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HOW ONE MAN’S AMBITION AND BELIEFS CHANGED THE WORLD…OR AT LEAST THE ART ONE.

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An important figure in the Russian Avant Garde movement and man who help developed suprematism, Lazar Markovich Lissitzky (El Lissitzky) made a huge impact on the world of graphic design. He was born in Polshinok on November 10, 1890, grew up in Vitebsk and died on December 30, 1941 in Moscow, USSR. He was also a communist of Jewish origins. His entire career started with the brief ‘that the artist could be an agent for change’ and his work reflected that a great deal.

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He proved this point by starting his career as an illustrator for Yiddish children’s book s so he could promote Jewish culture in a country that only just recently repealed anti-semitic laws (Russia). He’s work mostly revolved around politics of the time which is another show his idealistic beliefs. As an artist, he was definitely be called an agent of change since his work influenced the Bauhaus and constructivist movements, and his experimentation with production techniques and stylistic devices dominated graphic design in the 20th century. He published two manifestoes, “Topography of Typography” in the July of 1923 and “Our Book” in 1926. Before dying, he even managed to make to final posters, one was a sketch involved Hitler and Napoleon and the other came from hid appeal for peace which was commissioned by VOK. He was also commissioned to do cover designs by radical American groups, like “Broom Magazine,” but he also did commerical work in Germany in the 1920s like Peliken.

Lissitzky worked as an artist, designer, photographer, typographer, polemicist, teacher and architect. He designed book s and periodicals with innovations in typography. In 1921, he went to Berlin to establish contacts between artists in the USSR and Germany. He helped his friend and mentor, Kazimir Malevich, head the suprematist art group, UNOVIS. Suprematism was a philosophy of art that rejected the imitation of natural shapes

1. 2. 3. 4.

Cited .Sophie Lissitzky-Kuppers, El Lissitzky Life. Letter. Texts(Dresden: Verlag der Kunst, 1967) 1-21 Ronald 2 Alley, Catalogue of the Tate Gallery’s Collection of Modern Art other than Work s by British Artists (Bernet, London: Tate Gallery and Sothe by Parke, 1981) 452 Claire Kelley, “Waldek Węgrzyn’s Electrolibrary,” Melville House (2012) http://www.mhpbook s.com/waldemar-wegrzyns-electrolibrary/ 2El Lissitzky,” http://www.theartstory.org/artist-lissitzky-el.htm

and encouraged the use of ‘new shapes’ that were more distant and geometrical. Lissitzky developed a variant suprematist series of his own called, “Proun.” “Prouns” was a means of experimenting with his 3-dimensional geometric conceptions and was his most significant work. So basically, he abstracted pictures as ‘the interchange station between painting and architecture’. As far as design processes go, Lissitzky made his layouts on graph paper, which was modular, which allowed him to place the elements of the page in a logical structure and mathematical order. The ramifications of his designs were indicative in their effect to communicate a feeling and a message through the color, image and rhythm of each page. In “The Isms of Art” in 1924, he used bold rules, sans-serif typography, tri-column grid structure and interpreted the work into three languages. As far my opinion is concern, Lissitzky was a hit or miss artist especially when came to typography. Sometimes, he’s use of letters can be very clever and easy to read while still be visually pleasing, but at other times, the message can be a little too obvious or is more about the shapes than words in posters. Still, I can appreciate the guy’s wiliness to step out of the box.

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Herbert Bayer was an Austrian graphic designer who later came to the states where he continued to design. Bayer was more than just a graphic designer; he was also a painter, photographer, sculptor, art

a director, environmental and interior designer, as well as an architect. B t was also closely associated with the Bauhaus program. Working with “Walter

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from architecture to typography and graphic design.” (Foundation 1900-1985

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called the Bauhaus. Although Bayer went to Bauhaus as a student he stayed on

a as a prominent faculty member; Gropius had appointed Bayer director of printing n e and advertising. While at Bauhaus Bayer created a crisp visual style and adopted

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Universal. (Wikipedia 2013) Universal later inspired ITC Bauhaus and Archetype Bayer. In 1928; Bayer left the Bauhaus to become art director of Vogue magazine’s Berlin office. While at the Berlin office Bayer designed a brochure for the Deutschland Ausstellung, an exhibition for tourists in Berlin during the 1936 Olympic games, the brochure celebrated life in the Third Reich, and the authority of Hitler. (Wikipedia 2013) By 1937 Bayer was making Nazi propaganda,

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In 1938 Bayer headed for New York. Within a short period of time, he was well established as

a designer and, among other achievements, had organized a comprehensive exhibition at MoMA on the early Bauhaus years. (Foundation 1900-1985) In 1944 Bayer married Joella Syrara Haweis, the daughter of poet and Dada artist Mina Loy. In 1959, he designed his “fonetik alfabet”, a phonetic alphabet, for English. It was sans serif and without capital letters. He had special symbols for the endings -ed, -ory, -ing, and -ion, as well as the digraphs “ch”, “sh”, and “ng”. An underline indicated the doubling of a consonant in traditional orthography. (Wikipedia 2013) With an invitation to move to Aspen, Colorado, Bayer became a design consultant for the company CCA. “Bayer also supervised the architectural design of the new Aspen Institute, and then many of its program graphics. Bayer remained in Aspen until 1974, when he moved to California. There he worked on various environmental projects until his death in 1985.” (Foundation 1900-1985) Bayer’s works appear in prominent public and private collections including the MIT List Visual Arts Center. Bayer designed the Mill Creek Canyon Earthworks, an environmental sculpture located in Kent, Washington. Some of Bayer’s more popular graphic design works are “Herbert Bayer The California Years”, “Great Ideas of Western Man”, and “Container Corporation of America: Ugly Duckling of the Office”. Bayer’s works use a variety of colors and tends to follow the standard Bauhaus styles, although he does have a few works that are different from Bauhaus and they are quite interesting.

