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“In the process of designing new and innovative services, the Customer Journey Mapping methodology builds a mirror and enables us to question why organisations and customers do the things they do.�

Designing with

Customer Journey Mapping 3

CDRI in collaboration with DesignThinkers Group

explaining tools and process


contents 1 Service provided by CDRI 5 Introduction 6 Customer Journey Mapping process overview 8

on

2 Customer Journey Mapping Methodology 13 Methodology 14 Tools 18 23

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3 Explore Restaurant Case

‘Designing with Customer Journey Mapping’ Commissioned by: CDRI, Taiwan CJM process facilitated by: DesignThinkers Group Design booklet: DesignThinkers Group Text booklet: CDRI & DesignThinkers Group

© 2014

3.1 Restaurant case Introduction 24 3.2 Restaurant case Workshop Program 28 3.3 Restaurant case Project Outcomes 34 Persona visualization 34 Customer Journey Map overview 36 Customer Journey Map stage pre-ordering 40 Experience Scenario 42 Service Blueprint 44 4 Appendix: 10 Steps to Customer Journey Mapping, article by Arne van Oosterom

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Designing with Customer Journey Mapping

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1› Promote service industry

Create employment opportunities and improve quality of life

Engine for economic growth

Customer Journey Mapping methodology

4

CDRI in collaboration with DesignThinkers Group

Service provided by CDRI What we could offer you

Designing with Customer Journey Mapping

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Introduction In a highly competitive, complex and volatile marketplace, it is becoming more and more important for companies and organisations to focus on the experiences that customers have with their products and services. CDRI (www.cdri.org.tw) helps improve and promote value-added services that create employment opportunities, improve quality of life, and act as an engine for economic growth. To underpin its focus on helping the Taiwanese service industry become more innovative, CDRI has launched the Customer Journey Mapping methodology in cooperation with DesignThinkers Group as a service to the market. DesignThinkers Group (www. designthinkersgroup.com) is a global agency based on a network of teams consisting of multidisciplinary professionals in the field of service design. It focuses on helping organisations realise sustainable new service concepts. A designbased approach is at the basis of all DesignThinkers Group activities.

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CDRI in collaboration with DesignThinkers Group

CJM The Customer Journey Mapping methodology will help businesses in the service industry unleash collaborative creativity and come up with innovative new service concepts. The service is delivered in a facilitative approach, where all stakeholders invest in an effort to define innovative service concepts, while also determining what it will take to implement these new collaborative co-creation methods within their organisation. The service is built out of modules that can be tailored to specific industry or company situations. Projects cover the exploration, design and implementation phases. The exact activities in these phases can, however, differ. A general overview of Customer Journey Mapping activities can be found on the next page.

Human Centered Design

Qualitative research

New way of collaboration

Innovative business models

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CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE

››

explore

›››

››

design

COMPANY

implement

DATE

CUSTOMER JOURNEY MAPPING COMPLETE DESCRIPTION OF THE SERVICE COMPONENTS

Qualitative Research Implementing Prototypes

EMOTIONAL STATUS

PERSONA SKETCH CONTEXT

Customer Journey Map Tool CUSTOMER'S JOB

TIMELINE OF JOURNEY STAGES

Persona

TOUCHPOINTS

COMPANY ACTIONS

IDENTITY

Testing Prototypes

INSIGHTS & OPPORTUNITIES

Customer Journey

IMPLEMENT

EXPLORE

Persona Card

Customer Insights

DATE

PERSONA CARD NAME

SKETCH

Use a realistic name. Don’t use names of colleagues. 

DESCRIPTION

What type of persona is it. Describe the most prominent differentiator.

DESIGN QUOTE

Capture the essence to one or two points that could come out of the persona’s own mouth.

CJM Visualization

WHO IS IT?

Sketch the personal profile, age, location, job title, what kind of person is it? Think about one or more personas from segmentation.

Fast or slow decision maker? Why, how can you tell? Decisions made on fact or emotion? Why, how can you tell?

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CDRI in collaboration with DesignThinkers Group

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STAGE ICT

CJM PROCESS OVERVIEW

Wan ts de -str

How important are functional, emotional, expressive benefits. Be specific, which one is more important? Or a mix of?

PRE-ORDERING

Bu sy

Blueprints

ACTIONS

Which trends, mindstyles or other indicators are applicable for this persona?

EMOTIONS

WHICH BEHAVIOUR?

What does she or he do? Tell stories about the behaviour while using a service, product or site. Channel usage for various needs (internet, visiting comparable sites, mobile, social media). What works well, what are the frustrations, what is stopping her or him from choosing a function, service or product?

TOUCHPOINTS

Prototypes

WHAT ATTITUDE?

What is the point of view? What is the expectation, perception of service, company or brand. What motivates the persona to go to the website, into the shop, or use the service.

FEELINGS / MOMENTS OF TRUE

WHAT GOALS?

What is the supreme motivator? What are (latent) needs and desires?

