrohub and SIWW as the leading global water platform for business networking, solutions and technology. Some of the significant announcements made at this year’s SIWW include: • Call for upcoming tenders for the design and construction of Singapore’s Deep Tunnel Sewerage System (DTSS) Phase 2 and the Integrated Waste Management Facility (the design and construction of DTSS Phase 2 is estimated to cost S$6.5 billion). • A S$200 million funding boost under the Research, Innovation and Enterprise 2020 plan to further R&D in the Singapore water industry over the next five years. • The construction of a fifth desalination plant on Singapore’s Jurong Island that will add 30 million gallons


Dr Tony Tan Keng Yam, President of Singapore, was the Guest-of-Honour at the Official Opening of SIWW 2016 / WCS 2016 / CESS 2016.

of water per day to the nation’s water supply. • Launch of the Singapore Water Academy, an institute for learning that builds and enhances the capabilities of water professionals in Singapore and around the world. • Opening of Memstar’s Membrane Manufacturing Plant and R&D centre in Singapore. • An investment of S$3.5 billion by Korea’s Ministry of Environment over the next 12 years to refurbish and build new water infrastructure. • A research collaboration between ZWEEC and USEPA for the development and implementation of an online toxicity water monitoring programme. • A five-year agreement between PUB, Singapore’s national water agency, and GE Water to explore new research opportunities as well as develop novel water treatment technologies and R&D projects locally. The Water Leaders Summit played host to over 500 water leaders from the government, utilities, international


organisations, academia and private companies, including 14 ministers with responsibility for water, leaders of utilities from every continent and CEOs of the world’s biggest water companies. “This year’s SIWW saw more discussions elevating the water agenda for cities, enhancing collaborations between the public and private sectors, and the use of next-generation technologies for the future of water”, said Mr Bernard Tan, Managing Director of SIWW. “The high value and wide-ranging announcements cement SIWW’s value proposition as a global platform for business match-making, practical solutions and innovative technologies”, he added. More than 100 co-located events were organised on the sidelines of SIWW 2016, adding to the vibrancy and buzz of the event. Highlights included the inaugural high-level ASEAN Plus Three Water Ministers Forum (APTWMF) where ministers shared the latest plans and devel-

EVENTS opments for water resources management among APT countries. It facilitated the strengthening of cooperative efforts to improve overall water management among the ASEAN-China, ASEAN-Japan, and ASEAN-Korea Centres. Leading the development of the ISO international standard for water efficiency management systems, Singapore also hosted the second ISO TC 224 Working Group 12 meeting on 14 and 15 July 2016. This working group is in-charge of drafting the new ISO standard on water efficiency management systems, which is based on the Singapore Standard on water efficiency management systems (SS 577). SS 577 was first published by SPRING Singapore in 2012 to support PUBâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water sustainability efforts, by helping companies in the industrial, commercial and institutional sectors to better account for their water usage and implement sustainable water management practices. The new ISO standard on water efficiency management systems will incorporate the latest water efficiency management practices, including those implemented in Singapore. This new standard will help organisations throughout the world manage their precious water resources in a more sustainable manner. As part of the working group meeting, a dialogue session was also organised by the Standard Development Organisation at Singapore Chemical Industry Council (SDO@ SCIC) and supported by SPRING Singapore, to provide opportunities for the water industry to interact with the international experts. City Solutions Singapore As an integrated component across SIWW, WCS and CESS, the inaugural City Solutions Singapore exhibition brought together more than 1,000 leading companies and innovative startups to showcase new and cutting-edge solutions for urban development, water, and waste and cleaning management across 31,000 m2 of space.

The expo featured exhibitors from 57 countries and regions, and included new pavilions, representing EU Business Avenues, Turkey, Spain and Scotland, alongside 17 other pavilions.

Next edition of the events The next edition of SIWW, WCS and CESS will be held from 8 to 12 July 2018, once again at the Sands Expo and Convention Centre, Marina Bay Sands, Singapore.

Innovative water technologies were presented at the City Solutions Singapore exhibition.




WCS 2016 looks at building resilient cities About 110 mayors and city leaders representing 103 cities from 63 countries and regions from around the world gathered at the World Cities Summit 2016 (WCS 2016) to discuss changes, challenges and innovations emerging in their cities.These cities included Seoul, Antwerp, Hamburg and Rotterdam. Their interactions at the summit - a premier platform to develop real-world solutions that address urban sustainability challenges - highlighted the global need to focus on social, technology and governance innovations to build resilient, liveable and sustainable cities of the future. This year, besides established tracks on urban governance and long-term planning and development, WCS also provided a platform for discussions on the softer aspects of a sustainable and liveable city - relating to community and culture. Integrated approach to innovating for sustainable development WCS 2016 also featured a full-day track on innovations for a smar t city. As par t of this expanded focus on innovation, the inaugural City Solutions Singapore was launched as a seamless global marketplace to drive end-to-end sustainable development and showcase solutions, as well as to provide a platform for new par tnerships and business oppor tunities. A key highlight of the City Solutions Singapore expo was the ‘Towards a Smar t and Sustainable Singapore’ pavilion, showcasing collaborative effor ts of more than 16 local government agencies. One of the showcases was the CityScope - a real-time interactive urban planning tool that uses augmented reality and Lego-like bricks to simulate urban environments for test-bedding purposes.


