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Techno-Futurism: ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, + TECHNOLOGY

Mobile Product Architecture: The Church of New Hope Dudley Square Re-Vitalization

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute | School of Architecture Final Project | Fall 2012 - Spring 2013

Desireé Edge Design Critic: Chris Perry Committee Member: Michael Oatman

Figure 1.0: Archigram’s Plug-In City


CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT: WHAT IS CHURCH WITHOUT A CHURCH? INTRODUCTION: THE TABERNACLE

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POSTWAR RESEARCH: MOBILE PRODUCT ARCHITECTURE

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CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH: DUDLEY SQUARE: FUTURE CHURCH ARCHITECTURAL PROJECTIONS/ DESIGN PROPOSAL: CHURCH OF NEW HOPE ITERATION I FINAL DESIGN

Rensselaer School of Architecture Techno-Futurism: Hudson River Valley Redux Final Project: Fall 2012- Spring 2013 Studio Critic: Chris Perry

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TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

INTRODUCTION: ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A new culmination of programmatic flexibility and natural integration within space is the future design for the religious edifice also known as a cultural religious center. Reconfigurability, site movement, and the concept of religion itself promote different denominations to fellowship and unite to foster growth in the Dudley Square community of Roxbury, Massachusetts. The edifice is a response to the high need for a facility to house larger programs with larger gatherings that respond to other functions within the church besides a place of worship, hoping that the dwindled influence of religion will evoke a new drive to relinquish the importance of the Godliness inside of us rather than holding onto symbolic signifiers to define the divine ‘feeling’. For this reason, the service style is nomadic similar to Evangelism and makes a direct connection to God’s description of the holy tabernacle in the Book of Exodus as Moses travels through the wilderness. The place of worship becomes a temporary place as religious goers travel amongst churches and communities to spread the word.

what is“church” without a church?

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Through the process of blurring the boundary of what is internal versus external, green space becomes a new innovative park on the roof that connects to the green belt outside of the site. By blending the two realms, exterior programs become intertwined with interior program. The design becomes an extension of its nature through a walkable roof with glass mound enclosures for greenhouse areas while allowing regional playing fields, gardens, amphitheater with the trellis system, and aleatory spaces around the large water collection system that form small lake compositions throughout. Inside, movable wall panels divide spaces that change depending on the users’ preference. The main zoning spaces include athletic, performance hall/ sanctuary, food outreach, and educational spaces which all are intertwined with fixed programs deriving from the habitable column. The programs become a re-configurable system that becomes a solution to changing technologies, programs, and generally the community itself. A self supporting system in an immersive culture is a driver to innovative, sustainable design that encourages religion and community inclusively. II


TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION: THE HOLY TABERNACLE THE HOLY BIBLE

King James Version (Exodus 25:1-16, and 34-38) The Tabernacle Set Up 1:And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 2: On the first day of the first month shalt thou set up the tabernacle of the TENT of the congregation. 3: And thou shalt put therein the ARK of the testimony, and cover the ark with the vail. 4: And thou shalt bring in the table, and set in order the things that are to be set in ORDER upon it; and thou shalt bring in the candlestick, and light the lamps thereof. 5: And thou shalt set the altar of gold for the incense before the ark of the testimony, and put the hanging of the door to the tabernacle. 6: And thou shalt set the ALTAR of the burnt OFFERING before the door of the tabernacle of the tent of the congregation. 7: And thou shalt set the LAVER between the tent of the congregation and the altar, and shalt put water therein. 8: And thou shalt set up the COURT round about, and hang up the hanging at the court gate. 9: And thou shalt take the anointing oil, and anoint the tabernacle, and all that is therein, and shalt hallow it, and all the VESSELS thereof: and it shall be holy. 10: And thou shalt anoint the altar of the burnt offering, and all his vessels, and SANCTIFY the altar: and it shall be an altar most HOLY. 11: And thou shalt anoint the laver and his foot, and sanctify it. 12: And thou shalt bring Aaron and his sons unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and wash them with water. 13: And thou shalt put upon Aaron the holy garments, and ANOINT him, and sanctify him; that he may minister unto me in the priest’s office. 14: And thou shalt bring his sons, and clothe them with coats: 15: And thou shalt anoint them, as thou didst anoint their father, that they may MINISTER unto me in the priest’s office: for their anointing shall surely be an EVERLASTING priesthood throughout their generations. 16: Thus did Moses: according to all that the LORD commanded him, so did he.

The Glory of the Lord 34: Then a cloud covered the tent of the congregation, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle. 35: And Moses was not able to enter into the tent of the congregation, because the cloud abode thereon, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle. 36: And when the cloud was taken up from over the tabernacle, the children of Israel went onward in all their journeys: 37: But if the cloud were not taken up, then they journeyed not till the day that it was taken up. 38:

For the cloud of the LORD was upon the tabernacle by day, and fire was on it by night, in the sight of all the house of Israel, throughout all their journeys.

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Before “our” time of designing cathedrals that represented the idea of heaven on Earth, God had already devised a design that allowed his servants to travel and worship Him without attachments to an actual building per say. Moses erected this tabernacle in about circa 1450 BC in which the holy traveling tabernacle was designed by God’s commandments in how his tabernacle should look and function by ordering specific details in its construction. Nevertheless, this design was more nomadic than anything else. Though it housed all of God’s materials to provide a place where the Israelites could worship and fellowship with God as they were wandering in the desert under Moses leadership. It was not conceived to be permanent. However, the design was built with the most earthly valuable materials and possessions, becoming a marvelous wonder that only God Himself could devise. The definition of tabernacle is “tent,” “place of dwelling” or “sanctuary.” It was not until around 301 AD (which the Etchmiadzin Cathedral in Armenia was one of the first) that a permanent religious structure was erected. These structures were mostly symbolic in creating a place on earth that would influence how people experienced the space through motives that influenced human perception such as the play on light (God shining down or His presence is in the space, high ceilings through the idea of reaching to heaven, crucifix form representing Jesus’s resurrection in dying for our sins, perfect geometries and symmetries since the divine is displayed through perfection, and the list goes on and on. However, no one interpreted the religious entity in how it performed and functioned. Everything was symbolic and in many cases, was due to the belief that this is what God wanted on Earth. An architecture that represented perfection, holiness, and divinity. Even today, the same concepts are displayed, but through different styles and forms. It is a concept that seems to never die even though religion itself seems like it is manipulated and distorted itself as people try to bring about their own interpretation, but what happens when this conception dies and we question what role did this have on our belief?

Regardless, it is interesting to see what happens when the church is flipped inside out. When people eliminate the symbolic architecture of it all and focus on the functionality. What happens when a church literally becomes an incubator to society or even to itself? A church that can nourish and feed itself through its own systems given to it by “Him” Himself? A flexible space that God once envisioned in his Holy Tabernacle for the Israelites. A teaching that is mobile through nomadism. Would mobile teaching allow the branching outside of the edifice to enter the edifice? What happens when it becomes more hands on to reaching out to the world rather than the world coming to it. The church becomes a cauldron that sends energy throughout civilizations. Its space is ever so changing, its functions become re-cognfigurable to innumerous possibilities, and its teaching becomes accommodating for fellowship throughout denominations. A greater good that evokes questions and criticism, but relies on teaching and interpretation though words of wisdom. There becomes a new drive to hope for a better future in the chaotic world we live in. The one place we can all feel safe in under the divine wing of love is simply the church. This

is

the

CHURCH

of

NEW

HOPE.

Today, there is a cry and desire to bring people back to our old ideals. Not universal ideals that are manipulated to fit human desire. Religious buildings are bringing in more worldly attributes in attempting to bringing the “worldly” back into the religious realm. Churches are using this to their advantage in meeting their specific needs as a function not necessarily motives symbolically, but economically and politically. In many cases, churches are also growing into mega malls like the mega churches housing over 10,000 occupants at once. It is evident in this case, that religion has not died, and will not die because there will always be an importance for people to hold onto something that provides hope and consistency. It helps people understand how life works or even how life should be. It answers a lot of questions that we as humans cannot fathom ourselves.

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TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

POST WAR: MOBILE PRODUCT ARCHITECTURE

CURRENT EVENTS Before 1920 FORD MODEL T

BABY CARRIAGES

1908-1913:||

1920:||

Henry Ford perfects the concept of the assembly line by making it beltdown where he produced a Model T in 93 minutes.

Due to the baby boom after the end of WWI, a widespread growth for baby carriages emerged. New safety features included: larger wheels, brakes, deeper prams, and lower, sturdier frames for safer possible escape. 1940

ECONOMIC RECOVERY

TELEVISION

HOUSING SHORTAGE

DYMAXION HOUSE

1940: ||

1946:||

Late 1940:||

1945:||

4,680,000 cars rolled off of the production lines soon after the United States recovery from the Great Depression. Families were no longer staying in the house and more people worked outside of the home to get more income for the family.

WWII was history and people wanted to make up for the time lost in the war. Black and white television was thought of as old so in 1950 so the FCC announced the CBS color system as a national standard.

The United States experienced a housing shortage as recently married war veterans seeked places to live from the GI Bill.

Buckminster Fuller built the Dymaxion House which was Fuller’s solution to the need for an affordable, transportable, mass produced, and environmental friendly house.

SHOPPING MALL 1950s:|| The shopping mall appears into the market in large suburbs after the new urbanized move from the city to suburbs became a source of entertainment and consumption.

NEW BABY CARRIAGES 1950:||

RADIO FLYER RED WAGON

CHEVY

HIGHWAY SYSTEM

SPACE RACE

HOUSE OF THE FUTURE

NASA

1950:||

1950s:||

1952:||

July 29, 1955:||

1955:||

April 2, 1957:||

President Eisenhower as a national defense measure, created the interstate highway system for the growth of the automobile industry. One of the highways created was the Queen Creek Bridge (US Highway 60) in Arizona.

United States intended to launch “small circling satellites” within the next two years to start. After the Sputnik 1 launch, the US launches its first satellite on Redstone booster (Juno 1) that carried the satellite Explorer.

British architects, the Smithsons, prove living will be easier in the new world of tomorrow through the plastic House of the Future with a short wave transmitter with push buttons for all electric equipment and movable translucent walls and chairs.

President Eisenhower sent the draft legislation to Congress establishing the “National Aeronautics and Space Agency”(NASA) and signed the NASA into law on July 29, 1958.

The red wagon became an Baby carriages’ American icon where Radio harder wooden Flyer wagons were marketed and wicker to specialty audiences like framework Mouseketeers from Mickey was replaced Mouse Club. by plastic and rubber that were placed on tired and buggy parts.

American Culture was symbolized by the style of the American made vehicles and became status symbols. 1955-1957 Chevy’s were most highly collected cars in the world contributing to country’s economic boom.

1950 ADULT RADIO FLYER SLED 1950-1970:|| Companies introduced cool sleds for hilltop exhilaration including the Radio Flyer Ski Sled intended for adults in 1970 with safety gears like hand brakes and skis beneath the raised seat. 1960

ARCHIGRAM MAGAZINE

CAPSULE HOMES: WARREN CHALK

CUSHICLE: MIKE WEBB

SUITALOON: MIKE WEBB

1961-1970:||

1964:||

1966:||

1967:||

Archigram publishes ideas of mobile architecture.

Inspired by the space capsule it was a portable, mobile, adaptable, and expedient home with its fold away parts and clip on appliance wall units for additional space.

A reduced notion to mobile architecture designed as a mobile home for an individual with comforts of a dwelling including radio and television while satisfying fundamental needs.

“Clothing for living in-or if it wasn’t for my Suitaloon I would have to buy a house” -Mike Webb became a “to go” home designed to be a complementary component of the Cushicle.

Fig. 1.1: Time line of major events with influence of mobility

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TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

POST WAR: MOBILE PRODUCT ARCHITECTURE

MOBILITY CHARACTERISTICS LITERAL

PORTABILITY OBSOLESCENCE

-disposable -recyclable

aesthetics

FUTURISM SOCIETAL PROGRESS CULTURAL PROGRESS

-technological progress -moving forward

performance

DEMOCRATIC PROGRAMMATIC

-economic -social class

ORGANIZATIONAL RE-CONFIGURATION

-flexible

RECYCLABLE MASS PRODUCTION PRE-FABRICATION

-inexpensive -assembly line -on site prefabrication

performance

FIGURATIVE

MOBILITY

SOCIAL ARCHITECTURAL performance

ECONOMIC performance Figure 1.2: Diagram comparing the different applications of mobility in mobile product architecture.

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TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

POST WAR: MOBILE PRODUCT ARCHITECTURE

LITERAL MOBILITY: CONCEPT PRODUCT ARCHITECTURE Product architecture is a study that not only focuses on the effects and techniques used in product design, but has a lot to do with how this affects the user’s life. The house can be seen as a beautiful design that intrigues the consumer and sells the architecture as an accessory to the everyday life.

THE POCKET HOUSE

Figure 2.1: Radio and television advertisement that is so miniature it can fit in a human hand and

product : life essential ::evolving:: “A characteristic class of uS products -- is a small self contained unit of high performance in relation to its size and cost, whose function is to transform some undifferentiated set of circumstances to a condition nearer human desires. The minimum of skill is required in its installation and use, and it is independent of any physical or social infrastructure beyond that by which it may be ordered from catalogue and delivered to its prospective user.” Figure 2.0: Type writer advertisement showing it as a life essential where the product can travel anywhere and any time for the convenience of the user.

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On another note, architecture was also debated as a temporal versus permanent entity where architecture could now evolve and even be recycled just like the ‘product’. Inflatable devices, mobile pieces, miniature design elements that transformed into inhabitation were all ideas based off of the product industry. By questioning its permanence versus its mobility, it now became a discussion of what we really consider a place of inhabitation? Does it have to have a site or can the site move with the user? Does it allow for change as time moves onto the next big “thing”? How we perceive our inhabitation begins to transform in the enlightenment of the product architecture industry.

-reyner Banham

(the great gizmo pg. 110)

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TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

POST WAR: MOBILE PRODUCT ARCHITECTURE

LITERAL MOBILITY: PORTABILITY

Figure 2.2: Dymaxion House cartoon teasing the idea of this portable house can literally move anywhere and no longer has a designated site nor unique identity with the consumer.

HOuSE Figure 2.3: Diagram showing the idea of the capsule house being transported to the site with a clip on idea where each capsule can clip on to another for additional space and program.

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HOuSE

Figure 2.4: Diagram showing the idea of the house being so light weight that it can be transported from location to location.