Service Scenario

3

Office lady feels stressed by very busy working schedule . Starts looking for place to relax during lunch time

She checks her mobile and finds her favorite restaurant. She is irritaed by unfriendly

Mobile APP, site restaurant

She finds great menu including local ingredients and health package. Feeling

Mobile APP, menu and healthpackage

Excited by ordering her healthy menu and free

Mobile APP, ordering module

Disappointed to have to wait in line in the

Finally received her menu and guided to a quiet are to get the free massage and spend some quality time

Go back to work relaxed and

iPad available at the table

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CJM Process Exploring

Implementing

The exploration phase focuses on researching why customers and other stakeholders do what they do. Only once we understand this can we start to design service concepts that add value. Qualitative field research in combination with interactive sessions where customer journeys are mapped is part of this phase.

Finally, the building and implementation phase consists of actually constructing systems and other infrastructures, training personnel and developing communications material. In this phase, interactive sessions are periodically planned depending on the progress with implementation.

Designing The design phase builds upon customer insights, which are important outcomes of the exploration phase. These insights are key building blocks for designing service concepts. Service blueprints and prototypes are designed to visualise and describe the service concepts in more detail and test them with customers and other relevant stakeholders. These activities are carried out during interactive sessions.

Outcomes The outcomes of the engagement will vary but will always comprise innovative new service concepts and trained teams who know how to apply a more designoriented approach towards service innovation. In projects, activities and interactive sessions are always tailored to specific company situations. To find out what the project would look like in your situation, an exploratory briefing session can be organised. Contact CDRI for more information about this.

CDRI Background CDRI is formerly established on December 2007 and funded by the Ministry of Taiwanese Government. CDRI helps to improve and promote value-added service industry that creates employment opportunities, improves quality of life, and acts as an engine for economic growth. CDRI focuses on the following activities: - Cultivate industry and policy research; - Develop innovative business models based on a thorough understanding of consumer behaviour and markets; - Strengthen personnel training and recruiting; - Enhance the international competitiveness of the service industry; - Construct a services database and statistical indicators; - Develop new and emerging service-oriented industries.

Government

Academia

CDRI

Talent development

Industry

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CDRI in collaboration with DesignThinkers Group

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2 ›› “

In the process of designing new and innovative services, the Customer Journey Mapping methodology builds a mirror and enables us to question why organisations and customers do the things they do.”

Customer Journey Mapping methodology

An introduction 12

CDRI in collaboration with DesignThinkers Group

Designing with Customer Journey Mapping

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Methodology As stated earlier, customers are increasingly choosing products and services based on the quality of the experiences they have with them. These experiences can often be broken down into a range of categories. Organisations need a holistic, humancentred view of the experiences of customers.

A good look Customer Journey Mapping starts by taking a good look at the organisation and its customers. The methodology builds a mirror and enables us to question why organisations and customers do the things they do. Customer Journey Mapping is a creative tool that works with visualisations. It is meant to inspire, energise and kick-start useful conversations and ideation. It is the conversations that matter – and the opinions and ideas they bring to the surface. It provides a new way for stakeholders to work together, creating an immediate sense of ownership of the outcomes of the process.

Three phases Three phases can be identified in the methodology: exploration, design and implementation.

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CDRI in collaboration with DesignThinkers Group

The Exploring phase The exploration phase allows us to conduct research into both internal and external stakeholders and their context. It lets you step into the customers’ shoes by showing their perceptions and the larger context. It answers questions like: What are people really trying to achieve? How are they trying to achieve this? What do they use and in what order? Why do they make the choices they make? What are they experiencing and feeling while trying to reach the desired outcome? Typical activities include quantitative and qualitative research (e.g. cultural probes). There are interactive sessions with stakeholders and customers where data from the research is mapped for the development of Personas and Customer Journeys, among others.

The Designing phase The design phase provides the opportunity to translate the customer insights gathered in the exploration phase into new service concepts. Service concepts describe the value delivered to customers and other stakeholders. They are usually first found in areas in the Customer Journey where the experience of the customer is below expectations.

The service concepts are used as a basis for designing service blueprints, which provide a complete picture of the people, systems and processes that deliver the service. Furthermore, prototypes are built to test the new service concepts with the stakeholders. These can vary from storyboards to more operational representations of the new services.

The Building/Implementation phase The objective for the implementation phase is to launch the tested prototype on the market. It involves building systems and organisations, providing training for personnel and developing communication materials. Customer Journey Mapping methodology is an iterative process. It is important to realise that you can always take a step back in the process in case you feel this is necessary. Moments for reflection are built in so as to focus on the process in which the participants take part. A visualisation of the phases and tools that can be used to come to given outcomes can be found on the next page. The different tools and the motivations for using them are explained in depth in a later section.