Mr Lee Hsien Loong, Prime Minister of Singapore, was the Guest-of-Honour at the Lee Kuan Yew Prize Award Ceremony.The Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize 2016 was presented to the representatives of Medellín, the second largest city in Colombia, while renowned hydrogeologist Prof John Anthony Cherry received the Lee Kuan Yew Water Prize 2016.

Building resilient cities beyond infrastructure Besides adopting innovation in technology to build greater resilience, cities are also looking to innovate the way in which they engage their people and involve them in co-creating solutions for a better living environment. The Prize Lecture revealed how Medellin, in Colombia, winner of the Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize 2016, leveraged on co-creation and the collective inputs of its citizens to help the city tackle its most pressing issues and improve the economy as well as its citizens’ employability and quality of life. The four cities accorded Special Mentions - Auckland, Sydney, Toronto and Vienna - further demonstrated how open community engagement and social integration have contributed to their successful urban transformations. Citizen engagement is therefore essential for creating not only liveable and sustainable cities, but also resilient ones. Beyond infrastructure, the softer aspects of a city also impact on the people’s quality of life. Culture is one key aspect. For the first time in 2016, there was a dedicated WCS track exploring how heritage and culture can


be integrated into the urban planning and the design of cities. Innovation and opportunities through collaboration The key theme of innovation was further reinforced by the collaborations announced during WCS 2016, such as the Singapore Government’s plans to partner Microsoft to explore next-generation government services using chatbots for selected public services. ENGIE launched its Singapore Lab to act as a regional hub for energy innovation and technology in Southeast Asia, while Surbana Jurong unveiled its integrated Smart City solutions offering. “We are seeing greater genesis of synergies and collaborative efforts between private companies, international organisations and government agencies at WCS,” said Mr Larry Ng, Managing Director of the World Cities Summit. “The combination of technology, social and governance innovation will form the foundation of the resilient, liveable and sustainable cities needed to address the challenge of rapid urbanisation in Asia and beyond”, he added.


CESS 2016 focuses on innovation CleanEnviro Summit Singapore 2016 (CESS 2016), a global platform to develop environmental solutions for rapidly growing cities, concluded with over S$3.04 billion worth of projects announced and S$470 million worth of business deals discussed. The event also facilitated knowledge exchanges aimed at driving sustainability through innovation, and developing a skilled industry. Key among the projects announced is the S$3 billion Integrated Waste Management Facility, co-located with the Tuas Water Reclamation Plant, which will transform the way solid waste and used water will be managed in land-scarce Singapore in order to meet Singapore’s future waste management needs. Organised by the National Environment Agency (NEA), CESS 2016 was held from 10 to 14 July 2016 concurrently with SIWW 2016 and WCS 2016. “This year, the CleanEnviro Summit Singapore placed strong emphasis on conversations about driving economic growth and competitiveness by harnessing the power of smart technology and innovation. Salient concepts such as the circular economy and the importance of embedding sustainability in every step of the value chain

were also widely discussed”, said Mr Dalson Chung, MD, CESS. Innovating the future of the environment Themed ‘Innovative Clean EnviroSolutions for Growing Cities’, CESS’ inaugural Innovation Pitch was aimed at accelerating commercialisation of exciting new ideas and innovations by the industry’s young talent pool. Ten innovators were given a platform to showcase their new technologies to over 100 guests, among whom were venture capitalists. They presented their ideas under two topics - ‘Waste-as-a-Resource’ and ‘Smart Solutions for the Environment’. “Inventions such as oil-absorbing aerogels, and the repurposing of incineration ash into construction materials exemplified how innovation can drive sustainability, and help mitigate the effects of today’s environmental threats”, said Mr Chung. Facilitating cross-border partnerships With environmental management becoming an increasingly pressing issue worldwide, cross-border partnerships at CESS 2016 were evident with companies signing deals and MOUs (Memoranda of Understand-

ing) to facilitate the transfer of knowledge and expertise across borders. Such deals included the formation of the Global Alliance of Cleaning Associations between the Environmental Management Association of Singapore (EMAS) and cleaning associations from different regions around the world. This collaboration is a significant milestone for the cleaning industry in Singapore, serving as a platform for cleaning associations to share best practices and technology innovations, as well as to advance productivity standards. Smart and sustainable cleaning and waste management This year, the Clean Environment Convention (CEC) focused on the need for the industry to come together to co-create smart solutions for sustainable waste management. Themed ‘SMART Solutions for Growing Cities’, the two-day convention focused on the vast potential of machine-to-machine communications and the importance of shaping mindsets to achieve a smart, skilled and sustainable industry. All images by SIWW, WCS and CESS