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TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

POST WAR: MOBILE PRODUCT ARCHITECTURE

LITERAL MOBILITY: OBSOLESCENCE RECYCLABLE ARCHITECTURE Through new innovations in materials like plastic that could easily be reused over time, architecture became a product that had a temporal state. Scraps became an element that helped create designs and even, improved the material through its usage. Remolded plastics like the products to the left became great examples in how something so flexible could reused to not only make a seamless surface, but also any shape or form possible. As soon as architecture used this idea, efficient works that saved the environment and cut costs down helped make more affordable housing.

“we now have enough 24sT ALUMINUM in war SURPLUS and scrap, and iT is beTTer SCRAP, acTually having a liTTle higher alloy conTenT and preferable qualiTies--aT a much lower price Than you have been paying.” -buckminsTer

fuller

“Designing a New Industry”. Pg. 87

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DISPOSABLE GIZMO

Figure 2.5: Monsanto Plastics Advertisement showing the many options available for kitchen ware including different forms and colors. The idea was to promote the material plastic, as a new flexible option for product design.

As products became thrown away and recycled when it became out of date or just worn, it opened up possibilities of scrap and junk yards that allowed for great benefits in not only saving costs, but also in preserving history. Every product has some connection to time that helps tell a story. The idea of this historic piece being recycled repeats history coincidently.

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TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

POST WAR: MOBILE PRODUCT ARCHITECTURE

LITERAL MOBILITY: APPLICATION smithsons: house of the future

DIFFERENT HEIGHT COMPARTMENTS

archigram: capsule house

woman’s dressing room with vanity and shelving unit

wall opening connecting two large spaces

ALUMINUM FOIL COVERED ROOF

PLASTIC- IMPREGNATED FIBROUS PLASTER STRUCTURE

LIGHTING IN STRUCTURAL SKIN

ROUNDED SMOOTH WALLS FROM PLASTIC CASTING

Figure 2.7 Diagrammatic render and section of the Capsule House where capsule modules are being picked up and configured on the site. The Capsules are pre-fabricated and only require assembly on site by connecting different capsules to another.

kitchen near the indoor garden space for units to connect

common space area that opens up into other rooms

Figure 2.6: The House of the Future section and photographs showing the configuration of the private spaces with the hollow wall integration throughout the design.

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Figure 2.8: Capsule House section and plan diagram

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TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

concept

POST WAR: MOBILE PRODUCT ARCHITECTURE

FIGURAL MOBILITY: CONCEPT

MOBILE HABITATION

tail: elongated slender form giving aerodynamic aspect

light: designed as a round element projected from the car mimicking smoke or fire coming from the back

tire: rounded forms with chrome shiny hub caps and white liner

fender: displayed as a continuous rounded surface

Figure 3.0: Plymouth diagram of multiple parts

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Soon, architects took ideas of industry into their own hands in designing architecture that performed like the product. Some architects even designed the products themselves in order to eliminate the idea of someone else conforming their design with another designers work or even, the architect choosing which products to integrate. Here, architecture moved with time by replacing old technology with new ones. In some cases, the architect even designed products that could be worn so it was more of a nomadic habitation that also evolved with time by having attachable appliances and technology that could be replaced. Architects control over the industrial market and architecture field became prevalent in this time since industry and inhabitation began working in unison with another rather than separate ideals. By having this integration, an idea to push architecture in the same direction as technology helped speed up the process of what the future holds for habitation.

AESTHETIC To design a product that was visually pleasing, performative, and provoked new interactions undreamt was a reality becoming a projection of the future. By using aesthetics that ran parallel to its durability and reusability, the ultimate product transformed with society and had an impact in culture as a whole. Soon, the structure of the creation of the product would get evolved into diverse scales that would provoke new innovations in how we perceive space to enhance our environments and ultimately, our lives. Product. New Aesthetic. New Accessory. New Way and Measure of LIFE. 14


TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

POST WAR: MOBILE PRODUCT ARCHITECTURE

FIGURAL MOBILITY: FUTURISM: TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS

Figure 3.2: Projection of the new British culture in the 1960s in an airplane design

“The partitions, two bathrooms, kitchen, laundry, and energy unit will probably come to not more than 2,000 pounds. We will be right on our curve of the size of things man can mass produced in 1946. In other words, die to the development of the airplane industry, the house has become an extremely practical and now very real affair.” -Buckminster Fuller “Designing a New Industry”. Pg. 87 The idea of technology progressing at a remarkable rate was an extension of the idea of what was the future. The future was seen as a bright gateway to the good life with things being perfected. The airplane industry was an extension of this since it was created innovations ahead of its time to respond to wartime demands. The mass produced airplane became an influence for the portable architecture.

Figure 3.1: Vought Aircraft advertisement Figure 3.3: Plymouth 1956 advertisement

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TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

POST WAR: MOBILE PRODUCT ARCHITECTURE

FIGURAL MOBILITY: SOCIETAL PROGRESS

Figure 3.5: Monsanto Plastic color option advertisement

Figure 4.5: GE Wall Refrigerator Freezer advertisement

“The ultimate form had to be one that was peculiar to the plastics fabrication process�-Monsanto Colomina, Brennan, Kim. Cold War Hot Houses. Princeton Architectural Press Pg. 109

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Figure 3.4: Refrigerator color options advertisement

Societal progress was seen in the huge demand for everyday gadgets that could influence the work force inside and outside the home. Plastics became applicable in all types of applications and colors which gave the consumer a choice. Consumer choice helped societal growth in creating a diverse, efficient culture.

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TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

POST WAR: MOBILE PRODUCT ARCHITECTURE

FIGURAL MOBILITY: CULTURAL PROGRESS

Figure 3.7: Hindsight and foresight from the First Machine Age where services are in a separate outhouse rather than a mechanical clip on. While the latter is a permanent infrastructure here all of the needs are on wheels with a compact and mobile utility pack.

“The Great Gizmo enabled the nation to continue defining its purpose as the pursuit of rural happiness while devoting itself to productivity, wealth, and power.� -Reyner Banham 2.5 The Great Gizmo. Cultural progress was seen in how many people accumulated the new technology available as everyday products. The automobile designs responded to more consumers in new features it had that responded to different consumer desires for a habitation that fit their daily schedule. Figure 3.6: Article critiquing the new product industry through transport

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Figure 3.8: 1960 Rambler advertising the new standard of success.

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TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

POST WAR: MOBILE PRODUCT ARCHITECTURE

FIGURAL MOBILITY: APPLICATION archigram: suitaloon

smithsons: appliance house HOLLOW WALLS

CONTINUOUS WALLS

PLASTIC ENCLOSURE AND STRUCTURE OPEN FLOOR CONCEPT

Figure 3.9: Diagram of the Suitaloon in its usage throughout a time period.

Figure 3.10: Series of drawings showing the curved hollows walls similar to that of the House of the Future which allowed for old appliances to be replaced with the new by having unfixed products in the home. There was also an intent for an open design layout through having spaces open and closed in order to allow more mobility throughout the design where it was needed.

“a spacesuit that could be seen as the most stripped-down ‘house’ imaginable. the suit, which provides all necessary facilities, can be connected to means of transport, to larger ‘balloons’ where the occupant can shed his or her suit, or to other spacesuits, in order to make direct physical contact with fellow nomads.” -Jurjen Zeinstra Zeinstra, Jurjen. Houses of the Future. pg. 223

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TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

POST WAR: MOBILE PRODUCT ARCHITECTURE

SOCIAL MOBILITY: CONCEPT 1924 1935 1940 1958 1965 1976

Figure 4.0: Pinehurst V8 model advertisement showing all types of people symbolized through the hats could use it.

CONSUMER DEMAND

Chevrolet Superior roadstar = $490 about 33% of the average household income Chevrolet Master dulex = $560 about 37% of the average household income Chevrolet Clipper = $659 about 38% of the average household income Chevrolet impala = $2,693 about 45% of the average household income Chevrolet Malibu = $2,156 about 7% of the average household income Chevrolet Malibu = $3,671 about 10% of the average household income

Figure 4.2: Time line chart showing the comparison between the Chevrolet designs cost to the average yearly income.

CLASS IDENTIFICATION

upper class...amounT

AFFORDABILITY higher prices

PRODUCTION EXPENSES

SOCIETAL PROGRESS MATERIAL COSTS

Figure 4.1: Diagram comparing the effect of afford ability in the new culture

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quanTiTies + Type

MOBILITY BEYOND ITS FUNCTION American people soon found themselves working more in the industry and further away from home to help get more money in a hard economic time. With this, mobile products such as automobiles, planes, carriages, and toys like wagons and sleds just to name a few became a new symbol of a fast pace, moving society. The new gizmo was now designed to respond to speed and high demand. Products were being made based off of the idea of mobility in order to travel more efficiently and even to have products that moved themselves to respond to fast movements to meet up with getting the job done faster. There became a since of dependence on this new idea where people wanted to emerge from their homes and shelters and catch up with society to improve the current state. The new product innovations created during this time is a direct reflection to solving the problems that emerged in a faster culture and society. The idea soon influenced the architectural industry in order to respond to the high demand of homes when soldiers returned home with the GI Bill at their disposal. The home economy was low right after the war and many soldiers became determined to find a habitat for their family.

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TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

POST WAR: MOBILE PRODUCT ARCHITECTURE

SOCIAL MOBILITY: DEMOCRATIC

Figure 4.3: Chrysler advertisement for a car that is the new attraction of society

by 1960...Americans owned

61,671,390

During the time of the recovery of the Great Depression and completion of WWII, there was a huge desire for Americans to catch up on their lives in terms of getting back on their feet. Many Americans were out of jobs, looking for new homes, and re-establishing their families. There became a huge sprawl to move to safer, cleaner environments, by moving to suburban areas with a hope for a brighter future. The automobile became a common product that was encouraged for everyone to have 25

passenger cars:

OR about

1 car every 3 people

which increased interaction between different peoples in society. In many cases, everyone could not afford a car, so even though it was a choice to buy this product, it was really only available to the upper class where everyone else filtered through and received rides from them rather than owning their own. 26


TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

POST WAR: MOBILE PRODUCT ARCHITECTURE

SOCIAL MOBILITY: PROGRAMMATIC small scale mobility

wagon

entertainment/play

aleatory

passing

moving with

HUMAN INTERACTION

small scale mobility

baby carriage accessory

within ealm r

OR

outside realm

physical

actual contact through touch or sight

visual

not able to reach them but connect through seeing

small scale mobility

adult sled

entertainment/play

auditory

not able to reach them but connect through hearing and verbal dialogue

Figure 4.4: Diagram showing the different types of interaction based on the program or activity

Figure 4.5: Dodge advertisement showing the comfort ability factor that allows for the ‘wife’ to carry on her daily needs efficiently. The multiple space in the car allows for different interactions with her and other people where the car becomes more of a means of transport, but an aleatory meeting place.

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TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

POST WAR: MOBILE PRODUCT ARCHITECTURE

SOCIAL MOBILITY: APPLICATION smithsons: golden lane

archigram: cushicle “THE CUSHICLE: is an inflatable house that can be carried around by the nomadic ‘occupant’ like a backpack. A backpack with a frame: the Cushicle consists of both a ‘spine’, which acts as a support structure, and a tent, which can unfold itself around the occupant”. -Jurjen Zeinstra Zeinstra, Jurjen. Houses of the Future. pg. 223

Figure 4.6: Interior render sketch of a main public space in between apartments that allows for different interactions between the apartments and a connection to the outside street

Figure 4.8: Images showing the Cushicle’s functions as it’s deflated to completely inflated

intersection of five apartment thin plastic inflatable cover

two apartment wings connection

flexible parts for multiple movement

Suitaloon element that attaches road connection branching Figure 4.7: Overall plan diagram showing the different types of interactions between the people within the apartments and potentials to the outside world

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metal frame for structure Figure 4.9: Diagram showing the main features of the Cushicle

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TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

POST WAR: MOBILE PRODUCT ARCHITECTURE

ARCHITECTURAL MOBILITY: CONCEPT TEMPORAL ARCHITECTURE

Figure 5.1: Suitaloon diagram of the structure that is made from recyclable materials that can come apart and later re-assembled

MOBIlITy

organization re-configuration

Human factor strategies were used as a technique in product design to create forms and even functions that the user could use based off of the human anatomy and condition. In many cases, the ergonomics designed for the human to understand and interact with the product was essential. Focusing design of a product on the human condition creates a debate between temporality versus permanence. If the home conforms to the human body, that means it is always changing based off of the body it is modeled after. It is not meant to be permanent, but is meant to last long enough for habitation. Not only was architecture an extension of the man, but there was also mobility in how spaces were configured so space interaction was never permanent. For architectural elements to be able to move to have flexible programmatic responses was innovative for user centered design.

INNOVATIONS IN MATERIALITY FOR THE EVOLVED HOME flexibility accommodation

evolving metamorphosis

Figure 5.0: Archigram poster showing the idea of a walkable city that responds to the ever changing environment

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TeMPORAl

Figure 5.2: Diagram comparing the temporal mobility aspect with different factors that influences its permanence

Materials emphasize this idea, where different materials allow for increased techniques and geometries that perform differently under different circumstances. In this time, innovations in plastics and metals allowed for a temporality factor that created dynamic surfaces that had cleaner finishes and could conform to any shape. Concrete was also played here since the fluid material could conform as well and create a more permanent stance. 32


TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

POST WAR: MOBILE PRODUCT ARCHITECTURE

ARCHITECTURAL MOBILITY: ORGANIZATIONAL

extended trunk= more space

“Suburban space, being automobile space, is not defined by enclosing walls and floors and it is therefore difficult to portray graphically using systems devised for the description of buildings. Communication across a space is more important.” -Denise Scott Brown (“Learning from Pop. Pg.64)

ChOiCe

ChOiCe closed proportional

four door accessibility

open

simple engine

ChOiCe

elongated

narrow

ChOiCe Figure 5.3: Valiant advertisement showing the new features like the extended trunk, multiple doors, and simplistic engine under the hood for a more flexible design for more opportunities to the user.

33

Figure 5.4: Diagram showing how organization of forms influences mobility/ circulation throughout design temporal or permanent

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ARCHITECTURAL MOBILITY: RE-CONFIGURATION “Science and technology touch architecture chiefly at the level of structural justification and organizational confusion” - reyner Banham (1960 stocktaking pg.99)

By having a design strategy that allowed for flexibility in space configuration, each design became very specific with the user. Designs had elements that could move like movable walls or panels, or even having products or appliances that weren’t fixed which both allowed for things to be replaced when then became outdated or broke. The architectural mobility was inspirational in creating user centered design. Figure 5.5: Container designs by the Smithsons based off of the same idea of the play in configurations to influence space interactions between different enclosures like the House of the Future project.

Figure 5.6: Drawing of Archigram’s Plug In City where each system responds to some aspect of speed in the city scape which allowed for a mobile environment.

