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Proposal Application Design for the Developing World

Paulrarick@gmail.com Paul Michael Rarick DESN 410, F001


DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

Table of Contents

0.0

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1.0

Executive Summary

2.0  2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4 2.4.5 2.4.6

Design Proposal Research Summary Design Problem/Opportunity Design Objectives Design Criteria User/Audience Criteria Structural/Architectural criteria Performance Criteria Aesthetic Criteria Technical Criteria Marketing Criteria

3.0 3.1 3.2   3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9  3.10

Audience/User Profile Introduction Age/Generational Factors Gender Factors Ethnic/Cultural Factors Educational/Knowledge/skill factors Income levels Household Composition Languages spoken Geographic regions: home/workplace Lifestyle factors


3.11 3.12

Ability factors Interaction

4.0

Human Factors

5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

Market Research Introduction Existing products Benchmarks Research Summary Market testing Conclusion

6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3

Feasibility Production Audience Response Research

7.0

Educational Goals

8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0

Resources/Contacts/Mentors Schedule and Deliverables Budget Appendices

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DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

1.0 Executive Summary

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his document summarizes the information gathered by Paul MIchael Rarick during his fourth year at Emily Carr University. Attending the class DESN410, under the instruction of Deborah Shackleton and Gilly Mah, this document is put together to outline the intended design steps, and propose an independent thesis project that will run the length of the class.

The class, and subsequent project, will progress in a succession of eight phases. Phase One has already been completed, which was a ten slide, ten second presentation about where the designer, myself, is at today. Phase Two is the deliverance of this proposal to instructors Deborah Shackleton and Gilly Mah. Phase Three constitutes project development in the form of modeling and prototyping successive iterations of my proposed design solution. Phase Four is the synthesis of Phase Three into a testable prototype, and the creation of a presentation and promotional material. Phases Five through Eight will culminate in the next semester of study. Phase Eight is a final exhibition on the date of May 3rd, 2012. This project is focused on creating communities in developing parts of the world. As mobile technologies develop and become more cost effective, the developing world will start to see the benefits of low-tech, affordable, and viable mobile based applications. These applications can exist across multiple platforms. Centering my thesis project around SMS and USSD based mobile applications and the parallels between how they are being used in the developing world and the possibly buy-ins for the developed world will allow for a more refined basis of study. Research questions center around this main question: what are the most effective mobile SMS applications being use in the developing world, and how can elements from different services be assimilated to provide a sense of community within a developing demographic in Vancouver BC? Research findings on this topic to date include multiple instances of where mobile technology is creating new markets and communities in developing countries. Branchless banking in Jordan is de-constructing what it means to be an account holder with a bank. No longer is it a patriarchal necessity. 3


M-PESA is an online, mobile SMS based phone application that allows people to do secure online transactions. It has grown into an international e-commerce platform. Not only is it being used to fund systems like the Afghanistan police, researchers have found that communities using M-PESA have experienced an increase in small business start-ups, and an increase in individuals accumulating savings. M-PESA provides large businesses, small-businesses, individuals, and third parties to give and receive payments via secure SMS mobile platforms. KIVA is a company that collaborates with NPO’s and other businesses to enable individuals to donate small business loans for people in developing countries. Individuals who are donating are well aware that there is no compensation if they do not see a return in their investment. However, if there is a return, they can put those earnings to help finance other people, or take the return investment for themselves. Childcount+ is based on the open sourced platform Rapid SMS. It is an important application because it provides healthcare and support for people who would previously not have been able to receive it before. Also, the healthcare system benefits because they are delivered with registered health information of the people in the communities. With this data, they can paint a picture of health for the entire community. Also, this is all done in real time, not subjected to intermediaries, ensuring that the data paints an accurate, real-time picture of the health of the community.

See Appendix: Comparatives for a more in-depth view of how these companies work.