Developing resilient infrastructure for a secure future Critical Infrastructure Protection & Resilience Asia 2016 (CIPRA 2016) will be held in Bangkok, Thailand on 5 and 6 October 2016. Organised by KNM Media Ltd / Torch Marketing, the conference and exhibition will bring together leading stakeholders from industry, operators, agencies and governments, to collaborate on securing Asia. The subjects addressed at the conference will cover the development of existing national or international legal and technical frameworks, integrating good risk management as well as strategic planning and implementation. CIPRA 2016 is co-hosted by Thailand’s Ministry of Information & Communication Technology, Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Transport, and the Department for Disaster Prevention & Mitigation under the Ministry of Interior. CIPRA 2016 is supported by International Association of Critical Infrastructure Protection Professionals (IACIPP) and many other important organisations. The Keynote Presentation will be delivered by Dr Uttama Savanayana, Minister of Information and Communication Technology, Thailand. Further information on CIPRA 2016 can be found at




PUB and NEA to call tenders for DTSS Phase 2 and IWMF projects PUB, Singapore’s national water agency and the National Environment Agency of Singapore (NEA), will be calling tenders from this year onwards for the Deep Tunnel Sewerage System Phase 2 (DTSS Phase 2) and the Integrated Waste Management Facility (IWMF) to spearhead the implementation of Singapore’s world-class used water and solid waste management solutions. DTSS Phase 2, which includes enhanced deep tunnels with advanced sensing and maintenance features, associated link sewers, the Tuas Water Reclamation Plant (TWRP) and integrated NEWater factory, is estimated to cost some S$6.5 billion. With a total treatment capacity of 800,000 m3 per day, TWRP will also be the largest membrane bioreactor facility in the world. Currently at the detailed design milestone of the project, PUB will be calling for consultancy and construction tenders for the various project components in phases beginning from Q3 2016. These include professional engineering services for the detailed design of the TWRP and link sewers. Other tenders will cover the design and construction of deep tunnel sewers, associated shafts and manholes. IWMF, equipped with state-of-theart technologies, will be able to effectively process various waste streams which include incinerable waste, household recyclables collected under the National Recycling Programme (NRP), source-segregated food waste and dewatered sludge from the TWRP. The IWMF will be designed with an incineration capacity of 5,800 t per day and is estimated to cost S$3.0 billion. NEA will be calling tenders to engage professional engineering services to assist in project management, supervision of the construction works and commissioning of the IWMF. Tenders will also be called to


appoint engineering, procurement and construction contractors to design and construct the IWMF. Driving synergies through TWRP and IWMF One of the highlights of both projects is the co-location of PUB’s TWRP with NEA’s IWMF, which marks Singapore’s first initiative to integrate used water and solid waste treatment processes.

“As one of the world's most anticipated water infrastructure projects, DTSS Phase 2 continues to harness advanced technologies to enhance Singapore’s used water management system and ensure its water sustainability for generations to come”, said Mr Yong Wei Hin, Director, DTSS Phase 2, PUB. “The co-location of TWRP and IWMF is also the first project of its kind in the world to be planned from

Overview of DTSS Phase 1 (existing) and DTSS Phase 2 (proposed). Image by PUB and NEA.

The co-location of TWRP and IWMF will maximise energy and resource recovery eefficiencies, minimise their environmental footprint, and optimise land use. Image by PUB and NEA.


INDUSTRY NEWS ground-up, and is designed to bring about a multitude of synergies harnessing the Water-Energy-Waste nexus while optimising Singapore’s land-use”, he added. A good example of the synergies is the co-digestion of food waste with used water sludge at TWRP to increase the yield of biogas production. Biogas will be utilised at IWMF to improve steam quality and over-

all plant thermal efficiency. This will increase electricity production and enable IWMF to export more to the grid while allowing both facilities to be self-sufficient in terms of energy. “The co-location of the TWRP and IWMF marks a new chapter in the way used water and solid waste are managed in land-scarce Singapore. Leveraging the use of advanced technologies and project innovations,

the two facilities will be able to maximise energy and resource recovery efficiencies while minimising their environmental and land footprint”, said Mr Joseph Boey, Project Director, IWMF, NEA. “The IWMF plays an integral part in meeting Singapore’s future waste management needs and ensuring long term environmental sustainability”, he added.