35

Figure 5.7: Diagram showing how re-configuration of certain elements can change how people perceive the space and most importantly interact with it. More possibilities arise when there are movable elements and elements that are not the same.

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ARCHITECTURAL MOBILITY: APPLICATION cedric price: fun palace

archigram: monte carlo diverse configurations

open steel structure movable ceiling modules

varied geometries movable cranes that assembled parts

multiple entrances movable walls

pre- fabricated walls, platforms, floors, stairs, and ceiling modules

“kit of parts� -PriCe Figure 5.8: Diagram showing the movable parts within the palace that allowed for user flexibility throughout the space as well as a way to force different interactions that would not have happened before.

37

architecture based on the event not the envelope Figure 5.9: Drawings and interior renders displaying the movable walls to respond to the competition requirement of a multi purpose space to cater for larger banquets, variety shows, a circus, ice rink, and cultural activities.

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ECONOMIC MOBILITY: CONCEPT THE MOVABLE PRODUCT AS AN ACCESSORY OF LIFE The product of study had much to do with not only technical aspirations to design where the mass production and assembly line became ideals employed, but became an industry that looked into permanence and temporality. What parts were meant to be replaced and which ones were meant to transform with the usage? How is the product an accessory of life? Does it’s mobility influence its user?

CONSISTENT PRODUCT

Figure 6.0: General Motors advertisement of different styles produced in the company

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In this sense, there became an idea to save costs and production by reusing materials as well as designing to the point where it became regular enough to mass produce. Parts were then pre- fabricated and assembled on site which allowed for a quicker process when multiple parts had to be connected for multiple designs. Through this, a sense of consistency was carried through which allowed for an idea of large distribution throughout the economy to meet demand as well as create an income to the cultural finance. 40


TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

ECONOMIC MOBILITY: RECYCLABLE MATERIALS

Figure 6.1: Self contained pre- fabricated plastic model units by Magnant Coulon Scheim

Figure 6.2: Detroit Industry South Wall Detail Fuller Inspiration Diego M. Rivera 1932-1933 for the idea of assembling recyclable materials for the car.

material---designed product--extra material---used product--broken parts---recycled material---

NeW ReCyClABle PRODuCT

41

POST WAR: MOBILE PRODUCT ARCHITECTURE

Figure 6.3: Junk yard in 1950s in the UK where many 1930s and 1940s cars failed the safety requirements for vehicles over ten years old so scraps were reused for other products.

REUSABILITY Throw away aesthetics were meant to be eliminated or minimized in order to save material and utilize space. A product that could evolve with time in not only its ergonomics, but also in its function. An antique that could be never become an antique. The ever changing features of the ‘product’ as something evolving with time questioned mobility in terms of movable parts that could be replaced or the product could move and evolve with the user as a pick up item. The mobility idea soon influenced how it’s mass production in the factory became an accessory that the user interacted and grew with.

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ECONOMIC MOBILITY: MASS PRODUCTION

Figure 6.4: Fuller’s design of the Dymaxion car shows an implementation of how architects designed products outside of the building industry in order to convey the meaning of mobile architecture.

Figure 6.5: 1950 Beetle assembly line

Figure 6.6: Original Jaguars mass produced in 1914

“Since I was intent on developing a high-technology dwelling machine that could be air delivered to any remote, beautiful country site where there might be no roadways or landing fields for airplanes, I decided to try to develop an omni- medium transport vehicle to function in the sky, on negotiable terrain, or on water - to be securely landable anywhere, like an eagle” Buckminster Fuller

“If we eliminate from our hearts and minds all dead concepts in regard to the house...we shall arrive at the house machine, the mass production house, healthy, (an morally so too) and beautiful in the same way that the working tools and instruments that accompany our existence are beautiful” -Le Corbusier

Pawley, Martin. Buckminster Fuller. Taplinger Publishing Company, NY. Pg. 57

43

(“Modernity and Domesticity: Appliance House-A Machine for Living In?” Pg. 1)

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ECONOMIC MOBILITY: PRE-FABRICATION

FACTORY PRODUCED

MOVED TO DWELLING

Figure 6.7: A transportable standard of living where the package could be delivered and enjoyed through spatial freedom of nomadic campfire without smoke and mess, but power from appliance power. It’s an appliance land without the permanent dwelling side effects.

45

46


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ECONOMIC MOBILITY: APPLICATION fuller: dymaxion house

monsanto: monsanto house of the future

“after careful analysis, buckminster fuller discovered that a mass produced house could be made for about the same money per-pound as a good quality car. it would also weigh about the same about 6000 pounds in 1927. he was assuming a high-performance house made from durable materials. That meant--specifically aluminum”. -Jurjen Zeinstra (“houses of the future” pg. 223)

Figure 6.8: Physical model at the Whitney museum of Fuller’s vision of the mass produced Dymaxion House in one community

Figure 6.9: Physical model of the assembly for the Dymaxion House module. The house was positioned around a bullet shaped central core similar to the space shuttle with adjoining parts assembled around it

47

Figure 6.10: On site assembly of pre-fabricated plastic wings that was assembled as a kit where the concept included disassembly and assembly on difference sites. It was originally meant to be lightweight.

Figure 6.11: Structural diagram and wind analysis diagram of the multi layered plastic wing elements.

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TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION IMAGE SOURCES Fig. 1.0 Archigram Capsule House City: http://waiarchitecture.blogspot.com/2010/06/what-about-last-urbanisms.html Fig. 1.1 Desiree Edge time line diagram of postwar trends. Fig. 1.2 Desiree Edge diagram of mobility types. Fig. 2.0 Lifetime Partner Advertisement: Life Magazine. “The Epic of Man Part IV”. April 16, 1956. Page 96 Fig. 2.1 Mini Radio/ Television: http://www.adweek.com/adfreak/these-15-home-appliance-ads-never-get-old-14269 Fig. 2.2 Dymaxion Cartoon: http://klaustoon.wordpress.com/tag/dymaxion-house/ Fig. 2.3 Truck Capsule Diagram: Reyner, Banham. “Clip-On Architecture”. Design Quarterly no. 63. 1965. Pg. 9 Fig. 2.4 Desiree Edge diagram of truck moving housing modules. Fig. 2.5 Monsanto Advertisement: http://pop-circus.blogspot.com/2011/07/monsanto-from-chemicals-and-plastics-to.html Fig. 2.6 Smithson’s Section: http://aainter6-2008.blogspot.com/2009/03/sectional-drawings-for-artemis.html and interior images: http://www.architizer.com/ en_us/blog/dyn/9911/launching-today-total-housing-apartments/ Fig. 2.7 Capsule Tower Diagrams: http://www.archigram.net/projects_pages/capsule_homes.html Fig. 2.8 Capsule Tower Section Diagram: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-SNCTSIJYwdo/TV21KSjt49I/AAAAAAAAAB8/qrJ7AXwFhsw/s1600/PlanosFinal3.jpg Fig. 3.0 Plymouth 56’ Advertisement: Life Magazine. “The Epic of Man Part III”. February 27, 1956. Page 112-113 Fig. 3.1 Vought Aircraft: Life Magazine. “The Epic of Man Part III”. February 27, 1956. Page 101 Fig. 3.2 1960s British Lifestyle on Plane: http://my-retrospace.blogspot.com/2008_06_01_archive.html Fig. 3.3 Aerodynamic Plymouth 56’ Advertisement : Life Magazine. “The Epic of Man Part III”. February 27, 1956. Page 112-113 Fig. 3.4 GE Wall Refrigerator Freezer Unit Advertisement: http://www.creativepro.com/blog/scanning-around-gene-what-s-your-refrigerator Fig. 3.5 Monsanto Plastic Option Advertisement: http://retrochalet.blogspot.com/2010/12/monsanto-plastics-history-mega-giant.html Fig. 3.6 Ghastly Garageful Comic: Life Magazine. “The Epic of Man Part IV”. April 16, 1956. Page 69 Fig. 3.7 Automobile Habitation Evolution Diagram: Banham, Reyner. “A Home is Not a House”. Illustrations: Dallegret, Francois Fig. 3.8 Rambler Advertisement: Life Magazine. “American Folklore Part III: The Rich Treasury of Colonial Tales”. January 25, 1960. Page 1 Fig. 3.9 Suitaloon Diagram: Zeinstra, Jurjen. Houses of the Future. pg. 1 Fig. 3.10 Appliance House Drawings: http://www.arqred.mx/blog/2009/09/05/inner-circle-alison-and-peter-smithson-works/appliance-house/ Fig. 4.0 Pinehurst V8 Advertisement: Life Magazine. “The Epic of Man Part IV”. April 16, 1956. Page 10 Fig. 4.1 Desiree Edge diagramming of car afford ability. Fig. 4.2 Desiree Edge diagram of Chevrolet sales. Fig. 4.3 Chrysler Automobile Advertisement: Life Magazine. “American Folklore Part III: The Rich Treasury of Colonial Tales”. January 25, 1960. Fig. 4.4 Desiree Edge diagram of human interaction types. Fig. 4.5 Dodge Advertisement: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-GwDdRj3Jotc/UBfLcRN_kzI/AAAAAAAABHk/btF-pAZTxZs/s1600/Adswayfarer.jpg Fig. 4.6 Golden Lane Render: http://denscityproject.blogspot.com/2011/01/advantures-in-megastructures-park-hill.html Fig. 4.7 Golden Lane Diagram: http://denscityproject.blogspot.com/2011/01/advantures-in-megastructures-park-hill.html Fig. 4.8 Cusichle Images: http://www.archigram.net/projects_pages/suitsaloon.html Fig. 4.9 Cushicle Diagram: http://atelier7greenwich.blogspot.com/2010/10/project-1b.html Fig. 5.0 Archigram Poster Design: http://www.johncoulthart.com/feuilleton/tag/archigram/ Fig. 5.1 Cushicle Diagram: http://www.core.form-ula.com/2010/06/02/archigram-archival-project/ Fig. 5.2 Desiree Edge diagram of temporal aspects. Fig. 5.3 Valiant Advertisement: Life Magazine. “American Folklore Part III: The Rich Treasury of Colonial Tales”. January 25, 1960. Page 64 Fig. 5.4 Desiree Edge diagram of organizational concept. Fig. 5.5 Smithson Containers: http://www.stylepark.com/en/tecta/cornell-box-s30-1f?ref=over_products_navig Fig. 5.6 Plug In City: http://simbiosisgroup.net/5443/utopias Fig. 5.7 Desiree Edge diagram of re-cognfiguration concept. Fig. 5.8 Fun Palace Drawings: http://www.audacity.org/SM-26-11-07-01.htm Fig. 5.9 Monte Carlo Plan and Renders: http://www.archigram.net/projects_pages/monte_carlo_8.html Fig. 6.0 General Motors Advertisement: http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-b1jYSKLNupM/ThfH8GVyE1I/AAAAAAAAAaE/7eAnq9Q8uUU/s1600/50+MidCentury+CNE+broch.jpg Fig. 6.1 Capsule Home Diagram: Reyner, Banham. “Clip-On Architecture”. Design Quarterly no. 63. 1965. Pg. 9 Fig. 6.2 Detroit Car Assembly Drawing: Neder, Federico. Fuller Houses. Lars Muller Publishers. 2008 Fig. 6.3 British Junkyard 1960s: http://www.flickr.com/photos/12064036@N04/4138613475/ Fig. 6.4 Dymaxion Automobile: http://davidszondy.com/future/car/dymaxion.htm Fig. 6.5 Beetle Assembly Line: http://www.shorey.net/Auto/German/VolksWagon/Beetle/1950%20VW%20Beetle%20Assembly%20Line%20B&W.jpg Fig. 6.6 Jaguars Factory: http://www.newspress.co.uk/downloads/mediumQuality/198082/65062for1.jpg Fig. 6.7 Appliance Collage and Nomadic Dwelling Diagram: Banham, Reyner. “A Home is Not a House”. Illustrations: Dallegret, Francois Fig. 6.8 Dymaxion Whitney Museum Exhibit: http://nymag.com/arts/art/features/47807/ Fig. 6.9 Dymaxion House Assembly Physical Model: http://proofmathisbeautiful.tumblr.com/page/5 Fig. 6.10 Monsanto House Construction Site: http://www.designrelated.com/news/post_detail/15337/permanent-change-plastics-in-architecture-andengineering Fig. 6.11 Monsanto House Diagrams: Colomina, Brennan, Kim. Cold War Hothouses. Princeton Architectural Press. Pg 113