Sibesonke is a company that started as a spin off from the Nokia Siemens Network. They have built a social network service that can go across virtually every mobile phone platform on the market today. Classifieds, chat forums, and other information is all accessible for users through a basic SMS messaging application. They have been hyper sensitive to the fact that sometimes old phones are not capable of downloading the latest versions of different software, thus limiting the applications scope and ability to get buy-in from users who have to interact with older hardware. The mPedigree system is collecting and cataloguing a growing database of medicine that is in current distribution in developing countries. This system is a comprehensive database that attempts to help people make decisions about the drugs they are considering to put in their bodies. Sometimes drugs get circulated via street knowledge, without the consumer knowing exactly what it is they are putting into their system. 4


DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

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ruth on Call is a company based of out San Franscisco California. Physicians answer questions through text messages in order for industry partners to gain information. How it works is that after you have registered online as a health care practitioner, you would receive a multiple choice question pertaining to your area of specialty. Then in an advertised eight seconds, you would answer the question. Every text message answer that you give to the database earns you ten dollars. Once the user has earned one hundred dollars, you have the option to be compensated or, even better, donate that money to charity (http://www.truthoncall.com/). If you are a physician, dentist, NP, optometrist, pharmicist, PA, or hospital CFO then you can sign up and begin using the service. Primary and secondary research has also been done into the inSite facility on the lower east side. InSite works on a Harm Reduction Model, where intravenous drug users can obtain clean needles, shoot up in a sterile and safe environment, and be provided with basic health services such as wound care, immunizations, and responsible using techniques. They are also the first step in a three step recovery model with a detox center occupying the upper level of the inSite facility. These sources serve to illustrate the extent of research that has been conducted thus far. Obviously this is an emerging field, and the synthesis of this design solution will reside in a realm of what could be; but it is very important to ground futurebased applications with ones that have been successful precedents.

See Appendix: inSite profile and early iteration for street workers for how this primary research will manifest.

Further information is needed, in the form of primary research, into IDU’s behavior patterns and psychological responses. I am currently in the primary stages of setting up a focus group, in order to co-create with people using the inSite facility through the lens of SMS based mobile technology. Themes surrounding this focus group will include ease of use, call and response patterns, the response to byte sized information, using SMS messaging as a community based tool, and using SMS based messaging as a research and data collecting tool for support staff. The provisional conclusion is that by incorporating SMS based message protocols within the inSite environment and existing community, it is possible to establish deeper relationships among the IDU’s, as well as among support staff. SMS based message systems can also be an effective tool for gathering real-time research into the geographical region surrounding inSite.

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DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

Application design for the developing world. 2.0 Design Proposal My project theme centers around the heuristics within smartphone application design for different platforms residing within the developing and developed world. The design opportunity focuses on creating content and research-based products stemming from research about SMS e-commerce platforms that reside in developing worlds, coupled with micro-financing, and branchless banking. Research findings to date include various studies that show how many people in developing countries do not have access to a bank. “An estimated 1.7 billion un-banked customers have access to mobile phones...(CGPA, 2012).” his shows that there is a viable, market for systems that deconstruct the traditional role of banking and provide services for people who cannot, for whatever reason, engage with traditional models. This is a great design opportunity. The design challenge is how to leverage two completely different application systems that reside on the mobile phone, and bridge a disconnect between them. The project thesis is as follows: SMS applications in the developed world can be leveraged to provide a humanistic connection and understanding of developing communities. Using this system, it is possible to create a stronger bond between community members, as well as provide valuable insight into behavior within these communities. I believe that by providing a platform where people can provide access points in the form of SMS message systems, coming both from the IDU’s perspective and the Healthcare worker’s perspective, a stronger community can be built. This community will leverage the individuals power and directly parallel the already present Harm Reduction model at inSite.

2.1 Research Summary

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“An estimated 1.7 billion unbanked customers have access to mobile phones...One of the major impediments to providing convenient financial services for the poor has been the high cost inherent in the traditional brick-and-mortar branches model (CGAP,2012).” This was a primary, driving quote behind the research of my project proposal. Information about micro-financing, branchless banking, and e-commerce in the for of SMS based messaging systems took the form of traditional journals, case-


studies, blogs. The scholarly literature was a little hard to track down. Because the information is so current, it hasn’t had time to be peer-reviewed, internalized and published in scholarly research reports. One report I found, titled M-Wallet: An SMS based Payment System provided a statistical as well as theoretical analysis of how one e-commerce, SMS based platform delivers a branchless banking system to thousands of people in need. Another case-study called M-PESA found that ”...by early 2012, M-PESA had 16 million customers served by a country-wide network of almost 30,000 agents. Early successes have shown the huge potential that technology can offer, but the journey toward financial inclusion via branchless banking is just getting started (CGAP,2012).” The CGAP is a huge resource for my project. It is an organization dedicated to connecting capitalists, businesses, NGO’s and other organizations that want to alleviate world poverty. Alongside their social motivations, they produce transparent, statistical research. This website is a very good place to establish and follow trends within this type of research. By subscribing to an RSS reader and incorporating their website into my feed, I will stay updated throughout my thesis research project in order to stay current on this ground-breaking and revolutionary of e-commerce, branchless banking. Another case study that was examined that attempts to bridge these aforementioned developing world e-commerce solutions with the developed world was KIVA. Kiva makes it very easy for people in the developed world to make a loan to a small business worldwide. This was a great study because it is a direct comparative/competition to the type of service I would like to design.