Citations Foundation, The Cultural Landscape Herbert Bayer, (1900-1985) Wikipedia Wikipedia, (2013)

“Chromatic Twist” Screenprint on paper

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Great Ideas of Western Man (1964)

Container Corporation of America: Billions of powdered eggs

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References: www.paul-rand.com The Thames & Hudson Dictionary of Graphic Design and Designers wikipedia.org/wiki/Inernational_Typographic_Style


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literary of his r e ft a Design, ought ts on h t g most s u o book a is Th sts this 174.95 li works n o z Ama r and $ 1947. ardcove ing to be an h r fo $249.97 ack, still prov e for the tur erb for pap piece of litera rks l u ther wo e f t O c a p . y im d nit commu f design inclu o design -A d t c n a je sub ul R on the emarks of Pa l Rand ad A Pau The Tr ner’s 1960, , n A Desig of io t d n a Selec , 84 version any, 19 Miscell , the updated and also 85 n. R Art, 19 n Desig s. Well his o s t’ h g ok Thou ren’s bo he illustrated d il h c e and wrot old ote them oks combine b e r wife wr o b which a ks. The the boo d playful text, ig des n. an Rand’s l u a a shapes P nce of ork as the esse collective w an. He cle Rand’s peccably ed by art im is c r designe ularly influen ic t r a p s wa

the ) one of e (UPS s a w f o d l Servic s n e r a rc o R t a a P l au nov United d sential in of graphic an quintes Paul R ” le s s Sty is is 1 w w 6 S S 9 “ 1 e . th US in the sign design phic de e a r g a s a th defined Switzerland in , Style is in ess cleanlin ’s veloped style de t emphasizes Rand ha tivity. c je b 1950s t by o ity and cterized readabil lso been chara UHAUS a BA work as licity and a He p lving”. “wit, sim to problem so orporate h ac approac successful as ny t n uncan s was mo ner. He had a orporate rc sig logo de ell the need fo Rand’s s o ntity. e id ability t ith d clean w g an brandin ere simple and ty. He w ali design’s sis on origin ns with a h a p er tio an em any gen g of IBM, m d e c influen brandin American porate r o c BC ( is h e, and A all of these s u o h g re Westin pany), Rand a st Com Broadca ns created by sig used logo de . Rand uses y a d o t g used e that still bein graphic devic resent a rep ,a a rebus r symbols, to lar particu o pictures or idea, for a ated nt lso cre d stateme paign. He a ite m PS (Un s IBM ca designs for U mou ant the infa ed: d n a signific , d ) Service r clients inclu d Parcel e h t , s an His o Cummin ssing , k Enron. ic w his pa bs, Air Steve Jo n. Just before and, “the g R is Ideo De eve Jobs called esigner”. d t S in 1996 graphic te about g in v a li iv greatest as intensely pr e wrote w t bu h Rand ies rocess, p n 11 s, theor ig a s e e d id is is h h the ooks on les. One of b y n a ip m c ign prin and des

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“... the most important corporate identity he ever created”

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Subway Advertisting Poster Paul Rand 1947

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Josph Muller Brockmann 1914-1996

By: Victoria Sisnette

Josph Muller Brockmann was a swiss graphic designer and teacher recognized for his simple designs incorporating colors, shapes, and clean font most commonly Akzidenx Grotesk. His most known works are advertisement posters for automotive advertising, Musica Viva, and Beethoven. He is also the author of The Graphic Artist and His design Problems, Grid Systems in Graphic Design, The History of the Poster, and A History of Visual Communication.

Swiss Automobile Club, 1940

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Joseph Muller Brockmann studied at both The University and Kunstgerwerbeshule in Zurich where he later taught. Muller-Brockmann began as an apprentice to Walter Diggelman, he later opened his graphic design studio in 1936.One of the pioneers of Swiss Modernism Brockman created minimalistic grid based designs, inspired by the art movements Constructivism, De Stijl, Suprematism and Bauhaus.

In 1985 Josph Muller Brockmann worked on the exhibition Sprache der Geometrie heute Suprematistismus, De Stijl und Umkreis in the Kunstmuseum, Bern. He later toured an exhibition of posters from 1986 to 1993 while working thru the US and Colombia on a lecture tour. Josph Muller also toured eastern Germany in 1994, and Beijing via Kashgar.

Zurich Tonhalle series poster, 1951

Swiss Automobile Club campaign, 1955

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Musica Viva poster, 1971Lithograph

In 1951 Brockmann worked for The Tonhalle in Zurich producing concert posters. He worked as the founding editor of New Graphic Design working alongside R.P. Lohse, C.Vivarelli, and H.Neuburg. In 1961 he worked for IBM as a european design consultant until 1988, he also founded The Muller Brockmann & Co advertising agency with three partners specializing in industrial, commercial and cultural clients the company broke up in leaving Muller-Brockmann to continue the agency until 1984. In 1965 Josph Muller founded Galerie 58 with Engen and Kurt Federe which he took full control of in 1974 and renamed Galerie Seestrasse until 1990.

Swiss Automobile Club campaighn poster, 1957

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Saul Bass was one of the most prolific Graphic De it’ signers from s because much of his body of wo rk the late 1960’s un til his death in lies in cooperate identity; authorsh ip 1996. He stretched of logos is not usua this job title lly common far beyond what an knowledge, and in y previous this way, Bass graphic designer functions as a Dies had tried, t god. Bass set the working on a num gears of the graphi ber of film’s c design clock title and ending se to run for the next quences, 30 years, and storyboards, and even directed while his hand is visible in most his own film. If th of his creations, hi ere is any s name is only oversight in credit due to Bass, synonymous with his work to thos e in his field.

