RCA Proceedings Fall 2018

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FALL 2018




Dr. Theodore (Ted) S. Rappaport

Dr. Nathan "Chip" Cohen

INSIDE Spotlight on 2018 Banquet & Technical Symposium Birthplace of Silicon Valley Mysterious Radio Signals Caused by Neutrino? New Voluntary Television Standards Take Hold Wi-Fi Security Update 1

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THE PROCEEDINGS FALL 2018 | Volume 91, Number 2

PRESIDENT Timothy J. Duffy*

The Radio Club of America, Inc.

EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT Carroll L. Hollingsworth*

Honoring the Past, Committed to the Future


HEADQUARTERS OFFICE: 13570 Grove Drive #302 Maple Grove MN 55311 | (612) 405-2012 amy@radioclubofamerica.org | www.radioclubofamerica.org

VICE PRESIDENT/COUNSEL Chester "Barney" Scholl, Jr.* TREASURER Ronald J. Jakubowski* SECRETARY Margaret J. Lyons, PE, PMP*


DIRECTORS David P. Bart* Richard P. Biby James “Ernie” Blair* Karen J. Clark* Michael Clarson Nathan “Chip” Cohen, Ph.D.* Paul Z. Gilbert Andy Maxymillian Ray Novak Carole J. Perry Stan Reubenstein* Andrew M. Seybold William R. Waugaman

From Your President............................................................................................................ 4

PRESIDENTS EMERITI Steven L. Aldinger Gaetano “Tom” Amoscato Sandra Black John “Jack” Brennan Phillip M. Casciano Mercy S. Contreras Mal Gurian Bruce R. McIntyre Stan Reubenstein Anthony “Tony” Sabino, Jr. Raymond C. Trott, P.E.

RCA 2018 Lee de Forest Award: Dr. Nathan (Chip) Cohen...................................................13

From the Publications Chairman.......................................................................................... 5 2018 Banquet & Technical Symposium – Reasons to Attend............................................... 5 Opinion: From the RCA Publications Committee................................................................... 6 Welcome New 2018 RCA Members....................................................................................... 7 RCA 2018 Sponsors and Donors.......................................................................................... 8 2018 Technical Symposium and Banquet Agendas.............................................................. 9 RCA 2018 Armstrong Award: Dr. Theodore (Ted) S. Rappaport............................................10

2018 Technical Symposium Honors and Awards.................................................................16 2018 Fellow Class.............................................................................................................. 20 2018 Technical Symposium Abstracts and Speakers' Biographies..................................... 22 Rountable on Innovation.................................................................................................... 28 Birthplace of Valley and Moore's Law Become IEEE Milestones......................................... 36 Revisiting the Pre-History of Silicon Valley........................................................................ 42

STAFF Amy Beckham, Executive Secretary Sue Sack, Financial Reporting Miki Tufto, Membership and Order Fulfillment

Voices of Tomorrow............................................................................................................ 45 News Items........................................................................................................................ 48

COMMITTEE CHAIRPERSONS Awards & Fellows: Bill Waugaman Banquet: Karen J. Clark Constitution & By-Laws: Chester “Barney” Scholl, Jr. Finance: Ronald J. Jakubowski Fundraising Coordination: Nathan “Chip” Cohen, Ph.D. Historical/Museums & Archives: Paul Z. Gilbert Keeping RCA Vibrant: Margaret J. Lyons, PE, PMP Marketing & Fund Development: Elaine Walsh* Membership: James “Ernie” Blair Nominations & Elections: Nathan “Chip” Cohen, Ph.D. Publications: David P. Bart Regional Conferences: Stan Reubenstein Scholarship Fund: Richard P. Biby Technical Symposium: John A. Facella, PE, C.Eng. Website: John A. Facella, PE, C.Eng. Youth Activities: Carole J. Perry *Executive Committee Member AEROGRAM EDITOR Elaine Walsh TECHNICAL EDITOR John S. “Jack” Belrose, Ph.D., VE2CV 811-1081 Ambleside Dr. Ottawa, ON K2B 8C8, Canada (613) 721-7587; jsbelrose@gmail.com

Movie Review - "Bombshell"...............................................................................................57 Book Review - "Antenna Physics: An Introduction"............................................................ 58 The Book Shop................................................................................................................... 59 Opportunities to Support Radio Club of America................................................................ 60 RCA Strategic Partnerships........ .............................................................................................61 The First Christmas Speech............................................................................................... 62 Call for Papers / Editorials........................................................................................................66 2019 Sponsorship Opportunities.........................................................................................67 Business Directory............................................................................................................. 68 RCA Calendar & Events......................................................................................................70

EDITORIAL DIRECTOR David P. Bart 8512 Kedvale Ave. Skokie, IL 60076 (847) 542-9873; jbart1964@gmail.com PROCEEDINGS EDITOR Glenn Bischoff

ADVERTISING CONTACT Amy Beckham (612) 430-6995; Amy@radioclubofAmerica.org PRODUCTION Sapphyre Group PROCEEDINGS SCIENTIFIC ADVISOR Nathan “Chip” Cohen, Ph.D.




he Radio Club of America’s 2018 Awards Banquet and Technical Symposium is coming soon, and we have an all-star lineup! This year, RCA returns to New York City, but we will be at a new location, the Westin Times Square. This issue of the Proceedings brings you the latest news about the banquet, and I encourage all of you to attend. This is my final year as RCA president, and I want to thank everyone for his or her many contributions and support. RCA continues to provide many outstanding activities and opportunities for its members. There are many people to thank for their hard work and contributions to RCA. •

Our membership chairman Ernie Blair continues to work hard in enrolling new RCA members. We have welcomed almost 100 new members to the club this past year!

Thanks to Karen Clark and her team for assembling another amazing awards banquet. Each year, Karen oversees this huge task with flair and produces another great success!

Carole Perry continues to create a vision that inspires tomorrow’s leaders through the RCA Youth Forum. Thank you Carole for all you have given to RCA over the years.


Thanks to John Facella for his dedication to the Technical Symposium, which will return with another spectacular group of presenters. John also leads our RCA website, and he is responsible for spearheading our outreach to new strategic partners, along with Carroll Hollingsworth.

Elaine Walsh, chair of the marketing committee, with team members John-Paul Beauchamp and Fred Hamer, have been revitalizing our marketing with increased social media presence, a new brochure and other initiatives. Both Elaine Walsh and Chip Cohen have made major progress on our sponsorship efforts, which are so critical to finding the funding to support RCA’s activities. Thank you both for your continued dedication. This year Bill Waugaman succeeded Stan Rubenstein to manage the awards with Chip Cohen and David Bart this year, and we thank all of them for their contributions.

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Ron Jacobowski continues to oversee our accounting and finances and Carroll Hollingsworth continues to be an informal controller, helping to manage our administrator, the Sapphyre Group, and all our expenses. Thank you both for improving our bottom line.

Richard Biby, and previously John Dettra, manages our scholarship program. Thank you for running this active committee that offers RCA an opportunity to give back to tomorrow’s students.

Thanks to David Bart, Glenn Bischoff, Elaine Walsh, and the entire publications team for their significant efforts producing the ENews, the Aerogram, and our premier publication, the Proceedings of the Radio Club of America.

Many thanks to Chip Cohen and his team for running smooth elections these past several years, and for utilizing both electronic and written ballots!

I also appreciate the work of our returning vice president and legal counsel, Barney Scholl.

Andy Seybold and Bill Waugaman are developing a new education committee that should evolve in the coming years. Thank you for developing this new idea.

Finally, thank you to Amy Beckham and the Sapphyre Group team, and their predecessor Colleen Ayers and the Harrington team, for everything that they have done for RCA. Your professionalism and skill has lifted the entire club!

It has been an honor to work with everyone at RCA. I have enjoyed my time as President. Though this will be my last year, I look forward to engaging with our members in the years ahead as we participate in the outstanding opportunities this wonderful club offers. RCA will host several events at shows throughout the remainder of 2018 and into 2019. I hope you can attend these tremendous networking opportunities so that you can meet your fellow club members and share in their rich experiences. Thank you for your continued involvement in RCA! Please help us spread the word! If you have any comments or suggestions regarding the club, please do not hesitate to email me directly at tduffy@dxengineering.com.

TIM DUFFY, K3LR, President The Radio Club of America, Inc.



his issue of the Proceedings brings you the most up-todate information about RCA’s upcoming 2018 Awards Banquet and Technical Symposium. We are returning to New York City this year, where we will be at a NEW LOCATION, the Westin New York at Times Square! Dr. Theodore Rappaport will receive the Armstrong Medal, leading an all-star lineup of incredible award recipients and new fellows. We encourage all of you to join us at this

outstanding event and welcome all our guests at RCA’s annual extravaganza.

Congratulations to all of RCA’s

The Fall 2018 issue of the Proceedings focuses on our award recipients and our new RCA fellows. Biographical information for both groups of individuals is included. Complete information about the Technical Symposium also is presented.

successes. We invite each of you

We have a wide range of contributors and article content in this issue. We visit some early history, celebrate the birth of Silicon Valley, and present numerous engaging news items. Movie and book reviews help to fill out this issue of the Proceedings.

We look forward to seeing all of you in

members for their continuing to contribute articles, news stories, and ideas for future content. We also welcome your comments, recommendations, and suggestions on ways to further improve the Proceedings. New York City this November.

DAVID BART, KB9YPD Editorial Director and Chairman RCA Publications Committee


SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 17 | NEW YORK CITY Featuring Keynote Speaker Dr. Ted Rappaport


Cutting edge technical learning This year's Technical Symposium in New York City will have a focus on new technologies with panels planned on 5G and FirstNet. Several other exciting topics are also in the works. Stay tuned!


Strengthen your network


Honor the distinguished and deserving

The Radio Club of America is the oldest, most prestigious group of wireless professionals in the world. Make the most of your membership by connecting with old friends and developing new contacts. Join us to celebrate the people who invent, create, inspire and collaborate to create the products, services and companies that make this industry one of a kind.


Support the next generation Help develop the future workforce by supporting RCA's youth efforts, and learn from this year's RCA Young Achiever Award Winner.


Can you feel the energy? RCA continues to build on the momentum from last year, recruiting new members and developing strategic partner-ships with other organizations. Be a part of the excitement and help us shape the organization as we continue our vibrancy long into the future.


Discover New York City Join us in the Big Apple as we immerse ourselves in the energy of the city!

www.radioclubofamerica.org | FALL 2018 PROCEEDINGS





he Radio Club of America is a special place that requires broad membership participation to thrive. RCA needs you! RCA has brought together the best and brightest for more than a century. Now is the time for you to participate! Before the days of social media, one of the best ways to network with other professionals was to attend a meeting or an industry conference. These events provided a way to learn the latest in your field, to meet with others and share ideas, and to make connections. Although there are many online resources today that can help us stay connected and keep us current in our fields of interest, there are still significant benefits from attending face-to-face events. It is more important than ever to attend inperson the RCA Banquet and Technical Symposium and other industry activities. The RCA membership survey noted many key areas that our members value. Many require live participation to glean the greatest benefits; such as the annual banquet, trade show booths, technical symposium, and

other live activities. Nearly three-quarters of our members joined at the suggestion of a friend, business contact or professional associate. More than half seek access to professional expertise and experience through our networking activities. These are personal interactions. RCA offers a wide range of opportunities to participate. (Source: RCA Membership Survey)

There is no substitute for casual interaction among new and old friends and professional acquaintances. We encourage you to show engagement and to represent yourself and your company by making connections and leaving a lasting impression. Participating at the banquet and technical symposium, and visiting with RCA at IWCE, Dayton, APCO and other major industry events offers a chance to see our members in action and in

person. Our Youth Activities are world famous, and successfully present RCA to a new generation at many events. All of these activities need the members to thrive! Some of the benefits of increasing your participation at RCA include: • Stay current in your knowledge and skills, and stay aware of key trends, technical advances and debates. • Get new ideas and broaden your awareness of the industry. • Help project your voice by being part of the conversation via and at RCA. • Take a break from your routine and meet legendary leaders and heroes who define the future. • Take advantage of networking and education in a single event. RCA offers a unique opportunity to develop a broader viewpoint by hearing professional and amateur perspectives only available at RCA. Learn something new. It may affect your vision and application of ideas by sparking your creativity. Get out of your comfort zone and interact with others to stimulate new ideas and friendships.


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RCA has performed extensive membership surveys in recent years. RCA’s membership cited the diverse professional backgrounds and many different activities of interest. Don’t miss your opportunity to crosspollinate! Live networking outside the office provides an opportunity to know others within and outside of your particular engineering field and a chance to learn about their projects and discover new trends. So, reconnect with former colleagues and make some new connections at an

RCA’s membership spans many fields of interest. (Source: RCA Membership Survey)

upcoming RCA event. RCA provides live opportunities in intimate settings, unlike online resources or other larger venues. RCA’s booths at APCO and IWCE, our leadership and participation at the Dayton Hamvention, our involvement with numerous organizations as formal and informal partners, and our

breakfasts and cocktail parties have become centers of networking. RCA brings together both professionals and amateurs, giving you access to a wide range of top experts, innovators, scientific researchers, and peers in one common place.

There is still time to register for RCA’s next major event, the 2018 Banquet and Technical Symposium. Don’t miss your opportunity to join us at our premiere activity of the year. Be engaged!

WELCOME 2018 NEW RCA MEMBERS William Armstrong Caroline Blair Steven Bloom Jeffrey Bratcher David Camin Rebba Dhruv Todd Dixon Kent Dulaney

Ronald D. Erickson Tanisha Shinar Haynes Ralph O. Irish, Jr. Richard Jenkins Robert Johnson Roman Kaluta Paul Kluwe William Lueck

Ron Lyons Thomas MacFarlane Geoffrey Mendenhall Margie Dee Moulin John Moyers A. Robert Pantazes Bill Principe Payton Rogers

David Siddall William Stack Julio Urbina Joshua Vega Manny Vierra Joel Weder Gary Wilburn, Jr.

The Radio Club of America, Inc.

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SPONSORS The Radio Club of America Board of Directors and its members would like to thank the generous event sponsors. Their support and contributions ensure that the Awards Banquet is a success and enjoyable for everyone. Be sure to tell them that you saw their company mentioned in the Radio Club of America Banquet Program.

WINE SPONSOR RadioResource





DONORS • James Breakall • Karen Clark, Fellow • John Facella, Fellow • Larry Hazelwood

• Robert Lopez • Margaret Lyons • June Poppele • Robert Walsh, Fellow

Register for the 2018 Technical Symposium and Banquet at www.radioclubofamerica.org. 8

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2018 TECHNICAL SYMPOSIUM & BANQUET Saturday 17 November Westin New York at Times Square


Continental Breakfast served to all attendees

8:00am – 8:15am

Welcome & Introductions


8:15am – 9:45am

The Science & Technology Behind 5G


9:45am – 10:00am


10:00am – 10:45am

Working With A Solar Powered Digipeater Youth Presentation


10:45am – 11:15am

Progress Report on RCA’s Youth Initiative


11:15am – 12:00pm

Latest Trends in HF Data Transmission


12:00pm – 1:15pm

Lunch (outside of Westin Hotel)

1:15pm – 2:00pm

RF Propagation During the August 2017 Eclipse


2:00pm – 2:30pm

How Will 5G Play Out?


2:30pm – 2:50pm


2:50pm – 3:50pm

Interim Report: FirstNet


3:50pm – 4:35pm

IOT Implementation: Pros and Cons


4:35pm – 5:15pm

A Tribute to WWI—The U.S. Naval Radio School at Harvard University


5:15pm – 5:20pm

Wrap up


The details on presentations and presenters begin on page 22.

BANQUET 5:30pm – 7:00pm

Banquet & Awards Cocktail Reception


Awards Presentation Begins





Awards Presentation Continues www.radioclubofamerica.org | FALL 2018 PROCEEDINGS





he Radio Club of America (RCA) is thrilled to announce that the 2018 banquet and awards ceremony will feature Theodore (Ted) S. Rappaport, who will receive the RCA’s Armstrong Medal. As an entrepreneur and engineer, Dr. Rappaport is a pioneer in millimeter wave (mmWave) radio frequency (RF) and wireless communications technology. He has owned or advised several companies in the U.S. and established multiple research facilities at American universities. He holds many patents. He is also the author of numerous publications in the wireless communications field. He is currently a professor at New York University. “Ted” has a long history with RCA. He was a youth scholarship recipient who became one of the youngest Fellows of RCA (in modern times) at age 30, and served on the RCA board of directors in the 1990s. He went on to receive the Sarnoff Citation from RCA in 2000. He is the founding director of NYU WIRELESS, one of the world’s first academic research centers to combine wireless engineering, computer science, and medicine. He is a pioneering researcher and educator in the field of wireless communications engineering, most recently leading in the creation of emerging 5G cellular networks. His research has influenced international standards bodies for three decades. His 2013 paper, “Millimeter Wave Mobile Communications for 5G Cellular: It Will Work!” has been called a founding document of 5G mmWave technology.

BACKGROUND Born in Brooklyn, New York, Ted graduated high school in Cambridge City, Indiana. He first demonstrated his affinity for radio at age 5. He would visit his grandfather, and together they would spend hours “tuning around, listening to Morse code and ship-to-shore” on his grandfather’s Philco antique shortwave radio. He developed a fascination for wireless and “loves to experiment with antennas.” At age 14, after he fractured his leg playing football, his grandmother gave him a shortwave radio, which helped keep him occupied while his leg was healing. He acquired his ham radio license, and while in high school began teaching adults Morse code. Ted was among the first graduates of Purdue University’s National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center (ERC), where he co-authored the proposal that resulted in the National Science Foundation award presented to Purdue by President Ronald Reagan. Rappaport met his wife Brenda, an agricultural 10

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Professor Ted Rappaport (Courtesy Office of Communications, New York University Tandon School of Engineering)

engineering student at Purdue, during his sophomore year. They married before his senior year at Purdue, and had three children together. He graduated from Purdue with a BS, MS, and PhD in electrical engineering in 1982, 1984, and 1987, respectively.

NOTED SUCCESSES Today, Dr. Rappaport is the David Lee/Ernst Weber professor of electrical and computer engineering at New York University (NYU) Tandon School of Engineering and is a professor of computer science at NYU’s Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. He is also a professor of radiology at the NYU School of Medicine. Before launching NYU WIRELESS in 2012, he founded two large academic wireless research centers: the Wireless Networking and Communications Group (WNCG) at the University of Texas at Austin in 2002, and the Mobile and Portable Radio Research Group (MPRG), now known as Wireless@Virginia Tech, in 1990. He launched the annual Brooklyn 5G Summit (B5GS) at NYU, with co-sponsorship from Nokia in 2013. Ted advised or launched numerous high-tech companies in the wireless communications and computing fields. Some of these include Telephia (acquired by Nielsen), Motion Computing (acquired by Xplore), Paratek Microwave (acquired by Research in Motion), Straight Path Communications (acquired by Verizon) and two university spin-out companies that developed some of the technologies now used in the wireless industry—TSR Technologies (acquired by Allen Telecom in 1993) and Wireless Valley Communications (acquired by Motorola in 2005).

research for the National Science Foundation (NSF), Department of Defense, and dozens of global telecommunications companies throughout his career.

Recent Books by Theodore S. Rappaport.

NOTED WORKS Professor Rappaport’s research spans the fields of radio wave propagation and antennas for cellular and personal communications; wireless communication system design, analysis, and simulation; and broadband wireless communications circuits and systems. His research has influenced many international wireless standard bodies, and his more than 20 books and 200 papers have educated tens of thousands of wireless engineers since the founding of the modern cellular telephone and Wi-Fi industries. He has received numerous awards and is widely recognized as a pioneering educator, as well as a pioneer in radio propagation prediction and system design tools for wireless networks. His work in 5G mmWave measurement and channel modeling proved to the world that massively broadband wireless mobility could be implemented in the unexplored mmWave and terahertz (THz) frequency bands. He and his students have invented widely used measurement equipment, simulation methodologies, and analytical approaches for the exploration and modeling of radio propagation channels and communications system design in a vast range of spectrum bands for emerging wireless systems. His early work helped develop the first Wi-Fi standards and characterized multipath channels in a wide range of factory buildings in the 1300 megahertz (MHz) band when most wireless communications operated at lower frequencies. His research program at NYU has been developing fundamental theories and techniques for characterizing, modeling, and using knowledge of wireless channels for future potential in millimeter wave and THz wireless communication systems. He also invented the technology of site-specific radio frequency (RF) channel modeling and design for wireless network deployment—a technology now used routinely throughout the wireless industry. More recently, he conducted work that proved the viability of mmWave mobile communications for future broadband access, and this work has influenced the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and 3GPP/ITU to develop 5G wireless networks throughout the world.

SIGNIFICANT ADVISORY WORK Dr. Rappaport has served on the FCC’s Technological Advisory Council (TAC), assisted the governor and chief information officer (CIO) of Virginia in formulating rural broadband initiatives for internet access, and conducted

He served as a senior editor of the IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications (JSAC), and led in the creation of the IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications. In 2006, he served on the Board of Governors of the IEEE Communications Society (ComSoc), and served two consecutive board terms on the IEEE Vehicular Technology Society (VTS). He is a past board member of the Marconi Society.

RCA 2018 BANQUET RCA’s 2018 banquet will take place in New York City, Saturday, November 17, 2018, at the Westin New York Times Square. We look forward to seeing everyone in November for this rare and very exciting opportunity.

REFERENCES 5G mmWave Was Born in Brooklyn in 2013. Brooklyn!, Wireless One, Apr. 13, 2017. See http://wirelessone. news/mimo-2/658-5g-was-born-in-brooklyn-brooklyn. Distinguished Engineering Alumni, Theodore “Ted” S. Rappaport, Purdue University College of Engineering. Retrieved 2018-09-18. See https://engineering.purdue. edu/Engr/People/Awards/Institutional/DEA/DEA_2013/ Rappaport. NYU Wireless. Photo credit: NYU-Poly/Marian Goldman. Rick Merritt, Wi-Fi @ 25: A Look Back, EE Times. Sep. 10, 2015. See https://www.eetimes.com/document. asp?doc_id=1327658. Theodore Rappaport, Indoor Radio Communications for Factories of the Future, IEEE Communications Magazine, IEEE, May 1989. See http://faculty.poly.edu/~tsr/wpcontent/uploads/CV/MTJ/1989-05-Indoor%20radio%20 communications%20for%20factories%20of%20the%20 future.pdf. Theodore Rappaport, The Wireless Revolution, IEEE Communications Magazine, November 1991. See http:// faculty.poly.edu/~tsr/wp-content/uploads/CV/MTJ/199111-The%20Wireless%20Revolution.pdf Ted Rappaport, N9NB, Named Recipient of IEEE Education Award, American Radio Relay League, ARRL News, Oct. 18, 2012. See http://www.arrl.org/news/ ted-rappaport-n9nb-named-recipient-of-ieee-educationaward. Theodore Rappaport, Wikipedia, retrieved Sep. 18, 2018. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodore_ Rappaport#cite_note-46. www.radioclubofamerica.org | FALL 2018 PROCEEDINGS




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DR. NATHAN “CHIP” COHEN Dr. Nathan “Chip” Cohen will receive the Radio Club of America’s Lee de Forest Award at its November 17, 2018, banquet and awards ceremony. The following article describes Dr. Cohen’s key contributions to the field of radio science.


ee de Forest, credited with inventing the Audion vacuum tube, held more than 300 patents (207 in the United States). He pioneered wireless communications and motion picture sound, and popularized the word “radio” in the U.S. instead of the European term “wireless.” The Lee de Forest Award, originated in 1983, is presented to an individual who has made significant contributions to the advancement of radio communications. Dr. Nathan “Chip” Cohen’s lifetime exploration and development of fractal-based antenna systems and related wireless applications best exemplifies the traditions of Lee de Forest in contributing new advanced radio/wireless technologies to society.