Design Problem or Opportunity

See Appendix: Comparatives for a more in-depth view of how these companies work.

2 .3

After researching and establishing these numbers, it became apparent that “we need to over-come an access barrier (last mile infrastructure), a relevance barrier(rightsized products and services), and a usability barrier(friendly and intuitive customer experience). The problem is that we tend to think of these separate, or at least we think we can tackle them sequentially (microfinance.cgap.org)“ This quote put things in perspective. Small businesses and individuals in developing countries are using revolutionary e-commerce initiatives to micro-finance and conduct small business on a day to day basis. On top of this, developments such as KIVA are providing monetary access points for users in the developed world to contribute to a branchless banking, small business, developing world economy. My design attempts to propel these developed world applications a step further. 8


DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

2.4 Design Objectives “Poor people save all the time, although mostly in informal ways. They invest in assets. They may set aside corn from their harvest to sell at a later date. They bury cash in the garden or stash it under the mattress. They participate in informal savings groups....(http://cgap.org).� My project attempts to take this idea, by donating things we take for granted every day, to people who could leverage them and use them within the developed world economic system. An example would be someone with a high Klout score could donate their social media contacts to a small business. Then this business would create connections internationally and hopefully obtain capital gain through the interaction. Although this is only one example, it outlines the type of thinking and user-buy-in initiatives that will be present in the design product. It also attempts to illustrate how my design will not simply re-create a preexisting platform. Instead, it will learn and pull inspiration from current, successful applications in order to propel small-business, mobile banking, micro-financing, and user-connection into a more humanistic, bright, and poverty alleviating future.

Design Criteria The project criteria is orchestrated by the precedents found in the research. See Appendix: User Profiles for an in-depth view of users.

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2.4.1

The demographic at insite is vast and varied. Most IDU’s are homeless people who might be fresh off the streets. However, after my primary research I noticed that there were many people who looked to be of middle working class as well.

2.4.2

The work will consist of several sections. It will include an SMS mock-up to illustrate how the application would work. It will also include a website for the layering of external buyin from the outlined user base. A printed, promotion, campaign will also be designed to fit within traditional models of mobile phone application development, implementation, and marketing.

2.4.3

The performance criteria will fit within the sustainability index that was given to use during our research and brainstorming phases.

2.4.4

The colour palette will communicate a stream lined, intuitive, optimistic, and revolutionary attitude. The design aesthetic must be savvy and cutting edge, yet non-biased and elegant. It must take into account multiple viewing platforms both in the developed world, and developing world. Responsiveness is a driving factor in design.


2.4.5

An architectural map of the website will accompany the mock ups so I will not need to make a prototype of every page. A fully flushed out work flow will accompany my smartphone application through the use of OmniGraffle professional. It is a great tool to make mock ups and illustrate user workflow.

2.4.6

A printed marketing campaign will incorporate a business letterhead, a business card, advertisement mock-ups, and possibly initiatives for campaigning towards an investing platform (eg a proposal for a Kickstarter campaign).

The Audience and user profile.

3.0

The audience and user profile of this project falls under three main categories. At the Onsite and Insite facilities there are three main demographics that exist. The first and most obvious demographic is that of the drug user. Facilities such as this would not need to be in existence if there was no drug use. It is quite obvious simply by taking a stroll down the lower east side, that Vancouver has a ways to go before we see the abolishment of drug use in our city. The second demographic would be that of the health care practitioner. People who work these jobs tirelessly and hyper altruistically make lives better for many people each year. Many times people fall into drug use because of a situation that is out of their control eg mental illness, physical accident, or monetary circumstance and once they become addicted they become isolated from the people they love and care about. Health care practitioners, including nurses, EMT’s, counselors, and psychologists provide support for these people while they are going through the cycles of rehabilitation. The third demographic is the researcher who studies patterned drug abuse, trying to locate discrepancies and fix them. Ultimately, solid real-time research makes it easier to find cause and effect situations based in reality. 3.1

Drug abuse doesn’t racially profile. And although some studies have shown that genetic, patterned abuse, might skip generations, it can afflict the young and old alike. The main demographic of drug users on the lower east side are young adults to middle aged adults. Health care practitioners, social workers, psychologists, and nurses fit in this same age range. Researchers are mostly middle aged adults.