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POST WAR: MOBILE PRODUCT ARCHITECTURE WORKS CITED Alloway, Lawrence and John McHale. “2.2 A Throw Away Aesthetic”. Industrial Design. March 1955. Pgs. 90-93. Alloway, Lawrence. “The Long Front of Culture”. Science Fiction Quarterly. Pgs. 30-33 Ann, Carole. “When Was the Red Radio Flyer Wagon Invented”. http://www.ehow.com/facts_4866216_red-radio-flyer-wagon-invented.html Baldwin, J. Bucky Works: Buckminster Fuller’s Ideas for Today. John Wiley and Sons Inc. 1996. Pgs. 23-29 Banham, Reyner. “2.4 Design by Choice”. Architectural Review. 1961. Pgs. 97-107 Banham, Reyner. “2.5 The Great Gizmo”. Originally published in Industrial Design 1965. Pgs. 108-114 Banham, Reyner. “A Home is Not a House”. First Published in Art in America. Pgs. 45-48 Banham, Reyner. “Clip On Architecture”. Design Quarterly”. No. 63. 1965 Banham, Reyner. “Industrial Design and the Common User”. The Listener. 1956. Pgs. 550-551 Banham, Reyner. “Stocktaking”. Architectural Review 127 no. 756 (February 1960) pg. 93-100 Banham, Reyner. “The History of the Immediate Future”. Journal of the Royal Institute of British Architects 68. No. 7. May 1961. Pg. 252-257. Barry, Judith. “Designed Aesthetic: Exhibition Design and the Independent Group”. Pgs 40-45 Booker. “Modernity and Domesticity: Appliance House – A Machine for Living In?”. University of Barcelona. Pgs. 1-12. http://www.ub.edu/gracmon/capapers/ Brooker,%20Graeme.pdf Colomina, Brennan, Kim. Cold War Hothouses. Princeton Architectural Press. Cook, Peter. “Zoom and ‘Real’ Architecture” in Architecture Culture 1943-1968: A Documentary Athology, Joan Ockman ed. (Columbia Books of Architecture/ Rizzoli, 1993. Pgs. 366-369. First published in Amazing Archigram 4 (1964). Crompton, Dennis. ‘Archigram: At Work’, in Exit Utopia: Architectural Provocations. 1956-76, ed. by Martin van Schalk, Otakar Ma el and (Munich: Prestel, 2005) pg. 88 Dick, J. Steven. “Why We Expore”. NASA. http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/whyweexplore/Why_We_29.html Fuller, Buckminster. “Designing a New Industry”. In Architecture Culture 1943-1968: A Documentary Anthology, Joan Ockman, ed., (Columbia Books of Architecture/ Rizzoli, 1993) Pg. 87-92. First Published in Designing a New industry: A Composite of a Series of Talks by R. Buckminster Fuller, 1945-46 (Fuller Research Institute, 1946). Pgs. 87-92. Frampton, Kenneth. “New Brutalism and Welfare State: 1949-59”. The Architectural Review. Pgs. 46-63 Gartman, David. From Autos to Architecture: Fordism and Architectural Aesthetics in the Twentieth Century. Princeton Architectural Press. New York. 1950. Graeme Booker Manchester Metropolitan University, UK. “In Habit-: Occupation and Decoration”. http://arts.brighton.ac.uk/__data/assets/pdf_ file/0004/44815/06_Graeme-Brooker_In-Habit.pdf Hebdigs, Dick. “In Poor Taste: Notes on Pop”. Pgs. 76-85 Hollein, Hans. “Everything Is Architecture”. In Architecture Culture 1943-1968: A Documentary Anthology, Joan Ockman ed. (Columbia Books of Architecture/ Rizzoli 1993) p. 460. First published in Bau ½ (1968) Jezek, Geno. “The History of Color Television”. http://www.thehistoryoftelevision.com/color_tv.html Lobsinger, Mary Lou. “An Architecture of the Performance”. In Daidalos 74 (October 2000) Miller-Wilson, Kate. “History of Car Ownership”. Car Ownership Statistics. http://cars.lovetoknow.com/Car_Ownership_Statistics Neder, Frederico. Fuller Houses: R. Buckminster Fuller’s Dymaxion Dwellings and Other Domestic Adventures. Lars Muller Publishers. 2008 Neil, Dan. “The 50 Worst Cars of All Time: 1909 Ford Model T”. Time Specials. http://www.time.com/time/specials/2007/article/0,28804,1658545_1657686_1657663,00.html Pawley, Martin. Buckminster Fuller. Taplinger Publishing Company. New York. 1990. Pages 57-73 Scott Brown, Denise. “Learning from Pop”. In Architecture Theory Since 1968. K. Michael Hays ed. Columbia Books of Architecture/ MIT Press, 200. Pgs 6266. First published in Casabella (December 1971) Seoul Arts Center .“Archigram: Experimental Architecture 1961-1974” Seoul Arts Center, English. http://www.sac.or.kr/eng/lab2003/archigram/ Smithson, Alison and Peter. The Charged Void: Architecture. The Monacelli Press. New York. 2001 Smithson, Alison and Peter. The Shift. Academy Editions. London. 1982. Smithson, Alison and Peter. Without Rhetoric an Architectural Aesthetic 1955-1972. M.I.T Press. Cambridge, MA. 1973 State of Arizona Constitution. “An Aerial View of the Queen Creek Bridge on the United States Highway 60 in Pinal County”. http://www.azlibrary.gov/constitution/timeline.aspx Tsai, Eugenie. “The Sci-Fi Connection: the IG, J.G. Ballard, and Robert Smithson”. Pgs 70-75 Vidler, Anthony. “Troubles in Theory Part III: The Great Divide: Technology vs. Tradition”. Architectural Review. Pgs. 1-7 Wallis, Brian. “Tomorrow and Tomorrow and Tomorrow: The Independent Group and Popular Culture”. Pgs 8-17. Zeinstra, Jurjen. “Houses of the Future”. Ideal Homes. First Published in OASE 32. Pg. 204-225

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industrial roxbury Cultural MOveS tO influenCe POSt induStrial MOtifS

Figure 1.0: Render by Sasaki and Mecanoo Architects

51

52


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POST INDUSTRIAL DUDLEY SQUARE: FUTURE CHURCH

HEART OF BOSTON TRAdE + cOmmERcE

“bOSTON THE MOST INNOVATIVE CITy IN THE wORlD”

Figure 1.1: Diagram of Dudley, Roxbury housing areas

Roxbury, MA

The Heart of Commerce and Progress Roxbury is located at the center of the Boston’s districts, forming a central location of transport, commerce, and trade through the region. It is located close to the shoreline of the Atlantic Ocean which allows for a hub of interactions through 53

the city scape. Outside of Roxbury include towns like Dorchestor, Jamaica Plain, South End of Boston, West Roxbury, and High Park in which none were considered industrial areas, but allowed for a movement of Roxbury’s stimulus throughout the outskirts of Boston. Within Roxbury, is Dudley Square which became the heart of Roxbury, centralized between the Roxbury boundary. Due to Dudley

being the central area of Roxbury and Roxbury being the central area of Boston, Dudley Square was essentially the main hub for all major transport in and out of the city. In the beginning, Dudley became a stimulus for diverse traffic flows and hopes for great economic stability especially with the double directional elevated train that used to through the center of the square which became a main hub

for transportation from all directions of the Massachusetts state. The elevated train not only was a main train station for the area, but there was also a main bus stop with busying industrial buildings anchored around it, making it a very busy area for economic growth and community.

54


POST INDUSTRIAL DUDLEY SQUARE: FUTURE CHURCH

TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

EcONOmicAl SuccESS

became premier commercial center among boston’s neighborhoods since it linked the square to border commercial regions in boston resulting in retail + lighting industry growth.

Manufacturing in lower Roxbury area began to decline since companies were land lock where they were unable to expand... low cost land was lost to residential development.

1950

became area’s most active transportation transfer point because bus service terminating at Dudley began replacing crosstown trolley lines.

1930

1920

1910

1890 55

Expanding streetcar lines, rapid industrialization + growing population transformed Dudley Square from a small trading post to the 2nd most important commercial destination outside boston central business district.

As Depression approached, business decline increased resulting in population shifts. As Roxbury became a predominantly African American community, Dudley became the economic + spiritual center for the new community.

Figure 1.2: Dudley Square in the 1970s

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TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

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diSTiNcT SEgREgATEd cOmmuNiTy

1900-1960

population before 1950 ---> 80% European decedents population change 1950s + 1960s---> 80% Non European

1950-1980 1980 population loss began

European decent African American Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander Other

1990

Figure 1.3: Aerial image of Dudley Square in the 1970s

“by the 19th century, Roxbury’s northern section, lower Roxbury, was a full fledged industrial mill town providing jobs for the new Irish + German immigrants. In exchange for new gas, water, + sewer lines, Roxbury was annexed to boston in 1868”. - boston Parks + Recreation Department

57

---> ---> ---> ---> --->

population 2% increase population 1980---> 57,751 58,893 European decent ---> African American ---> Hispanic ---> Asian or Pacific Islander ---> Other --->

2000

European decent African American Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander Other

---> ---> ---> ---> --->

4,681 43,743 7,677 165 1,485

|

---> ---> ---> ---> --->

8% 76% 13% less than 1% 3%

population 1990--->

3,524 41,956 11,373 267 1,773

---> ---> ---> ---> --->

6% 71% 19% less than 1% 3%

2,742 35,441 13,827 335 4,293

---> ---> ---> ---> --->

5% 63% 24% 1% 8% 58


TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

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“when the boston + Providence Railroad built a commuter line down the Stony brook Valley in 1824, housing began to be built for people commuting to boston. by the late 1800s, with electric streetcar service now penetrating Roxbury, residential development was rapid + extensive”

THE ElEvATEd TRAiN + BuS TERmiNAl

- boston Parks + Recreation Department

Figure 1.4: Various images of Dudley Square’s transition with the train station.

59

2002----> silver line, the Mbta’s replacement service for the Washington street Elevated, officially replaced the 49 bus route

2009

Figure 1.5:Time line of the evolution of the station

2002

1901

1900

1987---> original orange line Mbta route along Washington st. was closed + relocated to southwest Corridor

1987

1887

1800

1887----> electric trolley service began

1901---> southern terminus of boston Elevated railway running sullivan sq. in Charlestown later became orange line of Mbta

2009----> this service was redesignated the sl5 and a new sl 4 service was added that runs between dudley and south station, sharing most of the same route

2000 60


TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

POST INDUSTRIAL DUDLEY SQUARE: FUTURE CHURCH

“Lower Roxbury located along Roxbury’s border with the South End, had an industrial character with mills and tanneries By the 19th century, Roxbury’s northern section, Lower Roxbury, was a full fledged industrial mill town providing jobs for the new Irish + German immigrants. In exchange for new gas, water, + sewer lines, Roxbury was annexed to Boston in 1868”.Boston Parks + Recreation Department. As marshes were filled factories + warehouses took their place including.... W. Bowman Cutter’s Hardware Store, Timothy Smith’s Department Store, J.S.Waterman+ Sons Ferdinand’s Blue Store, Howard Storage, Berwick, New England Storage, + Harrison Supply

Figure 1.6: Images of industrial Dudley Square from 1900s-1950s

1900-1960 population before 1950 ---> 80% European decedents

1950-1980 population loss began

population change 1950s + 1960s---> 80% Non European

Industrial Roxbury

The Economic Stimulus Through Family Business In the 1930s Dudley Square was composed of Jewish immigrants who migrated here after WWI to start a new hope for themselves through running large family owned businesses through manufacturing products for municipal 61

Boston. Various buildings ranging from a large furniture manufacturer which became the largest in New England during that time, large department stores, series of storage spaces for larger industrial companies outside of the area, and supply stores for house builders. The site was such a busy area that housing for the company workers and owners were developed around it to make it easier to travel to work.

mANuFAcTuRERS dEmOgRApHic

1980 European decent

African American Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander Other

---> ---> ---> ---> --->

4,681 43,743 7,677 165 1,485

Through it all, a major event happened in the 1950s that changed Dudley Square. There became a flood of African Americans to the area as they were fleeing the segregation and corruption of the south. After the death of Martin Luther King, Jr. a huge riot occurred in the square, forcing the Europeans out of the area with a sense of demolish to the major warehouses and factories of the area. A population

---> ---> ---> ---> --->

8% 76% 13% less than 1% 3%

loss occurred immediately and the area changed to have lower income housing, changed shops focused on ethnic diversity, and eventually, a demolish of the elevated train system that ran successfully through the area. The change led to new problems in crime, poverty, and abandonment with wasted land and buildings, resulting in an all time decline of economic growth. 62


TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

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WHAT IS LEFT?

THE NEw iNduSTRy: dEcliNATiON

63

Figure 2.0: Photographer: Swissrock

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TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

POST INDUSTRIAL DUDLEY SQUARE: FUTURE CHURCH

lANd wASTE wiTH ABANdONmENT

1998

2008

Figure 2.1: Diagram showing land waste of heart of Dudley Square

Abandoned Dudley The Wasted Area

Since there were so many run down buildings, many businesses did not want to invest in fixing up sites. Land values had decreased for the area and the increased violence through store robberies, were at an all time high, Many 65

owners did not think the risk was worth it. Even McDonald’s refused to move in due to the investment. It is explained as “Vacant office + retail space, marginal retail stores, + poor conditions of abandon buildings are a deterrent to investment. Targeting pioneer investors or companies able to see beyond this pessimistic situation may offer the solution. Abandoned office space which physically

old + expensive to rehab should target towards any large new development in Dudley. The great benefit of any new office development would be to substantially stimulate the retail commercial market + create more retail demand for the office lunch crowd”-Harold Ray Raymond Dudley Square: A Public Building as a Catalyst for Urban Revitalization

The excessive abandonment has even carried through low income housing where the projects adjacent to the site, Orchard Park Housing Projects, closed forcing many residents to find new housing outside of the area. Though it closed, the building remains, and it adds to the abandoned count of the Dudley area. 66


POST INDUSTRIAL DUDLEY SQUARE: FUTURE CHURCH

TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

dEcliNATiON iN pROducTiON + cONSumER

Figure 2.2: Images of industrial buildings in Dudley, Gig Harmon

>

estimated annual sales DUDLEY SQ., BOSTON, MA 2011:

>

$40,000,000.00

Figure 2.3: Diagram from information of Boston Redevelopment Authority

Economic Decline for Boston

Changed Demographics; Different Economy Boston as a whole had experienced a huge economic drop from 1960 to 1990s where all produce were no longer bringing in revenue. Throughout Boston, Roxbury specifically, a new demographic was bringing in a varied 67

amount of commerce in more ethnic and cultural shops that began to limit overall economic stands. More specifically, because there were so many cultural shops throughout the region, they began competing against each other for the same customers. Dudley had more mixed cultures ranging from Hispanic, to African American, Carribean, and even some European which create a more diverse area of

commerce than many other areas. However, for general supplies, besides the Tropical Foods Store, the revenue was spread out through other small businesses dispersed throughout the square. Surprisingly, Dudley was bringing in a lot of revenue in the 2000s which led to the motive to help rebuild the area. There became immense realities that the site had potentials for economic stimulus that was never

seen before. Large businesses such as Dunkin Donuts were bringing business in due to the economic boost, however, it cost owners a lot of money to fix up the run down areas, causing few outside businesses to move in. The result in this, was a further abandonment for other buildings and still vacant lots. 68


TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

POST INDUSTRIAL DUDLEY SQUARE: FUTURE CHURCH

TRANSpORT dEcliNE: SilvER liNE SuRvivAl

VACANCY

EMPTINESS

VANDALISM

OUTDATED

Figure 2.4: Images of past and present Dudley Square

Figure 2.5: MBTA Bus Station current map system

The Silver Line

Transportation Decline With the elevated train becoming completely demolished in the 1980s, the only thing left was the major bus station and underground silver line (commuter rail). The elevated train was once connected to the Orange Line which was a huge 69

connection point to major parts of the city, but due to decreased usage, the train, track and all, was taken down. The emptiness of the station has left people to wonder, what has happened to Dudley Square? The station was always busy from pedestrian movement from the bus stop and people cutting through the site which allowed for an opportunity for a never ending movement of people within

the site. However, the station has not been renovated since it was created so the infrastructure of it is outdated and not welcoming. It has been a major location for crime and vandalism. The city tried bringing a hope to the station recently by installing an automated rest room, but even that was vandalized. Janice Davis, visiting Boston from Jacksonville, FL. said she dropped a quarter into the new

bathroom facility to find it had been vandalized ...”it’s filthy, nasty, it’s not right. It’s sad.” With the city trying to bring in hope for the area, there is a greater push to revitalize the station and its surrounding buildings.