BACKGROUND Dr. Cohen is the CEO of Fractal Antenna Systems of Bedford, Massachusetts. He is a physicist and radio astronomer with background concentrations in electromagnetics, fractal geometry, and imaging. Dr. Cohen started his academic career, at age 17, at Harvard University where he worked as a research assistant on very-low frequency (VLF) radio propagation and radio navigation (OMEGA). He attended Brandeis University as a physics major and published his first scientific paper while learning radio astronomy and interferometry (arrays), graduating magna cum laude with highest physics honors in 1977. He did his graduate work in astrophysics at Cornell University where he conducted extensive radio astronomy observing efforts at Arecibo Observatory; National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO); the NRAO’s Very Large Array (VLA); and other facilities. In 1979, he became a visiting scholar at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, working on Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). (Note: astronomers call arrays “interferometers.”). He received his M.S in astrophysics from Cornell in 1982 and conducted thesis work at Haystack Observatory while a graduate research assistant at the Harvard University/ Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. He received his Ph.D. in 1985 from Cornell in astrophysics, using VLBI to probe gravitational lenses. In 1987, he joined Boston University (a hotspot in the development of fractal geometry), where he retired in 2002 after various appointments as a professor of science and engineering; telecommunications; and mechanical engineering, as well as a director of the

Science and Engineering, and Engineering Management programs. In 15 years, he taught more than 1,500 students in more than 75 classes—from differential equations to astronomy, from engineering mechanics to operations management. He also held research positions at Les Houches, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA Ames, and National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC) (Arecibo).

FRACTAL RESEARCH Dr. Cohen is recognized for his extensive and comprehensive invention and development of fractalbased applications for radio and wireless; including: fractal antennas, fractal metamaterials, invisibility cloaking, fractal resonators and circuits, and fractal absorbers. He is the leading pioneer in this explosive branch of wireless/electronics. He has received 52 U.S. patents, including several under “notice of allowance” that are awaiting issuance. Many dozens more are “patent pending.” Fractal antennas shrink size, add/control multibands, and achieve wide bandwidth, all without additional complex components, while still achieving excellent performance. Dr. Cohen invented fractal antennas in 1988, largely using ham radio equipment and very modest resources to build, test and develop these antennas. The first publication on fractal antennas was in the ham radio world, Communications Quarterly in August 1995 (feature article), which reported the experimental results. Dr. Cohen subsequently published with colleagues the physics of frequency invariance (independence) for Maxwell’s equations, demonstrating the need for fractal, self-similar shapes to widen bandwidth. That work is now a fundamental paper in electromagnetics. Dr. Cohen received U.S. patent 6,452,553, and dozens of others, for invention of fractal antennas and fractal resonators, with no prior art; thus, Cohen holds the “source” patents, as inventor, on these devices. While almost all of Dr. Cohen’s patents relate to fractal applications in electronics, radio, and wireless, recently he has branched out to “fractal conjugate” patented applications, using geometric constraints to actually inhibit growth of destructive (fractal) dendrites in www.radioclubofamerica.org | FALL 2018 PROCEEDINGS


batteries, circuit boards, and others. Cohen notes: “I am interested in putting fractals where we need them and erasing them from where we don’t want them.”

EVOLVING LINES OF WORK In addition to his fractal antenna work, Dr. Cohen’s scientific achievements include: the first detailed images of a gravitational lens via VLBI (1983/85); first description of a passive Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) system (later an acknowledged inspiration for SETI@home) (1980); first evidence for high velocity mass ejection from star-forming regions (1980); identification of the best means of interstellar communication in SETI (polychromatic SETI’s DIPR) (1993/95); identification of the “melon” of odontocetes (dolphins and toothed whales) as a prism for Moire imaging in echolocation (1986); and the first real-time deconvolution (deblurring) method in medical ultrasound (1990). He discovered the first use of fractals as resonators (1990); first use of fractal coding for optimization (rapid use of genetic algorithms) (1997); first description of “aperture engine” dual use of power collecting/antenna (1998); and the analytical solution of the requirements for frequency invariance in Maxwell’s Equations (1999). These led to the first use of metamaterials with fractals (2002); first creator of near-field radiative transfer with fractal metamaterials (2004); first wideband invisibility cloak (microwaves) (2008); first electromagnetic deflector shield (2008); first invisibility cloaking of a person (2012); first invention of fractal batteries and fractal electrodes (2014); and the first invention to control (fractal) dendrite growth via geometric constraints (2014).

ACCEPTANCE OF FRACTAL APPLICATIONS Fractal antennas have gained wide commercial acceptance, not only in wireless devices, but extending into such diverse uses as: “executive protection” (USG), miniature conformal-to-metal wireless medical devices (Varian), public safety in-building antennas (BBC), wireless safety system (Boeing 787); wideband clandestine surveillance (Cyntony); and jamming (TLA). Fractal antennas now show up in grade school textbooks and have been developed and adopted in STEM (science, technology, engineering, math) curricula, including National Science Foundation (NSF)-sponsored development. Students commonly build fractal antennas for science fairs, including the Intel Science ISEF. Fractal antennas led to the invention of the practical invisibility cloak. Dr. Cohen invented the invisibility cloak (U.S. Patent 8,253,639 and many others), which uses close-packed mini-fractal antennas. Cohen and his team cloaked the first person, rendering him invisible to radio detection at microwave frequencies, an achievement thought previously impossible. 14

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Three seminal papers by Dr. Cohen in: 1995, 1999, and 2012.

Fractal antenna research and application development now constitute a large and scholarly field for researchers in electromagnetics, with more than 2,500 separate publications and dozens of existing academic groups focused on the topic worldwide. Makers have embraced fractal antennas for homegrown TV and Wi-Fi applications, with the maker community showing enthusiasm for the topic. This is demonstrated by more than 2 million YouTube hits to fractal antenna videos.

RECOGNITION Dr. Cohen published more than 100 technical and scientific papers and three books: Gravity’s Lens; Mysteries of the Milky Way with Donald Goldsmith; and Benoit Mandelbrot—A Life in Many Dimensions edited with Michael Frame. His fourth book, on fractals and invisibility cloaks, will be published in 2019, while a fifth book, on innovation, is planned for 2020.


Dr. Cohen’s work has been described in CNN’s Science and Technology Week; Wired On Line; Scientific American; Sky and Telescope; Discover Magazine; Business Week; New Scientist; PBS’ Science Trek, Mission Critical Communications, Microwave Journal, as well and many other publications. The story of Dr. Cohen’s invention of fractal antennas is told in a NOVA episode (PBS, Oct. 28, 2008), and dates back more than 30 years.

With our new online membership application

He is a member of the IEEE and ARRL, and he is a director, fellow, and former vice president (pro-tem) of RCA. He became managing editor of the peer-reviewed journal FRACTALS in 2013.

industry professionals, members of the press,

In December 2017, the U.S. Patent Office awarded patent 9,847,583 to Dr. Cohen covering electromagnetic cloaking/deflection of satellites, rockets, towers, antennas, vehicles, body coverings, people, ships, spacecraft and many others, each uniquely recognized as novel inventions. Dr. Cohen noted, “Invention of the invisibility cloak, acknowledged by our earlier patent 8,253,639, was a watershed moment, creating a new field of applied science. Deflection is brought about through our novel technology, including deflecting electromagnetic waves around an object, so that it remains invisible and undisturbed. That applied science is emerging with real applications, and our firm takes patented claim on invention of these applications.”

dawn of radio history and are committed to

RCA previously honored Dr. Cohen, an RCA Fellow, with the Grebe Award for Engineering Excellence, largely stemming from his fractal antenna work. In 2018, he received the Hamvention Technical Achievement Award. The Lee DeForest Award is his first award specifically for his inventive efforts.

(www.radioclubofamerica.org/membershipapplication) it’s easier than ever to get involved! RCA members include inventors, scientists, the FCC, government agencies, and world class amateur operators. We were there at the keeping our members up to date on the latest in wireless technology. RCA believes in the future of the industry and your membership will help us with the important work of encouraging the next generation of wireless pioneers and entrepreneurs. Help spread the word about why you belong, and direct potential members to www. radioclubofamerica.org/about-us/how-tojoin to learn more about the benefits of membership!

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KEYNOTE SPEAKER Dr. Theodore (Ted) S. Rappaport has over 100 U.S. or international patents issued or pending and has authored, co-authored, and co-edited over 200 papers and 20 books in the wireless field, including the classic Wireless Communications: Principles & Practice (translated into seven languages), Principles of Communication Systems Simulation with Wireless Applications, and Smart Antennas for Wireless Communications: IS-95 and Third Generation CDMA Applications. Dr. Rappaport is the David Lee/Ernst Weber Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the NYU Tandon School of Engineering and is a professor of computer science at New York University’s Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. He is a pioneer in RF propagation, wireless systems simulation, and 5G networks. His research has influenced international standards bodies for three decades.


sought-after expert. He has over 100 patents issued or pending.

Dr. Theodore (Ted) S. Rappaport –

Dr. Rappaport’s research spans the fields of radio wave propagation and antennas for cellular and personal communication, wireless communication system design, analysis, simulation, and broadband wireless communications circuits and systems. His research has influenced many international wireless standard bodies over three decades. He and his students have received numerous honors and best paper awards and have invented widely-used measurement equipment, software, simulation methodologies and analytical approaches for the exploration and modeling of radio propagation channels and communication system design in a vast range of spectrum bands for emerging wireless system. He also invented the technology of site-specific radio frequency (RF) channel modelling and design for wireless network deployment – a technology now used routinely throughout the wireless industry. More recently, he conducted work that proved the viability of millimeter wave (mmWave) mobile communication for future broadband access, and his work influenced the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and 3GPP/ITU to develop 5G wireless network standards throughout the world.

For outstanding achievements and lasting contributions to the radio arts and sciences that has advanced communications in 5G and the utility of millimeter wavelengths. Dr. Rappaport is the David Lee/Ernst Weber Chaired Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at New York University’s Tandon School of Engineering and is a Professor of Computer Science at NYU’s Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. He is also a Professor of Radiology at the NYU Langone School of Medicine. He is the founding director of NYU WIRELESS, one of the world’s first academic research centers to combine wireless engineering, computer science and medicine. Before launching NYU WIRELESS in 2012, he founded two other large academic wireless research centers: the Wireless Networking and Communications Group (WNCG) at the University of Texas at Austin in 2002, and the Mobile and Portable Radio Research Group (MPRG), now known as Wireless @Virginia Tech, in 1990. He is one of the most highly-cited authors in the wireless field having published over 200 technical papers and over 20 books, and is a highly

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Dr. Nathan (Chip) Cohen, W1YW – For new and novel development of radio technologies. Dr. Cohen is the CEO of Fractal Antenna Systems of Bedford, Massachusetts. He is a physicist and radio astronomer with a background in electromagnetics, fractal geometry, and imaging. A graduate of Brandeis University, he received an M.S. and Ph.D. from Cornell University and has held positions at Harvard, MIT, Cornell, and Boston Universities, Arecibo Observatory, and NASA (JPL and Ames). He has made substantial contributions to RF and antenna design applications as well as antenna optimization and manufacturing processes, and SETI. He is a pioneer in fractal engineering. He holds 52 U.S. utility patents, including ‘source’ patents on fractal antennas, fractal resonators, invisibility cloaks and deflector shields, fractal metamaterials and radiative transfer, fractal batteries, fractal absorbers, fractal lenses, and 3D printing. He is recognized as a leading world authority on these and related subjects. He has published over 100 technical articles and four books and is a Fellow of the Radio Club of America, where he previously received the Alfred Grebe Award. He is a member of IEEE and Managing Editor of the journal FRACTALS. Dr. Cohen is the pioneer of fractal (element) antennas and related technologies (such as fractal metamaterials; fractal resonators). Fractal antennas have gained wide commercial acceptance. Fractal antennas now show up in grade school textbooks and have been developed and adopted in STEM curricula. Fractal antennas led to the invention of the practical invisibility cloak. Dr. Cohen invented the invisibility cloak and other applications using close-packed mini-fractal antennas. He cloaked the first man, rendering him invisible to radio signal detection at microwave frequencies, an achievement thought previously impossible. Fractal antenna research and application development now constitute a large and scholarly field for researchers in electromagnetics, with over 2000 separate publications and dozens of existing academic groups focused on the topic worldwide.


Joseph L. Yurman, PE – For notable achievements in land mobile radio communications. In his capacity as Principal Engineer for Wireless Communications, New York City Transit Authority (NYCTA), Mr. Yurman has been at the forefront of innovation and implementation of large-scale underground distributed antenna systems (DAS). From whole-scale coordination and upgrade of subway radio systems through technology refresh such as fiber-optic interconnect, Mr. Yurman oversees the engineering of a DAS system covering over 236 miles of route and over 800 miles of subway and elevated railroad track. The private DAS serves railroad, police, and fire radio systems.

He also is responsible for engineers who coordinate with the private entity that completed installation of neutral host commercial wireless and Wi-Fi in the stations throughout the underground NYCTA system. Mr. Yurman is an active member of the New York/New Jersey/Connecticut 700 and 800 MHz Tri-State Regional Planning Committees, applying his engineering background and experience on technical subcommittees. Through this role, he has mentored most of the Public Safety entities in the tri-states area regarding frequency re-use and technical requirements for clean spectrum utilization. He has been active at the National Regional Planning Committee level seeking to update and align rules used by other Regional Planning Committees across the country. Mr. Yurman is a registered Professional Engineer in the State of New York employed by the New York City Transit Authority (NYCTA) Department of Capital Program Management & Communications Engineering Division. He is the lead Principal Engineer for Wireless Communications. Mr. Yurman holds a B.S.and M.S. in Electrical Engineering from NYU & Polytechnic University. His duties include managing the agency’s spectrum and FCC licenses, supervising engineering design/field staff involved in the implementation of large-scale, capital communications projects. Since 2003, he has been a local frequency advisor for the Association of PublicSafety Communications Officials (APCO). Mr. Yurman is a Senior and Life Member of APCO. He has served his local community for 34 years as a volunteer Emergency Medical Technician responding to 911 calls for medical and rescue calls.


Mark Allen, W6PC – For noteworthy contributions to the success of the Radio Club of America. Mr. Allen is a Radio Club Fellow and served on the Board of Directors in 2016-2017. He provides significant support to Club events as a sponsor and volunteer. At the 2015 RCA Technical Symposium, he presented “Tower Structural Health Monitoring for the 21st Century” to rave reviews. Mr. Allen received his B.S. in Communications Engineering from Lamar University. Recently, Mr. Allen was the Vice President of ROHN Tower Company. With roots in Land Mobile Radio, he was previously the Vice President of Engineering and Chief Engineer at E.F Johnson Company, Vice President and Chief Engineer of Titan/Datron World Communications, now part of L3 Communications, and Executive Vice President and subsequently President of Sunair Electronics. Throughout his career, he developed and oversaw dozens of product developments for the land mobile, military and government marketplace. He has several U.S. patent applications in process. www.radioclubofamerica.org | FALL 2018 PROCEEDINGS



June Poppele – For significant work in preserving the history of radio and electronic communications by ensuring the preservation of Jack Poppele’s archives and ephemera from the pioneer years of radio and television history at WOR and at Voice of America. Ms. Poppele has actively advocated the preservation of the Radio Club of America’s historical records dating from 1909 through to its current activity. This effort culminated many years organizing and sorting documents spanning more than 100 years. As a member the Historical Committee, Ms. Poppele was instrumental in establishing the Radio Club of America’s historical records and in preserving original documents dating back to 1909. This archive now resides at the Antique Wireless Association. Jerry Minter, President Emeritus of the Club, sought to preserve these historical documents, including all issues of the Proceedings, board records, historical correspondence, and other material. Ms. Poppele collected, identified, and setting up a filing system, establishing the core of the collection. Without her tireless efforts to organize and preserve the archives, they may have been lost or discarded. In 2010, Ms. Poppele, together with Ken Hoagland and Bill Endres, received the Antique Wireless Association’s Harry Houck Award for preservation. Since then, she has worked tirelessly to organize her father, Jack Poppele’s, amazing collection of artifacts and ephemera from the earliest days of radio broadcast history at WOR and at Voice of America. In 2017, Ms. Poppele donated that collection to AWA for preservation. In recognition of her efforts, she received the AWA’s 2017 Peckham Award. Ms. Poppele is an Honorary RCA Member and a Life Member since 1981. In 1989, she was elevated to Fellow. She received RCA’s President’s Award in 1991 and Special Service Award in 1999. She was a long term Chair of the RCA Good and Welfare Committee. She earned a B.S. from Endicott Jr. College in Beverly, Massachusetts. Ms. Poppele, now retired, was Fashion Credit Coordinator at Glamour Magazine in New York City, and for over thirty years, the Office Manager at Tele-Measurements in Clifton, New Jersey.


Chief Harlin McEwen – In recognition of dedicated service to the Radio Club of America. Mr. McEwen is a Life Member and Fellow in the Radio Club of America and served on the RCA Board of Directors from 2013 to 2017. He is a previous recipient of National Public Safety Telecommunications Council Richard DeMello Award. 18

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For more than 60 years, Mr. McEwen has been an advocate for public safety telecommunications issues and a career law enforcement officer and administrator. He served as a Chief of Police for more than 20 years, last serving as Chief in the City of Ithaca, New York. He also served as Deputy Commissioner of the New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services and Director of the Bureau for Municipal Police. Following his retirement as Ithaca Police Chief, he served as a Deputy Assistant Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation in Washington, DC. Mr. McEwen served as Chair of the Communications & Technology Committee of the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), a position he held for more than 36 years. For many years, he represented the IACP on numerous committees including the DHS SAFECOM Executive Committee, the Governing Board of the National Public Safety Telecommunications Council, and the Department of Justice Global Justice Information Sharing Advisory Committee. He also served as the Communications Advisor to the Major Cities Chiefs Association, the National Sheriffs’ Association, and the Major County Sheriffs’ Association. Mr. McEwen served as the Chair of the Public Safety Advisory Committee of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) from 2012 until 2017 when he retired from his public service career. He has written many articles and is the recipient of many awards including the FBI Medal of Meritorious Achievement, the IACP Lone Star Award, the IJIS Institute Robert P. Shumate Award, the SEARCH O.J. Hawkins Award, and the FBI National Executive Institute Associates (NEIAA) Penrith Executive Leadership Award.


Abbie Heim, KD2PUA – Ms. Heim is 16 and currently a third year student at Warren County Technical School in New Jersey. Abbie earned her Amateur Radio license this year and is a proud member of the 721st Mechanized Contest Battalion radio club. In her free time, she trains in kickboxing and Brazilian Jiu Jitsu, She also likes to read, loves spending time outdoors and is an avid photographer.


Tucker Dunham, KD2JPM – Mr. Dunham is 17 and a senior electronics student at Warren County Technical School in New Jersey. He was originally licensed in October 2015, and recently upgraded to General Class in June 2018. Tucker is also an Associate Certified Electronics Technician. He is a member of the WC2FD and W3OK radio clubs and enjoys participating in multiple events with each club. His goal is to pursue Electronics Technology as a career path and hobby. As a Boy Scout, he has earned the Radio Merit Badge and is working toward his Eagle Award.


Susan Swenson – For contributions to advancing public safety communications and the Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network known as FirstNet. Ms. Swenson has provided vision, leadership, and technological expertise in her roles with the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet). Largely due to Ms. Swenson’s leadership, the FirstNet Authority, in partnership with AT&T, is now delivering the long sought-after Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network. Ms. Swenson has succeeded in understanding the complex relationships among, and communications needs of, public safety responders. She has been able to integrate that understanding with her vast wireless industry expertise to be the outstanding leader necessary to bring the concept of a nationwide public safety broadband network to its fruition. Ms. Swenson served as FirstNet Chair in 2014 after serving two years as an inaugural member of the Board. She brought her extensive experience in the telecommunications and technology sector, serving in top executive roles in a number of mobile communications, software, and digital content companies. She has served as CEO and Chair of the Board of Inseego Corporation, a leading global provider of SaaS telematics solutions, from 2015 - 2017 and President and CEO of business software provider Sage North America from 2008-2011. Ms. Swenson also served as COO of T-Mobile USA, President and COO of Leap Wireless International (Cricket Communications) from 1999-2004, and President and CEO of Cellular One from 1994-1999. She started her telecommunications career at Pacific Telesis holding various management roles, including President & COO of Pac Tel Cellular from 1990 - 1994.

Congratulations to all of our 2018 award winners!


CTTCS (SW) James Stephen Walters, U. S. Navy (ret), N4SAR – For a long and continuing engagement in amateur radio, as a volunteer instructor, mentor, and emergency communications official. Senior Chief James Walters is a licensed amateur radio operator since 1962. His interest in the radio hobby started when his father introduced him to crystal and razor blade detector radios build with a coil wound on a toilet paper roll as a child. His father repaired U.S. Army Air Corps radios in World War II, and his father’s friends became his “Elmers.” Mr. Walters, in turn, has spent his adult life training future cryptologists, teaching future amateur radio operators the craft and skills needed to communicate effectively. Mr. Walters has taken leadership roles in the emergency communications community in Pensacola, Florida. He embodies the spirit of the late Captain McGinnis, a primary tenet for this award. He has brought forward and promoted future generations of cryptologists and communicators by demonstrating his selfless service to the community in his daily life.


Carroll L. Hollingsworth, Sr. – Presented to Mr. Hollingsworth for a long tradition of giving back to the Radio Club of America. Mr. Hollingsworth is a Fellow (1999) and Life Member of the Radio Club of America. He has been a member of RCA since 1989 and on the RCA Board of Directors since 1997. Mr. Hollingsworth currently serves as Executive Vice President of RCA and will assume the role of President in 2019. Mr. Hollingsworth served in the United States Navy as a Communications Technician in the Cryptology field from 1964 – 1975 (CTT1). Mr. Hollingsworth has worked in the Wireless Communications & Land Mobile Radio Industry since 1975. Mr. Hollingsworth serves on the Advisor Board for Mission Critical, Director and Past President of Communications Marketing Association, a member of APCO, ARRL, American Legion and U.S. Navy Cryptologic Veterans Association.


Robin Sorley – Presented to Ms. Sorley with thanks for helping with the Tom Sorley Fund, which supports the Radio Club of America.

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2 018 FELLOW CLASS Steven Ahmed Mr. Ahmed entered Public-Safety Communications in 1973 as an FDNY Fire-Alarm Dispatcher. He was appointed to the NYPD as a Police Officer in 1980 and rose through the ranks being promoted to Detective 1st Grade as the Department’s Communications Systems Engineer and in recognition for excellence in system design as a result of the survivability of the NYPD’s Enhanced Radio Communications System after the September 11 attacks in 2001. He retired from the NYPD in 2002 and went on to work for Motorola Solutions as a QA Program Manager, the FDNY as a Communications Site QA Consultant, Pinnacle Wireless USA as a Senior Systems Engineer, and is presently working for Eastern Communications. Over the span of his career, he was responsible for design, development, testing, and supervising the installation of communications equipment and systems for major New York City Metro Area Public-Safety Agencies, including NYPD, FDNY, NYCT, PANYNJ, NJTA, and NYC DoITT. He has extensive experience in Public-Safety Communications disciplines and possesses advanced technical knowledge, strong communication and administrative skills.