3.2

The majority of drug users that use Insite and Onsite are male but there is a substantial amount of female users who come through the establishment. Health care practitioners, social workers, psychologists, and nurses span both genders and should be treated as

See Appendix: User Profiles for a more in-depth view of how these companies work.

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DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

equals within the Insite and Onsite environment.. The same types of ideas apply to researchers.

See Appendix: Annotated Bibliography Design for healthcar systems

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3.3

There are a large amount of aboriginal drug abusers present in the lower east side. It is important to respect their culture, customs, and the current trends associated with this ethnic group.

3.4

Many drug abusers have little education. Their pattern of abuse could have started when they were in High School. They might have not completed high-school. They might have their High School degree or equivalent. However, outliers do exist; people who have undergraduate degrees, graduate degrees, masters, PHD’s and other equivalents, along with working professionals, can be susceptible to drug abuse. Although the majority of drug users might not have secondary schooling, that does not mean they haven’t learned a system of their own. Years of living on the streets in a pattern of addiction can condition the body and mind. Drug abusers respond to reward systems and feedback loops. They might also possess social skills that they have acquired on the streets.

3.5

Drug abusers might have little to no income. What income they have usually goes towards drug use. When they go to second and third stage housing they might also be introduced to small, minimum wage jobs. They could possibly have other resources such as savings accounts that could have been frozen by family members depending on the age, demographic, and social ties of the drug user. Health care practitioners, social workers and other health officials that work at Onsite and Insite make working class to upper middle class wages.

3.6

Many drug users come from broken or non-traditional homes. They could be single, divorced, have children, be a single parent, or have a partner. There might be rifts between the drug user and their partner if the partner does not use drugs as well.

3.7

The primary language of people in the lower east side is English. Other languages that might be spoken are French and Spanish.

3.8

It is difficult to generalize where drug users on the lower east side might be living. They could be living on the street, which would might be a consequence of their drug use or a direct causation of their drug use. They might be living on couches, moving from a friends house to a friends house; this is a term coined “hidden homelessness.” They could also be staged in affordable housing. One thing is fairly easy to generalize about drug users who are living on the lower-east side. It is fairly arguable that their housing situation and


geographic region of both home and workplace is in a state of flux. The support staff the reside in Insite and Onsite live in Vancouver BC and the surrounding area. The surrounding area could consists of suburbs such as Surrey, North Van, etc... 3.9

Drug users might not have the most typical behaviour and lifestyle factors. They might have begun to lose social capabilities and be conditioned into different behaviour patterns as a result of drug use and constant street life. Attitudes of drug abusers maintain a certain researched empirical and theological analysis. Their values have taken a drastic change and they are starting to lose site of what is important to them due to a chemical change as a result of drug use. Drug users tend to be very opinionated. They don’t want to be seen as someone who can’t take care of themselves. They often are constantly hyper-aware of the tonality people use, and they do not respond well to forced charity or forceful behaviour.

3.10

Usual side effects of constant drug abuse include periods of paranoia, distress, hallucinations, and other symptoms affecting the mind. Physical symptoms of withdrawal resulting from drug addiction include inconsistent heart rate, twitching, uncontrolled shaking, lowered immune system, and other physical ailments depending on the drug. There is a very high rate of HIV and Hepatitis C in the lower east side. Drug abusers are also more susceptible to infection due to lowered immune system.

3.11

The aforementioned immunodeficiency disorders that are associated with drug abuse provide a good example of how SMS based messaging systems can give basic assistance to people who are in dire straights and only have low tech hardware from which to access applications. An an example could be that a drug user has developed a sore on their face and for reasons based on their behavior patterns they have an aversion from going to a medical clinic. An SMS based messaging system could provide basic diagnostic tools for the user and help deliver information that might sway their opinion and induce a behavior change where they would go into the hospital and receive treatment. This could lead to them going down a different route of treatment and recovering from their addiction.