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mixEd STylE vS. iSOlATiON

Mixed Styles

What Is Old and the New Many of the buildings within Dudley Square were designed around the same time period, late 1800s, but the style was not distinctive of the time period. Many buildings were built with brick for permanence and allowed for an industrial 71

styled motif. However, many of the buildings were not renovated or demolished so falling apart buildings with old brick, chipped paints, and fallen facade elements brings a rustic appearance, but the old look does not appeal to users within and out of the community. Revitalization with similar styled buildings that have a physical and functional connection must have an interaction in aesthetics

to keep commuters drawn to explore around the square, slowing down movement in and out. The bus station can be a catalyst for future progress in rehabilitating the entire square. Not only isolation in the abandoned buildings, but isolation in architectural styles leads to an increased abandonment and land waste that need a dialogue. By increased and energetic signage, new buildings with strong

facade treatment, revitalization of the train and bus station as well as improved green systems will allow for an immediate renewal for the depressed area.

Figure 2.6: MBTA Bus Station

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uRBAN SigNAgE: gRApHic ART FAcAdE

EGLESTON TROPICAL FOODS FACES OF DUDLEY Figure 2.7: Facades of vacant buildings in Dudley Square

The Graphic Facade Graffiti and Mural Art

Since much of Dudley Square has broken down walls and un-designed facade treatment, the community took matters into their own hands and tried to revitalize the area through artistic expression. By having murals and graffiti art that 73

was designed to reflect the people of the area and an embraced sense of community, the murals have worked to advertise and promote the shops of the area. The artwork has become a sense of identity for the area and has even brought people to view the work more specifically by the talent displayed by local community members. Many of the buildings were perfect for the integrity since there were

limited windows on the lower levels, but mostly brick flat walls that used to be bare. The artwork works as an exterior museum or art exhibition even though the work is permanent it helps teach people the importance that the community has in the area despite its condition. For future designs for the area, the community hopes to continue to have a voice through expression of the arts and to have a say in the

design of many of these buildings to help promote unity and overcoming diversity barriers that many other areas throughout Roxbury and Boston do not have at their disposal.

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PRogReSS NEw dEmOliTiON FOR REviTAlizATiON

75

Figure 3.0: Photographer: Carol Glad

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TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

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NEw + impROvEd

Figure 3.1: Diagram of new buildings by the Boston Redevelopment Authority

Hopes for the Area

New Programs and Buildings The city of Boston has been trying to revitalize the area since the early 2000s by rebuilding some major buildings of the area that had historic impact and importance not as a program, but the architecture of the building. New buildings 77

have been built to help bring in a more diverse demographic with hopes that higher income families have the opportunity to bring in more revenue. Higher income housing like Orchard Gardens which is located near the used to be Orchard Park Project housing that was torn down recently allows for larger family housing. A new hotel was built behind the station to bring in different people from

different communities. There has also been a push for better elderly housing with the new elder service building which is better equipped to serve the older demographic of the area. Lastly, various halls were designed including the community club near the old court house and two main halls which all house meetings for the governmental body and the main Boston education sector. There is a plan to revitalize the

historic post office, court house, and public library to help preserve the history of the area while still being able to use many of the spaces for increased growth of the community.

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TOdAy THE ExTERNAl: FERdiNANd mANuFAcTuRiNg

re-established

demolished

abandoned

designed

Figure 3.2: Diagram of the evolution of the Ferdinand Furniture Warehouse

The Ferdinand Building

The Catalyst for Future Progress It is said that the Ferdinand Building is the signature building for the square mainly because it is the first building you see when you enter the square. It is positioned right at the corner of two merging street and is one of the tallest 79

buildings in the square. In 1890, the building housed furniture which brought a lot of economy to the area. It was advertised as being the ‘new and improved’ thing of the area. After 1950, the space became abandoned and small shops moved into the first floor. However, these businesses did not stay. The upper floors were vacant and so run down that they could not be used properly even if desired. The

condition of the building led to a necessity to renovate the building by keeping some of the qualities that the old architecture had, but demolishing everything else behind the facade. The design for the building plans on having more horizontal layering that allows for office spaces in the upper portion while the lower has new integrated shops of businesses that were already on the site. By re-establishing

Ferdinand, Boston and its mayor believes it will become a stimulus for future growth of the area, “UNLOCKING THE POTENTIAL AT THE FERDINAND BUILDING WILL BE A CATALYST FOR CONTINUED REDEVELOPMENT, BRINGING MORE PEOPLE + ECONOMIC LIFE TO HISTORIC DUDLEY SQUARE”-MAYOR THOMAS MENINO 80


TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

POST INDUSTRIAL DUDLEY SQUARE: FUTURE CHURCH

TOdAy, THE iNTERNAl: divERSE ROxBuRy cOmmuNiTy

education

art

music

biking

dance

children outreach community extracurricular classes

community art museum historic + new

community cultural festivities

community extracurricular health + fitness intervention

Figure 3.3: Diagram multi-cultural activities by the Discovery Roxbury Group

The Diverse Community

The Community Life Established The community embarks in a range of activities in order to bring unity in a once divided community. The square has become a cultural pride place where people bring in cultural activities like dancing, parades, music, artwork, and even 81

physical activities to promote healthy lifestyles. The community has a community center and Boys and Girls club which have worked to bring a new hope for the youth in promoting education and safer streets. The community does not have one specific building that expresses all of this cultural identity, but through various rooms and minimized exterior space, the community has been able to still

celebrate together. The community hopes to reach out to outside communities through these various programs, but seeing the condition of many of their facilities, it becomes a challenge. However, the community has created their own governing body that makes decisions on activities and even the future that the square could have by what is needed from the community itself. The city of Boston has been working

back and for the with the committee to understand what is needed there from the community’s voice as well as their own take on what could help promote growth of the area.

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THE FUTURE: REVITALIZATION

culTuRAl uNiTy THROugH gROwTH

Figure 4.0: Sketch of plan for parcel 9 by Sasaki architects

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pROpOSEd pROgRAmS OF iNTERNAl + ExTERNAl residential small business incubator commercial

restaurant

retail center

commercial

retail hotel police station

hotel plaza

park

commercial

court house

Figure 4.1: Site plan by Mercano and Sasaki Architects

Two Strategies, One Unique Place�

The External (Boston) and Internal (Community) Desires New educational headquarters in Dudley Sq. at Ferdinand site, youth related programs closer to their homes, vacate 5 administrative office buildings to reduce maintenance and operating cost (relocate fire headquarters,relocate other city

85

agencies at vacated space on Court Street, enhance one stop permitting at 1010 Massachusetts Avenue, Blair Lot re-established for new parking, improvements in Dudley Library, re-orientating Dudley MBTA station, reopen oldest city fire house and police station, maximized energy efficiency, daylight, cooling and heating loads, 150 room hotel, revitalized Tropical Foods mart, and 118 housing

units location of building entrances and threshold elevations, public art integrated in public realm, and lastly, storm water management options hold elevations are the internal desires which is what Boston wants. The community wants street level assembly and retail space, pedestrian friendly walkways and bike trails, mix art spaces, friendly park for enhanced green space for cultural festivities

community farmer market interaction, traffic operations and street accessories (trash bins, lighting, signage etc. ), handicap accessibility, safer environment, and lastly, communication between community + city officials.

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cOllABORATivE dESiRE OF lANdScApE dESigNS

Figure 4.2: Diagram of roof green space on Ferdinand building and exterior render of exterior park by Sasaki Architects.

The Exterior Integrity

Tying Nature into the Square The new design has a high desire from Boston itself and the community for a new way to bring green space into the site. The city would like to promote eco- friendly systems and sustainable building ecologies that would allow for a natural 87

cyclination of ventilation, lighting, heating, and cooling as a way to improve the air quality of the square. The community is more focused on having spaces that they can have additional activities like the farmer’s market, recreational events, and areas for the community to hang out in to help bring a natural experience for the community to interact in. The new design includes a roof garden at one of the levels

of the Ferdinand building which will overlook a lot of the square design. By opening up the center of the square and redirecting traffic flows, a more scenic view from the front corridor creates a visual connection throughout the entire square. Within the park like areas, there are designed shading devices that help bring light and shade mutually into the site. They also have built in seating for many of the

restaurant and cafe areas to enjoy outdoor dining which was once never utilized. By having additional planting, vegetation, increased sidewalks, renovated park scapes, and seating opportunities, the square itself can become an outdoor plaza for shopping and recreational enjoyment.

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TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

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pEdESTRiAN mOvEmENT RATHER THAN AuTOmOBilE

sidewalk before

sidewalk after

Figure 4.3: Photograph and render of new sidewalk design by Sasaki Architects

The Embraced Nature Exterior Potentials

Dudley Square currently has limited designed green space for people to enjoy the outdoors. This could be due to the poor urban planning of the layout of the roads in relation to the buildings positioned on the site. The awkward 89

intersections of roads and minimized opportunity for pedestrian pathways does not encourage pedestrian movement and hang out areas for the community. The major park that is within the site is not developed where it is now a fielded condition. There is also a small grave site within the site that is awkwardly positioned behind some of the used to be industrial buildings of the site. The community has many

opportunities for bike movement, but the bike lanes are also poorly designed since they crowd the narrow one way roads that intersect the square. The community also has a community farmers market that they embrace while also partaking in self cleaning though community service activities that helps give opportunities for youth as well as community unity through producing a goal for the same

cause. By having more designed areas for aleatory spaces, the community feels will welcome more people and communities into the square and continue to stimulate the area.

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CONNECTION THROUGH TRANSPORTATION Bike Trails for the Dudley Region Designing for the Pedestrian Due to poor traffic conditions, bike lanes became a second design element in understanding the importance of pedestrian movement at an urban scale in the area. Poor traffic conditions stemmed from poor urban planning with many unnecessary side roads, narrow lanes and streets, minimal green space, and poor traffic signals. In later years, bike lanes were added on top of the poor condition which became a safety issue, especially when the biker needed to cross lanes. On top of the high speed levels of the city, bikers were riding at their own risk. Nevertheless, there is a high community agreement that bike trails and safe sidewalks for pedestrian transportation through the urban planning is essential. The highest desire is at the heart of the Dudley Square region where many commuters from outside communities pass through to get to other local towns. With the major transportation hub being here, pedestrian travel is extremely necessary.

Figure 4.4 Diagram of main vehicular traffic (blue and green) with bike trail potentials (yellow, orange, and grey)

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THE NEEdEd FAciliTy OF mulTi-puRpOSE

Figure 4.5: Diagram of wellness groups in Roxbury region

The Multipurpose Space

Athletic, Religious, Cultural, Educational, Artist Connection In Roxbury, there are diverse community centers such as YMCAs, churches, libraries, Boys and Girls, clubs, and community centers that each community goes to for hopes for support. However, there is not a specific large 93

scale place where any of these organizations can interact with each other. They become diverse nodes of support systems really within their own community and reach out to other communities through small scale adjoining activities to bring groups together. Many of the facilities of these organizations are outdated where only a few have been developed in the past ten years. Many of the buildings were

not designed for larger interactions with different functions and many of the spaces are specific to a program which does not allow for an increased opportunity for additional programs to enter the facilities. Multi purpose space has been defined as gym and conference rooms that are closed off to other adjacent programs becoming more intimate private spaces rather than immense community gathering

spaces. With this, an increased desire for multi purpose spaces that can prompt future growth of the community is a desire.

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THE FUTURE CHURCH

REviTAlizATiON OF cOmmuNiTy + REligiON THROugH ARcHiTEcTuRAl mOBiliTy

Figure 5.0: Conceptual render of a design for the futuristic church by Beck Architects

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THE EvOluTiON OF AN ExiSTiNg SiTE

Desired site off of Melnea Cass blvd.

Figure 5.1: Exploded axo of urban plan for square by Boston Redevelopment Authority

The Evolution of the Site

Expanding Beyond the Boundary The current design Boston is proposing is within four main parcels that are planned to interact with each other by opening up the space and creating links through interior and exterior programs. The proposal I am designing 97

on the parcel 10 part of the design projecting into the future by one year. The site will then expand with additional programs being added to parcels 8 and 9 within a 5 year projection. The last phase will be the entire square shown which will eliminate some of the design that was set up to accommodate for the growth of the church in a regular projection. The evolution of the site will work in conjunction

to the growth of the church where in each projection of the future, additional programs will be added, making an entire complex of architectural integrity that can evolve and transform with new exposures to cultures, demographics, and economies. Within the first phase of the first five years, a facility that works with the current city plan will show how a gradual change can happen as more programs are needed

to accommodate new desires. The site will respond to the immediate design challenges at hand and help to revitalize the area by allowing a support cultural center who reaches out and welcomes outside communities into the new spaces.