Bailey Brocato October 30, 2013 14 11 14


While his body of illustrative quality while his logos work spans many different demands, some unconventional, are much more clean, however both bodies of work resonate it all adhere’s to a graphic designer’s skill set. He told Print simplicity. Bass established cooperate identities for many major magazine in 1969 that the similarities in his process “[have] companies such as AT&T, Warner Communications, and Exxon. more to do with his sense of story, his inventiveness and his Many of his logos are still in operation, such as the simpler visual/aural sensitivity.” Bass’s career was marked by his version of the Quaker Oats Quaker. Bass introduced his updated impeccable professional skill set; he ran a tight ship at his design version of the logo into a sea of designers who thought it time to firm, Saul Bass and Associates, which gave him the freedom drop the Quaker man all together. It was this cerebral approach to explore other creative outlets. In his movie career, which to corporate branding that allowed Bass to stand out from other involved everything from movie posters to creating storyboard, designers of the time. and climaxing in making his own feature film, Bass worked with Otto Preminger, Stanley Kubrick, and Alfred Hitchcock. His movie posters take on a rather

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2nd New York Film Festival by Saul Bass (1964). Lithograph. Courtesy of Museum of Modern Art.

15 On Courte 15e Two Three sy of M b useum y Saul Bass of Mod ern Art .

Bass’s client list was tinged in gold, with some of the biggest and longest standing logos: Otto Preminger, Stanley Kubrick, Alfred Hitchcock Edward Dmytryk, Bell Telephone, Continental Airlines, AT&T , Avery International, Warner Communications YWCA, Exxon, Girl Scouts of America, United Airlines Boys Clubs of America, Alcoa, Eastman, Kodak, Kaiser Aluminum, Dixie Bass referred to himself as nothing more than a working man, and through clients and collaborator retold encounter’s, it would seem that his general professional countenance was impeccable. He broke into the film poster world through filmmaker Otto Preminger, for whom Bass design the Carmen Jones poster. Bass stated that, “... with a guy like Otto I had to learn how to fight. I walked into every meeting prepared to quit - I had to.” Bass had an ability to level with people,

and even with strong personalities such as Preminger, knew when to put his foot down and deny clients their inherent rightness., Bass’s body of work has set both the bar and the tone for the designers that follow him, but it is his execution with clients and general ability to pursued people that allowed his designs and career to truly flourish.

Bass, Saul. Anatomy of a Murder, 1959. Offset lithograph. 27 x 41. Museum of Modern Art. Reproduced from ArtStor, http://library.artstor. org (accessed October 22, 2013). --. Bonjour Tristesse, 1957. Offset lithograph. 32 7/16 x 24 3/4. Museum of Modern Art. Reproduced from ArtStor, http://library.artstor.org (accessed October 22, 2013). --. Exodus Shooting Announcement, 1960. The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art. Reproduced from ArtStor, http://library.artstor.org (accessed October 22, 2013). --. 2nd New York Film Festival Sept. 14-26 1964-Philharmonic Hall Lincoln Center, 1964. Lithograph. 46 x 29 15/16. Museum of Modern Art. Reproduced from ArtStor, http://library.artstor.org (accessed October 22, 2013). --. On The Mark,. The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art. Reproduced from ArtStor, http://library.artstor.org (accessed October 22, 2013). --. One Two Three, The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art. Reproduced from ArtStor, http://library.artstor.org (accessed October 22, 2013). --. Man with the Golden Arm, 1955. Lithograph. 40 1/2 x 27. Museum of Modern Art. Reproduced from ArtStor, http://library.artstor.org (accessed October 22, 2013). Poynor, Rick. 2011. “Saul Bass, a life in pictures.” Creative Review 31, no. 11: 39-48. Art Full Text (H.W. Wilson), EBSCOhost (accessed October 17, 2013).

Bonjou r Graph Tristesse by S ic Des ign. Co aul Bass (19 Moder urtesy 5 n Art. of Mus 7). eum o f

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MILTON GLASER

Paying respects to the man that helped shape the modern Grace Shore society. By: October 28 2013

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The line is old fashioned; give credit, where credit is due. To the modern world of today this includes paying our respects to a mind, that in some select groups does not know he exists. Milton Glaser is his name, a graphic designer that has influenced societies aesthetics since the early 50’s. Educating himself from

University, 666, and Bruegger's Bagels.5 Glaser has been around for so long it seems that there is a little bit of Milton everywhere, his art even reached out to DC comics a logo that has been used since 1976 all the way thru 2005. But that was only just a slice of his influence, what I and many others feel is his most iconic design, has solely been repeated and repeated, changed

places such as the High School of Music and Fine Arts, Cooper Union art school in New York, and even The Academy of Fine Arts in Bologna, Italy.1 It was there he gained an education but his inept talent was what made him popular. As a Graphic designer Milton Glaser showed off his sense of style with hundreds among hundreds of posters and prints ranging from advertising to books and magazine covers. Never short on clients he has commissioned work from various companies and foundations: SEED, Brooklyn Brewery, MGM, Holocaust Museum, Sony, Campari Soda, Arthritis Foundation, Temple