Singapore Water Academy launched PUB, Singapore’s national water agency, has set up the Singapore Water Academy as a Centre of Excellence for professional education in water, that will enhance capability development for water professionals both locally and internationally. The Academy was officially launched by the Minister for the Environment and Water Resources, Mr Masagos Zulkifli at the Singapore International Water Week 2016. “The Singapore Water Academy plans, designs, delivers, places and coordinates all training and development in PUB. But in addition to catering for PUB’s own needs, it is fully empowered to serve the larger water services sector in Singapore. The Academy is also well appointed to deliver high-quality training for the international water professionals. Ultimately, our aim is to guarantee that everyone who comes through the portals of the Singapore Water Academy will acquire the skills, competencies and proficiencies he or she requires to do a great job”, said Mr Ng Joo Hee, Chief Executive, PUB. Singapore Water Management Series Drawing on Singapore's experience in urban water management, the Academy will introduce the Singapore Water Management (SgWM) Series, comprising courses that offer water professionals practical, real-life solutions and best practices in urban water sustainability. For a start, four

courses will be offered in Singapore's key areas of strength, namely water quality and treatment, urban flood management and the ABC Waters Programme, water reuse, and water supply networks. Targeted at senior utility and industry technical practitioners, the SgWM Series will combine traditional classroom delivery with sharing of experiences by participants, resulting in enhanced exchanges of knowledge among course participants. Some of the prominent faculty members of the Academy, such as Prof Joan Rose from Michigan State University and experienced PUB practitioners including Mr Harry Seah, PUB’s Chief Engineering and Technology Officer, will share their knowledge through the SgWM Series, bringing best practices in different aspects of urban water management into the classroom.

Collaborating for success The Academy also signed two Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs) at the launch event. The first MOU was signed with Surbana Jurong, a Singapore urban infrastructure and engineering solutions consultant who will tap on the Academy's expertise in water infrastructure planning to provide capacity building programmes to both Surbana Jurong staff and their clients. The second MOU was signed with the Singapore Coorperation Enterprise. The Academy will conduct water-related training and share the Singapore experience for clients of Singapore Cooperation Enterprise. The Academy has rolled out a host of other programmes for water industry professionals and it welcomes collaboration with external partners to anchor other international water programmes in Singapore.

At the launch of the Singapore Water Academy are, from left, MEWR Permanent Secretary, Mr Choi Shing Kwok; Minister for the Environment & Water Resources, Mr Masagos Zulkifli; PUB Chief Executive, Mr Ng Joo Hee; and Director of the Singapore Water Academy, Ms Angela Koh. Image by PUB, Singapore’s national water agency.




S$200 million funding boost for Singaporeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water industry over the next five years Singapore's water industry is set to grow further, with a S$200 million boost from the National Research Foundation (NRF), under the Research, Innovation and Enterprise (RIE) 2020 Plan, bringing total R&D funding for water to S$670 million over 15 years. Singapore aims to achieve S$2.85 billion of annual valueadded contribution and generate 15,000 jobs in the water industry, by 2020. With total funding of S$470 million over the last 10 years, the number of jobs in the water industry has more than doubled to 14,000 today. The water industry has also generated more than S$2.2 billion in annual value-add for the economy. There is a thriving water eco-system supported by 180 local and international water companies spanning the entire water value chain, and more than 20 public and private R&D Centres. New focus areas under RIE 2020 Under the RIE 2020 Plan, water, energy, and land as well as liveability research activities will be part of the Urban Solutions and Sustainability (USS) domain. The domain looks at taking an integrated response to Singaporeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s urban challenges, and providing holistic support of Singapore's future growth, liveability and resilience. In addition, PUB and the Economic Development Board (EDB) will tap on Singapore's strengths in water to develop solutions for the world, accelerate the commercialisation and export of technologies, and build a range of capabilities and talent. Developing solutions for the world Singapore aims to seize growth opportunities in the global water sector by moving beyond R&D activities that meet national objectives and building on its strengths in water technologies to develop solutions for the world in targeted areas. Singapore is presently known for its strengths in membrane, desalination, and sensor technologies. Singapore will


also continue to focus on developing industrial water solutions, building on its core expertise in municipal solutions. It will also look at new areas such as automation and robotics, as well as integrated programmes that tap synergies across related domains. Accelerating commercialisation A vibrant water industry will lead to the creation of more new technologies and emergence of companies from Singapore. The country will accelerate the commercialisation and export of technologies by improving and better facilitating the process.To bridge the gap between research and industry adoption and reap greater value from research investments, Singapore will build an effective pool of start-ups, investors, incubators and other ecosystem players. The S$30 million Separation Technologies Applied Research & Translation (START) Centre was launched in June this year to develop and commercialise innovative separation and filtration technologies, such as in the area of membranes, and to make them easier for companies to adopt. START plugs an important gap in the ecosystem between lab-scale R&D carried out in local research institutes and market adoption, by focusing on translation and technology scale-up to accelerate the commercialisation process. Singapore is positioning itself as a living lab where companies can develop, test and commercialise urban solutions in a real-life setting, before exporting them globally. Sembcorp, in partnership with EDB, is granting technology providers access to its wastewater treatment facilities on Jurong-Island for test-bedding. As Singaporeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s first industrial living lab, the platform will support the commercialisation of innovative industrial water solutions from the pilot-testing stage to market-ready levels. Sembcorp has just started its first collaborations with Mitsubishi Electric and Scinor (Asia). Successful technologies may be scaled up and deployed in