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SiTE pOTENTiAlS

potentials

MBTA BUS STATION HEAVY VEHICULAR TRAFFIC VIBRANT CULTURAL SHOPS IMMEDIATE NEIGHBORHOOD GROCERY COMMUNITY OUTREACH DIVERSE DEMOGRAPHIC VACANT BUILDINGS AMPLE EMPTY LOTS

speed commerce interaction optimization

TRANSPORT TRADE CONSUMERS SPACE

Figure 5.2: Diagram of Dudley Square current activities

The Site Potentials

Current Conditions for Future Progress The current site has a range of potentials that the future church would like to explore as a urban and architectural design challenge. The station brings in 30,000 people per year according to a recent study done by the Municipal 99

Boston office which shows that pedestrian movement and activity is already astounding. The bus and train station together can allow for new means of transport when integrated together to make a combined unique system. There are also cultural shops that bring in the majority of Dudley’s revenue. The intense commerce can lead to opportunities of trade to and from other cultural centers right

outside of Dudley Station to make a greater impact in neighboring communities. The community itself is very interactive where many demographics have come together through outreach activities in order to reunite the square’s population. Lastly, the amount of vacant buildings and ample parking lots allows for opportunities in optimizing space and rebuilding many parts of the square that has no

current function. With this great abundance of space, large scale and small scale projects can be designed to work within the site without the sense of crowding or over designing. The new religious cultural center can expand from not only being a single facility, but branching from the current site potentials to embrace and improve on current trends. 100


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IMAGE SOURCES

WORKS CITED

Figure 1.0 Sasaki exterior render “4/12/2012 Dudley Visions Presentation” City of Boston Project Number 6986. Dudley Municipal Office Facility. Pages 1-43

Amlton, Rian, Hammer, Matthew, and Morris, Joshua. “For Dudley, By Dudley” Alternatives for Community and Environment (ACE). Tufts University. Pages 1-83

Figure 1.1 Dudley square site map. http://ase.tufts.edu/uep/degrees/field_project_reports/2009/Team_1_Final_Report.pdf

Boston Parks and Recreation Department. “Community open Space and Recreation Mission Part 3”. Open Space Plan 2002-2006. Page 188-202

Figure 1.2 Old Dudley in 1950s. http://www.dudleyvision.org/

Boston Public Health. “2009 Health of Roxbury Report 2009”. Roxbury Community Alliance for Health May 2010. http://www.bphc.org/about/policyandplanning/ Forms%20%20Documents/Health%20of%20Roxbury%20Final%20Report.pdf

Figure 1.3 Dudley station in 1910. Handy, Delores. “Led by School Building, Boston Seeks To Revitalize Dudley Square” WBR. August 2012. Figure 1.4 Dudley station images. Boston, Charles “Shopping Days in Retro Boston” Pages 1-29. March 2012. www.shoppingdaysinretroboston.blogspot.co.uk/ Figure 1.5 Desiree Edge; diagram of history of the Dudley elevated train. Figure 1.6 1900’s-1950s Dudley Square images. Boston, Charles “Shopping Days in Retro Boston” Pages 1-29. March 2012. www.shoppingdaysinretroboston. blogspot.co.uk/ Figure 2.0 Norfolk Avenue lower Roxbury, Boston. Photographer: Swissrock http://www.flickr.com/photos/swissrunner/6201106489/in/photostream/ Figure 2.1 Joel Miller retailer Harrison Supply site images http://www.showcase.com/b/commercial-real-estate/Joel-Miller/672932 and land waste: http://ase.tufts.edu/ uep/degrees/field_project_reports/2009/Team_1_Final_Report.pdf Figure 2.2 Industrial buildings. Photographer: Gig Harmon http://www.flickr.com/groups/roxbury/pool/ Figure 2.3 Desiree Edge; diagram of Dudley economy from BRA sales report Figure 2.4 Desiree Edge photos of site conditions and bahtoom image from http://www.boston.com/yourtown/news/roxbury/2011/07/self-cleaning_restroom_added_t. html Figure 2.5 MBTA silver line map. http://www.davidicke.com/forum/showthread.php?t=11956&page=522 Figure 2.6 Old Dudley train station. “Shopping Days in Retro Boston” Pages 1-29. March 2012. www.shoppingdaysinretroboston.blogspot.co.uk/ Figure 2.7 Desiree Edge graffiti diagram from Discovery Roxbury group. http://www.flickr.com/groups/roxbury/pool/ Figure 3.0 Ferdinand Building Photographer: Carol Glad http://www.flickr.com/groups/roxbury/pool/ Figure 3.1 Boston Redevelopment Authority diagram of new buildings. Boston Redevelopment Authority. “Mayor Menino Announces: The Dudley Plan”. March 2011. http://www.cityofboston.gov/news/uploads/27765_52_4_32.pdf Figure 3.2 Desiree Edge; diagram of Ferdinand building with images from “Shopping Days in Retro Boston” Pages 1-29. March 2012. www.shoppingdaysinretroboston. blogspot.co.uk/ Figure 3.3 Discover Roxbury’s photos from documentation of site conditions http://www.flickr.com/groups/roxbury/pool/ Figure 4.0 Sasaki’s Dudley plaza aerial render. Boston, Charles “Shopping Days in Retro Boston” Pages 1-29. March 2012. www.shoppingdaysinretroboston.blogspot. co.uk/

Boston Redevelopment Authority. “Mayor Menino Celebrates Groundbreaking of Dudley Municipal Office Building” Business News. Pages 1-3. http://www.bostonredevelopmentauthoritynews.org/2012/03/03/mayor-menino-celebrates-groundbreaking-of-dudley-municipal-office-building/ City of Boston Facilities Department. “4/12/2012 Dudley Visions Presentation” City of Boston Project Number 6986. Dudley Municipal Office Facility. Pages 1-43 City of Boston. “Planning Report: Melnea Cass Blvd. and Washington Street Parcels 8,9 and 10”. Boston Redevelopment Authority. October 2008. www.bostonredevelopmentauthority.org_pdf_PlanningPublications_RSMPOC--Planning Report FINAL 2008-10-01sm City of Boston Facilities Department. “Presentation to the Dudley Vision Advisory Task Force” September 2011. Pages 1-37 D’Amato, Andrea and Maloney, Mark. “Dudley Square Transportation and Air Quality Study”. Boston Redevelopment Authority. November 2001. Pages 2-78 Morrow, Paul. “Another Chance for Dudley Square”. Boston Globe. March 2012 Olnis, Alexandra and Schwartz, Sondra. “Connecting Dudley Square Job Seekers with Newmarket Employment Opportunities”. John F. Kennedy School of Government. April 2000. Pages 3-56 Palmieri, John F. “Parcel 9 + 10 Roxbury Massachusetts”. Boston Redevelopment Authority. April 2011. Pages 1-66. www.bostonredevelopmentauthority.org_pdf_ PlanningPublications_RSMPOC Parcels 9 and 10 RFP in Roxbury Parsons Brinkerhoff. “Project Approach and Work Plan” City of Boston. Pages 1-32. http://www.cityofboston.gov/Images_Documents/ParsonsDudleySqworkplan_RS_ tcm3-33998.pdf Rocheleau, Matt. “10-story Hotel, Supermarket, Housing Eyed for 3.5 Acres of Publicly Owned Land in Roxbury” Boston Redevelopment Authority. March 2012. Pages 1-3. www.boston.com/yourtown/news/roxbury/2011/07/self-cleaning_restroom_added_t.html Rocheleau, Matt. “Self Cleaning Restroom Added to Dudley Station” Boston.com. July 2011. Pages 1-3. www.boston.com/yourtown/news/roxbury/2011/07/selfcleaning_restroom_added_t.html Urban Mapping. “Dudley Square Neighborhood in Boston, MA”. Pages 1-16. www.city-data.com/neighborhood/Dudley-Square-Boston-MA.html Yoon, Sam. “The Dudley Square Retail District: Issues Opportunities and the Boston Main Streets Program”. Harvard University. April 1995. http://www.hks.harvard.edu/ var/ezp_site/storage/fckeditor/file/pdfs/centers-programs/centers/rappaport/paes/dudleysq_retail.pd

Figure 4.1 Sasaki’s Dudley site plan Boston, Charles “Shopping Days in Retro Boston” Pages 1-29. March 2012. www.shoppingdaysinretroboston.blogspot.co.uk/ Figure 4.2 Sasaki diagram of green roof images Boston, Charles “Shopping Days in Retro Boston” Pages 1-29. March 2012. www.shoppingdaysinretroboston.blogspot. co.uk/ Figure 4.3 Dudley Vision’s sidewalk proposal. City of Boston Facilities Department. “Presentation to the Dudley Vision Advisory Task Force” September 2011. Pages 1-37 Figure 4.4 Bike, Buses, Train and Boston diagram map. http://boston.curbed.com/archives/2012/10/where-the-t-meets-the-hubway.php Figure 4.5 Desiree Edge; diagram of community centers from underlay http://www.bphc.org/about/policyandplanning/Forms%20%20Documents/Health%20of%20Roxbury%20Final%20Report.pdf Figure 5.0 Beck Architects sustainable church interior render http://futurechurchbeck.wordpress.com/2011/11/16/found-church-%C2%AB-futurechurchbeck/ Figure 5.1 Boston Redevelopment Authority exploded axo of new plan. Boston Redevelopment Authority. “Mayor Menino Announces: The Dudley Plan”. March 2011. http://www.cityofboston.gov/news/uploads/8529_52_4_32.pdf Figure 5.2 Desiree Edge; diagram of site potentials.

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INITIAL DESIGN PROPOSAL: CHURCH OF NEW HOPE

INITIAL SCHEME FiRST iTERATiON: mAcRO + micRO ScAlE

Figure 1.0: Site diagrams at macro scale of Dudley Square

Connector Between the Pedestrian and Auto The Break of High Speed

Figure 1.1: Site diagrams showing various walkthrough views of Parcel 8.

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The site is positioned in between three major streets that flow on the outskirts of the site with a one way road to the south. The area is high in traffic due to the highway I-93 less than half a mile away. Due to the heavy congestion, the sidewalks are rather vacant with few people walking quickly to avoid being hit. Since the site is positioned down the street from the main heart of Dudley Square, specifically in front of the monumental Ferdinand Building, there is still pedestrian traffic that must be utilized to allow for easy transport to neighboring community centers like the Elderly House, Goodwill Store, or the Tropical Foods Supermarket. Currently, the site is partly owned by the city, housing construction machinery, where the other quarter is a historic burial ground that will be evacuated soon. The Harrison Warehouse Supply Store was just purchased in September, but continues to produce manufacturing supplies to local retailers. In my proposal I plan to evacuate the entire area to help work better with the new plan of the Dudley Square. The site is positioned in between Melnea Cass Boulevard and Harrison Avenue which both lead to downtown Boston. Since the site is relatively flat, by utilizing the elevated land of the current burial site, terracing can be utilized to create differentiation in the landscape while allowing a separation of exterior programs such as an amphitheater, exterior gardens, athletic fields, and regional park spaces. 104


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INITIAL DESIGN PROPOSAL: CHURCH OF NEW HOPE

FiRST iTERATiON The Ambiguity of the Religious Space Potentials to an Ever Changing Division

The Futuristic church is seen as an architecture that no longer becomes a fixed program, fixed form, and even a fixed teaching, but rather a growing institution that can evolve with the local community to help stimulate cultural roles and growth through a cohesive institution with a series of multi-purpose spaces. With four main sections for similar program including entertainment, education, worship, and other multi purpose spaces, similar utilities can be applied to each zone. Each zone also has the potential to expand into another, expanding the square footage of a space by changing wall divisions, floors, and even ceiling heights.

Figure 1.1:Exterior render of initial design overlooking main courtyard.

Figure 1.2: Interior render of initial sanctuary/ concert hall space.

The church now becomes a moving machine that operates based on the influence of the users themselves. The programs though pre-determined potentials are never fixed and allows for an ambiguous architecture similar to past models of the Fun Palace by Cedric Price or Monte Carlo by Archigram. The church then becomes an interchanging facility that allows for future growth and progress. By having multi purpose programs, the church can increase their worship and community involvement by community outreach through the actual building itself rather than reaching out by visiting other facilities. The facilities can become a community center and support group that becomes a system within the community to help bring together ethnicity and cultural differences by revitalizing and promoting them. The initial scheme played with triangular modules tat shifted in eight can allowed for a walkable trellis that connected only to the roof plane. The roof was not entirely walkable and could only be accessed from the site in one area. The scheme lacked connectivity in architectural forms even though it was strong conceptually. Thus the next model was forced to address these issues and make a coherent system that allowed greater flexibility and clarity in the design scheme.

Figure 1.3: Initial diagram of multi functional spaces with square footage break down.

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CHURCH OF NEW HOPE

THE cHuRcH OF uNivERSAl iNTEgRiTy

The Religious Multi-Purpose Space

Potentials to Mending a Broken Community The main idea is to produce an architecture that can respond to time and cultural changes by adapting to the culture/ society as changes and additional programs are needed

introducing mobility of programs and outside communities coming in and out of the design, users are always changing while also revitalizing the train and bus station currently there for increased enhanced movement. The idea is an adaptable facility not designated for a certain denomination or single function, but a religious cultural center that houses multitude of programs

becomes a religious cultural support system that educates and promotes faith back into communities. The facility will be designed to accommodate various wall/ division systems which can also become an integral part of ecology by bringing in significance of nature and religion together while emphasizing the importance through exterior versus interior programs. Through this, the facility

not only through program, but also through art, athletics, and science to become an additional educational and support system while allowing multiple groups of people including YMCA groups, Boys and Girls groups, Churches and Mosques, to intertwine and support another through interworked systems of usage to bring more people from

Figure 2.0: Schematic render of the exterior space on the roof..

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TRAdiTiONAl REligiOuS mOdEl vS. FuTuRE mOdEl cONcEpT 2i

2g

Education Zone B

2h

4f

4e 4d 2f 3c Worship/ Fellowsip Zone 4c

4b

4a 3b

3a

Food Outreach Zone

2e 1g

Education Zone A

2c

2d

1f 1e 2b

1a 1b

2a 1c 1d

Athletic Zone

Figure 2.1: Mass in St. Peter’s Basilica in Vatican City sanctuary area with crucifix floor plan.

St. Peter’s Basilica Vatican City (Classic St. Peter’s Basilica Vatican City (Classic Edifice) Religious Edifice) -Scheduled mass and activities -Inclusive (Only members can partake in certain events such as communion) -Service rituals -Activities for the glorification of God (ex: choir rehearsals, meetings, etc.) -Rigid activities (not flexible) -Fixed denomination -Design for the members

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-Cross crucifix plan -Axiality/ symmetric -Centrality -Verticality (reaching to God/the heavens) -Monumentality -Light symbolic of divinity -Permanent/ solidity -Ornamentation

Figure 2.2: Service in Church of New Hope interior render in sanctuary/ concert hall space with general floor plan of entire scheme.

Church of New Hope (Futuristic Edifice) Church of New Hope (Futuristic Religious -Flexible programs dependent on community needs Edifice) -Multi denominations even though architecturally Christianity inspired -Multi purpose activities with shared space -Fellowship through various programs -Exclusive (anyone can partake in functions) -Design for everyone (universal)

-Ever changing plan that is interactive to user needs -Non symmetric nor axial -Centrality at main entrance, but organization is not focused on center -Horizontality (becomes one with nature) -Temporal monumentality -Light is used more as a performance and connection to divinity -Verticality only though small scale column structures -Interactive with environmental changes

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  WATER COLLECTION + PLANTAR SYSTEMS

Areas for landscaping features like ponds and planting.

GLAZING PANELS

Ceiling panels that are slanted for water runoff that leads to water collecton basins.

STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

Concrete infills or framing with column extrusion to ground for structure.

OUTDOOR TRELLIS FRAMING

Steel framing allowing walkable surfaces and planting for local farmers. Created shading fo outdoor programs.

AREA OF FOCUS

Figure 2.3: Site plan diagram of entire scheme indicating roof systems with pullout of focus area with rendered aerial perspective sowing roof organization.

The Park

Bringing Green Back Through the process of blurring the boundary of what is internal versus external, green space becomes a new innovative park on the roof that brings nature into the site. By blending the two realms, exterior programs become 111

intertwined with interior program spaces while allowing for additional program. The site currently has community farmer markets that occur seasonally, but are only tents on the sidewalks. Through a triangulated trellis system, a winter farmer market or garden can happen on the roof surface of slanted surfaces. The increased park makes a direct dialog to other green spaces especially the new Dudley Plan where the plaza opens up into a pedestrian styled landscape that

allows for a more pedestrian friendly space while allowing for exterior programs to happen that can bring more attention and appeal back to the site. There are not many exterior playing spaces located nearby besides the Madison High School that is usually blocked off to public access. By having a public playing space that can also work with the Reggie Lewis Center located nearby and the Boys and Girls Club located a mile a way, larger activities can occur in

order to possibly bring together other communities into the site. Green space can also become a break between bus and train times from the Dudley Station located down the street which would allow for an increased usage and appeal for the station.