Bryan Casciano Mr. Casciano has been the head of sales at PMC Associates of Hazlet, New Jersey since 2002. During that time, PMC has evolved from a small manufacturers’ rep firm into one of the northeast’s premier voice, data, and video integrators which services some of the largest public safety agencies in the country. PMC’s project portfolio spans from designing custom products and solutions to meet their customers’ requirements, to supporting large fleets of portable and mobile radios, to designing and installing cutting edge P25 trunked radio networks, and even deploying and supporting a Statewide LTE network under the FirstNet BTOP Early Builders program. Mr. Casciano is passionate about the LMR industry and has a strong appreciation for its leaders who built the foundation which has nurtured wireless technology’s evolution to where it is today. It is organizations like the RCA which celebrate the achievements of our pioneers and generate excitement for the next generation. He is excited to contribute towards securing the future of this industry by raising funds to support the education of our future wireless industry leaders.

Martha Carter Ms. Carter earned a B.A. in Political Science and Government from Louisiana State University in Shreveport. Martha has worked in government and public safety communications for over 33 years. She is a member of the Radio Club of America, and has been a member of the Association of Public Safety Communications Officials (APCO) since 1989 where she currently serves as Immediate Past President. The majority of Ms. Carter’s professional career has been in public service as 9-1-1 Administrator for Caddo Parish (LA). In 1988, she became the first woman in Louisiana to hold the title of 9-1-1 Administrator. She is responsible for the overall management and administration of the 9-1-1 emergency system for the parish, which receives approximately 400,000 calls per year and supports over 85 public safety and local governmental entities. Her service at APCO has encompassed many leadership roles at the local, regional, national, and international levels. She received the APCO Life Member Designation in 2014.


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Charles Kirmuss Born in Montreal, Mr. Kirmuss studied Pure and Applied Sciences at Vanier College and left McGill University engineering after he knew more about electronic design than his teachers only to return to complete Business Management while being employed as a test engineer on the space shuttle’s Canadarm. At a young age he became CEO of two technology companies and has than 35 years of experience providing specialized communications manufacturing and consulting in the US, Canada and China. He developed many digital video recording and transmission products and technologies and holds five U.S. and international patents. His current ventures include smart-intelligent batteries for two-way radio and of late is now globally recognized as a custodian of recorded audio on vinyl where he has received another patent. Mr. Kirmuss is Director and Mission Commander of Adams, Morgan and Lincoln Counties Colorado Rampart Search and Rescue. He is a longtime member of the RCA Youth Activities Committee providing logistical and funding support. He is a former RCA Director.

2 018 FELLOW CLASS Patti Ryg Ms. Ryg has had an outstanding career in sales, marketing, and strategic planning and in supporting two-way radio dealers and women in wireless since 1974. Ms. Ryg began her wireless career at an LMR dealership in Joliet, Illinois in 1974. She was in inside sales representative for wholesale distributor Communications Associates (CA) at the beginning of the wireless industry’s move toward distribution as a value-added service to dealers. She was instrumental in expanding distribution’s value to the sales channel on a national level. After Hutton Communications acquired CA, Ms. Ryg continued her successful career with more than 30 years at CA/Hutton. She joined Primus Electronics in 2014 as the senior account manager with responsibility for dealer sales. She is also involved with the Women of Wireless Communications.

Congratulations to our new Fellows!

JOIN US! RCA members include inventors, scientists, industry professionals, members of the press, the FCC, government agencies, and world class amateur operators. We were there at the dawn of radio history and are committed to keeping our members up to date on the latest in wireless technology. RCA believes in the future of the industry and your membership will help us with the important work of encouraging the next generation of wireless pioneers and entrepreneurs. Visit www.radioclubofamerica.org/about-us/how-to-join to learn more about the benefits of membership!

SUPPORT RCA WITH A TAX-DEDUCTIBLE CONTRIBUTION Help RCA continue its mission of advancing wireless art and science for the betterment of society by making a tax-deductible donation today! RCA believes in the future of the industry and your contribution will help us with the important work of encouraging the next generation of wireless pioneers and entrepreneurs. Consider making a donation in someone’s honor as a memorial or gift. Visit www.radioclubofamerica.org/donate-to-rca/ or call us at (952) 928-4651 to contribute.

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ABSTRACTS & SPEAKER BIOGRAPHIES The Science and Technology Behind 5G Panel: Dr. Chip Cohen (moderator, Fractal Antenna Systems), Jonathan Levine (Mobilitie LLC), Dr. Ted Rapport (NYU Tandon School of Eng.) ABSTRACT 5G Technology will provide cellular carriers with increased bandwidth up to 100 Mbps to their customers, in urban and later suburban and even rural areas. The science and engineering is complex, involving multiple frequency bands from 600 MHz up to millimeter wave, with the propagation varying considerably among those bands. Modulation and error corrective mechanisms will require significant computational power even beyond today’s LTE. Some of the frequency bands envisioned to be used will be auctioned to carriers in the TV repacking process explained in the 2017 RCA Technical Symposium-that issue will be explored also. A panel of experts will explain some the technologies in use, and the challenges. All these issues and more will be addressed by the panel. SPEAKER BIOGRAPHIES Dr. Nathan Cohen is CEO of Fractal Antenna Systems of Bedford, MA. He is a physicist with expertise in electromagnetics and imaging, with a Ph.D. in astrophysics from Cornell University. He was a radio astronomer at Harvard; MIT; Arecibo Observatory; Cornell; NASA; and Boston University, where he retired after 15 years as a professor. After 9/11 he spent a decade working with defense and government clients on counter IED antennae and other defense systems and was security officer for the firm. He holds 50 US patents along with many patents pending, on fractal antennas, real-time deconvolution; image compression; fractal electronics; invisibility cloaks; fractal batteries; 3D printing/manufacturing, and the (recently patented) electromagnetic deflector shield and fractal absorbers. He is a managing editor of the scholarly journal FRACTALS and an RCA Director. He holds the Alfred Grebe Award, Hamvention’s Technical Achievement Award, and will be awarded RCA’s 2018 Lee de Forest Award.

Jonathan Levine is the National Director of Network Engineering, RF and Backhaul for Mobilitie LLC (www. mobilitie.com). In his current role Jonathan is responsible for leading engineering network design and driving the technical deployment engineering for next generation wireless network evolution. His particular focus is on high density 4G/5G network deployment, RAN and backhaul network design, and next generation equipment form-factor innovation. Jonathan currently holds 3 wireless technology patents granted by the USPTO. Along with leading the Mobilitie RF and Backhaul team, Jonathan also creates and instructs 5G courses for the IEEE Communications Society. He has been active as an instructor for 6 years and is an IEEE Senior Member. Prior to his current role, he spent over 10 years with U.S. Cellular as Member of Technical Staff for U.S. Cellular's Technology Development Group where he was responsible for the evolutionary architecture and functionality of the Radio Access Network (RAN). Before commercial engineering, he served in the USAF as a member of the 264th Combat Communications Squadron from 1999-2005. His commercial wireless engineering career began in 2005 after completion of his BSEE from Northern Illinois University. Jonathan also holds a MSEE from the Illinois Institute of Technology (2008) and is an IEEE WCP. Dr. Ted Rappaport has over 100 U.S. or international patents issued or pending and has authored, coauthored, and co-edited over 200 papers and 20 books in the wireless field, including the classic Wireless Communications: Principles & Practice (translated into seven languages), Principles of Communication Systems Simulation with Wireless Applications, and Smart Antennas for Wireless Communications: IS-95 and Third Generation CDMA Applications. Dr. Rappaport is the David Lee/Ernst Weber Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the NYU Tandon School of Engineering and is a professor of computer science at New York University’s Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. He is a pioneer in RF propagation, wireless systems simulation, and 5G networks including millimeter wave propagation. His research has influenced international standards bodies for three decades.

Don't forget to register for the 2018 RCA Technical Symposium at:

www.radioclubofamerica.org 22

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Youth Presentation: Working with a Solar Powered Digipeater Tucker Dunham & Abigail Heim ABSTRACT In the aftermath of Hurricane Maria, the devastation in Puerto Rico crippled communications in and out of the island. Whether it is emergency traffic or health and welfare, accurate communication is key. Warren County Technical School students and members of the 721st mechanized Contest Battalion Amateur radio Club, Abbie, KD2PUA and Tucker, KD2JPM, realized nothing beats the speed and accuracy of "text messages." Their project: "An Emergency Solar powered Digi-peater." This project created a portable, self-sustaining, packet radio digi-peater that can be rapidly deployed to provide basic data communications when traditional communication systems are inoperable. SPEAKER BIOGRAPHY Tucker Dunham, KD2JPM, is 17 and a senior electronics student at Warren County Technical School in New Jersey. Tucker was originally licensed in October 2015 and recently upgraded to General in June 2018. Tucker is an Associate Certified Electronics Technician. He is a member of the WC2FD and W3OK radio clubs and enjoys participating in multiple events with each club. His goal is to pursue Electronics Technology as a career path and hobby. As a Boy Scout he has earned the Radio Merit Badge and is working toward his Eagle Award. Abbie Heim, KD2PUA, is 16 and currently a third year student at Warren County Technical School in New Jersey. Abbie earned her Amateur Radio license this year and is a proud member of the 721st Mechanized Contest Battalion radio club. She trains in kickboxing and Brazilian Jiu Jitsu in her free time. She also likes to read, loves spending time outdoors and is an avid photographer.

Progress Report on RCA’s Youth Initiative RCA Director Carole Perry ABSTRACT This presentation will highlight the latest RCA activities and work with youth and students, encouraging them to pursue STEM-based (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) careers. Carole Perry and RCA have been assisting youth to discover the fun of STEM and wireless for over 30 years (long before STEM was an acronym!).

SPEAKER BIOGRAPHY RCA Director Carole Perry has been the Chairperson of RCA Youth Activities since 2007. She created the RCA Young Achiever program which identifies and rewards students in high school and below who have demonstrated technical excellence and creativity. To date, 107 such awards have been presented. She initiated the tradition of introducing an RCA Young Achiever to give a presentation at the RCA Technical Symposium every year. This has come to be valued as a very prestigious honor for the young person; both by colleges and by business people in the wireless industry. Ms. Perry also selects the RCA Young Achiever recipient of the IWCE Scholarship at the RCA Breakfast event every year. During the course of the year, Carole and her committee members visit various schools and Boy Scout and Girl Scout troops to introduce the fun of ham radio and to encourage youngsters to pursue technical careers. Carole is constantly traveling to promote RCA’s youth activities. Her travels have even taken her to Germany and India! Carole has been invited to conduct Youth Forums in Michigan, California, and Orlando in the upcoming months at major national radio conventions. As a contributing columnist for CQ Magazine, Carole has the opportunity of publicizing RCA’s youth initiatives and successes with young students. Director Perry has been an RCA member since 1991, and was elected an RCA Fellow in 1995, and is also a Board Member of the Quarter Century Wireless Association. She is a retired New York City middle school teacher.

The Latest Trends in HF Data Transmission

Alan Spindel ABSTRACT

In the age of megabit and gigabit data speeds over UHF and millimeter wave frequencies, what can be done on the high frequency (HF) bands of 3-30 MHz? HF propagation is plagued with some unique aspects that make sending of higher data speeds problematic: selective fading, solar flares, and manmade and nature generated noise. Yet HF communications remain an important method for getting traffic over long distances well over the horizon, and HF is used by disaster relief agencies, state and county emergency operations centers, the military, and radio amateurs. Data transmission over high frequency radio has continued to be an active field of research and product development in the commercial, military, and amateur radio communities. New developments including 3G ALE, wide-band data, and digital video transmission modes have enabled new applications and target

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markets. This presentation reveals the fundamentals of, then summarizes the state of the art of HF data transmission. SPEAKER BIOGRAPHY Alan Spindel (AG4WK) is the Senior Electrical Engineer for HAL Communications in Champaign, Illinois. He develops hardware and firmware for digital HF radio data modems. Alan trained at the University of Tennessee and has over twenty years’ professional experience in the telecommunications industry. Alan has worked as a broadcast engineer, professional tower climber, design engineer, and engineering manager. As the Chief Engineer of ShipCom, LLC, Mr. Spindel automated the operation of one of the world's largest commercial HF radio facilities. He was the Principal Engineer for the deployment of a nationwide HF radio emergency network for Public Safety Access Points (PSAPS). As a Senior Project Manager for Smartower Systems he developed active cell tower monitoring systems. Alan has served as the CTO of ITG, LLC since 2005, designing radio interoperability systems for public safety and military customers. He is also active in volunteer emergency communications and has served as the Rutherford County, Tennessee ARES/Skywarn Net Manager for more than a decade.

RF Propagation During the August 2017 Solar Eclipse and the Development of a Personal Space Weather Station Dr. Nathaniel A. Frissell ABSTRACT HamSCI, the Ham Radio Science Citizen Investigation, is a collective of professional researchers and ham radio operators working together to advance scientific research and understanding through amateur radio activities. This presentation will report on results from HamSCI’s recent experiments to study the ionospheric response of the Great American Total Solar Eclipse of August 21, 2017, including results from the Solar Eclipse QSO Party (SEQP) and the HamSCI Eclipse HF Frequency Measurement Experiment. The SEQP, a citizen science experiment structured like a ham radio contest, generated over 2.5 million observations as reported both by participant logs and fully-automated systems such as the Reverse Beacon Network (RBN), PSKReporter, and WSPRNet. During the HF Frequency Measurement Experiment, hams observed frequency changes in received WWV and WWVB signals resulting from the eclipse. Results from both experiments are consistent with a reduction of D-region absorption and a weakening of the E and F layers of the ionosphere.


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HamSCI’s current project is the development of a Personal Space Weather Station. Ultimately, this will be a multi-instrument device designed to provide groundbased observations of radio propagation and the space environment for operational and research purposes. Potential instruments include a software defined HF radio receiver, a ground magnetometer, and a GPS Total Electron Content (GPS-TEC) receiver. The final device will be able to be built or purchased by any interested person who wants to contribute observations to a centralized research database. Initial development efforts are focused on a science-grade HF SDR receiver. To accomplish this, HamSCI is collaborating with the Tucson Amateur Packet Radio Corporation (TAPR), an engineering organization comprised of volunteer amateur radio operators and engineers, to develop initial designs and prototypes. SPEAKER BIOGRAPHY Dr. Nathaniel A. Frissell, W2NAF, is a research professor with the New Jersey Institute of Technology Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research. Nathaniel’s interest in ionospheric science began in middle school when he was introduced to amateur radio through Scouting. He earned his B.S. in Physics and Music Education from Montclair State University and his M.S. and Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from the Virginia Tech SuperDARN Laboratory. His Ph.D. dissertation is entitled "Ionospheric Disturbances: Midlatitude Pi2 Magnetospheric ULF Pulsations and Medium Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances.” Nathaniel is an Eagle Scout and remains and active Scouter. He holds an Extra class amateur radio license and founded the Ham Radio Science Citizen Investigation (HamSCI) project. Nathaniel is a co-advisor to the NJIT Amateur Radio Club, K2MFF.

What Will the Market Rollout of 5G Look Like? Jonathan Levine ABSTRACT This presentation will explore other aspects of 5G including the expected market rollout of this technology, what changes will need to be made in handheld devices, base stations, and backhaul, impacts on machine to machine (M2M) communications and the Internet of Things (IoT), what users can expect, and impacts on wireless manufacturing and the wireless job market in North America. SPEAKER BIOGRAPHY See Jonathan Levine’s biography and photo from the above section on 5G Technology.

Interim Report: FirstNet

Panel: Andy Seybold (moderator, Andrew Seybold Inc.), Mary Doherty (Motorola Solutions), Roman Kaluta (JPS Interoperability Solutions), Mike Worrell (FirstNet) ABSTRACT The Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 created the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) as an independent authority within NTIA to provide emergency responders with the first nationwide, high-speed, broadband network dedicated to public safety. Six years later, what is the status of this network? This panel of experts will explore the recent events and early rollout of the FirstNet system, the technologies employed, the results so far for first responders, and the challenges of building a nationwide network. SPEAKER BIOGRAPHIES Andrew M. Seybold, CEO and Principal Analyst of Andrew Seybold, Inc., is one of the most respected and influential analysts in the wireless industry today. For more than twenty-five years, he has served the industry and shaped initiatives for world leaders of the wireless industry, including Verizon, Nokia, AT&T, Motorola, and Qualcomm. His firm has provided wireless consulting and education services for startups to Fortune 1000 companies such as Dow Chemical, Ford Motor Company, and Microsoft. Andrew Seybold has also consulted to some of the industry’s most talented and successful entrepreneurs. He was a key consultant to a number of companies that introduced products and services that have had a significant impact on wireless including Research In Motion’s popular BlackBerry, Hewlett-Packard’s first handheld device, first two-way pager, Good Technologies’ first products, and AT&T’s push-to-talk offering. He also introduced RadioMail to Dell for the first-ever notebook wireless email offering. He has served on the Motorola Research Visionary Board, IBM’s Mobile Computing Advisory Board, and a number of other prestigious advisory boards. Mr. Seybold is a Fellow in the Radio Club of America in recognition of his contributions to the wireless industry, he co-founded and served as a board member of the Personal Computing and Communications Association (PCCA), and he currently serves on the board of CommNexus San Diego. Mary E. Doherty is Vice President of LTE North America, Motorola Solutions Sales and Services, Inc. She is responsible for Motorola’s FirstNet and AT&T Strategic Partnership and Business. Prior to joining MSI, she was with Harris Corporation in various roles including Area Sales Director, Solutions Engineering Manager and Product

Group Manager. In these roles she was responsible for managing and directing sales, marketing, research and development, product management and operations on a global basis. Her experience also includes serving as a senior staff member for a quasi-public Massachusetts agency, directing collaborative public-private initiatives and programs for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Ms. Doherty holds a Master of Science in Business Economics from the McCallum Graduate School of Business, Bentley University, as well as a Bachelor of Science degree from the College of Engineering & Physical Sciences at the University of New Hampshire. Roman Kaluta is the Director of Interoperability Solutions and Customer Advocate – Public Safety Liaison for JPS Interoperability Solutions. In this role he coordinates numerous proposals, designs and implementations of local, regional and statewide interoperability systems. In his Business Development – Strategic Marketing position, Roman provides public safety practitioner guidance and assistance for JPS’ customers and staff with particular focus on policies and procedures, training, technology and new product implementation. He came to JPS in 2002 following his retirement from the Alexandria Virginia Police Department after twenty-five years of law enforcement service. During his police service, Lieutenant Kaluta was assigned to the National Institute of Justice providing interoperability and communications outreach and assistance to various public safety agencies throughout the country. Lieutenant Kaluta is a graduate of the FBI National Academy (188th Session) and the DEA Drug Commander’s Academy. He is a member in good standing of the International Association of Chief’s of Police, the Fraternal Order of Police and the FBI National Academy Associates. Mike Worrell, FirstNet Director of Field Operations–West, has been with FirstNet for over 3 years and has been responsible for outreach and education to the Fire Service with the goal of adoption and successful implementation. Mike has worked to involve FirstNet with Fire Service standards bodies to include wireless broadband data in standards development. Mike currently represents FirstNet on the NFPA Electronic Safety Equipment Technical Committee and is participating in the development of NFPA 1802, Communications Device standard. Mike was a member of the Phoenix Fire Department in Arizona where he served for 29 years, as a Firefighter, Paramedic, Captain and last serving as the Technical Services Division Chief. Mike was also a

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member of the Public Safety Advisory Committee (PSAC) to FirstNet and a member of the National Urban Search and Rescue Incident Support Team. Prior to joining the Phoenix Fire Department, Mike served in the U.S. Navy, Submarine Service.

the State University of New York at Brockport and has completed coursework at the State University of New York at Albany in the Masters of Business Administration program. He was recently named to serve on the Emerging Technology Committee of the Association of PublicSafety Communications Officials-International (APCO).

IoT Implementation: Challenges and Opportunities

Greg Albrecht is the CTO and CoFounder of Orion Labs. A startup veteran, Greg has designed and constructed several high-availability software solutions, including one of the main products at Splunk, a global big data and business intelligence platform where he was heavily involved in building the company’s second major product, Splunk Storm. Greg also has a background in telecom and is a communications specialist for the Red Cross, Rock Medicine and other emergency response and medical services, including major involvement in the communication, network, telephony, satellite and computer assets used in disasters throughout the United States. In addition to his technology and communications expertise, he is also an active emergency medical technician.

Panel: Paul Scutieri (moderator)(Black & Veatch), Greg Albrecht (Orion Labs), Barry Einsig (Cisco), Clint Smith PE (Rivada Networks) ABSTRACT The Internet of Things (IoT) is much discussed today in the news and technical literature. But creating a worldwide network of myriad devices, appliances, vehicles, and other things, all sharing data, will not be an easy thing to accomplish. There are many issues including will the network be able to handle thousands and thousands of devices communicating, how will backhaul from the wireless hotspots be provided in sufficient bandwidth, what are the cyber security issues involved, and will be the impact on users and equipment in the future? This panel of experts will address these issues. SPEAKER BIOGRAPHIES Paul Scutieri is the Sales Director for Black & Veatch Public Safety Business practice. In this position, Scutieri is responsible for Public Safety Business Development inclusive of identifying, cultivating and managing OEM support relationships. He is also responsible for developing direct to system owner support opportunities. Prior to this position, from 2005 – 2010, Mr. Scutieri was Area Sales Manager for the Harris Corporation’s RF Communications Division (former M/A-COM, Tyco) responsible for 5 direct sales reports assigned to the New York State Statewide Wireless Network (SWN). In addition to these responsibilities, he had full responsibility for managing the Indirect Channel within his Northeast territory. From 1985-1995, Mr. Scutieri was a member of the Legislative Staff of the New York State Legislature, moving through various positions from Program Counsel Staff, Central Staff and House Operations while working on numerous legislative issues from education, housing, social services, transportation, corporations/authorities/ commissions, technology, cities, energy, economic development, ways & means, ethics & guidance, corrections, environmental conversation, cities, health, labor, local governments, real property taxation, veterans affairs, tourism and many more. Mr. Scutieri has a Bachelor of Science Degree from


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Barry Einsig is the Global Automotive and Transportation Executive in Cisco’s Automotive and Connected Car Group. He is responsible for driving the growth strategy, business planning, thought leadership and solutions designs and validation for all modes of transportation. He has been in the industry for over 20 years serving in a variety of roles for Automotive, Transportation, and Smart Cities systems. Barry was issued a patent for Video Quality of Service delivery over LTE services. He is a Board member for the Connected Vehicle Trade Association, and an advisor for the Singapore Ministry of Transport for their Connected and Highly Automated vehicle systems. Clint Smith P.E. is a solutions-focused Senior Technology Executive with more than 35 years of success across the telecom, wireless and engineering management. His broad areas of expertise include product development, technology management, innovation, crisis management, due diligence, mobile devices, and tech company start-ups. He has been issued more than 140 patents, with more than 125 more applied for, and is also the author of 9 wireless engineering books published by McGraw-Hill. Recent technical focus and passion includes 5G, ONFV cloud solutions and IoT using blockchain smart contract technology.