‹‹ Designing with Customer Journey Mapping

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›› explore ››

CJM METHODOLOGY

CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE

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design

››

implement

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REFINE

ITERATIVE PROCESS

BUILD

DESK RESEARCH

QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

TOOLS

Value Network Map Stakeholder Map Context Map Reflection Tool

Persona Map Cultural Probe Interviews POEMS Map CJM Map Customer Insights Reflection Tool

OUTCOME

INTEGRATE

- Stakeholder Insights - Context Insights - Internal Company Data - Stakeholder ownership

CDRI in collaboration with DesignThinkers Group

- Quantitative and Qualitative Customer Data - Visualization Personas - Visualization Customer Journeys - Description Customer Insights - Stakeholder ownership

CONCEPTUALIZING AND PROTOTYPING

Concept Development Service Scenario Service Blueprint Design Prototypes Business Model Roadmap Tool Reflection Tool

- Service concept - Blueprints and prototypes - Roadmap - Stakeholder ownership

BUILDING AND IMPLEMENTING

Training Communication System/Organization Design Reflection Tool

- Platform - Organization - Process - Human Resources - Trainings - Communication Designing with Customer Journey Mapping

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Tools

COMPANY

Value Network Mapping

DATE

CUSTOMER JOURNEY MAPPING

A technology to gain insight into how value is created in your ecosystem and precisely what value your stakeholders experience. Together we visualise the Points of Influence: in which aspects of your service do you provide value for stakeholders and how do stakeholders influence each other? Tools: a sheet of paper or whiteboard, markers and postits.

COMPLETE DESCRIPTION OF THE SERVICE COMPONENTS

EMOTIONAL STATUS

Tools play an important role in the Customer Journey Mapping methodology. They guide the conversations in the different phases. During high-energy workshops, groups of three to seven participants work with A0-sized sheets and post-its to exchange thoughts and brainstorm around new ideas. The tools are not completely fixed and can always be changed in support of specific needs. A number of core tools are explained, and their purpose is given, below.

PERSONA SKETCH CONTEXT

CUSTOMER'S JOB

TIMELINE OF JOURNEY STAGES

TOUCHPOINTS

COMPANY ACTIONS

IDENTITY

INSIGHTS & OPPORTUNITIES

CONTEXT MAPPING: MARKET TRENDS

MARKET TRENDS

Customer Journey Mapping builds empathy and, at its best, is a continuous activity to get rich and qualitative information about why your customers do what they do, how they experience interacting with organisations through the different touchpoints and how you can help them better reach their goals.

A simple and fast way to map the stakeholders in an ecosystem. We use a sheet of paper or whiteboard to visualise the surrounding world with your team. All possible stakeholders are written down, ranked by their level of influence and divided into groups. The result is a deeper insight into the context in which you operate and the value you create for your stakeholders.

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CDRI in collaboration with DesignThinkers Group

DATE

VALUE NETWORK MAPPING THE KEY RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN STAKEHOLDERS

EXAMPLE

EXAMPLE

VALUES MONEY LOVE

POWER

EXPOSURE

REPUTATION

ATTENTION INFORMATION

TRUST

EXPERIENCE

RIGHTS SERVICE

PRODUCT

CREDITS

Context Mapping

DATE

Customer Journey Mapping

Stakeholder Mapping

COMPANY

Linked to Stakeholder Mapping and Value Network Mapping, Context Mapping uses the same tools to describe the context in which stakeholders operate. Examples include developments in the sector, the influence of competitors and social & technological trends. Context Mapping helps you see your service from a wider perspective.

Persona Map Tool

COMPANY

DATE

STAKEHOLDER MAPPING WHO ARE THE STAKEHOLDERS?

A0 poster which is filled with detailed information on the goals, attitude and behaviour of the various personas using markers and post-its. The goal is to use these fictive profiles to identify relevant behavioural trends in business and private environments.

DATE

PERSONA CARD NAME

SKETCH

Use a realistic name. Don’t use names of colleagues. 

DESCRIPTION

What type of persona is it. Describe the most prominent differentiator.

QUOTE

Capture the essence to one or two points that could come out of the persona’s own mouth.

WHO IS IT?

Sketch the personal profile, age, location, job title, what kind of person is it? Think about one or more personas from segmentation.

WHAT GOALS?

What is the supreme motivator? What are (latent) needs and desires?

WHAT ATTITUDE?

What is the point of view? What is the expectation, perception of service, company or brand. What motivates the persona to go to the website, into the shop, or use the service.

WHICH BEHAVIOUR?

What does she or he do? Tell stories about the behaviour while using a service, product or site. Channel usage for various needs (internet, visiting comparable sites, mobile, social media). What works well, what are the frustrations, what is stopping her or him from choosing a function, service or product? Which trends, mindstyles or other indicators are applicable for this persona?

How important are functional, emotional, expressive benefits. Be specific, which one is more important? Or a mix of? Fast or slow decision maker? Why, how can you tell? Decisions made on fact or emotion? Why, how can you tell?

Cultural Probe

EXAMPLES OF STAKEHOLDER EMPLOYEES

SUPPLIERS

GOVERNMENT

COMMUNITY

$

CREDITORS

A technology to extract information on the daily life of clients, their values and convictions. Respondents are given tasks

and collect their own notes and photos. The collected data serves as a source of inspiration for new ideas.