Biography: 1.Milton Glaser Inc.. "Milton Glaser | Biography." Milton Glaser | B iography. http://www. miltonglaser.com/ milton/#1 (accessed October 22, 2013). 2. Excerpted from CSD, August/September, 1999 — "Milton Glaser: Always One Jump Ahead" by Patrick Argent 3. Rodrigues, Ana Paula. "Milton Glaser & Chip Kidd In Conversation." JUST Creative. http:// justcreative.com/2010/03/12/milton-glaser-chip-kidd-in-conversation/ (accessed October 22, 2013). 4. Glaser, Milton. "Ten Things I've Learned." Rujana Rebernjak. http:// www. manifestoproject.it/milton-glaser/ (accesed October 22, 2013) 5. Milton Glaser Inc.. "Milton Glaser | The Work." Milton Glaser | The Work. http://www.miltonglaser.com/the-work/ (accessed October 23, 2013). 6.Yahoo!. "Milton Glaser." Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/ photos/94193148@N00/5593273847/in/photolist-9wfZrZ7mMdG8-7nDPcW-7nDP4L-7GvUwM-7nzUDv-7nzURM-4mm5sf4mh2dT-9Gvq25-afeesX-afh3iJ-8B3DRv-bwEbVE-aVjm9naXP5Ct-4nDDhi-8BcKCx-6L593P-7HcFHz-8H4R2x-8BN9KW-3Mvzii6L9iLu-65uays-65uaL5-65pT7H-65uam7-65uasU-65pTm4-5YGY85-6vCqxQ-6L9iWG-6L9iA9-4uAshS-8Bjee7-7VJ3WM-6KCq6S4nHHbJ-ejnAhR-b22hea-6L9iNG-aZHQLK-eJ3fFJ-65yKez-dJvkPR-WBTs-6L58K2-dMRfe7-dW8Vgg-83dKzZ (accessed October 28, 2013). 7.Yahoo!. "7Up_Don't Be Left Out In The Cola_vintage 33"x20" UnCola poster by Milton Glaser, 1971." Flickr. http:// www.flickr.com/photos/30559980@N07/8080655761/in/ photolist-dj4tr4-dM96Ss-5evLqs-amVFwG-2wYHL9-nuATsepyAJ-6KypD7-DGNee-7xdFFF-8nevuF-ek1ttC-amSRWM7pJQ6h-a9W5GT-a9W5G2-d7ByHE-jXqWM-a7tH6z-aP3KXH-8Nf8So-FnYtm-az2uic-9DA2wH-4mm56j-5zMj11-a3SgBQ7xhtTY-4sBGjD-9LaK62-eJ3fNA-9atydB-2iSVo-cJsj27-61CzFS61yocF-61CAYQ-61yozi-61CB6w-61CyA7-61CA4y-61CAxC-61yoG8-61yoje-61ypu2-61ypWV-61CzNf-61yo6v-61ynYZ-61CzVY-61ynAz (accessed October 28, 2013). 8.Yahoo!. "Milton Glaser: Bearsville Records (letterhead)." Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/ mgdsca/5387983758/in/photolist-9d7PRG-9d4Jw49d7Qn5-9d4JrV-9d4Jh6-9d4JKT-9d7Qzb-8tKt3o4DoQZM-9d7PXb-99XXrW-99XXJ3-99UQoP6YJjhH-9d4Jat-7WkJtp-7nDPcW-6JUxYe6JUyar-6JYCTS-6JUxRX-6JUxvr-6JYDcy6JYCwL-7nDP4L-6PN5eP-6PN5LX-6PN5jc6JYCK9-6PNaSk-99XXzE-6PSdaf-6PN5rD7GvUwM-8M9jxx-9bjiNo-gdCBoh-4E18kT7nzURM-7nzUDv-7nzUck-6Q8AoR-7Apo8J-dS6JP-9TseUe-9TseFa-h23TaT-fyM8S6-9Tv5Gm-9TseNk-8SAsKh/ (accessed October 28, 2013).

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and repurposed to fit anyones need; that design is I “heart” NY. The I LOVE NY design is among catchy, iconic, and present on every others there tourists back, not one design can I think was a poster he but simple of can compare to this created for Columbia intuitive design. Yet the Records simply titled design itself is still DYLAN. This of course is a just a piece of reference to Bob Dylan famous his versatile American musician, singer-songwriter, talent, artist and writer. Made in 1966, Milton Glaser created both work of art and promotional piece within the confines of a 32” by 22” poster. Its whimsical lines creating shapes with wild but soothing colors, paralleling hair, and almost bordering on stylized words as if that hair has something to say. Then there is the Baby toothed letters simply reading out the word Dylan, because you need not know the rest of the name, as the impact alone says it all. Lastly the silhouetted face, black contrasting with the white, such a stark contrast that I almost forget how basic it is as a technique. Maybe theres another face hidden in the white? Maybe someones dancing within the hair? Maybe theres something I missed? These are the question I ask without being disappointed that there is no answer, because the poster itself was so beautiful and intricate I’ve never once felt tired looking at it; its with these

notions that I remind the reader again the skill Milton Glaser has. He "brings depth of understanding and conceptual thinking, combined with a diverse richness of visual language, to his highly inattentive and individualistic work." 2 Argent, Milton Glaser: Always One Jump Ahead, excerpt

9.Yahoo!. "Milton Glaser." Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/ history_of_graphic_design/9818846575/ (accessed October 23, 2013). 10.Yahoo!. "Milton Glaser, Bob Dylan poster, 1967." Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/history_of_graphic_design/8395131880/ (accessed October 23, 2013). 11.Yahoo!. "Milton Glaser, illustration for Flowers of Evil by Baudelaire." Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/15100526@N08/3028290549/in/photolist-5BAMh2-5BF4Uh5BF4Zd-5BF4Yh-6TwWRt-6TAY5A-dLcaJ-6DsVWj-A92nn-aSAZV2-bvppgX-5Dq9vk-85BMhm-8jMQqi-ekqMGo-8512D7-9TsepR-4mh2Cv-amVFuy-99XXPh-auz9Ht-9Tsexv-9TsetFdj4tr4-dM96Ss-5evLqs-amVFwG-2wYHL9-tNTKe-amSRWM-7pJQ6h-a9W5GT-a9W5G2-d7ByHE-jXqWM-a7tH6z-aP3KXH-nuATs-epyAJ-6KypD7-8Nf8So-FnYtm-az2uic-9DA2wH-DGNee-4mm56j-5zMj11-a3SgBQ-7xdFFF-7xhtTY-8nevuF (accessed October 28, 2013). 12.Yahoo!. "Milton Glaser: Utopia Records (letterhead)." Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/mgdsca/5387381003/ (accessed October 23, 2013).