Throughout his executive career, Mr. Smith has held leadership positions at companies including Rivada Networks, Velocitel, AT&T Mobility, o2Wireless Solutions, and CCS. He has been CTO with Rivada Networks since 2012, and previously was VP of Technology from 2005 to 2010. In these positions he developed a location algorithm using crowd sourcing for 3D positioning in buildings, designed a neutral hosting platform and integrated it with Ericsson, and led technology development and implementation to help save lives in crisis situations. In 2011 he was Director of Engineering with Velocitel, where he led product development in wireless technology and mobile communications. He previously spent a year as Director of Integrated Planning for AT&T Mobility in the NY Metro region, two years as VP of Technical Services with o2Wireless Solutions and nearly five years as Principal Engineer/Owner of his own engineering consulting firm CCS before it was acquired by o2Wireless in 2000. Mr. Smith holds a BE in Engineering from the Stevens Institute of Technology (SIT) and an MBA from Fairleigh Dickson University. He is a licensed professional engineer in NY and NJ. and has also been an Adjunct Professor at SIT since 2002. He is a Board Member with Rivada Networks and non-profit WVRG. He is also an active Volunteer Firefighter.

A Tribute to WWI – The U.S. Naval Radio School at Harvard University David Bart ABSTRACT Between 1917 and 1919, the U.S. Navy trained 10,000 wireless Morse code operators at Harvard University, making a major contribution to the Allies in WWI. The four-year conflict killed 16 million people and affected a generation. This presentation commemorates the 100th anniversary of the war by focusing on the creation and operation of the radio school. SPEAKER BIOGRAPHY David P. Bart is the Senior Director of the Great Lakes Region, Forensic and Dispute Resolution Services, RSM US LLP. He has a BA and MBA degrees from the University of Chicago, and numerous certifications including CIRA, CDBV, CFE, ASA. He is a member of the American Bankruptcy Institute, Assoc. Insolvency & Restructuring Advisors, American Society Appraisers, and the Assoc. of Certified Fraud Examiners. He is a member of the American Bankruptcy Institute, Assoc. Insolvency & Restructuring Advisors, American Society Appraisers, Assoc. Certified Fraud Examiners. He has been an RCA Director since 2011, is the editor of the RCA Proceedings, Chair of the Publications Committee, and the prior Chair of the Historical Committee. He is

Technical Symposium Host Biography John Facella, P.E. is a Principal at Panther Pines Consulting, LLC, specializing in public safety communications consulting, and general management consulting. He has over 30 years in the wireless industry, including 28 years working for both Motorola and Harris, and over 2 years as a senior vice president with a national consulting company. He has held positions including product management, systems engineering management, and Director of Public Safety Markets. He has also held general management positions in a number of high tech startup companies. Mr. Facella has been a frequent presenter at wireless industry trade shows, and written numerous articles. He was a 10 year member of the International Assoc. of Chiefs of Police Communications Committee, and was a 9 year member of the International Assoc. of Fire Chiefs Communications Committee. He is a member of the NPSTC Broadband EMS Working Group, and the National Fire Protection Association 1221 and 1802 committees. He has a BSEE from Georgia Tech, an MBA in marketing from Georgia State University, is a registered professional engineer in the State of Illinois. Mr. Facella served in the U.S. Army Signal Corps as a platoon leader. He is a life member of the IEEE, and is a Fellow, Life Member, and Vice President of the Radio Club of America, and he won the President’s award in 2014. He has 30 years of experience as a part-time fire fighter and EMT, and has numerous certifications. He is also a life member of the ARRL, the QCWA, and the Antique Wireless Association.

an IEEE Member and Treasurer of the IEEE Historical Committee. David is also a Director of the Antique Wireless Association and former co-editor of the AWA Review. He is a Director and Vice President/Treasurer of the Museum of Broadcast Communications in Chicago. David received RCA’s Ralph Batcher Award and AWA’s Dr. Max Bodmer Award and AWA’s Harry Houck award for his work in historical preservation. www.radioclubofamerica.org | FALL 2018 PROCEEDINGS



WITH THE 2018 RADIO CLUB OF AMERICA ARMSTRONG MEDALIST AND LEE DEFOREST AWARD RECIPIENTS By David P. Bart Dr. Theodore (Ted) Rappaport will receive the Radio Club of America’s Armstrong Medal, and Dr. Nathan (Chip) Cohen will receive the Radio Club of America’s Lee de Forest Award, at RCA’s November 17, 2018, banquet and awards ceremony. Both awards reflect the recipients’ legacies of innovation and their many contributions to the art and science of radio.

THE AWARDS In 1935, the Radio Club of America (RCA) established a tradition of publicly recognizing outstanding achievements in the arts and sciences of radio and wireless communications. RCA presented its first award to Major Edward H. Armstrong for his invention of circuits that make AM and FM radio possible, and for Major Armstrong’s lifetime of championing work that established the foundation for modern radio technology. RCA presents the award, now known as the Armstrong Medal, when an individual has demonstrated excellence and made lasting contributions to radio arts and sciences. Dr. Lee de Forest is credited with inventing the Audion, a vacuum tube that enabled signal amplification in radio circuits. He held more than 300 patents (207 U.S.), pioneered motion picture sound, and popularized the word “radio” in the U.S. instead of the European term “wireless.” Since 1983, RCA has presented the Lee de Forest Award to an individual who has made significant contributions to the advancement of radio communications.

Dr. Nathan (Chip) Cohen (W1YW) is CEO of Fractal Antenna Systems of Bedford, Massachusetts. A physicist with expertise in electromagnetics and imaging, he holds a Ph.D. in astrophysics from Cornell University. He was a radio astronomer at Harvard, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Arecibo Observatory, Cornell, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Boston University, where he retired after 15 years as a professor. After the 9/11 terrorist attacks, he spent a decade working with defense and government clients on counter-improvised explosive device (IED) antennas and other defense systems and was security officer for Fractal Antenna. An inventor since age 6, he holds 52 United States and more than a dozen international patents—along with many patents pending—for fractal antennas, real-time deconvolution, image compression, fractal electronics, invisibility cloaks, batteries; and three-dimensional (3D) printing/manufacturing, among others. He is editor of the scholarly journal FRACTALS and is a former RCA vice president and current director. Dr. Cohen is the recipient of the RCA’s 2018 Lee de Forest Award. In October 2018, the author (KB9YPD) engaged Ted and Chip in a discussion about innovation, during which they shared some of their favorite memories. The transcript of that conversation follows.

THE RECIPIENTS Dr. Theodore (Ted) Rappaport (N9NB) is the David Lee/Ernst Weber Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at New York University Tandon School of Engineering and founding director of NYU Wireless. He has written several textbooks, including Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice. He cofounded TSR Technologies, Inc. and Wireless Valley Communications, Inc., and founded academic wireless research centers at Virginia Tech, the University of Texas at Austin, and New York University. His 2013 paper, “Millimeter Wave Mobile Communications for 5G Cellular: It Will Work!” is a founding document of 5G millimeter wave (mmWave). His textbook, Millimeter Wave Wireless Communications appeared in 2014. Dr. Rappaport is the recipient of the Radio Club of America’s 2018 Armstrong Medal. 28

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David Bart, Editor, RCA Proceedings.

Chip Cohen, 2018 RCA Lee de Forest Award recipient.

Ted Rappaport, 2018 RCA Armstrong Medal recipient.

ROUNDTABLE DAVID: We have gathered for a brief discussion on innovation and to share some of your favorite recollections. Congratulations to each of you on your many successes and your well-deserved recognition from RCA. Thank you for participating. Both of you are lifetime ham radio operators since childhood. What first attracted you to radio?

TED: When I was five years old, my grandpa showed me how to use his wall-mounted Philco shortwave radio set, and we would tune around for hours, listening to Morse code, ship-to-shore, and foreign broadcasts. It was magic! I’ve been hooked ever since. I played around with CB walkie-talkies when I was 11 or 12, putting bigger batteries and wire antennas onto the set, and then my grandma gave me a portable shortwave radio after I broke my leg in three places playing football in ninth grade. While laying immobile in a body cast for six months, I read a lot and listened to shortwave radio, learned about ham radio, and taught myself the Morse code. I was ready to get my license once out on crutches. CHIP: Sputnik and its beep-beep-beep won me over. My family first lived in Winthrop, Massachusetts. We lived near a famous ham, Stew Perry, W1BB. Stew invited folks over to hear Sputnik on his magic box with the big, big knob. I got to turn that giant knob with my tiny hand. It was pure magic! I remember this strange puzzle, at age six, that had electric foil behind it, which lit up a buzzer. I ditched the game overlays and started connecting things to it, somewhat randomly, and coming up with interesting electrical circuits by cutting the foil with a toothpick and rewiring it with tape, Elmer’s glue, junk box parts from dead radios, and flashlight bulbs. Other kids were blowing up things with chemistry sets. I was dithering with circuits, coming up with (what I learned later) was a ladder circuit with flashlight bulbs that acted like a meter—a kid’s version of what would later become LED meters. Although I also knew about ham radio from watching TV, I later got direct exposure at summer camp through the science counselor, W6MXL, and borrowed a license manual for the school year. I bugged my folks until they managed to find a local ham, who had a huge antenna and tower near my school. That was K1IMP, who became my ‘”Elmer,” and gave me my novice test. I then was able to focus my 100-in-1 electronic experiments into just getting on the air. DAVID: After more than a century, radio has transformed from wireless telegraphy, to voice radio, to millimeter waves. Do you think radio is still recognized, or is it underappreciated today? TED: Today, most people take the mystery and technology of radio for granted. Whenever we see the stars at night, we are witnessing radio waves that have travelled trillions of miles to reach us. It is truly incredible! The dedicated pioneers in the field, including many RCA members of present and past generations, have continued to advance the capabilities of radio. For example, look what Chip is doing in cloaking. I believe the world loves radio, even though they don’t understand it (wireless is the original word used for radio, a term now back in vogue 100 years later). Just try going without your cellphone for a few days!

CHIP: I don’t see the distinction between “radio” and “wireless.” It’s the same. Note, the two primary detriments to millimeter wave were cost and water vapor. The costs went down, and Ted showed some nifty ways to get around the absorption by water; among the other cool things he’s come up with over the years. Today, you need millimeter wave because you need bandwidth. But, the other lower bands and modes aren’t going away either. RF is a limited resource, and it will need to be leveraged to permit forecasted record usage, across the board, in the coming decades. Virtually anything and everything that needs some exchange of information that will be executed wirelessly in the future. There is a revolution happening in wireless that is analogous to the emergence of electricity for power that occurred in the 19th and early 20th centuries. If your point is that radio of the past is underappreciated, that is ironically true. There are HUGE lessons to be learned by studying the history of radio and wireless. Did you know that Guglielmo Marconi invented metamaterials, for example, 100 years ago? Fractal antennas were almost done by Edmund LaPorte in the 1930s and Raymond DuHamel in the 1950s? There are many dangling participles of thought that will become huge world changers in the future. Look at Ted’s millimeter wave work. The only people who saw value in millimeter wavelengths were radio astronomers. Ted had a wide-open field to attach to a brilliant, informed, and wide-open mind. Hence 5G was born. DAVID: You have each worked in multiple areas. Chip began as an astrophysicist and ended up as an RF technology innovator. Ted started in engineering and ended up establishing multiple research centers in wireless. What led to these career jumps? Were there particular people who influenced your careers? TED: I’ve been very blessed to have so many great mentors. After my grandparents, the adult hams in the Whitewater Valley Amateur Radio Club in Richmond, Indiana, allowed me to teach them radio theory and Morse code classes on Saturday mornings in 1975-76 when I was in high school—that cultivated my love for teaching. The legendary professors at Purdue took a liking to me and convinced me to become a researcher (such as professors McGillem, Cooper, Weeks, Aunon, and Gunshor). I was in graduate school just before the cellular telephone and Wi-Fi industries began. I had a chance to learn about those emerging technologies with this great faculty, and I even was able to meet President Reagan when our proposal for futuristic factories was funded! That was incredibly inspiring, to meet the president because of some ideas that we suggested as being valuable to the country’s future. When I started my career at Virginia Tech, my research was used by the first IEEE 802.11 committee and the US Digital Cellular TIA standards body. I had support and encouragement (as well as the endorsement and friendship) from cellular pioneers like Raj Singh, Senator www.radioclubofamerica.org | FALL 2018 PROCEEDINGS


Mark Warner (cellular entrepreneur), Ray Trott, Fred Link (president of RCA), Stu Meyer, and Al Gross. All of them visited my research program many times and spoke at our wireless symposium. Al Gross invented the walkie -talkie and created the first wristwatch radio that caught Chester Gould’s fancy for the Dick Tracy comic strip. Al willed his inventions to Virginia Tech, where they are on permanent display on the third floor of the Torgersen Hall library. Senior professors at Virginia Tech (professors Bostian, Stephenson, Lee, Jacobs, Claus, Pratt) were very kind and supportive. I also received support from colleagues at other universities that were early explorers in wireless, including professors David Goodman of Rutgers, Henry Bertoni of Brooklyn Poly (who ironically are both working with me now at NYU Wireless), Joe McGeehan at Bristol, and Larry Milstein at UC San Diego. I called on researchers at Bell Labs, leaders such as Bob Lucky, Don Cox, Adel Saleh, and Reinaldo Valenzuela, all who had done pioneering communications work, and they were supportive and welcoming. All of these people were wonderful role models and shared my belief of the huge need for wireless engineers and fundamental knowledge for the nascent profession— and all of them were collaborators who encouraged my aspirations in the “early days” of the modern wireless industry. I could write pages about the many mentors and sponsors/supporters of my activities, but the lone person who deserves the most credit for supporting my efforts is my wife, Brenda, who married me as an undergrad and who was always by my side, supporting and encouraging my passion for wireless. I realize I am so fortunate to have chosen a career path as an academic in the wireless field. I think I was at the right place at the right time to have a positive impact as an educator and researcher. CHIP: I wish I could say I was an easy person to help, but I was precocious and somewhat tactless (I have since had some sense and empathy kicked into me). Think Sheldon Cooper, but not as neurotic. As a young man, I was always in search of mentors that I never found (or would not accept me). So, I had to construct a world view from reading—conducting mental monologues with people in the past or who were not part of my present. In my middle years, I connected with Benoit Mandelbrot who helped me understand this odd mentor-less world that I had concocted. He showed me that much of it mirrored and magnified his own experiences. This gave me confidence in myself, and a better sense that I was not alone. Because I was always attracted to interesting problems, I was not “focused,” and that always made me an outsider. For me, in academia, I found that folks are ruthlessly unkind to those who are not in their “funding cliques,” especially when they come out of nowhere and solve their interesting problems. So, I got kicked around for doing some good work. Weird. At least invention allows so-called trouble-makers to have a stake and get their recognition. I only need to convince the patent office with fact and 30

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A fractal absorber is paper-thin and absorbs radio waves over a large frequency range. Removal of part of resistive layer shows fractal resonator. Patent 10,030,917. (Courtesy Dr. Nathan Cohen and Fractal Antenna Systems, Inc.)

5G mmWave channel sounder used for accurate spatial and temporal raytracing calibration, for identifying individual multipath contributions, for measuring antenna patterns, and for constructing spatial profiles of mmWave channels using directional antennas. (Courtesy Dr. Theodore Rappaport and NYU Wireless).

novelty, and customers with value and improvement to their lives. I don’t deal with the passion plays and caustic chatter that often occur in ivory towers. Having said this, as a retired academic, I do have great respect for many academic colleagues, and Dr. Rappaport is one of them. DAVID: Both of you have multiple patents and are leaders in innovation. What is the project or invention that you are each most proud of? TED: I am most proud of my students who have gone on to change the world after college. I am grateful for the companies that I started with my students, as those inventions, products and technologies changed the wireless landscape in a major and positive way. I’m glad I wrote the textbooks, since they make it much easier for me to teach those subjects in class (and it never gets old having students ask for an autograph or a photo). I am very proud of the three wireless research centers that I had the privilege to launch (at Virginia Tech, University of Texas at Austin,

and NYU) and the faculty I have been able to hire and mentor. Building a sustainable center is extremely hard to do in academia, as Chip and other academics can attest to, and I had the pleasure to work with so many faculty who are now research stars running those same centers. It’s incredible to think that those centers have directly impacted thousands of graduate wireless engineers who have come through those programs. On the research side, I think that my career’s work on wireless channel measurements, modeling, and prediction—which led to our site-specific radio propagation prediction and planning methods for all of the modern wireless networks, starting with the first Wi-Fi and US Digital Cellular networks, and more recently the global 5G millimeter wave networks—has shaped the entire wireless industry. Our experimental discovery and theoretical confirmation that millimeter wave (and higher) frequencies can work better than today’s cellular frequencies will be a seminal result that is sure to shape the future of wireless for decades to come.

I shall always be grateful for this crucial support from the Radio Club of America. Ted Rappaport DAVID: And, what about you Chip? CHIP: Cloaking may look like it came out of nowhere, but it was an extrapolation from a fractal antenna experiment dating from 2002. I was proud of it but understood its dangers, as I had studied stealth technology for the decade prior to the cloak (which is why I sat on it for many years). An independent, feeble (monochromatic) attempt at cloaking by D. Schurig, D.R. Smith, and J.B. Pendry received widespread publicity in 2006, so I finally decided to go public in January 2009. I actually reconstructed their experiment as a control, and I realized they would never get anywhere with a practical device, which is still true. Again, people were not happy to hear I had solved an “interesting problem.” I had essentially solved a fundamental problem in scattering physics: how to get substantial, wideband forward (front) scatter in the presence of an obstructing object. But, not all is “gee whiz” and Harry Potter. Recently, China (PRC) boasted that they had come up with fractal invisibility cloaks, shields, and absorbers—and then showed versions of my work and called it “Chinese innovation.” They also claim to be retrofitting their attack jets with it, apparently. I didn’t sign up for being ripped off AND starting World War III. So, I came up with the countermeasures for the above 12 years ago, and I kept them under wraps. Now certain folks know. I am proud of asserting my inventive knack to deter bad usage of my

otherwise good innovations. In a sense, I counter-invented myself. Now that’s a fun one. DAVID: Both of you have been members of the Radio Club of America for many years. Ted was actually an RCA scholarship recipient in college. What aspects of RCA attracted you, and what is your favorite RCA memory? Did RCA inspire you? TED: RCA has always inspired me. I shall never forget the phone call in my married student apartment during my senior year in college. Brenda and I had been married for less than a year, our first child was on the way, and I was working three part-time jobs, wondering how I would be able to support a family while going to college. Hugh Turnbull, an RCA member, called our apartment to tell me I had won the Chichester scholarship from the ARRL, a $900 godsend that was worth two months of our living expenses! The next year, as I was trying to decide whether to take a job in industry or stay at Purdue for graduate school, RCA Fellowship chairman John Dettra called to tell me that I had won the $500 Radio Club of America scholarship! These awards truly impacted my life. I shall always be grateful for this crucial support from the Radio Club of America. These awards were pivotal in my decision to pursue graduate school and become a professor. Meeting Al Gross, and sitting with him (at his invitation) at my first Radio Club of America banquet in 1991 is a very fond memory, as is being nominated by Fred Link and becoming a Fellow in 1991, where I gave the RCA Fellow’s respondent speech. It was always fun to attend the annual RCA banquet festivities led by emcee Ray Trott—he was a master at making the evening fun, lively, and educational. My family made the trip to the New York Athletic Club virtually every year to be with the luminaries of the field on that very special weekend before Thanksgiving. The RCA banquet was a wonderful tradition my children grew up with. CHIP: I tried to join RCA in the mid-1980s, but I could not find a sponsor. Through a happy interaction with Carole Perry and Stan Reubenstein in 2012, I saw things had very much changed. RCA is clearly a mutual admiration society, but it also has grand goals. It is important to stress the uniqueness of this combination. I know enough about the history of wireless to understand that it takes more than invention to make a technology ubiquitous. It takes people in all facets of the field. Unfettered. Enthusiastic. Driven. That’s RCA. My favorite memory is demonstrating the invisibility cloak at the Technical Symposium in 2012—and watching almost a hundred people suddenly, quickly digging out their iPhones and iPads, for pictures. It was like someone cued the whole room. DAVID: Today’s communications and research technology offers breathtaking speed and global access. It has www.radioclubofamerica.org | FALL 2018 PROCEEDINGS


vastly changed, and it is quite removed, from the days of manually searching through paper, books, and journals at a library. Has the significant improvement in research technology truly benefitted or accelerated the rate of innovation and insight in each of your fields? TED: Absolutely—the global, instant access to information has truly transformed human kind, and is the driver behind the rapidly accelerated rate of development in virtually every field, including wireless communications. I marvel at how easily one can learn about health, real estate, weather, traffic, food—things that impact our daily life and long-term survivability. Vast amounts of information, easily searchable, now exists at our fingertips, and have brought about transformative businesses such as Google, Amazon, NetFlix, Uber, GrubHub, DropBox, and OpenTable. The same revolution has happened in research. A basic discovery or fundamental paper can be published in one part of the world, and the internet makes that knowledge instantly accessible and fungible. More and more video presentations are appearing daily, as society transitions to wider bandwidth audio/video knowledge consumption, rather than the slower method of reading the printed page. CHIP: I am not convinced that this speed of change is the prime driver. There is a lot of innovation happening, but little is being adopted in real-time. Most is discouraged, abandoned; some comes back later under different champions. The internet really lowered the barrier, but there is also a concurrent dumbing down. People don’t read with the internet. They scan. Few people have the time and training to deeply dig, especially across fields. I make wide connections in solving problems, and I exploit my vast eclectic memory from living in the library stacks of yore. So, the access is there, but the patience and deep thought is not.

Inventors get their vast knowledge base from “global reading” and seeing connections. Chip Cohen


TED: The rate of innovation is so rapid today that large public corporations, as a rule, simply cannot afford to do much basic R&D anymore—they must rely on universities and entrepreneurs to provide fundamental knowledge that can spawn small companies that can eventually be acquired. Governments around the world realize this and have begun incentivizing faculty and students to launch start-ups more aggressively and permissively than I’ve ever seen in my career. Patent laws greatly impact the perceived value of inventions, and greatly impact the ability of the lone inventor to be rewarded for ingenuity. Yet, the massive profits provided to internet companies via “eyeball capture” and “key clicks” of unwitting consumers, who freely share their personal information without compensation, have created a “free rider” mentality by many powerful companies. Some large companies have gone to great efforts to devalue patents in the legal system, since their businesses are based on trade secrets such as data-mining algorithms, and do not require cross licenses for enabling technologies from other competitors. I believe the devaluation of patents in the legal system harms the entrepreneurial spirit of America, as it devalues true creativity and ingenuity by dis-incentivizing the disclosure of inventions. By devaluing the legal monopoly on an invention, there is less incentive to reward and spawn further innovation that is publicly disclosed. Ben Franklin’s concept of the patent was ingenious, and has been a cornerstone of America’s growth and the free enterprise system.

The rate of innovation is so rapid today that large public corporations ... must rely on universities and entrepreneurs to provide fundamental knowledge. Ted Rappaport

The internet often leads to superficiality and baby steps. Most people think that reductionism—incremental steps— is the way, and they focus on other incremental steps in their field to go further. Good luck with that! It’s highly unproductive and not how innovators work.