CUSTOMERS

Designing with Customer Journey Mapping

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OBSERVATION TOOL (POEMS) NAME OF ACTIVITY / PROCESS

POEMS TECHNIQUE 1) P.O.E.M.S. is an observation exercise to track the touch-points that stakeholders experience at each step of the process. 2) First identify the entire process, then look at the various activities that make up the process. Track all activities within the process from start to end. 3) Pay attention to the unusual incidences (good or bad), emotions and behaviors of the Stakeholders. Capture everything by listing it down on this worksheet. 4) Probe deeper with ad-hoc interviews to understand the root cause of problems faced by the stakeholder. Identify how and why stakeholders react in certain ways.

Qualitative interviews

PEOPLE : who I meet/see whom I interact with who influences my actions who influences my experiences how do I react/respond?

A tool to enhance the findings from Cultural Probes using specific questions. The goal is to discover why people do what they do. Insight into these motivations is essential for developing successful new services.

POEMS An observational tool to gain insight into the five underlying elements of the service provision in text and images. These elements are: People, Objects, Environment, Messages and Services/ Systems. Together with your team we look at a product or service as a system that consists of multiple interconnected elements. The insights are ranked individually for each persona.

Customer Insights With this tool we jointly visualise the context in which stakeholders operate, their demands and the barriers that stand in the way of these demands. Customer Insights form the basis for new service concepts.

OBJECTS :

ENVIRONMENTS :

that I interact with or use that help or hinder me how do I react/respond?

that I work/live in the spaces and things that surround me that affect me how do I react/respond?

MESSAGES :

SYSTEMS / SERVICES :

(signage, displays, notices, directions or anything that provides you information)

that I use that guide and influences me that help or hinder me how do I react/respond?

that I see that are meaningful to me that inform me that confuse me how do I react/respond?

Copyright© 2013 By Design Sojourn. All Rights Reserved. Strictly for Reference Only, Reproduction and Circulation Not Permitted.

DATE

CUSTOMER INSIGHT MAPPING OPPORTUNITY AREAS: SKETCH AND DESCRIBE WHAT CAN BE IMPROVED

CUSTOMER INSIGHTS

IDEAS HIGH BUSINESS IMPACT

LOW BUSINESS IMPACT SHORT TERM FEASIBILITY

LONG TERM FEASIBILITY

DATE

REFLECTION MAP PLUS

Reflection Tool

What you appreciated.

DELTA

What you would like to improve.

This tool is used during the entire process. It consists of a sheet of paper with two columns: the left for things to change and the right column for things you like. The goal is to safeguard the good, pay attention to the things to change and learn from these aspects.

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CDRI in collaboration with DesignthinkersGroup

Designing with Customer Journey Mapping

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3 ›››

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Steps of CJM process

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Explore restaurant case rod

The Customer Journey Mapping project for this restaurant case focuses on understanding the clients’ emotions, attitudes, motivations, needs and goals, so that customer insights can be gathered as a basis for developing ‘in store’ and ‘out of store’ new and improved service concepts.

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Introduction Fast food restaurants operate in a highly competitive market. Innovations are usually thought of in the area of new products or even new promotions. It’s becoming increasingly difficult to achieve competitive advantage. Innovating in services using a people-centric approach is seen as a way to regain competitive advantage. The Customer Journey Mapping project for a restaurant chain focuses on understanding customers’ emotions, attitudes, motivations, needs and goals, so that customer insights can be gathered as a basis for developing new and improved ‘in-store’ and ‘out-of-store’ service concepts. To carry out the project, we developed a roadmap of activities that can be iterated to get to the required outcomes.

Kicking off the project We kicked off the project by organising a workshop with the relevant stakeholders for the purposes of designing the activities within the project in more detail.

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CDRI in collaboration with DesignThinkers Group

For internal and external stakeholders, this improves ownership and the commitment necessary for the process and outcomes of the project. Internal documents and a measure of qualitative research were used as input for this workshop. The qualitative research was put into motion as an immediate next step. This is meant to gather data about customers’ behaviour and emotions. Necessary insights on why customers do what they do were collected. Ideas for new and improved services can subsequently be defined based on this data. To structure the process for collecting the data and representing it for use in the workshop sessions, we developed the Research Framework as visualised on the next page.

Legend Experience Touchpoints Actions

Research Framework We opted for cultural probes, oneon-one interviews and ‘in-store’ observations. The data from this research was used as input for interactive Customer Journey Mapping sessions with the relevant stakeholders.

RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

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Research Framework Qualitative research

Observations

The objective of qualitative research is to gain insight into the motivations behind customers’ behaviour at restaurants’ touch points.

We used the POEMS tool to record data from ‘in-store’ observations. POEMS is an observation tool (revolving around People, Objects, Environment, Messages, Systems) that allows touch points to be observed.

Cultural probe The cultural probe provides the possibility to gather data from customers as they are involved in their day-today activities. Booklets (including, for example, disposable cameras) or online tools make it fun and easy for people to tell their stories. In this case, we had them focus on eating habits. Depending on the profile of the customer, we provided them with different tools.

Using the research framework, the data provided by the qualitative research is visualised for use during the Customer Journey Mapping workshops. The general overview of the 4 days workshop is presented on the following page.