Sembcorp's global operations, thereby providing companies with not only a chance to gain a valuable track record, but also with increased avenues for commercialisation of new technologies. EDB has also introduced a new Overseas Living Lab programme to support Singapore-based companies with significant R&D activities to commercialise locally-developed technologies in overseas markets with different climatic conditions or user environments not available in Singapore. This will help companies grow their international business by entering new markets or developing new applications. With a budget of S$15 million, the programme will focus on water and clean energy solution providers for the first two years. Building capabilities and talent Since 2006, the Singapore Government has funded over 460 trained researchers, scientists and engineers, as well as over 330 Masters/ PhD students in the water industry. It will continue to build and develop a range of capabilities and talent in the water industry to better support the industry's needs and position Singapore as the preferred location for water companies and solutions. PUB and EDB will deepen research capabilities to drive innovation, by strengthening the pool of PhD and post-doctoral talent, as well as expand the breadth of competency development initiatives. Governance, business and entrepreneurship skill-sets will be enhanced through programmes such as the Temasek Foundation Water Leadership Program (governance & policies), the Aquarius Program (business), the SMUEDB Asia Leaders Programme in Infrastructure Excellence (business) and the Hydropreneur Programme (entrpreneurship). In addition, EDB administers the Industrial Postgraduate Programme to develop postgraduate manpower with industry-relevant R&D skill-sets.


Memstar opens innovation centre and membrane production facility Memstar Pte Ltd (Memstar) has officially opened a 5,100 m2 membrane production facility located at Kian Teck Drive, Singapore.The company is wholly-owned by SGX mainboard-listed CITIC Envirotech Ltd (CEL), a leading membrane-based water treatment solutions provider in China and the region. The new international headquarters, membrane R&D centre and highly automated manufacturing facility have been set up with an investment of approximately S$25 million. With the completion of the new plant, which is supported by the Singapore Economic Development Board (EDB), Memstar will create 50

new jobs and double the production capacity of its patented 3rd generation Thermally Induced Phase Separation (3G-TIPS) membranes to 10 million m2 per annum. Singapore is Memstar’s only production site for these high-tech membranes. The co-location of Memstar’s global membrane R&D centre with its highly automated manufacturing facility here will enable Memstar to function as a one-step shop where research outcomes can be quickly tested and prototyped, thereby accelerating their commercialisation. Mr Goh Chee Kiong, Executive Director, Cleantech, EDB, said, “We are

pleased that Memstar is renewing its commitment to leverage Singapore as a strategic headquarters to serve the fast-growing global water market. This investment is testament to Singapore’s position as a global hydrohub for business, manufacturing and innovation activities from water companies”. “We are proud to have Memstar’s 3G-TIPS membrane ‘made-in-Singapore’. Singapore’s excellent IP protection, logistic network and its reputation as a global hydrohub has made a compelling business case for our additional investment in Singapore”, said Dr Lin Yucheng, Chief Executive Officer of CEL.




Sembcorp signs MOUs on test-bedding new emerging water technologies Sembcorp Industries (Sembcorp) recently signed two Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs), one with Mitsubishi Electric and the other with Scinor (Asia), to test-bed new technologies for water, under the Sembcorp Industrial Living Lab initiative. These technologies will be tested at Sembcorp’s facilities, enabling them to be proven in an industrial setting and allowing Sembcorp to apply new and disruptive solutions. The partnership with Mitsubishi Electric will involve the test-bedding of Eco-MBR, a new ozone backwashing membrane bioreactor (patent pending) while that with Scinor (Asia) will test the company’s newest, proprietary polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes. The MOUs were signed during Singapore International Water Week 2016, one by Mr Siah Keng Boon, Chief Technology Officer of Sembcorp Industries and Mr Eiichiro Mitani, Senior General Manager of Kobe Works at Mitsubishi Electric, and the other by Mr Siah and Mr Edmund Wong, General Manager of Scinor (Asia). These collaborations are the first under the umbrella of the S$8 million Sembcorp Industrial Living Lab initiative, launched by Sembcorp and EDB in 2015. Under this initiative, Sembcorp will grant selected technology providers access to its facilities for late-stage test-bedding and coinnovation in areas such as water and cleantech solutions. “As a global water company with a rich history of being innovation-driven, Sembcorp looks forward to working with Mitsubishi Electric and Scinor to testbed new and novel technologies. These represent advancements over the current state-of-the-art, and have the potential to bring about significant benefits, such as energy savings, better performance and lower life cycle cost”, said Mr Siah.