My hope is that the courts will swing back to honoring the lone inventor, the entrepreneur, and their inventions more forcefully than today’s rules, as America must work to be more innovative and globally competitive than ever. These things tend to be cyclical, seeming to ebb and flow on a 20-to-30-year cycle, but America cannot wait, as we are falling behind in the global engineering fields due to our society’s lack of interest in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM).

DAVID: RCA celebrates both professional and amateur scientists and innovators. Yet, we hear that the days of the lone inventor have passed. Likewise, we hear that large corporate bureaucracies cannot be responsive enough to change, and they stymie rapid innovation. What patterns do you see, and what solutions seem to resolve these constraints?

CHIP: Inventors get their vast knowledge base from “global reading,” and seeing connections, not by sitting around a table with “other experts” and creating by free association. Corporate groups are stultifying. Thus, inventors are almost always individuals or small groups. No one wants to take risks, and no one wants the blame for mistakes. Inventors invent. Teams implement. On the plus side, my team is

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getting pretty good at bona fide inventing—and with less guidance needed from me. That is really pretty gratifying. DAVID: The IEEE recently celebrated the birth of Silicon Valley and Moore’s Law. Do you see anything like Moore’s Law operating in your fields that gives some perspective on the rate of innovation and path ahead? TED: Yes, indeed. Moore’s Law is enabling faster processors, higher switching frequencies, and analog-todigital convertors that will allow massive bandwidths, on the order of hundreds of Gigabits (Gb) per second, over wireless links at Terahertz (THz) carrier frequencies in just a few years. My students and I recently published two results that the world doesn’t quite understand yet, but I hope it will, since these are game changers for innovation in wireless.



The first theory we developed is called the “Consumption Factor Theory.” Using this theory, the world now has a very powerful yet amazingly simple method to calculate and compare, using a figure of merit, the power consumption of any device, system, or network. I believe this theory is fundamental to power-efficient design and power consumption in any device or network, just as the original Noise Figure Theory developed at Bell Labs in the 1930s allows engineers to understand and design for minimum noise in a system. The second big idea is something we saw in our mmWave research and have now seen more dramatically as we move to Terahertz (THz) frequencies. Harald Friis at Bell Labs created his famous free space path law in the 1940s, and we have seen a fundamental result of that law, which most people don’t yet understand. Put simply, if you keep the physical area of the antennas fixed at a transmitter and receiver, you get stronger, not weaker signal strength by going up in frequency while keeping the transmit power the same. In other words, going up to mmWave and THz frequencies will provide better, not worse, coverage as compared with today’s wireless networks, since the antennas have much greater gain as you keep the area the same and go higher in frequency. We will need to come up with better beam-steering algorithms to maintain the best directional beam patterns to exploit this result, but since we improve signal by going up to mmWave and THz, this means we will get to use the additional link improvement to expand the transmission (e.g., noise) bandwidth at zero cost, thus allowing us to maintain the same signal-to-noise ratio with much greater bandwidths (e.g., much faster data rates) and much higher frequencies. This destroys the popularly held myth that “channels are more lossy at mmWave than at lower frequencies.” In fact, quite the opposite is true—they suffer less loss (if you don’t have rain or fog), as the impact of antenna gain can overcome perceived losses of the channel. CHIP: I generally think the antenna “field” is still breathing off the vapors of the 20th century. It has a pathological paradigm of trying new approaches as a

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“flavor of the month” to exploit government funding kitties. When the money dries up, it is time for the next flavor. Very weird. True innovation does not come from the leaders of the field. It comes from pesky outsiders—at least the ones who stick it out and don’t get bullied by the “discouragement fraternity.” My worldview does not take a far-reaching perspective. Inventions are most successful when the inventor is the end user or becomes the end user. His or her “problems to be solved” are pretty localized. For example, I have no interest in solving climate change or global warming. However, I am very interested in enabling new forms of radiative transfer and power efficiencies. What would it mean to have every motor and every generator be 10 percent more efficient, for example? Increasing productivity of machines makes them better, and thus decreases pollution and greenhouse effects. So, Ted and I are aligned on the goal, but with different approaches. DAVID: What new breakthroughs do you foresee in in your fields that excite you? TED: The development of high-efficiency power amplifiers at mmWave and THz frequency is exciting and will happen soon. Autonomous vehicles will be as revolutionary as the internet in our society and will lead to “mobile” base stations with mobile cloud servers that will solve coverage and capacity problems as well as near zerolatency information access—think of it as “the internet of vehicles.” Medical imaging breakthroughs offered by THz technologies, and on-chip biosensors and nano-pills for diagnosing disease in the very early stages, will improve our health by detecting problems early and informing us of healthier life styles. Wireless will play a major role in all of these breakthroughs. CHIP: It takes years, often decades for “innovations” to be “new.” I am excited by some of the work I am doing in batteries, superconductors, electromagnets, and many others. And yet, I know full well that some of those won’t see acceptance while I am still alive and kicking. It took almost 30 years for fractal antennas to catch on, for example. I do confess that I am worried (albeit not excited) about the potential for an AI “singularity,” the hypothetical future creation of super intelligent machines. I know a few of the robotics folks, and they are oblivious to any sense of responsibility for the potential outcomes of their work. Those prospects are too abstract for them. I do feel that robotics will enable a collective archival memory that can be saved in many locations and is additive. Machines at some point will not need us and may even may destroy us. Wireless is the medium for this, so how do we put in the checks and balances to avoid a “Terminator” situation in 30 years?


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DAVID: What new challenges lie ahead? TED: Finding young people who have the initiative and zeal to pursue, and master, the hard sciences and engineering disciplines is the biggest challenge for the U.S. I have taken a personal interest in understanding the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation on human health. Many in the medical profession are unaware of the ability of ionizing radiation to create unstable atoms that can lead to mutations in the DNA of cells. I believe it may someday be possible to use THz radiation or MRI with advanced digital signal processing as a safer alternative to X-ray/ CT scan medical imaging. The quality of air, food, and water is a growing menace for all industrialized countries, particularly for the U.S. and more so for China. The looming health effects of genetically modified foods, and the deleterious impact of plastics and contaminated air and water in our daily lives, will become more acute and will require dramatically different approaches to sustain our planet’s quality of life. Society also has to maintain healthy human interactions as the world becomes more robotic and has massive wireless connectivity that supports more “distributed presence” rather than the in-person human interactions of yesteryear. Just look at any public place and ask yourself how many people are interacting with their cellphone device and not with the person within arm’s reach. CHIP: Science—whether basic or applied—is easy. People are hard. The U.S. has grown complacent and dysfunctional with its path of wireless innovation. China, India, South Africa, Israel, Korea, and other countries have often outstripped us in modern wireless. We need to reconstitute the innovation culture that led to the Junior Wireless Club and Howard Armstrong. We need few barriers and more positivity. Look at the kids and ne’er-do-wells that made the PC and software industry take off. Paul Allen, Bill Gates, Steve Jobs—dropouts. Do you think they cared about peer-reviewed publication in Physical Review or Nature or being chief technology officer at IBM? If you force too much structure on a field, you get a nation of shopkeepers, not innovators. I couldn’t care less if someone has a Ph.D. or a PE. If they know what they are doing, I listen. These issues cannot be solved by simply throwing money at them. DAVID: Are there opportunities for young engineers and scientists in the years ahead? TED: Absolutely! Young engineers and scientists are the key to a better future of the world! The “sky is the limit” for engineers and scientists. They are, and always shall be, in great demand by employers around the world. It is our responsibility to ensure a strong funnel for our future, and we need to pass along our encouragement and “lessons

learned.” Mentoring the younger generation is something we all must do in technical areas. CHIP: We certainly aren’t returning to silence. Radio/ wireless will only grow, and its career people are not caretakers of an antediluvian technology. The evolution isn’t idle. Both will continue to attract the best and brightest. DAVID: Thank you both for sharing your thoughts today, and congratulations to you on your awards. I and the other members of the Radio Club of America, look forward to seeing you and the other award recipients and new fellows at RCA’s 2018 banquet for a very exciting and engaging evening.

ABOUT THE MODERATOR David P. Bart, KB9YPD, is Chairman of the Radio Club of America Publications Committee and Editorial Director of the RCA Proceedings. He is a Life Member and Director of the Antique Wireless Association, and a Life Member, Director, and Fellow of RCA. He is also treasurer of the IEEE History Committee and vice president of the Museum of Broadcast Communications in Chicago.


SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 17 | NEW YORK CITY Featuring Keynote Speaker Dr. Ted Rappaport

REASONS TO ATTEND THE RCA BANQUET AND TECHNICAL SYMPOSIUM Cutting edge technical learning This year's Technical Symposium in New York City will have a focus on new technologies with panels planned on 5G and FirstNet. Several other exciting topics are also in the works. Stay tuned!

Strengthen your network The Radio Club of America is the oldest, most prestigious group of wireless professionals in the world. Make the most of your membership by connecting with old friends and developing new contacts.

Honor the distinguished and deserving Join us to celebrate the people who invent, create, inspire and collaborate to create the products, services and companies that make this industry one of a kind.

Support the next generation Help develop the future workforce by supporting RCA's youth efforts, and learn from this year's RCA Young Achiever Award Winner.

Can you feel the energy? RCA continues to build on the momentum from last year, recruiting new members and developing strategic partner-ships with other organizations. Be a part of the excitement and help us shape the organization as we continue our vibrancy long into the future.

Discover New York City Join us in the Big Apple as we immerse ourselves in the energy of the city!

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n August 15, 2018, the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Region 6, Santa Clara Valley Section, held a major event celebrating the origins of Silicon Valley. The event started in the afternoon at the former location of Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory (Shockley Labs) and ended in the evening at the Computer History Museum (CHM), both located in Mountain View, California. This may have been the largest single-day undertaking of the IEEE Milestones program, with more than 800 people in attendance. The Radio Club of America (RCA) and the Antique Wireless Association (AWA) participated in these events.

SHOCKLEY SEMICONDUCTOR LABORATORY More than 400 people, including many IEEE leaders, attended the afternoon activities in the new Village at San Antonio Center, built on the site of the former Shockley Labs. Speakers included the following: • James F. Gibbons, professor emeritus of electrical engineering at Stanford University • IEEE President James A. Jeffries • Tsuyoshi Kawanishi, former executive senior vice president of Toshiba Electronics Co. Ltd., • Ajit Manocha, president of SEMI (formerly Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International) • Several former Shockley and Fairchild Semiconductor employees

The original Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory.

companies. This is Shockley’s true legacy and the genesis of Silicon Valley. Gibbons, who was a consultant to Shockley Labs, described Shockley’s 1948 patent on the bipolar junction transistor as “the most extraordinary use of imagination I have ever seen in a patent.” He stated that Bell Labs did not file the patent for six months, in part because “Shockley wasn’t sure he had a way to describe how to make it.” When Shockley started Shockley Labs, he promised his original investor, Arnold Beckman, that he would “collect the most creative team in the world for developing and producing

• David Geiser, general manager of Merlone Geier Partners, the property developer. Attendees listened to stories about William Shockley, the brilliant, difficult, and eccentric coinventor of the transistor, who, along with John Bardeen and Walter Brattain, won a Nobel Prize for his research on semiconductors and the discovery of the transistor effect. Shockley left Bell Labs in 1956 and founded Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory in a Quonset hut at 391 South San Antonio Road in Mountain View. His objective was to be the first to design and sell silicon semiconductor components in Silicon Valley. Shockley recruited extraordinary talent but was legendary in his leadership and business strategy failings. A group he labeled the “Traitorous Eight” soon left Shockley Labs and formed Fairchild Semiconductor Corp. These eight then moved on or founded other companies, including Intel Corporation. Although Shockley’s firm largely was a commercial failure, the people whom he recruited started a chain of people and events that formed more than 400 new


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Presentation by James F. Gibbons, Stanford University.

transistors.” Shockley’s legendary job interviews included intelligence quotient (IQ) and personality tests. The core team included Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore, both of whom later founded Intel. Gibbons explained that the team originally was assembled to make silicon bipolar transistors. In April 1956, no firms were selling silicon processing equipment, so the team constructed the equipment it used. Four months later, Shockley learned that Bell Labs wanted to use a fourlayer diode in telephone switching circuits and needed silicon devices to meet its temperature specifications. Disagreements arose, because Shockley wanted to make the diodes, but Noyce, Moore, and other team members wanted to stay focused on the original plan to make silicon bipolar transistors. As tensions mounted, Beckman continued to support Shockley, the Nobel laureate, as the brainchild behind the business. The increasingly disgruntled team members met at Moore’s home and decided to leave. Eventually, Sherman Fairchild gave them a $1.4 million, 18-month contract to continue their work at a new company, thereby creating Fairchild Semiconductor, the first semiconductor company separate from Shockley Labs.

William Shockley.

Lineage of Silicon Valley companies at the Shockley Laboratory site. The IEEE Birthplace of Silicon Valley plaque is at the upper left.

Shockley Labs eventually succeeded in producing up to a thousand four-layer diodes per month. However, Bell Labs, Western Electric and AT&T, changed their focus and decided not to use the four-layer diode, and Shockley Labs lost its primary customer. In 1960, Beckman finally sold the firm to Clevite Semiconductor for $1 million, and it went downhill from there.

Night view of the replica silicon devices that double as street lights.

Birthplace of Silicon Valley presentation.

THE LEGACY Gibbons argued that Shockley Labs deserves credit for incubating many companies that developed and manufactured early silicon components over the succeeding years. Others argue that Fairchild Semiconductor deserves full credit. Fairchild is credited as the first

major investment of the new venture capital (VC) industry that emerged in Silicon Valley. Arthur Rock, who was a venture capitalist instrumental in the Fairchild startup financing, can be recognized for beginning the VC industry. Eventually, the efforts of Shockley Labs also led to a semiconductor capital equipment industry. Gibbons reckoned that Shockley Labs, after accounting for all the companies, venture capital, and suppliers it stimulated, was the “the first trillion-dollar startup.” The original Quonset hut ultimately became a grocery store and finally was demolished. The location is now in the final stages of its redevelopment as a modern business complex, San Antonio Village, Phase II, that will house Facebook and other companies. A plaque commemorating

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the site as Silicon Valley’s birthplace has been mounted to the new building at 391 San Antonio Road. An IEEE milestone plaque for Moore’s Law is embedded in the Silicon Molecule Fountain in the building’s main plaza. The plaques are illuminated by three giant replica silicon devices that also serve as decorative street lighting. The lights represent the first three silicon devices produced in Silicon Valley, two by Shockley Labs and one by Fairchild. Duplicates of both plaques, which were used in the formal unveiling, are mounted at the CHM. The event’s audience included several former Shockley employees, and dozens of Fairchild veterans. A reception followed in the main plaza, and many walked to see the new plaques and commemorative artwork.

MOORE’S LAW Another 400-plus people attended an evening event at the CHM. The IEEE Foundation hosted a reception before this event. Karen Bartleson, IEEE past president, opened the evening event by unveiling the Moore’s Law milestone. After an introduction from Dan’l Lewin, CHM president, a panel of experts discussed the legacy and future of Moore's Law. The panel for the discussion, “Tomorrow’s Computers: More Moore?” included Mark Bohr, Intel senior fellow and William Chappell, director of the microsystems technology

The evolution of calculating power. Courtesy Ray Kurzweil.


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Evening presenters (left to right): Karen Bartleson (2017 IEEE president), Dan’l Lewin (Computer History Museum president), David Brock (historian, author), William Chappell (director of DARPA’s microsystems technology office) and Mark Bohr (Intel senior fellow).

office at the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). David Brock, director of the CHM’s center for software history and coauthor of the book Moore’s Law, moderated. The panel discussed the future of semiconductors and current interpretations of Moore’s Law. Brock explained that Gordon Moore observed and forecasted in 1965 that the number of transistors on a chip would double about every two years. This quickly became a prophecy, which underpinned the semiconductor

industry business model. Although Moore focused on transistors, his observations have been extended to develop an understanding of the history of electronics. Insightful observation, accurate forecast and prediction, or self-fulfilling driving prophecy: they all are correct interpretations of Moore’s original insights. The impact of those insights is widespread, reaching far beyond

Evening panel discussion (left to right): David Brock, William Chappell and Mark Bohr.

computers to affect virtually all forms of modern electronic communications and information flow. The many revalidations of Moore’s Law on key anniversaries such as the 25th, 40th, and 50th demonstrate its application far beyond its original prediction for semiconductor chips. Bohr talked about the evolution of the industry. He recalled starting at Intel in 1978, where he joined a team of four: “me, my boss, a materials [specialist], and a process engineer. Today, we have a staff at least a hundred times bigger, and the fabs are a hundred to a thousand times more expensive." Through most of his career, Bohr heard predictions that Moore’s Law would end soon due to thinning gate oxides and the limited wavelength for photolithography at 193 nanometers (nm). Yet, clever inventions such as high-K metal gates with novel hafnium materials, optical proximity correction, and multi-patterning lithography, permitted Moore’s Law to maintain progress. Brock noted the importance of continuously originating new innovations in materials and transistor structures, especially because today we are in another period of uncertainty. Chappell explained that we still are responding to the Sputnik crisis, and DARPA plans to spend $1.5 billion over the next five years on ways to drive electronics forward, including projects to develop new kinds of threedimensional (3D) stacks and ways to create and link chiplets. He explained that past DARPA projects helped create 193-nm lithography and the field-effect transistor (FinFET). Chappell recalled that “DARPA itself was created weeks after the Sputnik launch with a pretty simple

Evening panel discussion (left to right): David Brock, William Chappell and Mark Bohr.

mandate—don’t let that ever happen again.” DARPA’s goal is to avoid another strategic surprise. One way to avoid a strategic surprise is to create one. All the panelists noted that a single iPhone today has more power than the NASA computer that took astronauts to the moon. A smartwatch has more memory than past computers that used to fill an entire room. Moore initially predicted that the number of electronic components squeezed onto an integrated circuit would double each year, which he subsequently modified to every two years in 1975. This bold observation not only has resulted in smaller, faster, and cheaper computer chips, but also has enabled the creation of life-changing technologies, from smartphones to spreadsheets. When Moore in 1965 made his initial prediction, there were about 30 components on a chip, and transistors (bipolar) cost about $8. Today, billions of transistors—metal-oxide semiconductors, or MOS)—fit on a chip the size of a human fingernail, and transistors cost a mere billionth of a penny. However, computer companies already have reported that the acceleration rate that Moore predicted for planarprocessed transistors is slowing. In a 2015 interview with IEEE Spectrum, Moore himself predicted that we are approaching the limits of his observation. Could Moore’s Law truly come to an end, and what would this mean for the future of technological innovation? Brock, Chappell and Bohr all noted the rising impact of software that has extended the computing power of existing hardware technology. In his introduction to the evening session, Lewin noted Marc Andreessen’s famous quote that software is eating the world (Andreessen is the co-author of Mosaic,

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the first widely used web browser, and the co-founder of Netscape). However, Lewin also noted Moore’s refrain that all the software must run on something. The panelists all believed that new innovations still unknown would further increase technical capabilities, and together with new software designs, Moore’s Law likely to continue for at least another 20 years, if not longer.

IEEE COMMEMORATION EFFORTS After the sale of Shockley Labs, Shockley went to Stanford University as a professor of electrical engineering, along with many of the Shockley Labs alumni. He died in 1989. Moore eventually left Fairchild and cofounded Intel

a leading predictor for the semiconductor industry’s rapid growth. The August 2018 commemoration of these events concluded three decades of work by Jacques Beaudouin, a former Shockley Labs employee, and more than four years of work by Richard Ahrons, the IEEE Milestone coordinator, Santa Clara Valley Section. They received support from the CHM and the real-estate developer, Merlone Geier Partners, in their efforts to document and memorialize the early foundation of Silicon Valley. The author of this article served as the Moore’s Law milestone advocate for the IEEE History Committee Notwithstanding Shockley’s personal attributes and controversial opinions, the commemoration did not focus on Shockley, but instead centered on how Silicon Valley became such an important and unique place. In his comments at the afternoon event, Leonard Siegel, Mountain View’s mayor, stated that the event was about the atom, not the man. The RCA and AWA were invited to participate by the author, who is a member of both organizations while also serving as the IEEE History Committee’s treasurer. RCA and AWA helped to fund the speaker gifts and they were acknowledged for their participation. Other participants and sponsors include the IEEE Foundation, IEEE History Center, IEEE Computer Society Local Chapter, Alumni of

Silicon Molecule Fountain, and Jacques Beaudoin and Andy Ramans, alumni of Shockley Labs, with the artist’s model.

with Noyce in 1968. Intel today is the world’s largest semiconductor company. In 1975, Moore became Intel’s president and chief executive officer. He was president until 1979 and remained CEO until 1987. He now is chairman emeritus. Although Shockley formed his laboratory in 1956, and the rival Fairchild Semiconductor formed the following year, the tumultuous but brief 18-month period marks the critical time when a new silicon semiconductor industry emerged that changed the world. Moore’s Law left its own legacy as Richard Ahrons, IEEE Milestone coordinator, Santa Clara Valley Section, unveiling the Birthplace of Silicon Valley Milestone plaque.

Shockley Labs, CHM, Merlone Geier Partners, and Lam Research. Representative Zoe Lofgren (D-Calif.) also authored two congressional resolutions commemorating the importance of Silicon Valley’s birthplace.

IEEE MILESTONES Birthplace of Silicon Valley IEEE Milestone plaque. Representatives of the IEEE, clockwise from left: Tom Coughlin (IEEE USA president elect), James Jeffries (IEEE 2018 president), Karen Bartleson (IEEE 2017 president), Dejan Milojicic (IEEE Division 8 director ), Kathleen Kramer (Region 6 director and past president of the IEEE Computer Society), and David Bart (IEEE History Committee). 40

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The texts of the two IEEE Milestone plaques read as follows: The Birthplace of Silicon Valley, 1956 At this location, 391 San Antonio Road, the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory manufactured the first silicon devices in what became known as Silicon Valley. Some of

the talented scientists and engineers initially employed there left to found their own companies, leading to the birth of the silicon electronics industry in the region. Hundreds of firms in electronics and computing can trace their origins back to Shockley Semiconductor. Moore’s Law, 1965 Gordon E. Moore, co-founder of Fairchild and Intel, began his work in silicon microelectronics at Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory in 1956. His 1965 prediction at Fairchild Semiconductor, subsequently known as “Moore’s Law,” that the number of components on an integrated circuit will increase exponentially with time while cost per function decreases, guided the industry’s contributions to

advances in electronics and computing for more than fifty years.

VIDEO LINKS Videos of the two programs are available at: Birthplace afternoon video: https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=u4_OmM02R-s&feature=youtu.be Moore’s Law evening video: https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=gVZlxjoxnqg

REFERENCES IEEE Milestone Website for The Birthplace of Silicon Valley at http://ieeemilestones.ethw.org/Milestone-Proposal:The_ Birthplace_of_Silicon_Valley. IEEE Milestone Website for Moore’s Law at http:// ieeemilestones.ethw.org/Milestone-Proposal:Moore%27s_ Law_-_Predicts_Integrated_Circuit_Complexity_ Growth,_1965. Kevin Kelley, Laying Rest to Origins Question, Palo Alto Daily News, Aug. 10, 2018. Kevin Kelley, Where is the birthplace of Silicon Valley? Event aims to put the question to rest, The Mercury News, Aug. 8, 2018. Rick Merritt, Silicon Valley Reflects on its Roots, EE Times, Aug. 17, 2018. Kathy Pretz, Shockley’s Historic Semiconductor Laboratory Honored With Two IEEE Milestones, The Institute, IEEE, Aug. 24, 2018.