Structured open interviews One-on-one interviews were conducted, preferably in a home environment, based on the findings of cultural probes. The Customer Journey Mapping phases were used as the structure for the interview.

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CDRI in collaboration with DesignThinkers Group

Designing with Customer Journey Mapping

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3 | 2 restaurant case

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››

workshop program

DAY O1

DAY O2

DAY O3

DAY O4

Data analysis and information elaboration

Opportunity areas and customer insights

Concept design and prototyping

Roadmapping and implementation strategy

Mind mapping the qualitative research

Analysing opportunity areas

Concepting

Prototypes presentation

Context mapping of operation environment

Defining customer insights

Blueprinting

Roadmapping

Designing personas

Presentations

Prototyping

Developping implementation strategy

Customer Journey Mapping

Ideation on customer Insights

CDRI in collaboration with DesignThinkers Group

Designing with Customer Journey Mapping

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Activities Mapping Customer Journeys The Customer Journey Mapping sessions are meant to further explore the data that has been gathered by the qualitative research. Mapping the customer journeys of different Personas gives insight into areas of opportunity in which potential ideas come up for new services or service improvements. Building prototypes and roadmaps to implement these in pilot restaurants provides the final deliverables of these sessions. The programme of the interactive sessions is summarised below.

Day 1 | Data analysis and information elaboration Qualitative Research The qualitative research effort is introduced by interview, including both the cultural probes – in combination with the interviews – and the in-store observations. Having studied the qualitative research, the participants determine the ten most relevant pieces of qualitative data from the entire research. These findings are then placed on a map on the wall.

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CDRI in collaboration with DesignThinkers Group

Context Mapping To get all participants up to speed on the context in which the company operates, they are asked to come up with knowledge in the areas of: company situation, customer needs (data from qualitative research can be used), market trends, technological trends, uncertainties/unknowns. Persona The Persona on which the Customer Journey Mapping is based is built on data from qualitative research. Using the Persona tool, a ‘real person’ is developed by mapping data from the qualitative research. The Personas form the basis for all activities during the three-day workshop. Customer Journey Mapping Customer journeys are mapped based on Personas. A customer journey is a visual representation of the activities a customer carries out which have a direct, but also indirect, relation to the services the company is delivering. Data from the qualitative research needs to be used in this exercise as well.

Day 2 | Opportunity areas and customer insights Define opportunity areas Usually you will find new opportunities in areas where the emotional status of customers in their customer journey is low. The customer insights on which new service concepts will be based are defined in these opportunity areas. Customer insights tell you something about the context of customers’ experiences, their needs, and the challenges in delivering a service that contributes to satisfying those needs. Rank the opportunity areas and customer insights based on a gut feeling. Presentations By presenting the findings, ideas are further worked out using input from the entire group.

Ideation on Customer Insights The ideation stage is started based on the areas of opportunity and the insights formulated. The concept revolves around producing as many ideas as possible. In the groups, individual participants write down keywords for ideas on post-its. These ideas are placed on an ideation map and discussed/grouped together. Prioritisation of Ideas The ideas are prioritised on the priority map, which focuses on business impact and feasibility. Ideas that are easy to implement and which have a major business impact will be found in the left upper corner, while ideas with little impact and which are also difficult to implement will go in the right lower corner. Three ideas are ultimately chosen for a subsequent conceptual stage.

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Day 3 | Concept design and prototyping

Day 4 | Roadmapping and implementation strategy

Concept Mapping Each group will work out three concepts using the concept map (description of value proposition, target group, customer insight, organisation/systems)

Roadmapping A roadmap is built by each group to define an action plan for implementing the prototypes in pilot stores. The roadmap includes co-creation activities with stakeholders and customers.

Prototyping The purpose of prototyping is to build a service proposition that allows the concept to be tested with relevant stakeholders. Prototyping can be done in different ways: storyboards can be drawn, for instance, or role play deployed – the latter can be very powerful in showing whether a service proposition delivers value. Furthermore, in a situation where location plays an important role, building with cardboard or Lego bricks can also add a lot of value. It is up to the individual groups to choose how to build a prototype.

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CDRI in collaboration with DesignThinkers Group

Building and Implementing Based on the roadmap activities, the prototypes are designed further to prepare for implementation in pilot restaurants. Depending on the results for these ‘live’ tests, prototypes can be scaled up, changed or discarded. Surveys have been carried out so as to measure the results before and after the implementation of prototypes.

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3 | 3 restaurant case

›› persona›› identity Computer use Tablet PC use

STUDENT Age: 22 years

APP book meal use

“I like to eat whatever I want.”

Smartphone use

Computer use Tablet PC use

WORKING LADY Age: 25 years

rking man

student

working woman

HAPPY FACES

t

working woman

old lady

APP book meal use

old lady

Smartphone use

“I look for nutricious products for a good price. I take good care of my body.”

Computer use Tablet PC use APP book meal use

WORKING MAN Age: 35 years

working man

student

“I work hard in order to share fine foods with working woman my family.”