Promotional Letterhead for Bearsville Records

Vintage 7Up UnCola poster, 1971, 33x22

Illustration for Baudelaire’s “Flowers of Evil” Novel

14 Promotional Letterhead for Utopia Records


A Beginner’s

Perspective Stacey Baker

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1.Cooper, Caroline. “Helvetica: Your Biggest Fan Just Turned 80.” WNYC. Last modified January 13,2011. http://www.wnyc.org/story/109042-helvetica-your-biggest-fan-just-turned-80/. 2.AIGA | the professional association for design. “AIGA | Massimo and Lella Vignelli.” Accessed October 22, 2013. http://www.aiga.org/medalist-massimoandlellavignelli/. 3.Millman, Debbie. “Interview with Massimo Vignelli: Observatory: Design Observer.” Observatory: Design Observer. Last modified September 13, 2010. http://observatory.designobserver.com/entry.html?entry=14398. 4.RoGallery.com - Fine Art Auctions and Select Artworks Online. “MassimoVignelli Biography.” Accessed October 22, 2013. http://rogallery.com/vignelli_massimo/vignelli-biography.html. 5.MoMA.org. “MoMA | The Collection | Massimo Vignelli (Italian, born1931).”Last modified 2009. http://www.moma.org/collection/artist.php?artist_id=6155. 6.Knoll - Modern Furniture Design for the Office & Home. “Knoll.” AccessedOctober 22, 2013. http://www.knoll.com/designer/Lella-and-Massimo- Vignelli. 7.Schneider, Speider. “Massimo And Lella Vignelli: DesignsThat Will Outlive Mankind.” noupe. Last modified April 18, 2012. http://www.noupe.com/design/massimo-and-lella-vignelli-designsthat-will-outlive-mankind.html. 8.Vignelli, Massimo. The Vignelli Canon. Baden: Lars Müller, 2010.

When looking at Graphic Designer, Massimo Vignelli’s work, there were a few characteristics that stood out the most. The first thing that I noticed was the typeface. Helvetica was everywhere. Through his graphic designs printed, digital, and packaging, he used Helvetica the most. The second thing I noticed was the use of the grid system. Almost everything was gridded in a way that accentuated strength and solidity. Lastly, I noticed color. He tended to use vibrant colors inside of geometric shapes. My initial impression of Vignelli’s work was one of disapproval. How could anyone think this was good? His work seems to be runof-the-mill, lacking innovation and uniqueness. After looking past the surface and examining his other work, my opinion of his “boring” work turned into “practical”. My interpretation of seemingly unremarkable design turned into appreciation. Like most artists, Vignelli started out with passion and eagerness. Originally from Milan, Italy, Massimo Vignelli knew he wanted to be a designer at age 14. The epiphany came from the realization that people are paid to decorate and design basically everything around us. From then on, his interest in design escalated to his co-founding position, with his wife Lella, at Unimark International Design Company in Milan, Italy. After working there for a few years, Vignelli started a New York branch of Unimark. Starting his career in America, Vignelli had a few things to offer that other designers did not. His use of Helvetica (which America had never seen) excited American designers, inspiring them to also use Helvetica and other similar typefaces. Along with the introduction of Helvetica came the fundamental grid system, which inspired clean and modern designs. In 1967, Vignelli landed a job creating a graphics program for Knoll. Knoll was a home and office furniture company that still thrives today. Focusing on using the grid that was signature of his work, Vignelli produced an identity with his graphic design. Vignelli also contributed two furniture designs that are still sold today: the paper-clip table and the handkerchief chair.


Another one of Vignelli’s biggest successes in America that incorporated his love for Helvetica along with the grid system, bright colors, and modernist edge would be his design for the New York subway map of 1972. Vignelli tried to make the map less complicated to read, adding, “a different color for each line [and] a dot for every station.” His design for the subway map was a perfect example of how Vignelli strove to develop a design free of unnecessary elements, giving a sense of clarity, strength, and simplicity.

Fig 4. Knoll International Graphics Program 1966-1980 Collection of Knoll Graphics Work

Fig 5. Bloomingdales and American Airlines 1972 Client: American Airlines and Bloomingdales

Along with those two achievements in the design industry, Vignelli is known for his work with Bloomingdales, American Airlines, IBM, and the iconic Stendig calendar. In all of these designs (including the less famous ones) Vignelli practices what he preaches in his book, The Vignelli Canon. After reading his ideas in The Vignelli Canon about pragmatics, discipline, appropriateness, intellectual elegence, etc., I realized that his designs made sense to me. I understood his thought process, and appreciated the way that he approaches design. Vignelli made me look at my work. He inspired me to consider designing my work based on the essential elements, while resisting my natural urge to embellish.

Fig 6. Stendig Calendar 2014 This is a new version of what was Vignelliʼs calendar design.His design was so successful, that it is still in high demand today. Fig 7. St. Peterʼs Church New York Logo 1975 Client: St. Peterʼs Church, New York Logo for St. Peterʼs Churchat Citicorp Center, New York