Karen Bartelson, IEEE past president, unveiling the Moore’s Law IEEE Milestone plaque.

Mary White, Birthplace of the Silicon Valley, CodaWorx Website, https://www.codaworx.com/project/birthplace-ofthe-silicon-valley-merlone-geier-partners

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n August 2018, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) celebrated the birth of Silicon Valley. Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory deserves credit as the birthplace and for its legacy of subsequent companies that emerged to manufacture products for the semiconductor and computer industries (see related article in this issue). However, Silicon Valley’s roots go farther back—to radio and to the telegraph.

A GEOGRAPHIC CENTER The geographic area in California that stretches from Napa Valley to San Francisco to San Jose was a center for innovation dating back to the 19th century. William Shockley grew up in Palo Alto and had exposure to this background long before he travelled east to Bell Laboratories and then returned to form his own company. The San Francisco/San Jose region and the Santa Clara Valley, also known as the Valley of Heart’s Delight, were famous for agricultural production of apricots, cherries and prunes. San Francisco was a major port city and a gateway to Hawaii and Asia. The Gold Rush left its lingering impact on the region as visionaries sought and supplied capital for new and novel innovations of all kinds.

THE TELEGRAPH The telegraph entered California in 1853, just nine years after Samuel Morse’s 1844 demonstration of a communications link between Washington and Baltimore. The new California Telegraph Company linked San Francisco to San Jose, Stockton, Sacramento and Marysville. The Northern California Telegraph Company went north toward Eureka, and the Pacific Atlantic Company extended lines to Los Angeles by 1860. Both soon merged into the California Telegraph Company. Jeptha Wade consolidated Western Union’s lines with California Telegraph as they headed east toward Salt Lake City as part of the new Transcontinental Telegraph, completed in 1861. An ambitious overland route north through Russian Alaska (the territory was not acquired by the United States until 1867) and into Siberia, Perry Collins’ Russian-American Telegraph, was never completed. However, the Pacific Cable between San Francisco and Honolulu, finished in 1902, reached all the way to Manilla by 1903. Private capital financed these ventures with limited government support.


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The early years of the 20th century brought a new technology. Cyril Elwell sought to develop wireless communications by licensing the Poulsen Arc transmitters from Valdemar Poulsen in Denmark, who generated continuous-wave radio signals beginning in 1902. Poulsenarc transmitters were used internationally until vacuumtube transmitters developed by Lee de Forest and others after 1907 superseded them. Elwell formed Federal Telegraph Company in 1909 in Palo Alto with funds from “angel investors.” He included Stanford University in his efforts to research, develop, and expand the technology. By 1912, Federal was sending and receiving wireless messages between San Francisco and Honolulu. The U.S. Navy became interested in Federal’s work for ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore communications and bought the system for its vessels. By the end of World War I, Federal had installed some of the most powerful systems in the world, with million-watt stations in Panama, the Philippines, Spain, Arlington (Virginia), Los Angeles (California) and Portland (Oregon).

RADIO EVOLVES Peter L. Jensen worked for Poulsen in Denmark, migrated to Napa Valley, worked for Federal, and later operated in several locations in the San Francisco area. He developed, with Edwin S. Pridham, the first moving coil loudspeaker in 1915. That led to development of the dynamic loudspeaker for radio in 1919. Jensen, who co-founded Magnavox, later resigned and founded the Jensen Radio Manufacturing Company in 1927. He remained president until 1940 and was a consultant to the radio and radar division of the U.S. War Production Board in Washington, D.C., from 1942 to 1946. Another Stanford engineer, Charles “Doc” Herrald, started a radio company in San Francisco, which was destroyed in the 1906 earthquake. He relocated to San Jose and founded his College of Wireless and Engineering in 1909 in the Garden City Bank Building, and later launched the first regular commercial radio broadcast, “San Jose Calling.” His station operated with the call signs FN, SJN and KQW and eventually became KCBS.

VACUUM TUBES AND RESEARCH Otis Moorehead established Moorhead Laboratories in 1917 in San Francisco to manufacture vacuum tubes. William Eitel, Jack McCullough and Charles Litton became famous for their entrepreneurial investments in equipment manufacturing and vacuum tube production, as well as

Mural by Robert Semans at Courthouse Square in Palo Alto, California.

Key radio and television personalities in the mural (courtesy Paul Wesling).

www.radioclubofamerica.org | FALL 2018 PROCEEDINGS


their strong support of ham radio in the 1910s and 1920s. Remler, Magnavox, Heintz and Kaufman, and Federal Telegraph all supplied radio equipment to the professionals and amateurs. Fred Terman and Herbert Hoover were both amateur radio operators. Hoover became the 31st president of the United States and later left his mark with the Hoover Institution at Stanford. Terman developed Stanford’s electrical engineering coursework, co-established the vacuum tube laboratory, and wrote Electronic and Radio Engineering, one of the most important books on circuits and instruments. He encouraged his students to form their own companies and personally invested in many of them, resulting in firms such as Litton Industries, Varian Associates, and Hewlett-Packard. Terman was president of the Institute of Radio Engineers. After World War II, he became dean of Stanford’s engineering school. He was responsible for developing the Stanford Industrial Park (now Research Park) in 1951 as a joint initiative between Stanford and Palo Alto. It has been called an engine for Silicon Valley and the epicenter of Silicon Valley. The brothers Russell and Sigurd Varian invented the klystron, which became a critical component of radar, telecommunications, and other microwave technologies. In 1948, they founded Varian Associates to market the klystron and other inventions, becoming the first company to move into Stanford Research Park, which it did in 1953.

A CULTURE EMERGES Together, these and other people and companies formed a cultural and business environment that became a nucleus for a research, investment, and development. That nucleus

of activity would create and advance leading technologies for the world. Terman’s initial development of the Stanford Research Park is widely credited, together with William Shockley’s laboratory, as being the genesis of the modern Silicon Valley. In view of the region’s long history, in many ways, this modern culture of innovation stemmed from the region’s early roots in radio.

REFERENCES David Bart, The Real Origins of Silicon Valley’s Technology Culture, Proceedings of the Radio Club of America, Fall 2015. Alice L. Bates, The History of the Telegraph in California, Annual Publication of the Historical Society of Southern California, University of California Press on behalf of the Historical Society of Southern California, Vol. 9, No. 3 (1914). Gorden Greb and Mike Adams, Charles Herrold: Inventor of Radio Broadcasting, McFarland Publishing, 2003. William Jensen, The Valley and the Vox, Emperio Press, 2015. Paul Wesling, The Birth of Silicon Valley: Radio Leads the Way, The Institute, IEEE, March 1, 2018. Paul Wesling, The Origins of Silicon Valley: Why and How It Happened, Stanford Historical Society Presentation, April 12, 2018.

NEVER STOP LEARNING White Papers • Case Studies • e-Books Research • Special Reports • Webinars RadioResource






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VOICES OF TOMORROW PJ2Y-CURAÇAO YDXA, JULY 19-24, 2018 By Dhruv Rebba, KC9ZJX EDITOR’S NOTE: This issue of the Proceedings of the Radio Club of America brings another installment from the next generation of inventors and developers in wireless communications. The Voices of Tomorrow column provides a place for younger people to share their work in a professional setting. RCA is interested in finding students (primarily college- or high-school level) who are interested in writing about their explorations, ideas and contributions to wireless communications. We congratulate Dhruv Rebba on his first professional publication, and we encourage submissions by others for future columns. Please contact David Bart, Proceedings editor at jbart1964@gmail.com for further information or to submit draft articles for publication.

GETTING THERE The team first met at Miami and flew from there to Curaçao on July 19. Curaçao is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, located about 65 kilometers (40 miles) north of the Venezuelan coast.

The 2018 Youth DX Adventure.


he Dave Kalter Youth DX Adventure (YDXA) is an extraordinary event where a few youth go on an awesome DX experience. This year, I had the great opportunity to go on the YDXA with David Samu, VE7DZO, Violetta Latham, KM4ATT, and Mason Matrazzo, KM4SII, who are all great hams to work with. The 2018 YDXA was in Curaçao Island, and we used the PJ2T contest station. The call sign we used was PJ2Y.

THE EVENT DX is shorthand for "distance" radio reception. DXing is the pursuit of distant stations with the goal of earning various DXCC Awards. A DXpedition is a trip to operate in a rare DXCC entity. The Youth DX Adventure is named after Dave Kalter. Dave Kalter, KB8OCP, worked on the CQ World Wide Single Side Band (CQWW SSB) Contest team at TI5N beginning in 2008. He also founded the YDXA, an organization that sends young hams age 12-17 with a parent to Costa Rica during the summer to operate as DX. He was the past vice president of the Southwest Ohio DX Association (SWODXA) and an active member in the Dayton Amateur Radio Association (DARA) and Dayton Hamvention. He is considered an inspiration to all hams of all ages. He became a silent key on November 18, 2013.

We arrived at Curaçao on Thursday at around 4:15 p.m. Atlantic time at the Curaçao International Airport. Jim Storms (AB8YK) and Ron Doyle (N8VAR) were the team leaders, and they did a great job of coordinating the trip. We somehow miraculously fit almost everyone, 10 people, and everyone's luggage in a rented eight-seat van. Two people went in a separate car. The drive from the airport to the PJ2T contest station took approximately 30 minutes. Radio operations started about 7:30 p.m. The operating station was very good. We used Yaesu TS-2000 radios for continuous wave (CW) Morse operations and voice operations. Everyone stayed at the Blenchi Bed and Breakfast for the five nights. Thanks to the Caribbean Contesting Consortium, we were able to use the PJ2T super station, located on the west side of the island! The view was great, it is right on the edge of a cliff and you can see the Caribbean very well from the balcony. There was a kitchen to cook food and for snacks.

FIRST DAY (ARRIVAL DAY) The first day, we started operating at about 7:30 p.m. after returning from the airport and dropping our luggage at the bed and breakfast. The team used the N3FJP amateur contact log, which was preloaded on the station’s computers. We made 718 contacts the first night. Most of them were on 20 meters. We made a few on 40 meters, but not as many. The “pileups” that we worked on 20 meters were huge. A pileup occurs when many ham operators try to communicate with a distant entity, all at the same time. Most of the time, we only could pick up about one or two characters out of an individual’s call sign, requiring us to call again and confirm identification. Mason got the pileup on 20 meters started. Later, as the night wore on, we exchanged roles. Uli (DL8OBQ), Michael (DO1OBY), and Jack Reichert (N4RV), who are part of the Caribbean www.radioclubofamerica.org | FALL 2018 PROCEEDINGS


Contesting Consortium, really helped to set up the equipment and direct the antennas. We stayed up until around midnight operating that first night. We woke up at 7:00 a.m. to arrive at the station by 8:00 a.m. Oversleeping would result in a walk to the station instead of going in the van with everybody else. The 10-minute walk from the bed and breakfast to the PJ2T station was approximately 1 kilometer.

THIRD DAY On the third day, we woke up at 7 a.m., and headed toward the station an hour later. David and Stefan Samu (David’s dad) came all the way from British Columbia, Canada, which is four hours behind the time in Curaçao. So, they slept in and arrived a little bit later due to jet lag. To their surprise, the power went out again by the time they arrived. This time, we decided to go to the beach while the power was out. The beach was a hundred yards from the bed and breakfast. After that, we went outside to eat lunch at a traditional Curaçao restaurant. When we returned, the power still had not been restored, so we decided to run the equipment on a generator. The exhaust smelled really strange. We eventually discovered that we accidentally put diesel in the generator instead of petrol (gas). We were able to fix this. However, the power provided by the generator was not sufficient to run the amplifiers with the radios because the amplifiers consumed a high-power load. We operated with the generator for some time and made a few contacts, until the power came back on later in the evening. There was a big pileup on 20 meters again that night, though not as big as the ones from the first two days. I operated a little bit on 15 and 40 meters as well.

The author Dxing in Curaçao.

SECOND DAY We made a few contacts during the morning of the second day. Most of the contacts were on 20 and 80 meters. At 11 a.m., however, an abhorrent thing happened: we lost power. In Curaçao, power outages occur more often than in the United States, especially in the summer heat. We all ended up sitting around doing very “productive” stuff. There was a very low voltage of energy coming through, and the air conditioning was not working during the power outage because it consumes a high voltage. We sat there for about five hours before the energy turned back on. We spent most of that time eating chips and anything we found in the refrigerator. Because the air conditioning was out, we opened the windows and sat outside. The power returned at 5 p.m. and we started operating again. We were eager to operate since we were shut down in the morning. Unfortunately, the voice bands were not as open at that time, but we did get a few contacts. CW, however, was doing very well, and we made many contacts on CW during that time. David was our main CW operator because Violetta, Mason and I were not as fluent with Morse code. Later that the night we got on 20, 40 and 80 meters again, and worked the huge pileup. By the end of the night, we made 1,867 contacts. The highest number of contacts any YDXA team has made during the contest in the past was around 4,500 contacts, and we set out to beat that record. 46

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The author working a pileup.

FOURTH DAY On the fourth day, we thankfully did not experience a power outage. I operated on all bands for some time on Tuesday. After that, we were able to get the FT8 station working, and I learned how to operate on digital. It is slow, but when the bands are all dead, it is better than nothing. So, whenever all the other radios were in use, I operated on FT8 to make some contacts on digital. Sometimes I had a really good pileup going, and it would go on for some time. Even though it is really slow, if you get distracted for too long, you might forget to find someone to transmit to, and risk losing the pileup.

FIFTH DAY The fifth day was our last day to operate. Violetta and I experimented with cooking breakfast, and succeeded in making omelets. We operated until noon, and then decided to go and explore Curaçao. We first went to Willemstad, which is the capital city. It has many colorful buildings ranging from yellow to pink to blue, and it has a river going through the city. A moveable floating bridge connects the two sides of the river. Whenever a boat or cruise ship needs to pass, the bridge would move and give the boat or ship space to pass. There were many stores along the street selling Curaçao merchandise, such as bags, towels, keychains, and vehicle license plates. We ate street lunch there. I ate dragon chicken fillets. After that, we returned to the bed and breakfast, freshened up, did a little operating, and went to dinner. We ate dinner at a fancy Curaçao restaurant. After dinner, we went back to the station and worked some last-minute contacts. Everyone signed a Curaçao greeting card for every person as a keepsake. We said our goodbyes to Uli, Michael, and Jack and we went to sleep.

was used in YDXA by kids. We made 6,261 total contacts (QSOs) with more than 137 countries.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am grateful for the assistance received from Carole Perry and David Bart in the preparation of this article. I also thank Michael Kalter (W8CI), Ram Mohan (VU2MYH), my parents Hari Rebba (VU2SPZ/KD9LLR) and Shailaja Panyam (KC9ZJG), and the Central Illinois Radio Club (CIRC), for their ongoing guidance and encouragement of my radio operations.

REFERENCES Dave Kalter Memorial Youth DX Adventure at https://www. qsl.net/n6jrl/. The author’s DX team.

CQ World Wide Single Side Band DX (CQWWSSB) Contest at https://www.cqww.com.

SIXTH DAY The next morning, we woke up at 4 a.m. to catch our 7 a.m. flight. We returned to Curaçao International Airport and boarded our flight to Miami. After we arrived at Miami, we said goodbye to each other. We reached Bloomington at 5 p.m. on the same day. We all had a good time, and we will probably see each other at Dayton Hamvention 2019.

RESULTS Two radios were on the air almost constantly. One operated on single sideband (SSB), while the other alternated between SSB and CW. Amateur radio operators began serious experimentation with SSB after World War II. The Strategic Air Command established SSB as the radio standard for its aircraft in 1957. Since then it has become the standard for long-distance voice radio transmissions. There was a concentrated effort to have an FT8 station on the air as much as possible. It was the first time FT8

The author with the antenna array.

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he Antique Wireless Association (AWA) is a strategic partner with the Radio Club of America (RCA) and houses the RCA archives. Following the retirement of AWA Director Thomas Peterson Jr., the AWA Board of Trustees has elected Robert Hobday, N2EVG, of Honeoye Falls, New York as AWA Director and Bruce Roloson, W2BDR, of Apalachin, New York as AWA Deputy Director. Bob has been a member of AWA since 1984, serving as a Museum historian and a volunteer on the Museum Staff. In 2009, Bob was elected as AWA Deputy Director. Bob is a graduate of Union College with a BA in Industrial Administration. He worked at Rochester Gas and Electric for 32 years advancing to Manager – Pricing. In 1997, he was one of two team leaders that created Energetix, a subsidiary and finally an affiliate of RGE, where he advanced to Managing

NEWS ITEM In May 2018, Facebook listed three job openings for communications and connectivity professionals, including an extraterrestrial product manager. These postings signaled the company’s commitment to developing space as a communications vehicle for its services. As early as 2015, Facebook filed a Federal Communications Commission (FCC) application through its subsidiary, PointView Tech LLC, to “test potential new communication applications using the E Band” from drones in the Los Angeles area. In 2016, Facebook and its global connectivity spinout Internet.org announced flights of its high-altitude


Robert Hobday Elected AWA Director and Bruce Roloson Elected AWA Deputy Director Director – Strategic Issues. Bob is Fellow in Radio Club of America and a recipient of RCA’s Jack Poppele Award Bruce has been a member of AWA since 1967. He has held every office at AWA, including President and all other officer positions, editor of the AWA Journal, and AWA Conference chairman. Bruce is currently AWA Museum Curator Emeritus. Bruce is a graduate of Rochester Institute of Technology and worked at Westinghouse as an engineer in tube production and high voltage lab work. He had a long, successful career in several management positions at New York State Electric and Gas Corporation (NYSEG). Bruce is a Fellow in Radio Club of America and recipient of RCA’s Ralph Batcher Memorial Award.

AWA Director Bob Hobday.

AWA Deputy Director Bruce Roloson.

Facebook Satellite Explores Radio Communications

solar-powered Aquila drones using E Band (60 gigahertz [GHz] to 90 GHz) technology. It also wrote to the FCC that year that “Facebook recognizes the important role that satellite plays in improving and expanding connectivity.” Technical issues remain to be solved using the E Band from orbit. For example, high frequency millimeter waves fade and are easily absorbed by rain and particles in the air.

2018. Part of Athena’s two-year mission will be to test and determine the limits of millimeter wave technology in space. Athena will be in low earth orbit. Three ground stations will track and send data to Athena. The 150-pound satellite will operate with high-frequency millimeter wave radio signals in the E Band and will deliver data at download speeds up to 10 gigabits per second (Gbps) with uplink speeds up to 30 Gbps.

Facebook has joined with SpaceX and OneWeb to launch a multimilliondollar satellite, Athena, which will have a data speed nearly ten times faster than SpaceX’s Starlink internet satellites, which launched in February


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Mark Harris, Tech Giants Race to Build Orbital Internet, IEEE Spectrum, IEEE, June 2018.


Advancing radio technology for over 60 years.

#IcomEverywhere www.icomamerica.com/amateur ©2018 Icom America Inc. The Icom logo is a registered trademark of Icom Inc. 20866

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5/1/18 3:04 PM

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hysicists have observed two unusual radio signals detected by the balloon-borne Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA). While many other signals detected by ANITA are produced by cosmic rays crashing down through the atmosphere, these signals seem to be caused by particles travelling up through the Earth’s crust. Those particles may be neutrinos but their properties seem at odds with the Standard Model of particle physics. ANITA, developed by a U.S.-led collaboration and funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), contains 96 radio antennas suspended from a helium balloon. Flying at an altitude of nearly 40 kilometers (km) for several weeks at a time, it detects radio waves emanating from a 1.3-million-square-km area of Antarctica. Its primary purpose is to pick up the signals produced by cosmic neutrinos travelling from deep space to pinpoint the origin of ultra-

high-energy cosmic rays, which are believed to be produced in the same places as cosmic neutrinos. The neutrinos of interest pass through the Earth and interact with atomic nuclei in the Antarctic ice sheets, producing a shower of charged particles that then emit radio waves. ANITA also picks up signals from cosmic rays as they travel downward and collide with the atmosphere. This also generates radio waves, which bounce off the ice and into ANITA’s antennas.

parallel to the ground. Because these waves are not reflected, they do not undergo a phase inversion, meaning they are 180 degrees out of phase compared with the bouncing variety.


Data from ANITA’s first flight in 2006-2007 contained a horizontally polarized signal that resembled a signal from a cosmic ray. It also did not undergo phase inversion, suggesting that the originating particle would have travelled horizontally. However, the signal arrived at a much steeper angle from well below the horizon.

Two types of signals can be distinguished by measuring the radio waves’ polarization. Signals from cosmic rays have horizontal polarization while neutrino signals have vertical polarization. In addition, the observatory separates out the small subset of air showers whose radio emissions do not bounce off the ice but instead travel straight toward it at a very shallow angle almost

The ANITA team hypothesized that the signal was caused not by the air shower from a neutrino but by the air shower from a neutrino’s interaction product, probably a tau lepton. They theorized that a tau neutrino would interact either in or just below the ice, generating a tau lepton that then would continue along the neutrino’s trajectory, but only decay once it had emerged from the ice. The resulting

The ANITA experiment.


Mysterious Radio Signals Caused by Neutrino?

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radio waves therefore would be horizontally polarized.

HUMAN ACTIVITIES The event may have been caused by human activities, but when the team reviewed data from ANITA’s third flight in 2014-15, they spotted a very similar signal. They determined the signals are unlikely to be manmade or anthropogenic. A tau neutrino, on the other hand, seems reasonable, but similar events have not been see by either the IceCube detector at the South Pole or the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina.

ANITA flight map.

COSMIC SWITCH-ON Another possibility is the switching on of a very powerful source of cosmic neutrinos at just the right point in space and time to provide the flux needed to overcome Earth’s stopping power. A supernova was observed in 2014, but there are no obvious candidates for the first event. That leaves the door open to more exotic possibilities. Solving the mystery will not be easy. Limited statistics make it difficult to definitively pin down the cause of the anomalous events. The research is reported in a paper hosted by arXiv, a repository of scientific papers in a variety of fields; the paper has been accepted for publication in Physical Review Letters.

REFERENCES Edwin Cartlidge, Mysterious radio signals could be from new type of neutrino, Physics World, Jul. 17, 2018. Experiment –I. Ultra High Energy Neutrinos and Cosmic Rays, Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Mar. 23, 2018. https://lecospa.ntu.edu.tw/ experiment-2/experiment-i-ultra-highenergy-neutrinos-and-cosmic-rays/.

ANITA prior to launch.