SAD FACES 34

old lady CDRI in collaboration with DesignThinkers Group

She works as administrative secretary, she has a boyfriend, she lives with her family and commutes by public transportation. She is active, hard-working and ambitious. She usually has foods which is easy to purchase. She always pays attention on the nutrition and calories when purchasing,

He is a senior engineer, married and he is the father of two kids. Normally, he eats out every day and has meals in the company restaurant or orders food to be delivered (fast food) with colleagues.

Smartphone use

old lady

ELDERLY Age: 60 years

ng woman

A student in a prestigious university with a part-time job near the campus. Since she is money conscious, she checks the discount info and she keeps the coupons. She is active, easy-going and she likes to make new friends. She likes to go shopping and eating with friends.

“I find it important to get together with my family and I think the food is less important.”

Computer use Tablet PC use APP book meal use Smartphone use

She is retired and she has 2 children. Sometimes she has dinner with friends, her husband or her university class mates. Her son gave her a tablet which she uses to communicate with her children. Her daughter has sent her the latest restaurant information and discount coupons via internet.

Designing with Customer Journey Mapping

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the res tau ran ta nd wa its in l Ac ine ces ses de -st res sa rea

CONSUMING

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FEELINGS / MOMENTS OF TRUTH ICT

customer journey map

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››

TOUCHPOINTS

EMOTIONS

me nu on AP P

PRE-ORDERING Sta rts bu sy day at w ork

ACTIONS

STAGE

3 | 4 restaurant case

3

Office lady feels stressed by very busy working schedule. Starts looking for place to relax during lunch time.

She checks her mobile and finds her favorite restaurant. She is irritated by unfriendly website.

Mobile APP, site restaurant

She finds great menu including local ingredients and health package. Feeling happy.

Excited by ordering her healthy menu and free massage.

Mobile APP, menu and health package

Mobile APP, ordering module

Disappointed to have to wait in line in the restaurant.

Finally received her menu and guided to a quiet area to get the free massage and spend some quality time.

Go back to work relaxed and refreshed.

iPad available at the table

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En joy sm ass age

Re ads hea lth adv ice on iPa d

Ge ts lu nch fro ms taf f

the res tau ran ta nd wa its in l Ac ine ces ses de -st res sa rea

Ar riv es in

Re ad s in fo ab ou t in gre die nts Or de rs l un ch an dH ea lth Pa cka ge

Ma kes me nu cho ice

Fin ds inf oa bo ut He alt hP ack age

me nu on AP P Br ow ses

Us es res tau ran tA PP

h nc e-s ts d

Ch eck s sm art ph on e

lth y lu ea dh an ss

CDRI in collaboration with DesignThinkers Group

CONSUMING

Stages are the phases the persona is going through while using the service.

Wa n

EMOTIONS

tre

38

CJM explanation ORDERING

TOUCHPOINTS ICT

The touchpoints are the points of contact with the service provider.

FEELINGS / MOMENTS OF TRUTH

Emotions show the experience the customer is having with the touchpoint of the service.

››

PRE-ORDERING Sta rts bu sy day at w ork

ACTIONS

Actions are jobs to be done. These actions represent what the persona is trying to achieve.

STAGE

3 | 4 restaurant case

3

Office lady feels stressed by very busy working schedule. Starts looking for place to relax during lunch time.

She checks her mobile and finds her favorite restaurant. She is irritated by unfriendly website.

Mobile APP, site restaurant

She finds great menu including local ingredients and health package. Feeling happy.

Excited by ordering her healthy menu and free massage.

Mobile APP, menu and health package

Mobile APP, ordering module

Disappointed to have to wait in line in the restaurant.

Finally received her menu and guided to a quiet area to get the free massage and spend some quality time.

Go back to work relaxed and refreshed.

The narrative around the emotions relate to the most important touchpoints.

These are the most important ICT touchpoints relevant for this case. iPad available at the table

Designing with Customer Journey Mapping

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››first stage ›› pre-ordering

WORKING

NEED ARISING

EVALUATING

3

QUOTES

MOMENTS OF TRUTH TOUCHPOINTS

ACTIONS

EMOTIONAL STATUS

SUB-STAGE

3 | 4 restaurant case

40

- Report to management - Meet deadline for businessplan - Answer 5 phone calls - Look for ways to de-stress

- Check mobile sites - Search lunch possibilities - Check restaurant locations and menus - Find favourite restaurant

- Check menu in detail - Read ingredients of products - Read description of health package - Proceed to order form

- Office environment, stressed manager - Office environment, isolated cubical to work on computer - Office environment, phone-calls business partners - Colleagues at coffee machine

- Online mobile news sites - Google/mobile sites of restauramts for lunch - Online location checker and menu of restaurants - Mobile site of nearby favorite restaurant

- Menu card with ingredients - Special de-stress health package - Order and payment possibilities - Reservation form

The office lady starts her working day in good mood. Due to her busy schedule and stressed colleagues she also starts to feel pressure. Her mood is getting worse. Informally she chats with colleaugues how to spend her spare time at lunch.