Mr Siah Keng Boon, Chief Technology Officer of Sembcorp Industries (seated, left) and Mr Eiichiro Mitani, Senior General Manager, Kobe Works, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (seated, right), signing the Memorandum of Understanding, witnessed by, standing, from left, Mr Goh Chee Kiong, Executive Director Cleantech and Cities, Infrastructure & Industrial Solutions, Singapore Economic Development Board (EDB), Mr Tang Kin Fei, Group President & CEO of Sembcorp Industries and Mr Sachio Asanagi, Senior General Manager, Microza & Water Processing Division, Asahi Kasei Corporation.

Mr Siah Keng Boon, Chief Technology Officer of Sembcorp Industries (seated, left) and Mr Edmund Wong, General Manager of Scinor (Asia) (seated, right) signing the Memorandum of Understanding, witnessed by, standing, from left, Mr Goh Chee Kiong, Executive Director Cleantech and Cities, Infrastructure & Industrial Solutions, Singapore Economic Development Board (EDB), Mr Tang Kin Fei, Group President & CEO of Sembcorp Industries and Ms Zhao Jie, CEO of Beijing Scinor Membrane Technology.

Ozone backwashing MBR system Key to the novel ozone backwashing MBR system developed by Mitsubishi Electric is the use of regular backwashing with highly concentrated ozonated water to remove virtually all foulants, which increases membrane permeability. The system will be test-bedded at Sembcorp’s existing facilities to compare it against conventional membrane technology.


PVDF membranes Scinor (Asia), on the other hand, is looking to prove its newest, proprietary PVDF membranes.These membranes for microfiltration and membrane bioreactors are made using thermally-induced phase separation and offer energy savings of up to 30% due to higher flux, as well as improved performance and shorter backwash durations. In addition, the technology allows for longer membrane life and extended plant life-cycles.


Students build and run membrane bioreactors to clinch Sembcorp Water Technology Prize 2016 A team of two students from Nanyang Technological University (NTU) has been named the winner of the Sembcorp Water Technology Prize (SWTP) 2016.This is an annual nationwide competition sponsored by Sembcorp and supported by PUB that aims to give students a taste of what it is like to be water engineers for a day. Participants in this year’s SWTP competed to build and run the bestperforming, most efficient membrane bioreactor (MBR) system. This required them to make key decisions in configuring their MBR units for optimum life cycle cost and finding the best strategy to operate their plants with the lowest possible power usage.

A total of 28 students from polytechnics, ITEs and universities took part. The winning team was presented with a cash prize of S$5,000 by Sembcorp Group President & CEO Tang Kin Fei at a ceremony held on the sidelines of Singapore International Water Week 2016, and also won an internship opportunity with Sembcorp Industries. “It is important for us to protect our resources and ensure that they are not compromised for our future generations. This competition has broadened my horizons and knowledge in this field, especially in membrane technology,” said Mr Goh Jing Yaw, 24, an NTU undergraduate and one-half of the winning team.

The first and second runner-up teams, from National University of Singapore (NUS) and Republic Polytechnic, respectively, took home cash prizes of S$3,000 and S$1,500. On the successful conclusion of SWTP 2016, Mr George Madhavan, PUB’s Director of 3P Network commented, “We are glad that Sembcorp provides such hands-on opportunities for students to understand the real-life challenges faced in water management today.We hope that the youths of today are inspired to come up with innovative solutions of tomorrow as we continue to search for more cost-efficient and effective ways of producing water”.




Engineering review ensures design integrity and statutory compliance Located in the Silom/Sathon central business area of Bangkok, Thailand, MahaNakhon Tower is a luxury mixed-use skyscraper that accommodates a hotel, residences and retail establishments. With a striking design resembling pixels, the 314 m high skyscraper has become an iconic symbol in the city. Construction of the building will be completed in late-2016 and it is expected to open shortly thereafter. The tower’s developer, PACE Development Corporation, enlisted the assistance of global engineering firm, Aurecon, to undertake peer review work on the building’s design and construction, to ensure that the design will meet the client’s high standards for building performance and statutory requirements on safety and speed of construction. Given the building’s unique pixelated design, the designs were also run through a value engineering review to ensure optimum structural efficiency. The work involved a comprehensive review of MahaNakhon’s engineering details, covering structural as well as mechanical, electrical and plumbing (MEP) designs, and also the construction method statement. The MEP system has a long-term impact on operating and maintenance costs, for tenants in any building. “Aurecon’s expertise in tall buildings has been bolstered in Asia through our involvement in some of the region’s supertall landmarks, including the 632 m-tall Shanghai Tower in China and the 462 m-tall Vincom Landmark 81 in Vietnam. Both are the tallest buildings in their respective countries. We are honoured to be involved in the MahaNakhon development, and to help bring this iconic development to completion”, said Dr Assawin Wanitkorkul,Technical Director - Buildings, Aurecon, Thailand.