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Fig 1. Massimo Vignelli. Vignelli Map. 1972. http://carticulatemaps.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/vignelli-map-1972.jpg (accessed October 182013) Fig 2 Massimo Vignelli. Table Design. 1994. Knoll. http://www.knoll.com/product/paperclip-table%3Fsection=Design Fig 3. Massimo Vignelli. Photograph. Graphic Design History and Theory (blog). February 20, 2012, http://kingydesignhistory2012.wordpress. com/2012/02/20/57/ Fig 4. Massimo Vignelli, Knoll Price Lists and Catalog Covers, 1966-1980,Collection of brochures, catalogs, grids, price lists, Graphic Design Collection ( The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art),Massimo Vignelli Collection, Reproduced from Artstor, http://www.artstor.org (accessed October 18 2013) Fig 5. Massimo Vignelli. Bloomingdales and American Airlines logotype, 1972, Logotypes and Typography, Graphic Design Collection (The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art), Massimo Vignelli Collection, Reproduced by Artstor, http://www.artstor.org (accessed October 18 2013) Fig 6. Aram Designs, Stendig Calendar 2014. Source: Aram online store. http://www.aram.co.uk/stendig-calendar-2014.html (accessed October 20 2013) Fig 7. Massimo Vignelli, St. Peter’s Church New York logo, 1975, logo design, Graphic Design Collection (The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art), Massimo Vignelli Collection, Reproduced by Artstor, http://www.artstor.org (accessed October 18 2013)

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Best known for his innovative and experimental designs with type, David Carson is one of the most influential designers of all time. Born on September 8, 2954 in Corpus Christi, Texas, Carson brought along a brand new era of typography and graphic design. He alone created a new aesthetic that is widely imitated but never duplicated, called “Grunge Typography�.^1 In his early life, Carson was a professional surfer and was ranked the 9th best surfer in the world in 1989.^2


Throughout his career as a graphic designer, Carson’s surfing career has influenced his work and his distinctive style. He continues to be influenced by his environment and the world around him. Carson states, “

My environment always influences me.

I’m always taking photos and I believe things I see and experience influence the work.” When working as the art director of Transworld Skateboarding magazine in 1984, Carson used this opportunity to develop his distinctive look and create his signature style that he is currently know for in the art world today. A large amount of Carson’s success,however, goes back to his role with Ray Gun, an alternative music and lifestyle magazine that debuted in 1992, where he remained as a art director. One of his most notorious instances was for a Bryan Ferry article, when the article was made of only Dingbat, a font made of only symbols. This was credited to the fact that Carson thought the article was particularly boring. He explains, “It was [a] bit funny, maybe, that at Ray Gun some of the writers complained early that their articles were hard to read. But then by the 30th issue, the same writers would complain if they thought their articles were too easy to read! The layout came to signal something worthwhile to read, so the writers came to look forward to see how their words were interpreted.”

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When creating his work, Carson considers himself as a “hands-on” designer. What makes Carson, unique, however is the way he approaches his work.^3 Treating typography as a visual element, he has taught individuals to view text as a design and an art form. With his innovative layouts, illegible text, and experimental designs, Carson forces the viewer to take another look at his work and re-invision the idea of text on page. One of the most wonderful examples at his approach, is his piece “Don’t Mistake Legibility for Communication”. It stands as a prime statement of the kind of work Carson strives to create, and it allows us to see text as a whole new object.Newsweek magazine states that he “changed the public face of graphic design”. In addition, Steven Heller has said, “He significantly influenced a generation to embrace typography as an expressive medium”. This continues to remain true for many young designers of this era. Today, Carson’s list of clients continues to grow and includes famous brand names including Pepsi and At&t, as well as many others.

1. TED. Retrieved July 3, 2010. 2. “David Carson (Graphic Designer)”, last modified 18 October 13 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Carson_(graphic_designer) 3. “AnInterviewwithDavidCarson”,ModifiedNovember82007 http://layersmagazine.com/an-interview-with-david-carson.html

(Left) Images from “Hamlet Explorations” http://www.davidcarsondesign.com

(Far Left) David Carson, Pepsi http://shpakvalerija.files.wordpress. com/2013/08/book-7.jpg (Left) “Don’t Mistake Legibiility for Communication” www.DavidCarsondesign.com

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BREAKING THE TEXTBOOK METHOD by Rebecca Faison

Neville Brody is a typographer, designer, and art director. He was the founder of Research Studio, and informer of operations.1 Along with being the head of the Communication Art and Design department for the Royal College of Art, he also works independently. Brody is one of those artist whose work is a household name, but his name isn’t necessarily a household name. Some of this work has been with Apple, Microsoft, Nike, and Sony playstation. Over the years, Brody has been a great influence in design.

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1957. He studied fine art at Hornsey School of art and graphics at London College of Printing.1 His instructors deemed his work “uncommercial” due to his rebellion of the textbook methods and experimental tendencies.2 This experimental dabbling may be partially due to the fact that Brody was heavily influenced by the punk movement. After his schooling, Brody worked for Rocking Russian and Shiff Records, designing record covers. As his recognition with Shiff Records grew, he managed to get an art director gig at Fetish Records. Some of his popular cover art being with the bands Cabaret Voltare and 23 Skiddo.

. This led to his jobs as art director for the Face magazine in 1981 and Arena (men’s style and lifestyle bible) in 1986, which is where he became more widely known. In 1988, the london V & A museum showed his work extensively in Europe and Japan“to accompany his first monograph, The Graphic Language of Neville Brody, which became the world’s best selling graphic design book.”(1) These jobs with The Face and Arena built him up for his design work with various companies and projecs, which is some of his more famous work. In 1994, He created Research Studios, who now have branches in Paris, Barcelona, Berlin and New York. Their key clients are BBC, Sony Playstation, Nike, Apple, Microsoft and MTV, and they have worked on many notable projects, such as the One campain in New York and with the Royal Court theatre. One of his notable side projects is his contributions to FUSE, a confrence for “experimental typography and communications”(2) Along with all these projects, he is a visiting professor at London College of Printing, a founding member of Fontworks, and Head of the Communication Art and Design department at the Royal college of Art. Aside from his intriguing album covers, he has had a great influence on design and society. Brody works mainly with modern type, infusing his type with multiple typefaces or decorative details, which include but are not limited to geometic shapes and symbols. He created the Arcadia, FF Gothic, and FF Harlem type fonts, along with 21 others. His work has a tendency to be colorful, simple and use juxtopositions and various sizes of words, letters and images to create interest. His work is one you have seen many times before and are iconic, especially with Nike, Apple, and Sony Playstation, yet you may have not heard his name. Also, because of his experimental influence through FUSE, he has influenced the design world to think beyond the tested and proven textbook ways.