After chatting with colleagues she checks her mobile for places closeby to relax and have a refreshing healthy lunch. Her favorite restaurant has a very user unfriendly mobile site. This irritates her very much.

While checking the menu she appreciates very much the advise on the ingredients and the ‘honesty’ of the locally produced food. On top of this a free massage chair service is exceeding her expectations. This is exactly what she needs at the moment.

“I make long hours at work. Peer pressure makes me stay in the office even at late hours.”

“My Samsung phone is important for me for finding all kind of things.“

“I am concerned to have nutritious healthy food in a clean environment.” 41


3 | 4 restaurant case Context Inspired and energized she can go back to work happy and relaxed.

Going back to office.

3

7

›› experience scenario

Context After lunch she enjoys the relaxing massage provided in the de-stress area.

Enjoying the massage

Context The staff brings her the lunch and she uses the iPad on the table to get tips about health.

6

Context The waiting time has a negative impact on the service experience.

Entering store and wait in line.

4

1

42

Having meetings at work.

Context Due to her busy schedule and stressed colleagues she starts to feel pressure. Her mood is getting worse.

5

2

Lookingfor healthy and relaxed lunch.

Context Through the mobile website she discovers the health package of the restaurant nearby. She orders her lunch on the mobile APP.

Staff welcomes her.

Context The staff welcomes here and show her to the de-stress area.

Designing with Customer Journey Mapping

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STAGE

3 | 4 restaurant case

SERVICE STAGES

PRE-ORDERING

›› service blueprint ORDERING

CONSUMING

3

DEPARTMENT

USE RESTAURANT APP

- Marketing - Operations

INFORMATION ABOUT HELTH PACKAGE

- Marketing - Operations

INFORMATION ABOUT INGREDIENTS

- Marketing - Operations

ORDER LUNCH AND HEALTH PACKAGE

- Marketing - Operations

GO TO THE RESTAURANT AND WAIT IN LINE

- Operations - Restaurant management

STAFF BRINGS LUNCH

- Special ingredients - Special recipe

- Quiet Area

- Quiet Area - Massage chair

- iPads - Mobile APP - Internal network of restaurant

- iPads - Mobile APP - Internal network of restaurant

- Product developer - Health content developer

- Health staff restaurant

ICT

- Operations - Restaurant management

- Mobile APP - Menu page - Locations

- Mobile APP - Menu page - Locations

- Mobile APP - Menu page - Locations

- Mobile APP - Order pages - Order System

- Order System

- Ticketing system

- Product developer - Operational developer - Content developer

- Product developer - Operational developer - Content developer

- Product developer - Operational developer - Content developer

- Product developer - Operational developer - Content developer

- Product developer - Operational developer - Content developer

- Staff at counter

- Staff at counter

CDRI in collaboration with DesignThinkers Group

ENJOY MASSAGE

- Marketing

- Mobile APP - Hosting system

44

HEALTH ADVICE ON IPAD

- Operations - Restaurant management

PEOPLE

OTHER

- Marketing - Operations

BROWSE MENU

Designing with Customer Journey Mapping

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3 | 4 restaurant case

46

CDRI in collaboration with DesignThinkers Group

››

interior impression

Designing with Customer Journey Mapping

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appendix

Article by Arne van Oosterom, founder DesignThinkers Group

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CDRI in collaboration with DesignThinkers Group

›››

10 Steps to Customer Journey Mapping

Designing with Customer Journey Mapping

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››

Introduction To stay competitive and survive the changes organisations are presently facing, they need to reassess the way they are structured, function and build relationships with customers. Closing the “reality gap” between organisations and people (employees and customers alike) should be the number one priority. And for this we need a new set of skills, methods and tools. People-centred approaches like Design Thinking, Social Design and Service Design have emerged because it provides us with useful methods and tools to bridge the gap. One of the tools is customer journey mapping. And in this article I’ll explain what customer journey mapping is, and how it is used to improve quality and foster a culture of innovation. But first I’ll explain why tools like customer journey mapping emerged and are needed.

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CDRI in collaboration with DesignThinkers Group

People-centred approaches like Design Thinking, Social Design and Service Design have emerged because it provides us with useful methods and tools to bridge the gap.

Designing with Customer Journey Mapping

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“ I don’t want to own a coffee maker. I need to wake up early with a cup of coffee.”

A product or service is merely a means to an end. The real deeper value lies in the story attached. I don’t want to own a coffee maker – I need to wake up early with a little help from a cup of coffee. I don’t want to use a train – I want to get home to my wife and children. I don’t want to go to a store and buy a stereo set – I just want to listen to my favourite rock music when I’m home, it makes me unwind after work. Unfortunately, most organisations are not capable of listening to stories. And this is why the gap between “inside and outside” has grown too wide. To stay competitive and survive the changes organisations are presently facing, they need to reassess the way they are structured, function and build relationships with customers. Closing the “reality gap” between organisations and people (employees and customers

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alike) should be the number one priority. And for this we need a new set of skills, methods and tools.