The MahaNakhon Tower in Bangkok,Thailand, has a pixelated design.

Wind and seismic loading Supertall structures are complex so their design will always necessitate higher levels of engineering consultation. One of the first areas Aurecon turned its attention to was the soilstructure interaction, given Bangkok’s soft soil conditions. Bringing its experience and knowledge from work on similar supertall buildings, Aurecon worked with both the developer and main contractor, Bouygues-Thai, to investigate the effect of Bangkok’s soft soil on the performance of the main tower, especially under wind and seismic actions. The aim was to find the best solution to enhance building


performance - with a focus on understanding lateral vibration levels and ensuring that tenant comfort levels complied with international standards and guidelines. A leading expert in the field of tall buildings, Dr Andy Davids, Aurecon’s Tall Buildings Leader and Technical Director-Buildings, spent extensive time with the project team to understand the predicted wind loadings on the building, before providing advice, based on detailed analyses of the anticipated wind loadings. In particular, close attention was paid to the building’s distinct design which features a pixelated exterior and sharp corners, which meant higher wind forces would be induced than with a smoother, curved structure. These stronger forces not only impact the cost of materials required for the building’s construction but, if not properly addressed, they can also affect tenant comfort should lateral sway in the building become too strong. Adding to the complexity of the wind load calculations is the asymmetrical design of the MahaNakhon Tower, which meant lateral sway may also be caused by gravitational forces. To ensure this was mitigated, Aurecon ran a detailed check on the building’s vertical structure members. The peer review for MahaNakhon took several months, in total. During this time Aurecon engineers worked closely with the main contractor on the enhancement of blueprints - from the ground up - to ensure a comprehensive engineering review. “I am pleased to announce the project has been a resounding success, and we are delighted to have played a vital role, now that construction work is nearly concluded on the MahaNakhon. Once open, this distinctive Tower will add a vibrant buzz to life in Bangkok”, said Dr Assawin.


Surbana Jurong acquires SMEC At an event held recently, Singaporebased Surbana Jurong Private Limited (Surbana Jurong), one of Asia’s leading consultancies in urban developments and Australian-based SMEC Holdings Limited (SMEC), an award-winning consultancy firm specialising in major infrastructure projects, officially announced that they will be joining forces to establish a formidable global consultancy group with deep combined expertise in urban and infrastructure sectors. Surbana Jurong’s 100% acquisition of SMEC for approximately S$400 million will significantly transform both companies.The combined entity will have a global workforce of almost 10,000 employees in over 95 offices across 40 countries in Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Africa and the Americas. The combined entity would be one of the largest urban and infrastructure consulting firms in Asia. Commenting on the partnership, Mr Liew Mun Leong, Chairman of Surbana Jurong said, “A large part of Asia and other emerging countries have to catch up with their deficit in urbanisation and infrastructure development in order to grow and support their economies. In addition to financing and funding, wide and deep technical expertise in urbanisation and infrastructure development will be needed. Singapore and Australia have successfully done many major projects through Surbana Jurong and SMEC. Besides their complementary strengths, both companies have very similar corporate cultures and core values. It will be timely and opportunistic for the synergetic merger of these two very competent organisations, and to share their expertise to capture the huge market opportunities. Going forward, Surbana Jurong / SMEC will be positioned as the largest development consultancy group based in the Asia Pacific region”. Mr Wong Heang Fine, Group CEO of Surbana Jurong said, “Surbana Ju-


rong and SMEC share complementary strengths and competencies as well as a rich and proud heritage of major iconic projects recognised around the world. SMEC’s experience and strength in major infrastructure projects in the urban transport, energy and water sectors, such as hydroelectric power plants, Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) & Light Rail Transit (LRT) systems, bridges and highways, coupled with Surbana Jurong’s track record and expertise in urban planning as well as township and industrial development, will enable us to offer unique complete value chain services in urban and infrastructure solutions to our clients globally”. Mr Andy Goodwin, SMEC’s CEO and Managing Director said, “We are delighted about this partnership with Surbana Jurong, an Asian powerhouse, who will further accelerate and support SMEC’s growth ambitions. This partnership is a reflection of the strategic value of our business and its potential to further deliver solutions internationally. It also signifies recognition of the professional skills at SMEC. The combined entity will not only benefit our clients, but importantly deliver enhanced growth opportunities for our employees and our partners. We are confident that the synergies between SMEC’s progressive culture and Surbana Jurong’s established company values will result in a mutually beneficial partnership over the long term”. Surbana Jurong Surbana Jurong, a home-grown technical organisation has played a pivotal role in nation-building and shaping Singapore’s public township and industrial landscape, over the last 50 years. As part of its urbanisation model, Surbana Jurong has provided the technical expertise to design over 1,000,000 homes in Singapore and continues to be responsible for re-


Mr Liew Mun Leong, Chairman of Surbana Jurong, speaking on the occasion.