3.12

A second example comes from the other side of the drug rehabilitation system. A health practitioner might be worried that a recovering drug user is on the verge of a relapse. When a drug user relapses it not only hurts them, it puts a strain on the whole system of recovery. Amassed resources, including tax payer’s money, go into every individuals path of recovery. When they relapse, not only is it hard for them because they have to start from square one, but the whole system of recovery is strained in terms of resources.

This is a section that needs more secondary research and primary research.

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DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

4.0 Human Factors

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he physiological circumstances of drug addicts are varied, but usually their bodies are in a constant state of fluctuating homeostasis. They might not eat for long periods of time. Sleep deprivation is very common in drug users, especially in those who are using drugs such as amphetamines. They put their bodies through a physical roller-coaster, and the psychological, emotional, and sensory consequences are extreme and hard to predict. One drug user might use heavily for decades and then become clean with relatively low side effects and without long lasting, severe physical ailment. For others they might only use for a relatively short period of time, but their physical, emotional, and psychological well-being could deteriorate at an expedited rate. The reasoning behind this, and whether it is genetic or environmental is something that is still being studied today. As a result of drug use, the rate of infection in the lower east side is very high. The most prominent infectious diseases are HIV and Hepatitis C. This is one of the main objectives of the inSite facility. They strongly advocated that providing a facility where people can obtain clean needles, water, and take drugs intravenously in a sterile environment directly reduces the spread of infectious disease. This is directly related to a decrease in the number of street injections. They also have a connection to health services in the facility. When these two ideas are combined, it provides a system to combat the spread of infectious disease associated with intravenous drug use. This will effect the level of complexity within the Human Computer Interaction (HCI) in my design. Although the average age of drug users might be low, they are putting added strain to their bodies and mind. Not to mention the many environmental factors that come along with being a drug user eg living on the streets, prostitution, stealing, and other resultants of being addicted to a drug also add to the strain on the physical and mental well being of a drug user. The HCI implementations of my design must be hyper-aware of this. The interface must be more than intuitive. There must be little thinking involved. Small byte sized bits of information are necessary. The important aspects of HCI to be implemented in the design of this system are as follows: psychology, software engineering, ergonomics, and visual design.

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Psychological themes play a crucial role in the design of an SMS based system for helping drug users on the lower east side. Psychological systems that need to be incorporated into the design of the system include feedback loops, community building, humanistic communication, and positive independent reward systems. They have also been conditioned by their continual and habitual drug use. The experience they share on an SMS based application for their phone should be sensitive to the fact that a drug user might not respond, or they might respond more, to normal phone application tactics. These would include gamification, reward systems, scoreboard systems, and social networks. The point is that they are going to respond differently than normal users. SMS based messaging systems have been around for decades. The software engineering has existed as long, which means many different versions of software for these systems has been implemented, user-tested, and de-bugged. This makes it very cost effective to implement into existing hardware. It is almost a fact to say that SMS, or some type of messaging resides on all phones whether they are smart phones or basic ones. This is very important when you consider the demographic that is making up the user base of this system. It is hard to say whether the phone will remain in the user’s possession. There are a number of reasons why a drug user might lose, misplace, or sell their phone. Hopefully, people will be continuing to Onsite, or even third stage housing if they are using an SMS based system implemented and financially provided for by the hospital.

See Appendix: Comparatives for a more in-depth view of how these companies work.

The ergonomics of the design will be limited by the fact that the software will have to reside on cost effective phones. Ergonomically the devices need to be functional and resistant to street factors such as weather, impact, and repeated use. Trending almost perfectly suites this design requirement. People are constantly throwing away their old phones to replace them with better, sharper, and faster products. These old phones, built decades ago, were made with longevity in mind. Planned obsolescence and style obsolescence were not as embedded within the design and fabrication of these phones. They can be given a second life and be used for years to come without them going bad. An exploration of these concepts will hopefully refine the design in a direction that is viable, intuitive, and produces a behavior change within the user demographic.

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DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

5.0 Market Research Vancouver is home to around 12,000 injection drug users. About one third of these users reside in the lower east side. Housing for these people is non-existent or unstable. The Harm Reduction Model of the Insite and Onsite facilities strives to decrease adverse health, social, and economic consequences of drug use. The propose that this can be done without requiring abstinence, and that over-all this method allows for more people to stay safe. The SMS based message application would be extended to multiple markets within this environment. This includes nurses, counselors, mental health workers, and peer support workers.