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Chinese Lunar Satellite Sends Images for Amateur Radio


n May 2018, China launched the DSLWP-A and DSLWP-B microsatellites—also known as Longjiang-1 and Longjiang-2— into a lunar transfer orbit, another way of saying that they were sent on a trajectory that will result in their arrival at the moon. However, Longjiang-1 apparently was lost in the process and likely remains in deep Earth orbit. Both were deployed as secondary payloads with the Queqiao relay satellite as part of the Chang'e 4 mission to the far side of the moon. DSLWP stands for “Discovering the Sky at Longest Wavelengths Pathfinder.” The satellite will test low-frequency radio astronomy and space-based interferometry. While it carries amateur radio and educational payloads, no transponder is aboard. The Chang'e 4 mission will be the first attempt at a soft landing on the far side of the moon. The Chang'e-4 lander and rover are scheduled to launch in December 2018. The Harbin Institute of Technology (BY2HIT) developed and built the DSLWP spacecraft and is overseeing that mission. The microsatellite also carries optical cameras from Saudi Arabia. Some earthbound radio amateurs and sky watchers have received images from the tiny Chinese satellite, which is now orbiting the moon. An open telecommand protocol allows radio

(The designation 2U above indicates two liters of usable volume.) A demonstration of the Lissajous curve/halo orbit to be used by the Queqiao Chang'e-4 relay satellite mission is available at tinyurl.com/ ydxc9mkf. The Queqiao communications relay satellite is required for the The Queqiao communications relay satellite. (China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation [CASC].)

amateurs to take and download images. The spacecraft transmits on 70 centimeters (435.400/436.400 megahertz [MHz]), with 250/500 bits per second (bps) Gaussian minimum-shift keying (GMSK) using 10 kilohertz (kHz)-wide frequency modulation (FM) single-channel data, with concatenated codes, or JT4G. JT4 uses four-tone frequency-shift keying (FSK), with a keying rate of 4.375 baud; the JT4G sub-mode uses 315 Hz tone spacing and 1,260 Hz total bandwidth. The Harbin Institute of Technology team also operates LilacSat-1, a 2U amateur radio CubeSat—a microsatellite used for space research—launched as part of the European QB50 initiative, and LilacSat-2 (CAS-3H), an amateur radio and technology test satellite.

The Earth and Moon imaged on June 8 by the KACST-developed camera on China's Longjiang-2/DSLWP-B microsatellite. The image shows Saudi Arabia on the distant Earth, as well as the northern hemisphere of the lunar far side, near Petropavlovskiy crater. (CNSA/CLEP/ KACST)

lunar far-side landing to facilitate communication with a not-yetlaunched lander and rover. The moon's far side never faces Earth, and some significant scientific measurements from the dark side of the moon require real-time contact with Earth. Queqiao was developed

Support RCA Youth Activities by Donating Your Frequent Flyer Miles Due to the efforts of Carole Perry, the Youth Activities Program has been very successful. During the year, Carole travels all over the country to meet with people and to speak on behalf of the program. Almost all of the travel is at Carole’s personal expense. You can help by donating your frequent flyer miles to the Radio Club. If you would like to participate, please contact Carole Perry at wb2mgp@gmail.com and she will assist you.


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The Moon’s Mare Nubium imaged by the student camera aboard Longjiang-2/DSLWP-B, launched as part of the Chang'e-4 lunar relay satellite mission in May 2018. (Harbin Institute of Technology)

by the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). The Harbin Institute of Technology amateur radio club has invited more radio amateurs to get involved with the DSLWP mission. QSL cards have been designed for different flight phases for amateurs who successfully receive telemetry or make contact. Information can be obtained at: QSL/ HIT Amateur Radio Club, Letter Box 1241,13 Court Street in Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, P.R.CHINA 150001 or by E-mail to by2hit@126.com.

REFERENCES Andrew Jones, Chang'e-4 lunar farside satellite named “magpie bridge” from a folklore tale of lovers crossing

A rendering of the Chang'e-4 relay satellite, launched in May 2018, and lander and rover to set down on the lunar far side in late 2018. (CAST)

the Milky Way, Gb Times, April 24, 2018. Andrew Jones, Chang'e-4 update: Queqiao relay satellite in halo orbit, Longjiang-2 returns amazing images from Moon, Gb Times, Jun 15, 2018.

Andrew Jones, A tiny Chinese satellite is orbiting the Moon and allowing radio amateurs to download images, Gb Times, Sep. 4, 2018. Radio Amateurs Receive Images from Chinese Lunar Satellite, ARRL Letter, Sep. 6, 2018.

Display your RCA membership with pride! We are pleased to announce that you can now purchase RCA apparel from our online store. Options are available for men and women. Order now at https://stores.goldmedalideas.com/rca.

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he ARRL reported that the U.S. Coast Guard has received reports from crews, ship owners, inspectors, and other mariners regarding poor reception on very-high frequency (VHF) radiotelephone, digital selective calling (DSC), and automatic identification systems (AIS) when in the vicinity of lightemitting diode (LED) lighting systems. This could include interior and exterior lighting, navigation lights, searchlights, and floodlights found on vessels of all sizes. The Coast Guard issued a Marine Safety Alert on August 15. It stated, “Radio frequency interference caused by these LED lamps [was] found to create potential safety hazards.” The alert noted an example; “the maritime rescue coordination center in one port was unable to contact a ship involved in a traffic separation scheme incident by VHF radio. That ship also

experienced very poor AIS reception. Other ships in different ports have experienced degradation of the VHF receivers, including AIS, caused by their LED navigation lights. LED lighting installed near VHF antennas has also shown to compound the reception.” The ARRL investigated and determined a wide range of interference-causing potential from consumer lighting devices. Mike Gruber, W1MG, ARRL’s electromagnetic compatibility engineer, stated that, “While some are relatively quiet, other devices— even those that meet the required FCC emissions limits—can still cause harmful interference.” ARRL previously provided the FCC with reports of LED and other lighting systems that do not comply with its regulations. In several instances,



new exhibit, “The Sound of the Times: The Michael Molnar Collection,” is now open at the Red Mill Museum Village in Clinton, New Jersey. The exhibit features a collection of antique and vintage radios on loan to the museum from collector and radio enthusiast Michael Molnar. Molnar co-curated the exhibit with Elizabeth Cole. It traces the history and evolution of radio through images and stories, and 54

LED Lighting Interferes with Marine Radios

Gruber recommended trying LED lights before purchasing them, especially if there is a possibility that the device will be used while operating. He suggested purchasing “quiet” LEDs.

REFERENCE US Coast Guard Warns of LED Lighting Interference to Marine Radios, AIS Reception, ARRL Letter, Aug. 22, 2018.

New Radio Exhibit Opens

details the cultural impact that radio has had on society. The exhibit’s highlight is Molnar’s collection, compiled over more than 30 years and including dozens of radios, speakers and related equipment. An added attraction is a sound recording booth that enables visitors to experience recordings from the Golden Age of radio broadcasting by entering the booth and trying to create sound effects during a narrated story. This exhibition was made possible thanks to funding generously provided by the Astle-Alpaugh Family Foundation. The exhibit will be on display on the second floor of the museum through March 2019. The Red Mill Museum Village is located at 56

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these devices greatly exceeded the FCC's emissions limits, in one case by as much as 58 decibels (dB), creating as much noise as 650,000 legal devices.

Main Street in Clinton. Hours are Tuesday – Friday, 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m., and Saturday – Sunday, 12:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m., weather permitting. Through its 12 buildings, its exhibitions—both permanent and rotating—its collection of 40,000 artifacts, and its ongoing educational/ outreach programs, the Red Mill Museum Village seeks to preserve, maintain, and present to the public the social, agricultural, and industrial heritage of Hunterdon County and its surrounding area. For more information, call 908-7354101 or go to theredmill.org. The Red Mill Museum Village is located at 56 Main Street in Clinton, New Jersey. For more information on the museum visit theredmill.org.



oday, there are more Wi-Fi devices in active use around the world, roughly 9 billion, than there are human beings. That makes protecting Wi-Fi from hackers one of the most important tasks in cybersecurity. The Wi-Fi Alliance’s WiFi Protected Access 3 (WPA3) security certificate protocol provides some much-needed updates to the WPA2 protocol introduced in 2004. WPA3 focuses on bringing new techniques to bear against the issues that have emerged from WPA2. The Wi-Fi Alliance also announced two additional, separate certification protocols alongside WPA3. The Enhanced Open and Easy Connect protocols are not dependent on WPA3, but they do improve security for specific types of networks and certain situations. All of these protocols are now available for manufacturers to incorporate into their devices. These protocols eventually will see universal adoption, but the Wi-Fi Alliance has not set any timeline. At some point, consumer demand and the market will drive WPA3, Enhanced Open, and Easy Connect widespread voluntary adoption. However, broad implementation is not anticipated until late 2019, at the earliest. Some of the major changes include the following: Simultaneous Authentication of Equals (SAE)—This is the biggest change concerning WPA3. WPA2, and now WPA3, put a lot of emphasis on authenticating new connections and ensuring that they are not attempts by attackers to gain access. SAE is a new method of authenticating a device trying to connect to a network. It is a variation of the so-called “dragonfly handshake” that uses cryptography to prevent an eavesdropper guessing a password. SAE dictates exactly how a new device, or user, should “greet” a network router when they exchange

Wi-Fi Security Update Unveiled

cryptographic keys. It replaces the Pre-Shared Key (PSK) method, a four-way handshake, in use since WPA2 was introduced in 2004. SAE works by considering devices as equals, rather than treating one side as an explicit requester and the other side an authenticator. Either party can initiate the handshake, and then they proceed through sending their authentication information independently, rather as part of a back-and-forth exchange.

device’s code will function as a sort of public key.

192-Bit Security Protocols— WPA3-Enterprise, a version of WPA3 certification geared toward financial institutions, governments, and corporations, features 192-bit encryption. This is an excessive level of security for, say, a router on a home network, but it makes sense for networks that deal with particularly sensitive information. Wi-Fi currently delivers security with 128-bit security. The 192-bit security protocol will be an optional setting for institutions that want or require it for their networks. WPA3-Enterprise will use a 256-bit Galois/Counter Mode Protocol for encryption, a 384bit Hashed Message Authentication Mode to create and confirm keys, and an Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman exchange and Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm to authenticate keys. Easy Connect—Easy Connect is a recognition of the sheer number of connected devices in the world today. The average person today has at least a few more devices connected to his/ her home router than in 2004. Easy Connect is the Wi-Fi Alliance’s effort to make connecting all those devices more intuitive. Rather than entering passwords every time you want to add something to your network, devices will have unique QR codes and each

Enhanced Open—Enhanced Open is another separate protocol designed to protect you while you are on an open network, e.g., the networks to which you connect in coffee shops and airports. Enhanced Open uses Opportunistic Wireless Encryption (OWE), defined in the Internet Engineering Task Force RFC 8110 standard, to protect against passive eavesdropping. OWE does not require any sort of additional authentication protection because it improves the encryption of data sent over public networks so that eavesdroppers cannot steal it. It also prevents unsophisticated packet injection. It will be a few years before WPA3, Easy Connect, and Enhanced Open become the norm. Public adoption of WPA3 will occur as routers are replaced or upgraded. Manufacturers should begin selling WPA3-certified routers in the next few months.

REFERENCES Brian Barrett, The Next Generation of Wi-Fi Security Will Save You From Yourself, Wired, June 26, 2018. Michael Koziol, Wi-Fi Gets More Secure: Everything You Need to Know About WPA3, IEEE Spectrum, IEEE, Sep. 6, 2018.

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new suite of standards soon will make it possible to watch your favorite television show on a laptop, tablet, or smartphone. Broadcasters soon will be able to provide access to live programming anytime and anywhere on multiple devices. They also will offer interactivity as well as better sound and picture quality. These new features are the result of the Advanced Television Systems Committee’s ATSC 3.0 suite of standards for digital terrestrial broadcasting. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) authorized ATSC 3.0 for the United States starting in November 2018. The suite incorporates the first IPbased broadcast standard, allowing broadcasting companies to transmit their content simultaneously over the airwaves and the internet. ATSC is a nonprofit organization based in Washington, D.C., that develops voluntary technical standards for digital television. ATSC started from scratch rather than simply adding to previous versions of its standards. As a result, the ATSC 3.0 standards incorporate several new technologies. And they are flexible enough to accommodate applications not yet developed.

New Voluntary Television Standards Take Hold

Prime. For example, viewers soon will be able to see a major sports event by tuning in on their tablet while in transit, such as on a train. Because the standards are IP-based, broadcasters could offer apps to go along with TV shows, making the experience more interactive. The standards also could expand the potential for hyperlocal advertising or even emergency notices in viewers’ immediate area if the viewers allow the broadcaster to detect their locations. Broadcasters have not been able to transmit programs that take advantage of all recent advances in picture and sound quality. Many modern TVs have a high dynamic range (HOR), which extends the number of shades of black, white and gray that can be transmitted and displayed, while also improving the contrast ratio (i.e., how bright or dark the images can appear). HOR also offers extended colors, enabling a much broader palette to be transmitted. Companies now can broadcast in HOR thanks to approval of ATSC 3.0. The standards also will let broadcasters offer immersive audio in a surround-sound system. This is a vast improvement over traditional channel-based audio. Object-based

Other countries also are adopting these standards. For example, South Korea adopted them, taking advantage of many of their features during this year's Winter Olympics in PyeongChang. South Korea already has ATSC 3.0-compatible televisions and receivers. In the U.S., televisions do not yet comply with the standards, but converters can be incorporated into existing home entertainment systems. Standards-compliant U.S. broadcasts are expected to be available soon. The standards offer broadcasters the level of flexibility to which viewers have grown accustomed with their streaming services, including Amazon


ATSC 3.0 System overview.

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audio will permit sound to come from different elements on the screen. It will take time for TV manufacturers to catch up with the new voluntary standards. That differs from the 2009 mandatory transition from analog to digital television. However, once U.S. broadcasters begin putting ATSC 3.0-compatible programming on the air and show what it can do, the consumer electronics industry is expected to follow consumer demand. More than two dozen U.S. broadcast companies plan to test compatible content this year. Companies in Canada and Mexico also are getting onboard. In the meantime, the ATSC, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and other organizations are educating consumers and broadcasters about the standards.

REFERENCES Michelle Clancy, NAB 2017: NextGen TV Hub to highlight ATSC 3.0 Details, RapidTV News, Mar. 23, 2017. Amanda Davis, The future of broadcast television, The Institute, IEEE, June 2018. Rich Johnson, Deploying the ATSC 3.0 Broadcast Ecosystem v6, Pilot, May 5, 2016.

MOVIE REVIEW Bombshell on Netflix Reviewed by Glenn Bischoff, Proceedings Editor EDITOR’S NOTE: The following movie has been suggested as interesting or as a useful resource. The following review does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation by RCA. We welcome suggestions and recommendations from RCA’s members regarding books to share with RCA’s membership. The scope can include technical, regulatory, or other subjects. We encourage you to send your suggestions to David Bart at jbart1964@gmail.com for publication in a future issue of the Proceedings.


ombshell, a documentary that is available through the Netflix streaming service, does a deep dive into the life and career of the actress Hedy Lamarr, who also happens to be one of the most intriguing figures in the history of radio communications. Lamarr first got my attention decades ago because she appeared in one of my favorite movies, Tortilla Flat, the film adaptation of John Steinbeck’s novel of the same name, which also starred screen icons Spencer Tracy and John Garfield. The Netflix documentary is rich with archival material, including still images reflecting her personal and professional lives, motion picture and home movie clips, and interviews with children, grandchildren, friends and colleagues. One of those interviews was with Jennifer Hom, now illustration team manager at Airbnb but previously a “doodler” for Google for eight years. “Within the nerd community at Google, Hedy Lamarr was this beloved figure,” Hom said. “For me she is this perfect underdog, crimefighter-by-night story, because she lived this life of great accomplishment, and people didn’t really know about it.” The great accomplishment was the invention of frequency hopping, which occurred in the 1940s but didn’t become known to the public until April 1990 when an article appeared in Forbes, authored by staff writer Fleming Meeks, that described her work. Meeks became aware of Lamarr through his father, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology astrophysicist who in turn had heard about Lamarr’s exploits from a friend. Meeks landed a lengthy interview with Lamarr that became the basis for his article. In 2016, he stumbled upon the four cassette tapes containing the interview in a corner of his office, buried under a bunch of other stuff. Snippets of that interview are sprinkled liberally throughout the documentary and provide great insight into Lamarr’s attitude toward her scientific breakthrough. As one might expect, most of the documentary focuses on the roller coaster nature of Lamarr’s personal life and acting career—from multiple failed marriages, substance abuse and an obsession with plastic surgery to big-screen hits and misses—but also spends considerable time dissecting the myriad factors that led Lamarr to not only enter the world of radio communications, but also to revolutionize it.

At age 5, Lamarr took apart a music box, reassembled it—and the device worked as it had before. She always was intellectually curious, wanting to know how things worked, for example, electric street cars. Lamarr often would take long walks with her father, a bank director who was technologically inclined, and he would provide the explanations she sought. But it was World War II that made Lamarr an inventor. She had married Fritz Mandl, a munitions tycoon known as the Henry Ford of Austria who had ties to the Nazi regime. Meanwhile, Hitler’s army was wreaking havoc across Europe and his navy was dominating the Atlantic. She decided to flee, first to England and then to the United States. This wasn’t easy. As the wife of a prominent Nazi benefactor, she was under constant scrutiny. One night, Mandl was hosting a party at their residence and Lamarr was given the task of lining up the staff for the event. She chose a maid who closely resembled her and dosed her tea with a sleeping powder. After the maid nodded off, Lamarr donned her uniform, stuffed her jewelry into the lining of her coat and then rode off on the maid’s bicycle. After arriving in the United States, Lamarr began to revive her acting career, which had begun in Austria. On the side, she began to tinker with inventing, which fast was becoming a hobby. One of her earliest inventions was a tablet that would create cola when dropped into water—think Alka Seltzer but far better tasting. Her motivation was the troops fighting overseas, but the invention fizzled—pun intended—because the strength of water varies greatly from place to place, so the tablets performance was widely inconsistent. As Lamarr’s acting career ebbed and flowed, she became friends with a great many luminaries. One was Howard Hughes, who was seeking a way to build faster airplanes so that he could sell them to the Army Air Force. In the interview with Meeks, Lamarr claimed that she convinced Hughes to alter the shape of the fuselage and wings, which enabled him to achieve his goal. Lamarr was as fixated on the war as Hughes. The Austria that she knew and loved no longer existed. She resolved to do something about that—but what? At the time, German U-boats were dominating the seas, sinking troop transports and supply ships with impunity, largely because they had no trouble eluding the archaic torpedoes used by the British navy. One day, while toying with a remote control for a Philco home

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The technology eventually was used in the Sonobuoy floating submarine detection system. When the buoy detected a sub, it would transmit a secure radio signal to a military plane flying overhead that then would relay the signal to nearby Navy ships, warning them of the danger.

radio, the light-bulb went on—remote-controlled torpedoes that could quickly and nimbly change direction. The idea was fairly simple, but the execution was not. In Lamarr’s mind, the launch ship would control the torpedoes using radio waves. The problem was that the radio signal would not be secure because it could be jammed—and the Germans were masters at jamming radio signals. Her solution was to use multiple frequencies to communicate with the torpedo that would be in sync with each other and would change constantly. The Germans only would be able to jam a frequency for a fraction of a second before it would change. Frequency hopping was born. Lamarr received crucial assistance in this endeavor from George Antheil, a composer with whom she was acquainted. Antheil’s claim to fame was synchronizing 16 player pianos for the 1926 film, Ballet Mechanique. Lamarr and Antheil theorized that if rotating rolls could activate piano keys, why couldn’t they be used to activate frequencies used by the ship and torpedoes? They set about adapting Antheil’s invention for this purpose. Two rolls, one on the ship and one on the torpedo would begin turning at the same time and would rotate at the same speed, so that they could communicate with each other using the same pattern of frequencies. Ultimately, a total of 88 frequencies were used for the ship-totorpedo communications. Ironically, the invention never was used during World War II, even though Lamarr and Antheil donated it to the Navy. The Navy simply didn’t understand what it was given, primarily because it couldn’t grasp how a player piano roll could be used to guide torpedoes. Nevertheless, the invention was classified as “top secret” and placed on the shelf for more than a decade, until the Navy tossed it to a contractor in the late 1950s to see whether they could make sense of it.

Later, frequency hopping technology was used to fly surveillance drones during the Vietnam War. Today it is used in the Milstar satellite system that provides secure communications for the president and high-priority military missions—notably it is used to secure nuclear command-andcontrol communications. Closer to home it is the basis of the GPS, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth communications that all of us use every day. Lamarr, who died in January 2000, was never paid for her invention. Evidence exists that her frequency hopping technology was used prior to her patent expiring in 1959. United States patent law permits inventors to sue for payment up to six years after a patent expires—but Lamarr was unaware of this. Today her invention would be worth an estimated $30 billion. Bombshell is a fast-moving, enjoyable ride through the life and times of one of Hollywood’s most enigmatic personalities, one of the radio industry’s most important inventors and— most importantly—one of the nation’s most unsung heroes.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR Glenn Bischoff is a technical writer and editor for Mission Critical Partners, a public safety communications consulting firm headquartered in State College, Pennsylvania. He works with David Bart in editing the Radio Club of America Proceedings.

BOOK REVIEW Antenna Physics: An Introduction by Robert J. Zavrel Reviewed by John Facella, RCA Fellow, Director, Life Member EDITOR’S NOTE: The following book has been suggested as interesting reading or as a useful resource. The following review does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation by RCA. We welcome suggestions and recommendations from RCA’s members regarding books to share with RCA’s membership. The scope can include technical, regulatory, or other subjects. We encourage you to send your suggestions to David Bart at jbart1964@gmail.com for publication in a future issue of the Proceedings.


n wireless, the antenna can often make or break the results one obtains with a communications system. Yet antennas are often poorly understood and poorly utilized. This 160 page book, at $30, is a bargain. While it is issued by the American Radio Relay League,


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the national organization of radio amateurs, it is absolutely suitable for wireless engineers designing or evaluating professional communications systems. The author is a professional antenna engineer himself. Writing at a technical level somewhere between the average radio amateur and a BSEE graduate, he explains the physics behind antennas.

The chapters are short and easy to read. The explanations use a minimum of math, but there is math there if you want it, and there are some further explanations in the appendix. This book is not about how to build antennas, but rather how and why they work. Some of the material does focus on antennas that are more common in the amateur community, like vertical antennas; but the majority of the chapters are applicable to commercial wireless. My college EE classes in ‘Fields and Waves” were obtuse and difficult to understand. Years later, I find this book explains it all very clearly. Those currently in an EE degree program who are struggling to understand antenna theory would be well-served to review the chapters in this book. Antenna Physics, An Introduction. Robert J. Zavrel, Jr, W7SX. ISBN: 978-1-62595-049-9. American Radio Relay League. Pages: 160; 10.6” x 8.1”. Softcover and Kindle versions available.

ABOUT THE REVIEWER John Facella, BSEE, P.E., C. Eng., K9FJ, is a Vice President of the Radio Club of America. He is a life member of RCA and a Fellow and a life member of IEEE. He is a manager and principal at Panther Pines Consulting, with more than 30 years in the wireless industry, including 28 years working for both Motorola and Harris. He was a member of the International Association of Chiefs of Police Communications Committee and the International Association of Fire Chiefs Communications Committee, and currently serves on the NPSTC Broadband EMS Working Group, and the National Fire Protection Association 1221 and 1802 committees. He has a BSEE from Georgia Tech, an MBA in marketing from Georgia State University, is a registered professional engineer in the U.S., and a Chartered Engineer in the UK.