Change causes friction Thinking in journeys can be very helpful. Change is a constant. And thinking in journeys takes this into account and puts more emphasis on quality of the whole experience. Dwight Eisenhower said it like this: “planning is everything, the plan is nothing.” Only those who are adaptable survive. That’s just one of those inconvenient evolutionary things. But generally speaking, companies and governmental organisations are not designed for adaptability. They are organised in static, pyramid shaped, top-down-broadcasting models and not organised to receive feedback from the outside or the bottom of the pyramid or to use this information for change and continuous improvement. Most organisations are incapable of having real and meaningful (two-way-street) conversations with their customers. And it’s exactly in this area where the biggest business opportunities lie. We need to design and implement systems that will allow our organisations to have meaningful and ongoing conversations with our customers, using the insight we gain to improve and innovate in an ongoing iteration.

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››

And this all starts by taking a good look at the organisation from the outside. There are no magic tricks. But it’s just common sense to start with the people you work with and your customers. Customer journey mapping builds a mirror and enables us to question why we do the things we do. It makes things visible, which might have been right in front of us, but were so familiar we did not notice them or question them. It never occurred to us we could change them. It brings knowledge, already embedded in the organisation, to the surface and makes explicit what is implicitly already there. It allows us to take a step back from where we are, away from our internal targets and agendas and lets us be open-minded and put our creative energy to good use. And the beauty of it: there is no lengthy report, which no one actually reads. Customer journey mapping is a creative tool and works with visualisations. It is meant to inspire, energise and kick-start good conversations and ideation. And it’s the conversation that matters – and the opinions and ideas it brings to the surface.

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A quick guide

to customer journey mapping. This allows us to step into the customer shoes. It shows us the customer’s perceptions and the larger context in which we play a part. It lets us be emerged in their world, their reality. Get a deeper insight into customer needs, perception, experience and motivation. It will answer questions like: What are people really trying to achieve? How are they trying to achieve this? What do they use and in what order? Why do they make a choice? What are they experiencing, feeling, while trying to reach the desired outcome?

A customer journey map is built up layer by layer. We start ‘above water’, with the customer and slowly dive deeper and deeper into the organisational structures and context. The tool can be used with customers or management, employees and other stakeholder or, even better, in a mix.

Customer Journey Mapping makes things visible It brings knowledge, already embedded in the organisation, to the surface and makes explicit what is implicitly already there.

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10 steps A customer journey map (e.g. used by front-office employees) in its simplest form will contain the following:

1. Context or stakeholder map

5. Touchpoints

9. Blueprint

We list all stakeholders and we order the hierarchy in circles of influences around the centre, where you are. When working with customers you’ll have the customer in the centre. Describe all relationships on the map by answering the question: what do we do for them; what do they do for us? This map shows you the landscape or force field you are dealing with. And you can discuss how this influences the quality of your work and how a customer benefits or suffers from it.

Underneath every action we list all channels and touchpoints services the customer encounter. Not just yours! This way you’ll discover the landscape you are in form the customer’s perception.

Now, to make a long story a bit shorter, we can go on listing the organisation underneath, writing down who supports the people delivering the service (backoffice), and in turn who influences the back office (we link back to the stakeholders map), until we have a complete organisational blueprint, a complete picture of the working of an organisation and emotional journey, from the outside in.

2. Persona

7. Service delivery

We need a rich customer profile or persona. Describe his/her personal and business situation now (present situation) and in the future (ambitions).

Underneath every touch point, we write down who delivers the service. Who is directly responsible for it (e.g. front office personal)?

3. Outcomes

8. Emotional journey

A description of his/ her desired outcome – what is he/she trying to achieve?

Then give every vertical line a grade for the experience (Actions -> touch point -> who delivers the service -> grade). Don’t grade the functionality, grade the work. For the emotion, how do you think the customer felt at that moment? Use a scale from 0 to 10. The higher the number, the better the experience. This can be visualised (e.g. by a line going up and down), and is very effective as a conversation starter. It can often be a real eye-opener.

4. Customer journey We list all actions (as far as possible) the customer has to take to reach the outcome (placed in a horizontal line). Don’t start listing actions when the customer uses your service the first time. Start before the moment he/she decided to use your product or service. This way we visualise behavioural patterns.

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6. Moments of truth Then we identify the moments the customer encounters your touchpoints and channels. We start focus on those (you can move them down a bit). Identify the most important ‘moments of truth’.

10. Improve and innovate Use creative, brainstorming and any other ideation techniques for the service opportunities you identified (low grades) and/or design complete new and ideal journeys or services. This usually is the moment people have the most fun. I have been surprised many times by the talent and eagerness of people to engage in this creative process. People are usual a lot more creative than you think. We just need to put them in the right situation and mood.

Don’t wait until the end to collect ideas Write down all ideas and insights during the building of the customer journeys. These insights will be a rich source for improvements and innovative ideas. And all you need to start are some large sheets of paper, markers and a lot of sticky-notes.

‹‹

Designing with Customer Journey Mapping

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Designing with Customer Journey Mapping by DesignThinkers Group  

The Customer Journey Mapping methodology will help businesses in the service industry unleash collaborative creativity and come up with inno...

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