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ROOF + FlOOR plAN diAgRAm OF FOcuS AREA SINGLE PLANTER/ HABITABLE FORM Mound Form 1 Upward rotated twist projection for infill of dirt for large planters and in other areas, system made from plastic for seating and aleatory spaces.

FORMAL STATIC

Space division based off of square footage of columnar structure...not flexible spaces

SINGLE WATER COLLECTOR SYSTEM Mound Form 2 Downward rotated twist projection with ribbed surface to allow the collection of water for landscaping benefits with water collection and fertilization for roof planting and water recycling for building usage.

pool/baptistry athletic equipment storage + rooms office spaces restrooms storage playing courts library kitchen study rooms conference rooms

zone a-entertainment

DOUBLE PLANTER FORM

FEASIBILITY INFORMAL

Mound Form 3 Upward and downward rotated twist projections with flat tops and bottoms to allow for depth of planters

Space division based off of track system that connects in between ceiling mound elements and around private columnar structures. Spaces are flexible and multi-purpose

SINGLE GLAZING ROOF PLATFORM

museum art exhibit function/concert hall sanctuary retail spaces athletic plyometric rooms study rooms conference rooms

Mound Form 4 Upward rotated twist projection with flat angled surface that allows runoff onto the walkways and column water collection systems

Figure 2.4: Roof plan diagram showing specific roof systems throughout distribution.

Figure 2.5: Floor plan diagram of various programs that are movable versus fixed.

The Focus Area

platforms mostly used in the sanctuary space which allows for an awareness of the roof patterning once shadows are reflected onto the ground plane. Besides the roof elements which characterize the space, fields are created with the combination of pathways that becomes an extension of the interior athletic program. Though the focus area is only a small portion of the entire scheme, the focus area helped develop a system that defined static and informal areas

Integrating Multiple Systems The main idea for the focus area was to create a coherent system that would house all of the main roof elements in a system that helped to be a navigation system throughout the walkable roof as well as provide natural and aleatory areas 113

for users to become more of their environment. The increased awareness would help create unforeseen conditions in how the roof functions where even during different times of the year, the roof scape would change and become one with its environment. The roof also had a challenge in providing light to the interior levels where the main floor houses all functional spaces. Besides the light box glass mounds, there are also single glazing roof

which was carried throughout the entire scheme to make a coherent organization of space, form, and ever changing interaction.

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ExplOdEd AxO OF FOcuS AREA The Focus Area Detail Piece By Piece

MOUND 1 WATER COLLECTION+ GLAZING SYSTEMS The systems are created from the same technique of twisted enclosures that get smaller depending on the direction of the twist. In this case, it is one of the simple forms of rotated planes with straight extrusions only for the glazing planels.

The main design system includes three main elements that are designed with a different integrity and function, but are meant to work together to allow for diverse interior and exterior programs to occur. The roof mounds have various variations that help serve as greenhouses, playing fields, glass enclosure panels, and a water collector all dependent on their specific location. The walkway works around these structures and help to guide people throughout the roof in a easy clear direction, but allow for break off points to access the site outside of the building.

MOUND 1 + WALKWAY WATER COLLECTION+ GLAZING SYSTEMS WITH LANDSCAPING The water basins are designed with ribs for the container to hold large quantities of water and provide structural support. The glazing systems in most cases, slant to allow water to runoff into these basins throughout the roof. adding pond and other water form features in the roof terrain.

The column structure is classified as being only structural primarily where the athletic area is and second, habitable serving as private spaces like bathrooms, offices, conference rooms, chapels, and classrooms to name a few. It’s habitability depends on its location. The habitable mounds form is derived from the circular triangle modules that manifest the roof while the structural columns are derived from in between spaces of the modules. In both conditions, the columns branch upward mimicking the vaults in cathedrals while helping to support the roof above. Through all of the systems, the design brings together diverse programmatic integrity that is unlike any other while creating some familiar interactions to prompt different aleatory conditions amongst users and the community.

COLUMN STRUCTURE 1 HABITABLE COLUMNAR PRIVATE ROOMS Designed at a ceiling height dependant on the function of the adjaceent roof mound each structure meant to hold small private programs and in some areas interior planting that is fertilized from roof runoff where some columnar forms are open to the air rather than enclosed.

Figure 2.7: Exploded axo of entire focus area.

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ROOF mOuNd dESigN SETS The Mound Detail Interactive Variations

The main design of the mounds was derived from the top circular element which twisted to a smaller form either above or below ground depending of the functionality. Due to the twist, it allows for a form that helps collect water easily working as a smooth basin for water movement while the mounds that twist above ground create unique playing and aleatory spaces where in some cases, serve as seating on the roof.

PLAN

AXO

Mound Form 1a Upward rotated twist projection

Mound Form 1b Upward twist projection

Mound Form 1c Straight extrusion with twisted platform

Mound Form 1d Downward rotated twist projection

Mound Form 1e Downward twist projection

Mound Form 1e Downward straight projection

PLAN

The mounds depth only range in 1 to 2 feet and are the shallowest forms on the roof. They contrast the elongated columnar supports underneath through the forms are similar in construct. In some cases, the mounds have 2-3 different micro forms that twist similarly which creates greater variation in the form and creates multiple functions in one module. These systems are really only used for enclosures, but are low enough to create concrete seating spaces.

AXO

Mound Form 2a Downward rotated twist projection

Mound Form 2b Downward terraced twist projection

Mound Form 3a Downward twisted platform

Mound Form 3b Downward rounded twist

Mound Form 4a Downward rounded twist projection

Mound Form 5a Dramatic downward twist projection

PLAN

AXO

Mound Form 5b Downward rotated twist projection

Mound Form 6a Rounded extuded systems

Mound Form 7a Twisted downward projection systems

Mound Form 8a Twist projection system

Mound Form 9a Upward slight twist projection

Mound Form 10a Upward dramatic twist projection

Figure 2.8: Variations of roof mound forms with various geometries based off of roof outlined geometries.

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cOlumN STRucTuRE SETS

Column 5a Tight curve to straight walls

Column 1a Slight rounded walls

Column 1b Angled to straight walls

Column 1c Mirrored angled walls

Column 1d Branched walls

Column 5b Tight angled to straight walls

Column 5c Loose angled to straight walls

Column 5d Tight curve to straight walls

Column 5e Angled walls

Column 5f Angled walls

Column 18a Forward lean walls

Column 6b Slight concave curved walls

Column 6c Loose concave curved walls

Column 6d Tight curve to straight walls

Column 6e Slight curved walls

Column 2c Mirrored angled walls

Column 2d Branched walls

Column 2e Downward angle walls Column 7a Tight curve to straight walls

Column 3a Slight rounded walls

Column 4a Slight rounded walls

Column 10a Fragmented indented walls

Column 11a Fragmented indented walls

Column 3b Angled to straight walls

Column 4b Angled to straight walls

Column 10b Angled extruded walls

Column 11b Angled extruded walls

Column 3c Mirrored angled walls

Column 3d Branched walls

Column 4d Mirrored angled walls

Column 4d Branched walls

Column 3e Downward angle walls

Column 4e Downward angle walls

Column 10c Twisted rounded concave walls (outward)

Column 10d Twisted rounded concave walls (inward)

Column 11c Twisted rounded concave walls (outward)

Column 11d Twisted rounded concave walls (inward)

Column 7b Slight concave curved walls

Column 7c Slight concave curved walls

Column 7d Tight angled to straight walls

Column 7e Angled to straight walls

Column 13a Fragmented indented walls

Column 12b Angled extruded walls

Column 13b Angled extruded walls

Column 19c Fragmented cuved section walls

Column 20a Traingulated walls Column 8a Tight curve to straight walls

Column 8b Slight concave curved walls

Column 8c Loose concave curved walls

Column 8d Loose curve to straight walls

Column 8e Tight curved walls

Column 8f Loose concave curved walls

Column 9a Slight concave curved walls

Column 9b Slight concave curved walls

Column 9c Loose concave curved walls

Column 9d Tight curve to straight walls

Column 9e Slight curved walls

Column 9f Slight curved walls

Column 14a Slight twisted walls

Column 15a Slight twisted walls

Column 14b Angled concave walls

Column 15b Angled concave walls

Column 14c Dramatic twist concave walls

Column 15c Dramatic twist concave walls

Column 12c Twisted rounded concave walls (outward)

Column 12d Twisted rounded concave walls (inward)

Column 13c Twisted rounded concave walls (outward)

Column 13d Twisted rounded concave walls (inward)

Column 16a Slight twisted walls

Column 17a Slight twisted walls

Column 16b Angled concave walls

Column 17b Angled concave walls

Column 16c Dramatic twist concave walls

Column 17c Dramatic twist concave walls

Column 19d Dramatic twist angled walls

Column 7f Slight concave curved walls

Column 14d Slight twisted concave walls

Column 21a Concave loose curved walls

Column 22a Twisted curved column

Column 20b Angled straight walls

Column 21b Angled straight walls

Column 22b Angled twisted curved column

Column 21c Dramatic tight concave walls

Column 21c Dramatic tight curved walls

Column 22c Wide concave curved column

Column 20d Loose concave curved walls

Column 21d Tight concave curved walls

Column 22d Straight twisted column

Column 15d Slight twisted concave walls

Column 23a Twisted torqued column

Column 12a Fragmented indented walls

Column 19b Fragment straight section walls

Column 18d Outward twist walls

Column 6f Dramatic concave curved walls

Column 19a Forward curved lean walls Column 2b Angled to straight walls

Column 18c Inward twist walls

Column 1e Downward angle walls

Column 6a Slight concave curved walls

Column 2a Slight rounded walls

Column 18b Fragment straight section walls

Column 23b Moderate twisted curved column

Column 23c Dramatic concave column

Column 23d Angled twisted cuved column

Column 16d Slight twisted concave walls

Column 17d Slight twisted concave walls

Column 24a Staight angled twisted column

Column 24b Twisted curved column

Column 24c Wide concave curved column

Column 24d Dramatic concave column

Figure 2.9: Variations of columnar forms with various geometries based off of roof panels. Most of the variations look into a twisting effect that is caused from changing the bottom from the top and connecting cross sections. These created curved massings. By doing so, the column is no longer a straight, vertical form that only works to support an upper and lower form, but now creates a different relationship between the user and the column as the column curves away from the body and towards in depending on the column form. Regardless, the catalogue of column forms creates various possibilities in how the interior space can be organized and behave as a system. The entire collection creates a tree of columns in the floor plan which influences movement trough spaces while working as sculptural design elements adding character to the space. Since these are connected to the mounds above, they also serve as light boxes throughout the day.

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RENdEREd ROOF plAN

CAMOUFLAGE CONDITION Sanctuary/ Concert Hall Ceiling Panels:

Panels allow light to enter into the double heighted space while also creating a dialogue of the entire roof patterning through the entrance of light.

Inhabitable Glass Greenhouse Spaces:

Coves that house planting and vegetation for farmer markets, local community gardening that becomes and extension of the food outreach ministry in the religious edifice for community outreach.

Walkable Trellis:

Trellis becomes another place for planting crops and vine growth vegetation while allowing for shading for outdoor amphitheater on lower areas and aleatory spaces on upper surfaces.

Plastic and Glass System for Aleatory Seating Areas:

The system allows for slanted seating areas as people rest off of the winding pathway, but also creates elevated views to other adjacent slanted surfaces.

Winding Path System:

Path creates areas to walk around entire roof system while meeting up with balcony areas to overlook site as well as navigation routes to off of the roof where the site meets the roof and where the trellis meets

Figure 2.10: Rendered roof plan showing camouflage condition of roof elements. Different planting and grasses will be used to differentiate the modules underneath, but for the most part, the system blends into each other that creates a hidden condition in aerial view were only the glass mounds, pathways, and glass enclosures are distinguishable respectively.

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ExTERiOR RENdER OF ROOF wiTH TRElliS: dAy + NigHT

Figure 2.11: Closeup of roof system with walkable trellis during the evening.

Effect of Roof Mounds The Glow

Due to the mound forms popping out of the flat roof terrain, these glass forms when lit from the interior become lighting elements on the site. The brighter mounds are the mounds that connect directly to a structural column underneath with 123

Figure 2.12: Closeup of roof system with walkable trellis during the night.

no floor plate in between, creating a double heighted space. These mound and column combinations are mostly in the food outreach area in order to grow larger plants in the interior for interior gardens. The glowing mounds are encased with low E glazing which will allow for a great transparency through the glass to be able to see the activity inside of the mound while also being able to see the activity outside of the mound once inside of its interior. Since these

mounds work as great light boxes throughout the site, minimal additional artificial lighting is needed saving on costs and energy. The light boxes also range in eight where some are ocupiable and some solely are for enclosure. However, the tallest mound structure is 15’ allowing for a lower ceiling to create more intimate spaces. Nevertheless, the effect during the night and day contrast each other depending on when they are lit, but the system makes a

visual connection to the green play areas that pop out of the flat roof surface gradually.

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ROOF plAN + REFlEcTEd cEiliNg plAN

THE REVEAL

Sanctuary/ Concert Hall Ceiling Panels Inhabitable Glass Greenhouse Spaces Walkable Trellis Plastic and Glass System for Aleatory Seating Areas Winding Path System

Figure 2.13: Roof plan and reflected ceiling plan sowing organization of roof and column elements.

The Organization The Roof System

With the basic floor area and division of the track system, the ceiling modules were created with the same integrity to accommodate both conditions while being able to enclose and interact with the column structure “mirrored” 125

underneath. Due to the organization, the ceiling that houses the water collector, greenhouse mounds, pathways, and green fields, is able to create a coherent, consistent mapping of all programs that works to create flexible spaces and ways of navigation around the scheme. The roof plan and reflected ceiling plan varies in some forms due to the twisting mounds that change in its form as top and bottom mentioned earlier. The track system also creates

differentiation as it weaves in and out of the space that creates additional divisional spaces. The track system helps differentiate some of the main areas that may need additional programming as opposed to the larger areas that creates more of a field condition. The trellis system helps work with this system in creating additional interactions wit the site while creating shading for the outdoor amphitheater as well as holding planting for the farmer’s markets and food

outreach program. Both the roof and reflected ceiling plan demonstrated the importance of interacting from top to bottom in allowing the frame of the modules to wok cohesively to structure the roof elements.