5.1

These people work at the facility to provide drug users with a connection to community resources that include support services, addictions treatment, second stage and third stave housing, wound care, and basic immunization. Insite is not a stand alone service. It is a safe use facility that is the first step in a process of recovery. The Harm Reduction model revolves around the hope that providing a space for users to safely inject, accompanied with the resources to recover from their drug use and addiction, they can decrease the negative consequences for drug users and the surrounding social geographical landscape.

To understand the market and the different demographics that interact within the system, I will outline the process of an individual using intravenous drugs at the insite facility. This is done in the hopes that it will convey an emotional map and allow you to see where specific tactics are employed to initiate a behaviour change in people who are using drugs at the Insite facility. A drug user must first obtain the drugs illegally from an undisclosed source. They then enter the Insite facility. After obtaining clean needles they proceed to one of twelve injection booths where they are observed by a nurse while they inject themselves with the pre-obtained drugs. See Appendix: After they have safely injected, they are led to a “come-down� room where they can inSite Case study rest, obtain basic first aid and wound care, learn about treatment options, talk to a counselor, and even enter a second stage facility, Onsite tleads them through withdrawal from narcotics in a safe and humanistic way. The people who would interact with an SMS based message system within this environment would include health care practitioners, nurses, support staff, counselors, and drug users.

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There are many projects to date that have leveraged low-tech hardware and SMS based applications to provide health-care in efforts to increase the standard of living for people in developing communities. A great example can be found at www.childcount.org. This is the website of a company that founded a “mobile health platform by the Millennium Villages Project (PSFK, 2011).” This program is called ChildCount and it is an SMS based mobile health deliverance system. It is specifically tailored at developing communities and empowering them to take action to improve the child survival rate, along with growth in the area of maternal health. It is built upon a platform known as RapidSMS. It leverages this platform using SMS based message systems to “facilitate and coordinate the activities of community based healthcare providers.” Health care workers can register people who do not have access to the hospital because of geographic location, resources, or other distance factors. This gives them the ability to be registered at the central location, have their health report status registered. When this is done for all the residents within the community, it portrays a “real-time view into the health of a community (PSFK, 2011).”

5.2

For more in-depth profiles of comparatives please look in the appendix under section header: comparatives. From here I will focus on the parts of existing products that serve as benchmarks. I will outline the best SMS applications to date, along with the most relevant points; and how that ties into the proposed SMS application project. A full outline of the applications that I will describe is catalogued in the appendix under the comparatives section. An application named Truth on Call provides in house text questions as a means for industry partners to gather research. Insite could take this precedent and use it to gather information about drug users on the street. Drug users that had a mobile phone could be compensated for answering a series of questions. A Finnish company called Sibesonke creates social networks that can reside on virtually any platform. This platform gives people access to chat platforms, forums, and classified ads. The platform uses SMS and USSD message platforms. An internet connection is not necessary for a user to interact with Sibesonke’s functionality. It works by dialing “xxx#“ on the user’s cell phone. A text screen shows up on the cell phone which is the by product of a data call. Then the user follows the instructions on the screen and and selects the “next page“ option by pressing “answer“ and “send”(http://www.sibesonke.com/About.html). Incorporating this type of technol16


DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

ogy could be necessary in order to get a buy in from drug users who interact with the inSite facility. Many drug user’s living on the street might not have access to a reliable internet connection. Being able to provide services regardless of if user’s have access to the internet could be a key component in keeping an online or message communication line with drug users. See Appendix: Comparatives for more information on these specific models that exist today.

Another benchmark comes out of Mount Sinai Adolescent Health Center in New York. Collaborating with a mobile marketing company, they have developed “Text in the City.“ They are hoping that this will help health care practitioners develop a deeper relationship with the patients at the clinic. Behavior change is easier when the user readily engages with the design implementation at hand. If users have to learn a new system, product, or design, it will be detrimental to the goal of the design implementation. This example makes use of what young women love to do all the time: text their friends on their cellphones. By working with pre-existing platforms, they already had a buy in with their user demographic. This means they could focus on providing the most relevant, and content focused system. The most relevant aspects of “Text in the City“ are the question and answer functions, where a patient can ask a question to a health care provider and get a quick response, and weekly “healthbytes.” These “healthbytes” relay information about healthcare in a quick and emotive way. Small chunks of information are easier to remember, and thus more likely to be held in the user’s conscious. Both of these ideas have potential to be implemented within the Insite environment. Drug users would most likely engage more fully with information that is transmitted to them via small, byte-sized bits. Likewise relationships between nurses, counselors, support staff and the patients at Insite could be deepened with another layer of communication added via SMS based message systems. These systems could reside on low-tech hardware, with minimal cost to the facility and investors.