Mr Andy Goodwin, SMEC’s CEO and Managing Director, and Mr Wong Heang Fine, Group CEO of Surbana Jurong

juvenating most of the Housing & Development Board (HDB) public housing townships, where over 80% of residents in Singapore dwell. It is also the technical consultant for most of Singapore’s industrial developments, including the region’s leading petrochemical hub, Jurong Island. The company has gone on to achieve significant international success, having developed masterplans for more than 30 countries and developed more than 50 industrial parks worldwide. Its township and urban planning model is well regarded throughout the world. Today, Surbana Jurong is one of Asia’s consultancy powerhouses for urban and infrastructure developments, employing over 4,000 employees from 40 nationalities in 26 offices across Asia, Africa and the Middle East and offering total urban, infrastructure and engineering solutions to support sustainable social and economic growth for clients.

INDUSTRY NEWS Surbana Jurong is owned by Singapore investment company Temasek Holdings. SMEC SMEC is a professional services company recognised around the world for providing high-quality consultancy services on major physical and social infrastructure projects. The company was formed in 1949 to undertake a major integrated water and hydroelectric power project in New South Wales, Australia, called Snowy Mountain Hydroelectric Scheme, one of the largest and most complex hydroelectric schemes in the world. It was considered an engineering feat and recognised by the American Society of Civil Engineers as one of the seven civil engineering wonders of the modern world. The national project took 25 years to complete and included 16 major dams, seven power stations and one pump-

ing station, over 225 km of tunnels and aqueducts and 2,000 km of roads. Today, SMEC has a talent pool of almost 6,000 people working within a global network of over 75 offices across Australasia, Africa, Asia and North and South America. The company provides consultancy services for the lifecycle of a project, ranging from feasibility stud-

ies and detailed design, through to construction supervision and commissioning. SMEC services a broad range of industry sectors, ranging from transport and energy, to water and the built environment. Since its creation, SMEC has delivered thousands of impressive social and physical infrastructure projects in more than 100 countries.

Sydney Metro Northwest, Australia

Bakun Hydroelectric Power Plant, Malaysia

Punggol Waterway, Singapore

Jurong Island, Singapore

As a result of the acquisition, Surbana Jurongâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s expertise in urban planning as well as township and industrial development will be combined with SMECâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s experience in major infrastructure projects in the energy, water and urban transport sectors, to offer clients complete value chain services.




Autodesk Industry Collections now available worldwide

Autodesk Industry Collections are now available globally.

Autodesk recently announced the immediate availability of three Industry Collections, offering a convenient and flexible new way to subscribe to a wide selection of the most essential of the company’s software, by industry. With the introduction of the Industry Collections, Autodesk is vastly simplifying its 20+ different design and creation suite configurations into three simple collections. The company will no longer sell new subscriptions of its Design & Creation Suites, however customers can maintain existing licences with a maintenance subscription and still continue to receive updates and support as per their licence agreement. “Autodesk has transitioned fully to a subscription business, and our subscribers expect value, flexibility and easy access to our software”, said Mr Rama Tiwari, Regional Director, Autodesk ASEAN. Subscriptions to the following three new industry collections are now available: • Architecture, Engineering & Construction (AEC) Collection - A comprehensive building information modelling (BIM) package for building, civil infrastructure, and construction. The primary products include Revit, AutoCAD and AutoCAD Civil 3D. • Product Design Collection - One essential package of design and engineering tools for product and factory design. The primary products include Inventor Professional, AutoCAD and Navisworks Manage as well as the latest in cloud-based design tools - Fusion 360. • Media & Entertainment (M&E) Collection - A complete 3D animation toolset for visual effects artists and game developers. The primary products include Maya and 3ds Max. Advantages of Autodesk Industry Collections over



product design suites include: • Greater Value and Simplified Packaging - All of the most essential software tools are in one of three Industry Collections. Subscribers also have access to more cloud services, technical support and administrative tools. • Continuous Improvement - Industry Collections give subscribers access to new technology when it becomes available, rather than waiting for a new product release once a year. • Greater Flexibility and Choice - Subscriptions offer the flexibility and choice of single-user and multi-user access and the choice of different term lengths. Today, subscriptions to the Design & Creation Suites are available for single-user access only. To complement Industry Collections and address more specialised needs, customers can also subscribe to individual products or cloud services, such as simulation or data management tools. More information can be obtained from http://www. ADVERTISERS’ INDEX DEFENCE SCIENCE AND –––––––––––––––––––– PAGE 43 TECHNOLOGY AGENCY MAPEI FAR EAST PTE LTD –––––––––––––––––– PAGE 45 MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC ––––––––––––––––––––––– OUTSIDE ASIA PTE LTD BACK COVER SBS TRANSIT ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– PAGE 5 WORLD ENGINEERS ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– INSIDE SUMMIT 2017 BACK COVER

The Singapore Engineer August 2016