23 23 “Neville Brody,” Wikipedia, 19 October 2013, 22 October 2013, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neville_Brody “Neville Brody,” Research Studios, 2009, 22 October 2013, researchstudios.com/neville-brody elif ayiter___citrinitas. “Neville Brody Fuse.” Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.citrinitas.com/history_of_viscom/images/computer/

nevillebrody-fuse.html.

Brody at Rocket, for his exhibition in Japan. Made digitally in 2009.

The Face and Arena covers, 1995. Brody was Art Director at the time.

“Free Me From Freedom” Fly poster for Embedded Art, Embedded Art was a fine art show in berlin that focused on terrorism. Made digitally in 2009.

Poster made for the Fuse conference in Manchester. Made digitally in 1995. 

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A LOOK INTO THE LIFE OF STEFAN SAGMEISTER

PUSHING BOUNDARIES. HEATHER LEE MORGAN 30 OCTOBER 2013

Stefan Sagmeister was born in Austria and now lives in New York City where he runs and works at Sagmeister and Walsh. At 19 Sagmeister first applied to the University of Applied Arts in Vienna, but was rejected on his first attempt. After graduating from the university, he was accepted in Pratt University with a Fullbright scholarship.

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Seven Deadly Sins Creative Director: Stefan Sagmeister Art Direction, Design: Jessica Walsh June 2011

Poster for the AIGA’s Fresh Dialogue talks in New York Stefan Sagmeister 1996


Even in his younger years while he was studying Sagmeister was still known for his wit ad daring ideas. Many would cause controversy over this, but in the end this is what made him the designer he is today. Sagmeister still has close relationships with AIGA, David Byrne, and Lou Reed. Much of the early work he did for them is what really jumpstarted his career. One of his first major pieces he did while woring in Hong Kong. It was a poster for the 4As advertising awards in 1992. It featured four men’s bottoms which many thought to be very scandalous and asked for it to not be used for the awards advertising. Shortly after this Sagmeister decided to move back to New York City and work for M&Co. He worked for them for quit awhile, but when Tibor Kalman decided to move to Rome Sagmeister set up his own studio and, following Kalman’s advice, kept it very small only having three people in the whole firm.

The Happy Show Creative Direction: Stefan Sagmeister In the Institute of Contemporary Art’s (ICA) 2012

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“Design Museum.” Design Museum. October 23, 2013. http://designmuseum.org/ design/stefan-sagmeister. “Sagmeister and Walsh.” Sagmeister and Walsh. October 21, 2013. http://www. sagmeisterwalsh.com/work/project/the-happy-show/. “Sagmeister and Walsh.” Sagmeister and Walsh. October 21, 2013. http://www.sagmeisterwalsh.com/work/project/seven-deadly-sins/. “Sagmeister and Walsh.” Sagmeister and Walsh. October 21, 2013. http://www. sagmeisterwalsh.com/images/u_work/HappyShow1.jpg

Seven Deadly Sins Creative Director: Stefan Sagmeister Art Direction, Design: Jessica Walsh June 2011

Later this studio would become Sagmeister and Walsh. Which is still kept as small, only have four designers, and come to make a name for itself. Some of their clients include IDEO, BMW, and the Museum of Modern Art just to name a few. The studio is still located in New York, New York and the recent merge with Jessica Walsh has proven to show that Sagmeister is still one of the strong design personalities in his field. In the last few years they have done many successful projects including “The Happy Show” at ICA and the Seven Deadly Sins for the Loos No.248 bar set. Many people are excite to see what the duo will do in the next few years and see how Sagmeister’s career and views will change as he works with someone new. 22 Even the Merger photo caught the public off guard as it featured Sagmeister and Walsh nude together to show the merger of these two to form a something new.


Michael Bierut for Yale School of Architecture http://www.chicagobiennial.org/2008/finalists/detail/Michael/Beirut/508

The Simpe Drection

Michael Bierut By: Michaela Dowdy-Cannon

New York graphic designer, Michael Bierut, has won hundreds of design awards throughout his lifetime. Of course he did not become so well known and admired over night. Bierut studied at the University of Cincinnati’s College of Design, Architecture, Art and Planning and graduated in 1980. For years after, he worked for Vignelli Associates as the vice president of graphic design. In 1990, he joined the design firm known as Pentagram. Working for Pentagram, Bierut has become known for working with clients such as; The New York Times, Harley-Davidson, United Airlines, Mohawk Paper Mills, New World Symphony, Princeton University, the New York Jets, and Saks Fifth Avenue.

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By Michael Bierut and Jennifer Kinon for Saks Fifth Avenue. Petagram Design New York. http://tdc.richtungspfeil.de/michael-bierut-and-jennifer-kinon/

Bierut has a very simple style. A majority of his work is in black and white with clean designs. One of the biggest aspects of his work are the various style arrows used in many of his designs. His style of design is almost so clean and simple that it may not even be recognizable as his work to viewers. By Michael Bierut for Yale School of Architecture. 2010 http://underthesurface12.blogspot.com/2013/02/artist-michael-beirut.html


Helvetica, a film well known among graphic designers everywhere, starred Bierut who discussed the cleanliness and legibility of Helvetica. He most often uses it in his work, which of course makes it In 2007, Princeton Architectural Press published Bierut’s book, very clear and neat. He pointed out the flaws in 79 Short Essays on Design. In an interview, he explained that the older magazine ad designs and compared them book was written based off of a blog he once wrote. He has also to newer designs; proving that simple gets the written guides for graphic designers as well as given lectures. point across while still being visually pleasing. He was once the co-editor of a five-volume series called Looking Closer: Critical Writings on Graphic Design that was published by Allworth Press. Bierut gives advice to young graphic designers One of his well know designs is the packaging design using his own experiences as a guide. Throughout his career, he and font of the Nuts.com food brand. Another design has faced many challenges when working with clients and gives he made was the new logo for Mohawk Paper Mills, details on how to get and handle them. He gave 16 different one of the few he has done in color. He also made ways to get clients on LOGO Talks’ website. His first piece if the famous logo for the United Airlines company. advice, “Clients make the difference between art and design. Working with others to create, for a purpose, signifies design.”