5.4

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In order for me to be confident in choosing precedents and comparatives that will help me develop a viable, transparent, and reality grounded prototype, primary and secondary research had to be conducted within the project scope.. For a more detailed account of any of the resources described, please see the literature review and annotated bibliography located in the appendix of this design proposal.


The first area of study outlined in my literature review is heuristic design. Also known as experience based design, this is an attempt to root design processes in existing precedents and human based interaction. An important part of a designer’s job is to clearly outline and make transparent why it is important for a company to invest in design in the first place. Tim Brown, head CEO at IDEO design firm believes that it is in a multinational corporations best interest to invest in things like, �health, education, and economic prosperity(Tischler, 2012)� in countries that are still in the developmental stages. Helping out the little guy gives benefits everyone. When the standard of living is raised for people living under the poverty line, then they can become a viable part of the market and alleviate stress put on tax-payers, welfare systems, and other economic niches. There is a definite benefit to all people in humanistic design for the developing world, and people who live in poverty.

See Appendix: Literature Review for more text and the full literature review.

Linda Tischler, speaking about Tim Brown, and his economic expansion theory through actively raising the standard of living for poor people, examines how designing for the developing world goes a step further than simply providing aide. She examined a banking system in Jordan that is de-constructing what it means to be an account holder with a bank. In Jordan they are embracing an account holder as an encompassing entity that can have more than one person residing in the environment. This was a great source of information, helping to refine and hone my thinking and lens from which to view the scope of this project and the research that would have to be done in order to be successful. The next topic of research was on Branchless Banking and the systems/applications that support the infrastructure surrounding this new type of commerce. The CGAP is an online community dedicated to providing platforms to prevent and reduce poverty worldwide. They release statistics, develop strategies, and enable collabration on many different aspects of poverty in the world. Branchless banking constitutes many different types of business models. Please see the appendix for a full list of business models possible with branchless banking. Micro-finance within the realm of e-commerce, branchless banking, and strategies for helping the developing world was the next focus of my research. An article outlining the types of opportunities that branchless banking uncovers aims to internalize the hindrances that need to be abolished. Micro-finance can be extended 18


DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

through-out branchless banking and other ideas, but first we need to over come access barriers. An article by microfinance.org talks about simplicity and proximity. Get close to customers, streamline the product, and standardize the features. Money transactions need to be clear, consistent, and have beautiful design. In order to fix problems that exist, it is important to research exemplar initiatives that reside` in the current market. An amazing article from the KIVA foundation (www.kiva.org/microfinance) illustrates the types of micro-financing that happens in developing worlds. This was an important article because it served to illustrate that just because people might be living below the poverty line, does not mean that they don’t engage in monetary business transactions on a daily basis: Poor people save all the time, although mostly in informal ways. They invest in assets ...They may set aside corn from their harvest to sell at a later date. They bury cash in the garden or stash it under the mattress. They participate in informal savings groups where ... they are awarded the pot on a rotating basis. Some of these groups allow members to borrow from the pot as well. The poor also give their money to neighbors to hold or pay local cash collectors to keep it safe� (http://cgap.org).

Business is a way of life. It happens on all demographic levels. People living under the poverty line are no exception. It just happens in a different context. The underlying motive is the same. All that was needed next in the research was a way to tie in micro-financing within the developing world. See Appendix: Literature Review for more ideas on this topic.

That is exactly the venue that my secondary research took in its next steps. Here, the best way to study relationships between two financially and culturally different ways of life were case studies. Applications that have successfully embarked on the journey to design communities, applications, and products that leverage mobile technologies, branchless banking, and micro-financing to provide financial opportunities to people who would not otherwise get them were studied as secondary research for my design synthesis. KIVA was the first case study in my secondary research endeavour. KIVA makes it very easy for people in the developed world, or those who have a little extra capital, to make a loan for a business worldwide. They collaborate and partner with over one hundred and sixty different organizations. They “... believe providing safe, af-