THE BOOK SHOP EDITOR’S NOTE: The following books have been suggested as interesting reading or as useful resources, and edited descriptions from the publishers are provided. These books have not been reviewed, and RCA is not advertising or endorsing the books or their authors. We welcome suggestions and recommendations from RCA’s members regarding your book suggestions to share with RCA’s membership. The scope can include technical, regulatory or other subjects. We encourage you to send your suggestions to David Bart at jbart1964@gmail.com for publication in a future issue of the Proceedings.


ext Generation Wireless Communications Using Radio over Fiber takes a coherent and logical approach to describe the potential use of co-ordinated multipoint systems supported by radio over fiber. It covers an impressive breadth of topics, ranging from components, subsystem and system architecture, to network management and business perspectives. The authors show the importance of radio over fiber in eliminating or mitigating against the current, perceived barriers to the use of co-ordinated multipoint, and the drivers for standardisation activities in future mobile/ wireless systems over the next few years.

MAC layers and the radio over fiber network and link design necessary to support the wireless system. Other important research is also covered as the authors look at compensating for radio over fiber impairments and providing simple network management functions. A study of service provision and the business case for such a future wireless system is also fully considered.

The book brings together the system concept for centralized processing, including what is required for co-existence with legacy wireless systems, the algorithms that can be used for improving wireless bandwidth utilization at physical and

Next Generation Wireless Communications Using Radio over Fiber. Nathan J. Gomes, Paulo P. Monteiro, Atílio Gameiro. Wiley, 2012. ISBN-10: 1119953391. ISBN-13: 9781119953395. Hardcover, 352 pages.

This book comes at an important time for future wireless systems with standardization of fourth generation wireless systems still ongoing. The content enables readers to make key decisions about future standardization and their own research work. The business analysis also makes the book useful to those involved in deciding the future directions of telecoms organizations. This information will be core to their decision-making as it provides technical knowledge of the state-of-the-art but also system level assessments of what is possible in a business environment.

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OPPORTUNITIES TO SUPPORT RCA The Radio Club of America provides many opportunities to support the organization and its activities. Sponsors can make specific requests or provide funding for general operations.

INDIVIDUAL SUSTAINING DONATIONS Make a difference in how quickly we progress with our many initiatives for young people, young wireless professionals and those in established careers. We encourage any member who is impressed with the operations of the club to make a tax-deductible donation earmarked to sustaining operations. Donations to support our day-to-day operations are critical to our future as an organization. You can also select RCA as your full or partial beneficiary on an IRA, so funds are tax-free to RCA, or set up a monthly donation through a credit card or ACH withdrawal.

CORPORATE SPONSORSHIPS AT SPECIFIC EVENTS Networking is a key reason many of our members get involved and stay active with RCA. Breakfasts, cocktail parties and other social events can be underwritten by sponsors who receive promotional considerations for their donations and heightened visibility to the membership.

3 YEAR SUSTAINING CORPORATE SPONSORS There is a unique set of advantages to corporate sponsors who participate in our three-year program. See our summary of benefits by level of sponsorship.

SCHOLARSHIPS Donate to an existing scholarship fund or create your own and you will be supporting university students pursuing wireless communications as a career.

YOUTH ACTIVITIES The Youth Activities program brings the excitement of learning about amateur radio and vivid lessons in science, math and electronics to middle and high school children in this unique and innovative program sponsored by RCA.

HOW YOU CAN APPLY YOUR DONATIONS A variety of funds are available to support specific goals of the initial donors and RCA operations. Please contact RCA for more information on these opportunities. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

General Club Operations (unrestricted) Archive Preservation Barone-DiBlasi-Facella Biggs Brownson DeMello Award Continuing Education Dettra, Finch General Grants in Aid Goldwater Grebe Gunther Legacy Fund Link Meyer Meyerson Poppele Tom Sorley Memorial Fund to RCA Youth Activities Richard G. Somers Youth Edu Fund

RCA is classified as a 501(c)(3) organization under IRS rules. Contributions may be tax deductible in the United States depending on a person’s individual tax situation.

HOW TO SPONSOR/DONATE The RCA donations form is on the website. Please contact our Executive Secretary, Amy Beckham, for more information on any of these opportunities. She can be reached at 612.405.2012 or amy@radioclubofamerica.org.


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RCA STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIPS The Radio Club of America has developed a Strategic Partnership program to build momentum with other organizations dedicated to the promotion of wireless technologies and careers. To date RCA has partnered with APCO, AWA, ETA, IWCE, NATE, NCVA, and the QCWA. Several other partnerships are in discussion. These strategic industry partnerships provide benefits to the members of both organizations, at the same time that they assist the wireless industry as a whole.

We encourage our members to assist us in developing and nurturing these partnerships. Be a part of the excitement, and help us shape the future of the wireless industry as RCA continues its second century of industry leadership. Please contact RCA with ideas, contacts, and leads. For more information about RCA’s Strategic Partnerships, please contact John Facella at pantherpinesconsulting@gmail.com.


The Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials International (APCO) is a member driven association of communications professionals that provides leadership; influences public safety communications decisions of government and industry; promotes professional development; and, fosters the development and use of technology for the benefit of the public. The Antique Wireless Association was formed in 1952 and is an educational non-profit chartered by the State of New York. AWA operates the Antique Wireless Museum in Bloomfield, New York dedicated to preserving and sharing the history of technology used to communicate and entertain from the first telegram to today’s wireless text messaging.

The Electronic Technicians Association International (ETA), founded in 1978, provides industry-recognized certifications for its members with career training from approved providers. ETA’s certifications align with the ISO17024 standard.

IWCE is the authoritative event for education, networking and collaboration in the communications technology marketplace. IWCE features over 370 exhibitors showcasing the latest products and technology in the industry. From land mobile radio, to wireless mobility… voice, video, data and everything in between.

The National Association of Tower Erectors (NATE) is a non-profit trade association providing a unified voice for tower erection, maintenance and service companies. NATE is headquartered in Watertown, South Dakota with a staff of nine people who administer to the day-to-day operations of the association. As a member driven association, NATE is led by its Board of Directors. These individuals come from all types and sizes of companies located throughout the United States. The U.S. Naval Cryptologic Veterans Association comprises active, retired, and honorably discharged U.S. Navy Cryptologists. U.S. NCVA’s primary focus is to preserve and promote a rich cryptologic history. The U.S. NCVA onducts annual reunions, provides fraternal, social, and recreational activities for members and guests and encourages and supports the preservation of the history of cryptology by members of the association and appropriate federal agencies. The Quarter Century Wireless Association, Inc. was formed in 1947. The organization has evolved into a worldwide association of radio amateurs, with thousands of members. Its purpose is to promote friendship and cooperation among Amateur Radio (Wireless) operators who were licensed as such at least a quarter of a century ago. The QCWA also promotes interest in Amateur Radio Communications and the advancement of the electronic art, making use of the reservoir of knowledge and experience represented within the membership of QCWA.

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THE FIRST CHRISTMAS SPEECH By David P. Bart Opening Lines: First Christmas Speech on Radio "Through one of the marvels of modern Science, I am enabled, this Christmas Day, to speak to all my peoples throughout the Empire. I take it as a good omen that Wireless should have reached its present perfection at a time when the Empire has been linked in closer union. For it offers us immense possibilities to make that union closer still." King George V, December 24, 1932


he idea for a Christmas message from the sovereign to the British Empire was first proposed by the "founding father" of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), John Reith, in 1922 when he approached King George V about making a short broadcast on the newly created radio service. The King declined, believing that radio was mainly an entertainment. Reith approached the King again ten years later, in 1932, as a way to inaugurate the Empire Service. The King, a reluctant speech-giver and unashamed technophobe, again declined.

WINNING OVER THE KING The next year, the BBC gave the King a radio, which he regularly used, becoming a particular fan of the news service. At the opening of various functions throughout the 1920s, such as the British Empire Exhibition in 1924, the King’s opening addresses were recorded by the BBC, with some attracting around 10 million listeners throughout the empire, a record for the period. Yet, he could not be persuaded to give a personal message to the population on Christmas Day. He believed that he lacked the sophistication and flair of other broadcasters. All this changed with the appointment of Ramsay MacDonald as the first Labor Prime Minister in 1929, a man whose simplicity in approach the King admired and respected. MacDonald assuaged many of the King’s fears about a personal broadcast, saying that a simple, honest approach would be more than adequate for the task. The Prime Minister suggested that Rudyard Kipling could write the speech, thus relieving the King of another anxiety. The new Statute of Westminster, signed in 1931, transformed the Empire into the Commonwealth, effectively removing the dominion nations from Britain’s direct imperial control, and creating a federation of equals under the Crown. MacDonald convinced the King, that the Monarchy was pivotal for maintaining unity. So, on Christmas Day 1932, as the people of the British 62

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Radio Times listing for the first Christmas broadcast in 1932.

Empire sat around their radios, the King entered their homes for the first time. The event was widely covered in newspapers, emphasizing that the King would deliver a personal message as opposed to a formal address.

THE KING GIVES THE SPEECH Since the King felt most comfortable in small rooms, the speech was made from the box room under the stairs at Sandringham House and not from the grand drawing room where the mini-studio was set up again for the official photograph. Thick cloth coated the table, and the King was so nervous that his shaking hands caused

through Post Office land lines to the Control Room at the BBC’s Broadcasting House. From there, connection was made to BBC transmitters in the Home Service, and to the Empire Broadcasting Station at Daventry with its six shortwave transmitters. The General Post Office was used to reach Australia, Canada, India, Kenya and South Africa.

Official photo of King George V giving the First Christmas Message.

the papers to rustle into the microphone. He went on the air and read the words composed by Rudyard Kipling. His gravelly voice was likened to that of a father speaking to his family, earning him the moniker Grandpa England, which was later adopted by his granddaughter, the present Queen Elizabeth.


The time chosen was 3:00pm - the best time for reaching most of the countries in the Empire by short waves from the transmitters in Britain. In the event, the first Broadcast started at five past three (twenty-five minutes to four according to the King's 'Sandringham Time') and lasted two and a half minutes. The Broadcast was preceded by an hour-long program of greetings from all parts of the Empire. The broadcast was introduced from Ilmington Manor by 65-year-old Walton Handy, a local shepherd, with carols from the church choir and bells ringing from the town church.

A TRADITION IS BORN The Broadcast made a huge impact on its audience of 20 million. Equally impressed, George V made a broadcast every Christmas Day until his death in 1936. The annual broadcast has continued on radio and television with subsequent Kings and Queen Elizabeth, an 86 year tradition.

Two rooms at Sandringham were converted into temporary broadcasting rooms. The microphones were connected

Sir John Reith established The Empire Service allowing King George V’s first Christmas Broadcast to be heard across the globe.

Sir John Reith established The Empire Service allowing King George V’s first Christmas Broadcast to be heard across the globe.

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BBC press announcement for the King's speech.

BBC network broadcast instructions.

Since 1932, the annual speech by the monarch has evolved into an important part of the Christmas Day celebrations for many in Britain and around the world.

BBC program notes for the audience.


FALL 2018 PROCEEDINGS | www.radioclubofamerica.org

Sir John Reith established The Empire Service allowing King George V’s first Christmas Broadcast to be heard across the globe.


The opposite side is decorated with Royal Navy ships and Britannia holding a trident before a never setting sun.

A commemorative tin box was produced and purportedly given to members of the military. No dates or maker are stamped on the box.

The narrower sides feature the British Union Jack, with a British lion in the center.

The lid includes ribbons, bows, and a royal crown surrounding King George V and Queen Mary.

Written on one side are the words: 'His Majesty's Christmas Broadcast to the British Empire‘ with an image of the King sitting at a desk broadcasting the message.

British Lion and Union Jack

Lid: King George V and Queen Mary

Royal Navy Ships

Royal Navy Ships

Britannia and the Never Setting Sun

Scroll: His Majesty's Christmas Broadcast to the British Empire

BBC Empire Service

BBC Empire Service

SOURCES BBC: “Cue the Queen: Celebrating the Christmas Speech,” https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b06t3pyb. Royal Family Website: “History of the Christmas Broadcast,” https://www.royal.uk/history-christmas-broadcast.

King George V Giving The Broadcast

Wikipedia: “Royal Christmas Message,” https://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Royal_Christmas_Message. Gov.UK Website: “History of Government - The First Christmas Speech,” https://history.blog.gov.uk/2013/04/24/ the-first-christmas-speech/. www.radioclubofamerica.org | FALL 2018 PROCEEDINGS


CALL FOR PAPERS & EDITORIAL COMMENTS The Proceedings of the Radio Club of America is known for bringing you a wide mix of papers, ranging from sophisticated technical material to historical surveys of subjects related to electronic communications. RCA also is known for fostering discussion and sharing the viewpoints of its members. RCA is therefore issuing a call for papers and editorial comments for publication in upcoming issues of the Proceedings.

• Antennas and supporting structures (i.e., towers) • Broadband communications • Broadcast

The Proceedings is published semi-annually, and has been issued since 1914. The Proceedings is considered to be the first publication geared to promoting and sharing the intellectual development of all aspects of radio and wireless communications. Coverage has expanded to include relevant articles encompassing science, technology development, marketing and regulatory topics. We seek articles from knowledgeable engineers, professionals, academics and amateurs who are participating in building future applications, as well as those who want to document the history of relevant technologies.

• Cellular telephony

As a fellow reader of the Proceedings, we would like you to author an article or editorial for publication. We welcome “early work,” even if it is still in the process of being drafted. RCA offers a unique opportunity for you to get an early reaction to important work now underway in wireless communications. It is also a unique opportunity to air your views, inviting commentary and response from the membership.

• Robotics

Please submit an abstract (1-3 paragraphs) including the title, author(s) and contact information, a synopsis of the material to be published, and a note as to why you think the subject is interesting or important to the wireless industry. Authors of papers selected for publication in the Proceedings may be given an opportunity to present at one of the RCA’s upcoming events, such as the annual Technical Symposium. (Note: participants are responsible for their own travel expenses to RCA events.)


We seek interesting or important technical articles, editorials and discussion pieces in any of the following areas:

FALL 2018 PROCEEDINGS | www.radioclubofamerica.org

• FirstNet • Ham (amateur) radio • Land mobile radio • Long-Term Evolution (LTE) • Military communications • Regulatory topics

• Satellites • 4G/5G Cellular • Semiconductors, LED or other devices supporting wireless communications • Any other wireless/radio technologies

Please send abstracts for articles and editorials to be published in the Proceedings to: John Facella at pantherpinesconsulting@gmail.com with copies to David Bart at jbart1964@gmail.com. Please send abstracts for potential presentation topics at RCA events to: John Facella at TechSymp2018@radioclubofamerica.org. For general questions about RCA, an article idea or submission, please contact Amy Beckham at Amy@radioclubofAmerica.org.


110th Radio Club of America Awards Banquet SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 23, 2019 New York City

WHY SPONSOR THE RADIO CLUB OF AMERICA BANQUET? The RCA Awards Banquet is the premier industry event to honor exceptional achievements by those who devote themselves to the improvement all forms of wireless communications. The event also showcases the achievements of middle and high school students involved in the RCA Youth Activities Program. Your sponsorship makes it possible for us to keep this event affordable for attendees and shows your support for our industry’s finest performers—both established and up-and-coming— whose invention, ingenuity and dedication benefit us all. SPONSORSHIP BENEFITS










Exclusive sponsor of cocktail reception, including signage, logo on napkins and specialty drink of your choosing to be served to attendees

Exclusive sponsor of Technical Symposium, including signage at food/drink tables and continental breakfast, and company logo on the podium sign Company name on red/white wine bottles at each Banquet table Logo on signage on speaker table, 2 Banquet tickets with seating at keynote speaker/RCA Presidents table Company logo on event banners at Banquet Recognition on PowerPoint at Banquet Company logo in printed commemorative program Company logo on table signage at Banquet Company logo and URL on RCA website Company logo on signage for Technical Symposium Company logo on signage supporting Young Achievers Opportunity to provide attendee gift/logo item

We can also create a custom sponsorship that meets your needs. Radio Club of America is a 501 (c) 3 non-profit organization, therefore, your sponsorship can qualify for a tax-deduction. Please consult with your tax advisor for specific information. COMPANY NAME (as you would like it to appear in promotional materials):


You can pay online at www.radioclubofamerica.org or call Karen Clark at 303.979.0621 for more information, to pay by check or for the specifications for your company logo.

www.radioclubofamerica.org | FALL 2018 PROCEEDINGS



DIRECTORY ADVANCED WIRELESS MARKETING Jack Armstrong, President 200 Warren Road Cockeysville, MD, 21030 PHONE: (443) 823-5100 jack@advancedwirelessmarketing.com www.advancedwirelessmarketing.com

Manufacturer’s Representative

ANDERSON-INTELLI-SMART BATTERY DIVISION KIRMUSS & ASSOCIATES, LLC Charles Kirmuss, Founder, Principal 51 West 84th Ave., Suite 301 Denver, CO 80260 PHONE: (303) 263-6353 ckirmuss@frontier.net www.anderson-intellismartbattery.com

Manufacturer of OE and replacement batteries for the two way radio industry. iNTELLi Smart Battery™ technology at lower cost than traditional OE standard batteries.

CAPITAL AREA COMMUNICATIONS Stephen J. Shaver, Project Manager 4120 Swatara Drive Harrisburg, PA, 17113 PHONE: (717) 561-0800 CELL: (717) 645-0086 FAX: (717) 561-9805 steves@cacradio.com www.cacradio.com

Wireless Communication Systems Solutions Provider

KIRMUSSAUDIO DIV OF KIRMUSS & ASSOCIATES, LLC Charles Kirmuss, Founder, Principal 51 West 84th Ave., Suite 301 Denver, Co. 80260 PHONE: (303) 263-6353 FAX: (303) 862-7170 ckirmuss@frontier.net www.kirmussaudio.com



PO Box 5680 Lago Vista, TX 78645 CELL: (512) 751-5472 TOLL FREE: (800) 966-3357 FAX: (512) 267-7760 dhlago@aol.com www.dhsalesgroup.biz

Independent Manufacturers Representatives and Consultative Manufacturers Representative

BLUE WING Andy Maxymillian, PMP, Principal Consultant 235 Summer Hill Drive Gilbertsville, PA 19525 PHONE: (610) 473-2171 CELL: (610) 316-2660 FAX: (610) 473-2536 andrew.maxymillian@bluewing.com www.bluewing.com

Consultant Services


Charles Kirmuss, Founder, Principal 51 West 84th Ave., Suite 301 Denver, Co. 80260 PHONE: (303) 263-6353 ckirmuss@frontier.net www.wwtechnologiesdirect.com Radio pioneer, Director of RCA and Rampart Search & Rescue: Custom solutions & products for the Public Safety, Search & Rescue and Military markets. Proud supporter & sponsor of RCA’s Youth Program.



William P. Fredrickson 11300 W. 89th Street Overland Park, KS 66214 PHONE: (913) 495-2614 CELL: (913) 909-4492 Bill.fredrickson@ leonardocompany-us.com www.leonardocc.com

John Facella, P.E., BSEE, MBA, Principal PHONE: (978) 799-8900 pantherpinesconsulting@gmail.com www.pantherpinesconsulting.com

Land Mobile Radio Manufacturer: DMR, P25, Tetra

FALL 2018 PROCEEDINGS | www.radioclubofamerica.org

Communications & Management Consulting





Sean Johnson, President 2023 Case Pkwy Twinsburg, OH, 44087 PHONE: (330) 486-0706 x302 CELL: (330) 541-6585 FAX: (330) 486-0705 sean.johnson@rfi.com.au www.rfiamericas.com

Bruce R. McIntyre, President 107 Dunbar Ave., Suite E Oldsmar, FL 34677 PHONE: (813) 818-8766 CELL: (727) 439-3683 FAX: (813) 925-0999 bruce@towerinnovationsinc.com www.towerinnovactionsinc.com

Dr. Theodore S. Rappaport, P.E., Ph.D PO BOX 888 Riner, VA 24149

Manufacturer of antennas and RF conditioning equipment for LMR

Wireless consulting, Communications structures



George R. Stoll, President 9850 S. Maryland Pkwy Las Vegas, NV, 89183 PHONE: (303) 840-2878 CELL: (303) 475-0414 FAX: (303) 840-1129 george.stoll@utcg.com www.utcg.com

Consulting Engineers

Larry Shaefer, President 115 N. Walker St. Angleton, TX 77515 PHONE: (713) 522-7000 CELL: (713) 526-8000 Lshaefer@sbcglobal.net www.wireless-towers.com

Texas Tower Site Leasing

Technical consulting, engineering and design services in the field of wired and wireless communications systems, equipment and devices.


YOUR AD HERE Would you like to be listed in the next issue of the Proceedings? Contact RCA at (612) 405-2102 or Amy@radioclubofamerica.org to reserve space.

THE RCA PROCEEDINGS ARE AVAILABLE ONLINE RCA’s bi-annual publication is now available to all Club members in the members-only section of the RCA website. Don’t have a login or not sure if your membership is current? Contact us at amy@radioclubofamerica.org or (612) 405-2012.

www.radioclubofamerica.org | FALL 2018 PROCEEDINGS





Visit the event calendar on the RCA website for the most up-to-date event information.



IWCE 2019T

November 8, 2018 Atlanta, GA

March 4–8, 2019 Las Vegas, NV

2018 RCA TECHNICAL SYMPOSIUM November 17, 2018 New York City



May 17–19, 2019 Xenia, OH

May 20–23, 2019 Orlando, FL


August 11–14, 2019 Baltimore, MD

November 17, 2018 New York City

AWA ANNUAL CONVENTION August 13–17, 2019 Rochester, NY

MOBILE WORLD CONGRESS AMERICAS October 22–24, 2019 Los Angeles, CA

SUPPORT RCA WITH A TAX-DEDUCTIBLE CONTRIBUTION Help RCA continue its mission of advancing wireless art and science for the betterment of society by making a tax-deductible donation today! RCA believes in the future of the industry and your contribution will help us with the important work of encouraging the next generation of wireless pioneers and entrepreneurs. Consider making a donation in someone’s honor as a memorial or gift. Donate online at www.radioclubofamerica.org/donate-to-rca/ or call us at (612) 405-2102 to contribute.


FALL 2018 PROCEEDINGS | www.radioclubofamerica.org

Save the date!




And more…

Find out more at apco2019.org www.radioclubofamerica.org | FALL 2018 PROCEEDINGS




We had a record number of new members last year - help us continue this momentum by spreading the word about why you belong to the oldest, most prestigious group of wireless professionals in the world! Direct potential members to the Why RCA? page of the website to learn what sets us apart.

Amazon has a program called Amazon Smile, through which Amazon will donate .5% of a qualified purchase to a charitable organization of your choice. To designate proceeds towards RCA, go to smile.amazon.com and use your Amazon login. You will be asked to select a charitable organization (Radio Club of America) and start shopping. It is an easy way to help the Radio Club and at the same time get a great deal on amazon.com. If you are an Amazon Prime member, you will continue to receive the benefits of your Prime membership.

Signing up for RCA Membership has never been easier! Use the new online membership application to submit your information in a matter of minutes.



If you have recently changed your address, email, or phone number, please send us an update.

ADDRESS: 13570 Grove Drive #302 Maple Grove, MN 55311

Email amy@radioclubofamerica.org or call (612) 405-2012.

PHONE: (612) 405-2012 EMAIL: amy@radioclubofamerica.org WEBSITE: www.radioclubofamerica.org


FALL 2018 PROCEEDINGS | www.radioclubofamerica.org