Bierut is a great resource for aspiring graphic designers of this day and age. With his many essays and tips on how to be a great graphic designer, he is sure to answer any question one may have of becoming successful in a career in design.

d Se uc n tio m sy po si u m po ste rb i ch yM ae ier lB ut an d 8 00 t/ . 2 an re a n - b ctu ari ite -m ch nd Ar ut-a of ier o l l -b h o hae Sc /mic ale 8/04 e Y 00 th /2 or com s f a m. nj e agr Ba n t n .pe ri a n e w Ma ttp:// h

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Never Simple, Always Sweet A Look at Candy Chang

“Candy Chang’s work at the intersection of public art, community engagement, and urban design touches on every aspect of art’s role in society and contributes to meaningful placemaking in our communities.” —Jack Becker, Executive Director, Forecast Public Art

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By Rashad Worthy October 30, 2013


Designer, Candy Chang was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and is of Taiwanese decent. Chang studied at Columbia University where she received a BS in Architecture, a BFA in Graphic Design, and a Masters in Urban Planning. Chang once was a designer with the New York Times, and she went on to collaborate with community groups to make citizens’ rights and resources more accessible. Her work is almost all devoted to exploring public spaces and getting individuals to interact with these public spaces.

Looking for Love Again, 2011 Candy Chang

Chang has worked with community groups in New York, Nairobi, New Orleans, Vancouver, and Johannesburg. After most of her early project she began to question the limitations we have in sharing knowledge and resources with our neighborhood.

I Wish This Was, 2010 Candy Chang

Career Path, 2011 Candy Chang

29 29 Neighborland, 2011-Ongoing Candy Chang Candy, Chang. “Candy Chang.” Accessed October 20, 2013. http://candychang.com

After the loss of someone she cared for very much, her direction changed to “what it means to lead a fulfilling life”. One of the designs Chang came up with after this is the Before I Die design, which she made on an abandoned house in her neighborhood in New Orleans. The Atlantic called it “one of the most creative community projects ever” and thanks to the cooperation of people around the world, over 350 Before I Die walls have been created in over 25 languages and over26 60 countries, including Kazakhstan, Argentina, China, Iraq, and South Korea (even here in Memphis). Chang’s book about The Before I Die Project will be published on November 3, 2013.


Ji Lee is a communications designer earning his BFA degree from Parsons School of Design. He was born in Seoul Korea and raised in Brazil. He now lives in New York and works now at Facebook as their communication designer and a former designer and creative director at Google Creative Labs. He is also a teacher at The School of Visual Arts.(1,2) He has three different type of art works personal, professional, and editorial art. Of these he is best know for the Bubble project and professional art for companies.

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’Lee has brought on a new age of communication of art’ 2

His process and inspiration for his work comes from his saying one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent effort. His steps are Creation, Planning, Financing, Production and Marketing. (3)This approach was used in the previously mention Bubble project, that helped increase Lee’s fame in the art and social worlds even further. By using simple blank speech bubbles and placing them on ands and billboards around New York City and by letting people fill the speech bubbles themselves. After this project he took on a new understanding of art. That personal projects and professional projects compliment each other. (3) Though art like these though simple and creative have had a major impact on society and how it views on advertisements are handle and what people think of them have changed. To some degree Lee has brought on a new age of communication of art a with a simpler and cleaner understanding in his professional work. Much like his work with Facebook and Google. Though in his personal and editorial some thing seem to be lost or confused in their meanings.

This is what should be changed and handled differently. Though these pieces are personal and reflect Lee’s inner thoughts they seemed to be to the viewer. This area of his art could use a little more work. Especially his bubbles project though the initial idea was a brilliant one it is a plan Jane as well. To credit is it really even art? Placing random speech or thought bubbles and placing them over someone else work and letting people fill them in with whatever comes to mind is not art. I understand it more as a questionnaire asking people what they think on these modern days adds than actual art. So what made the bubble project such a big hit? Why is it considered as such a interesting work of art? These are things that we should ask as artist and viewers of art. This is the reason why the bubble project was such a big deal. The artist wanted people to think to make a statement. Wants people to think about what they want to say not just to New York but also to the world and to themselves. This is what draws people to Lee’s art because it makes people think more because they are so simple. This is Ji Lee thoughts, feelings, and ideas on the world’s issues.

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(1) Delete Billboard; www.pleaseenjoy.com (2) Hack ( for Facebook office); www.pleaseenjoy.com (3) Mysterabbit; www.pleaseenjoy.com

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(4) Brazil, Rich and Fat (Time Magazine); www.pleaseenjoy.com 1. www.pleaseenjoy.com 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ji_Lee 3. http://99u.com/videos/6231/ ji-lee-the-transformative-power-of-personal-projects

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“AnInterviewwithDavidCarson”,ModifiedNovember82007 http://layersmagazine.com/an-interview-with-david-carson.html “Neville Brody,” Wikipedia, 19 October 2013, 22 October 2013, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neville_Brody “Neville Brody,” Research Studios, 2009, 22 October 2013, researchstudios.com/neville-brody


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