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FlOOR plAN wiTH pROgRAm OF SySTEm Athletic Zone 1a-1d. Workout Rooms 1e-1g. Athletic Offices/ Storage (Courts are within movable wall panels) Includes plyometric rooms with movable equipment, interior playing courts that connect to the exterior playing fields and also with the roof playing fields above.

2i

2g

Education Zone B

2h

4f

4e 4d 2f 3c Worship/ Fellowsip Zone 4c

4b

4a 3b

3a

Food Outreach Zone

2e 1g

2j Education Zone A

2c

2d

1f 1e 2b

1a 1b

2a 1c 1d

Education Zone 2a-2f. Classrooms 2g. Small Library 2h. Restroom 2i. Exhibit Room 2j. Small Library II (Conference rooms are in large areas with wall panels) Movable wall partitions, display boxes, and bookshelves allow for additional divisions of spaces while functioning programmatically and providing character for the space. Worship Zone 3a. Nurse Office 3b. Restroom 3c. Restroom (Sanctuary/ concert hall is in large space) The space has less columns forms in order to allow for movable seating and large gathering spaces. However, the rest rooms here have a more opaque glass finish to create additional privacy in the glass columns. The play on privacy pushes the idea that “God� is everywhere.

Athletic Zone

Figure 2.14: Floor plan showing various programs

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Food Community Outreach Zone 4a. Pantry 4b. Planting 4c. Planting 4d. Market 4e. Market 4f. Planting (Serving areas and dining room within large areas of moving panels) Interior gardens within the columns create additional planting space while bringing green space into the interior to make a coherent connected system externally and internally. They become interior hang out spaces as well that users never get away from nature. 128


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iNTERiOR RENdER OF SANcTuARy SpAcE

Figure 2.15: Interior render of concert all/ sanctuary space displaying interior columns and organization of area.

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FlOOR plAN wiTH mOvABlE wAll SySTEm Multi Functional Spaces

Division versus Multiplication The entire massing of the building is primarily divided into eight main triangular forms which contributes to the overall shape of the building. The triangulations help zone the building and create an under structure for the roof elements above. The main division of spaces can create over 24 combinations of spaces once divided and can go back to no divisions to create an entire open system. The division of these spaces become blurred with the triangular circled forms that are mapped on top of these divisions to help derive additional movement and create a structure that is no random, but derived from an initial structure. The division of space is reinforced by the track system (explained in depth on page 133-134) which allows for a different division dependent on user control. The track system helps block other spaces though sound control even though the walls are transparent enough to see an adjacent activity. The different activities throughout the week are used by different users all the time which allows for a greater variety in how the space is used.

Monday and Tuesday: Edifice open for community exercise programs, classrooms, and food outreach program.

Wednesday: Edifice open for weekday nurturing, art exhibits, fellowship, and bible study. Exercise rooms also available.

Thursday: Edifice open for weekday rehearsals, classrooms, and community meetings.

Lastly, the distribution of fixed columns through the space that create the private spaces, help support the building and create a static condition that keeps some of the building familiar over time. The columns help to direct traffic flows and prosper interactions amongst users with the columns especially due to their unique forms and transparent qualities. The fact that you can see within the columns provokes additional activity and an inviting character to the space. The flexibility of space makes direct connections to the post war research in terms of architectural mobility. The idea is very similar to Cedric Price’s Fun Palace or Monte Carlo by Archigram. In either case, the flexibility of space allows for a response to changing times and environments to prevent dying architecture, but rather an interactive system that prospers growth.

Friday: Gospel explosions and community worship services.

Saturday: Farmer’s markets and large concerts.

Sunday: Mass and church services.

Figure 2.16: Floor plans showing various configurations.

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TRAcK SySTEm diAgRAm + REcONFiguRATiON pROgRESSiONS

System without wall panel. Includes track and roller parts of top and bottom supports.

Close up of wall panel and track system. Includes track and roller parts of top and bottom

Figure 2.18: Massing diagram below track system of movable furniture for multi purpose spaces

Figure 2.19: Massing diagram above track system of movable furniture for multi purpose spaces

Figure 2.20: Massing diagram below track system during a different day of the week with movable furniture for multi purpose spaces

Figure 2.21: Massing diagram above track system during a different day the week with movable furniture for multi purpose spaces

Track system woks around column private spaces for maximum open areas possible. In some cases, track intersects the columns, but the wall panels do not actually intersect the columns. There is a continuous path which allows for all wall panels to be removed to maximize entire floor area. Figure 2.17: System of movable wall panels on track system

The Track

The Advantage to Flexible Spaces The track system is created in between and around the organization of the roof elements that organize the space while not interrupting the above system. The movable walls alongside the track which are transparent themselves 133

through a light fabric which is lightweight and easy to move while still playing on privacy. Users become completely aware of their environments even if they are closed off in a space that is enclosed by these movable fabrics. Movable furniture also provides the flexibility of the space and helps accommodate all sorts of activity depending on the week day.

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dESigN SEcTiONS wiTH AREA RENdERS

Transverse Section

Figure 2.22: Design sections of entire system.

Figure 2.23: Interior render of athletic area

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Longitudinal Section

Figure 2.24: Interior render of art exhibit/ classroom space.

Figure 2.25: Interior render of sanctuary/ concert hall space

Figure 2.26: Interior render of food outreach space.

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HANd dRAwiNg OF SANcTuARy dETAil

Figure 2.27: Hand drawing of detail of sanctuary/ concert hall space with material finishes.

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ExplOdEd AxON

Mound, Column + Path Entire system columns and greenhouse mounds

Entire pathway system on roof

Double system of mirrored columns and mounds

The Pieces to Design Mound, Column + Path with Floor

Mound, Column + Path with Roof

Producing a Kit of Parts to Address Changing Conditions Similar to the exploded axo of the focus area, the same logic in organization was carried throughout the remainder of the project. The columns are sized and distributed based off of the basic needs in square footage of its designated program. There are eleven mound and column combinations which allows for double heighted ceiling spaces in some conditions and in others a second floor space (basically the roof). In some of the more private mounds/columns is a vertical circulation core which includes stairs and an elevator to reach the roof rater than only occupying it from the roof. This area is located just outside of the sanctuary/ concert all space in the main entrance at the center of the scheme. The column/mound combination can become an intimate connection in the culture of naming chapels after positions after God such as saints, disciples, etc which allows for a sense of monumentality in preserving ancient rituals as ways to give respect. The larger intimate spaces in some of the larger columns allows for small gathering spaces that perhaps can house more intimate gatherings with smaller crowds such as a baby christening, baptism, small wedding, etc which makes an intimate connection to the function while not overwhelming uses with unnecessary space. The large columns can also become larger classrooms and conference rooms for meetings and larger gatherings that may not be as large as the sanctuary or concert hall space. In the exterior, the mounds work as greenhouses and light box for the winding pathway. The walkable trellis becomes a shading device for the outdoor amphitheater that connects to the main entrance and sanctuary/concert hall which makes a dual worship space. The walkable trellis connects to the interior ground floor as well as the roof in designated areas, creating a medium transport in between the two levels and connects tem mutually. The trellis is the connector of the entire system and woks as a growth off of the building mass. However, its importance links the mounds, column, and pathway system as a navigational tool.

Entire System

Figure 2.28: Exploded axon of design scheme with roof elements and mound/column design.

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TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

FINAL DESIGN PROPOSAL: CHURCH OF NEW HOPE

wATER cOllEcTiON SySTEm

ROOF DRAIN

SITE RUNOFF

WATER STORAGE

FILTER

The Water Vent

Producing Natural Resources for the Community With the integrity of the twisted mounds, a natural water collector can allow for a collection of water that could be filtered back into the building usage and help vitalize the growth of the exterior gardens and farms for the community. 141

IRRIGATION CONTAINER

SPRINKLER

Figure 2.29: Water collection system from roof runoff and water collection containers that recycles rainwater and distributes water for irrigation.

The form of the roof is more of a web like massing with rounded edges that create a space in between each triangulation and provides for a natural drainage system in between the specific modules. With the built in drainage system, water runoff becomes an easy way to work with powering some of the interior utilities. The roof not only becomes a water drainage system and a walkable playing surface, but also becomes and ever changing influence in

the natural systems allows for a self sustaining design with minimal maintenance. Since a lot of the roof is walkable, it will be a challenge considering people walking around or through the drainage system, but questioning the division of space in what is full drainage versus programmatic space is something interesting to look into. From the various extrusions of the mounds heights, they creates fragmentation that mimics the mosque styled churches. The

surface changes in height towards the sanctuary area where the largest public gathering space would be located. The higher the roof makes the space read in the exterior as being the main program for the scheme and allows the most runoff from the roof.

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TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

FINAL DESIGN PROPOSAL: CHURCH OF NEW HOPE

FOOd OuTREAcH cOmmuNiTy iNvOlvEmENT

Column Detail

Mound Detail

Column 23b Moderate twisted curved column

Mound Form 1b Upward twist projection

Mound Form 2b Downward terraced twist projection

Mound + Column Details (Single + Double Height)

Mound + Column Axo In Context

System in Context

Figure 2.30: Food outreach diagram with public greenhouse and planters for community involvement.

Figure 2.31: Detail diagrams of the forms and intended usage of greenhouse and column rooms.

The Community Planting Program

supplies to smaller plants that are in planters or vases. The farmer markets can also grow their smaller crops here or help preserve them for another day. Nevertheless, these mounds can also be secured if need be to prevent on site theft of goods which solves the issue many urban community gardens run across. Community involvement in the growth of local plants and vegetation not only promote the importance of nature in our everyday lives but also serve

Producing Natural Resources for the Community Within some of the green house spaces are built in shelves for small planting and community garden space. Dudley Square houses weekend farmer markets and neighbors very small community gardens that are both high in usage. 143

The food outreach ministry of the edifice will combine and promote the importance of natural habitation with the public community planting program to allow for additional possibilities of fellowship. The weaved structure of the mounds not only create structure for the mound for, but also work as structure for the built in shelves that clip onto the frame and can be removed easily for cleaning and loading purposes. The shelves are meant to hold anything from

as an incubator to draw more people to the site and to fellowship in the programs in the interior by drawing curiosity into the design.

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FINAL DESIGN PROPOSAL: CHURCH OF NEW HOPE

ExTERiOR RENdER OF ROOF

Figure 2.32: Exterior render from trellis looking towards Orchard Gardens Apartments.

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TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

FINAL DESIGN PROPOSAL: CHURCH OF NEW HOPE

pHySicAl mASSiNg mOdEl

Figure 2.33: Massing model displaying the site with the building as the mounds (3D printed) pop up out of the pink foam hat displays the basic organization of the roof elements respectively.

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TECHNO-FUTURISM: DUDLEY SQUARE RE-VITALIZATION

FINAL DESIGN PROPOSAL: CHURCH OF NEW HOPE

pHySicAl dETAil mOdEl OF mOuNd cOlumN cOmBiNATiON

Figure 2.34: Detail model of the encasing and void of the mound/column combination though stacked acrylic to view the intricate form.

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FINAL DESIGN PROPOSAL: CHURCH OF NEW HOPE

IMAGE SOURCES

Figure 2.28: Desireé Edge, exploded axon of roof elements in relation to organization of interior spaces.

Figure 1.0: Joel Miller Realtors aerial image of Dudley Square. http://www.showcase.com/b/commercial-real-estate/Joel-Miller/672932.

Figure 2.29: Desireé Edge, water collection system diagram for fertilizing planting gardens.

Figure 1.1: Desireé Edge, with Sasaki Architects site plan. Boston, Charles “Shopping Days in Retro Boston” Pages 1-29. March 2012. www.shoppingdaysinretroboston. blogspot.co.uk/

Figure 2.30: Desireé Edge, diagrams of food community outreach with community gardens.

Figure 1.2: Desireé Edge, diagram of site images trough different locations on site. Figure 1.3: Desireé Edge, exterior render of roof looking towards Orchard Garden Apartments. Figure 2.1: Desireé Edge, St. Peter’s Basilica at Vatican II image and floor plan. http://travel.nationalgeographic.com/travel/countries/cathedral-photos/ and http:// courses.umass.edu/latour/Italy/2005/Michelle/index.html

Figure 2.31: Desireé Edge, diagram images of design elements that are habitable for the food outreach ministry. Figure 2.32: Desireé Edge, exterior render looking towards Orchard Garden Apartments. Figure 2.33: Desireé Edge, Desireé Edge, physical model images of massing model. Figure 2.34: Desireé Edge, physical model images of mound/ column combination.

Figure 2.2: Desireé Edge, Church of New Hope interior render and floor plan. Figure 2.3: Desireé Edge, site plan diagram sowing organizational line work with focus area call out. Figure 2.4: Desireé Edge, rendered aerial perspective of entire scheme. Figure 2.5: Desireé Edge, roof plan of focus area. Figure 2.6: Desireé Edge, floor plan of focus area. Figure 2.7: Desireé Edge, exploded axon diagram of focus area. Figure 2.8: Desireé Edge, mound variations of basic form. Figure 2.9: Desireé Edge, structural column variations of basic form. Figure 2.10: Desireé Edge, rendered roof plan with call outs of specific roof elements in relation to each other. Figure 2.11: Desireé Edge, exterior renders of the light box effect of the column/mound combinations present on the roof surface during the day. Figure 2.12: Desireé Edge, exterior renders of the light box effect of the column/mound combinations present on the roof surface during the night. Figure 2.13: Desireé Edge, roof plan and reflected ceiling plan of entire scheme. Figure 2.14: Desireé Edge, floor plan with room label call outs for program distribution. Figure 2.15: Desireé Edge, interior render of sanctuary/ concert hall space showing interior column functionality. Figure 2.16: Desireé Edge, diagram of re-cognfigurable spaces and functions throughout different days of the week. Figure 2.17: Desireé Edge, track diagram with detail pullout. Figure 2.18: Desireé Edge, first progression without track and movable seating. Figure 2.19: Desireé Edge, first progression with track system and movable seating. Figure 2.20: Desireé Edge, second progression without track and movable seating. Figure 2.21: Desireé Edge, second progression with track system and movable seating. Figure 2.22: Desireé Edge, transverse and longitudinal sections of the design showing interior spaces in relation to ocupiable roof elements. Figure 2.23: Desireé Edge, interior render of athletic area with spaces like courts, gyms, workout rooms, and offices. Figure 2.24: Desireé Edge, interior render of art exhibit/ classroom space in the education wing. Figure 2.25: Desireé Edge, interior render sanctuary/ concert all space also showing the balcony above. Figure 2.26: Desireé Edge, interior render of dining area in the food outreach department. Figure 2.27: Desireé Edge, hand drawing of sanctuary/concert hall space with detail of material finishes.

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