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fordable access to capital to those in need helps people create better lives for themselves and their families (www.kiva.org).” KIVA collaborates with micro finance institutions to provide loans to people without access to traditional banking systems. Using this case study, I propelled my design research into a more general idea of design for a developing world. Technological advancements in healthcare can provide services that could once could only be provided in a doctors office. My secondary research became more refined in this direction. A report done for the Unicef foundation by the consulting company PSFK, presenting on the Future of Health, was a great resource for precedents in the advancements of technology and phone applications residing in different hardware devices. This concludes the summation of the secondary research at this time. Primary research for this project was a challenge to orchestrate. During the secondary research phase I was still refining the focus of my project. Most of the early primary research stemmed from impersonal conversations, bouncing ideas off of friends. Most of these focused around different ways of sharing information in the context of e-commerce, small business development, and social media marketing. One impersonal conversation that brought up an interesting idea focused around how “poor people save all the time, mostly in informal ways(http://cgap.org)“. Applying this type of thinking to the developed world. we synthesized an idea where, in a context like the KIVA foundation, people could share their Klout, online services similar to the things being advertised on Fivver, and other online services to support small business in other countries. All of this was interesting, but I still needed some solid primary research to add strength and positioning on to my secondary research.

See Appendix: Case Study for Darwin Fisher for a more in-depth view of my primary contact for this project

I didn’t know exactly where this would be obtained. Deborah Shackleton offered some insight when she made the observations that some of the statistics general of developing countries are being found occurring in our own lower east side. During the nineties, HIV rates were around 30%, which is around the same rate as developing countries. Also there were parallels between the rates of poverty and homelessness between developing countries and the lower east side. These general statistics gave me a grounded geographic location from which to deconstruct some of the comparatives and find out how they might be applied to new systems within the environment of the lower east side. I got offered an invaluable opportunity to 20


DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

gain primary research in person at the inSite facility. During the first explanation of my proposal to Russsell Maynard, a PHS working with inSite, and Darwin Fisher, Coordinator of inSite, Russell got excited and told me how he could see this system creating a tighter safety net for women who work the street around the area. They have a message system where woman can send small PSA’s, such as if there is a dangerous John roaming around, job classified ads; but it would also empower and enable these women to create a closer knit community. It strengthened my thesis that SMS based message systems can benefit both health care/service staff and IVU’s at the inSite facility.

5.5

At this time there has not been an extensive amount of market testing. This proposal is still in it’s primary stages. As a result of this, primary user maps are just starting to be ideated. Market research to date has existed in the form of informal conversations surrounding existing products and possible future ones. Also informal interviews inquiring about my idea and thesis constitute a loose form of market research. Market research was a crucial implementation for the development of this design proposal. It was very important to place this design challenge within a specific scope. People often tend to have an aversion to design projects aimed at social work type scenarios. Often times people see these problems as insurmountable or not cost effective.

5.6

People often ask why we should be helping out these people who might be putting a strain on our economic system, or be considered free-loading. To me, that stems from a misunderstanding of how addiction, mental disorders, and emotional disorders work. These types of health issues require a different approach to healthcare. To believe that the often dissociative, standardized, and segmented approach to healthcare will work across all scenarios could lead to lasting strains on the healthMore secondary care system in the long run, when they pertain to the aforementioned health disorresearch could be ders. Using a creative approach, inSite has drastically reduced rates of disease, like done in this area. HIV and Hepatitis C, among IDU’s, reduced the number of overdose deaths, and empowered people to seek addictions counseling and recovery. The staff at inSite works hard to administer a Harm Reduction Model of Health care, they create a sense of community that ultimately empowers the thousands of IDU’s who walk through their door and receive care from them. 21


Feasibility Production of this project will require minimal cost. Current USSD and SMS message system can reside on phones that people consider to be obsolete. Because of inSite’s lack of funding, no budget has been allocated to pay me, the designer, or anyone else who might work on this project. Like many social service products, the challenge of this design project is to solve a pre-existing problem on a minimal to non-existent budget. Instead of being a limiting factor, this will propel the design solution to facet pre-existing technologies.

6.0

They are also easy to develop and can work on pre-existing systems by changing existing content in order to service new needs. Although not much research has been done to determine exactly what type of coding is necessary in order for these systems to work, it is apparent that USSD and SMS message technology has existed for decades, and will continue to be a driving force behind community building in developing world social systems by leveraging the mobile phone.

6.1

Please refer to the Gantt Chart located in this proposal to get a detailed outline of the time restraints placed on this project. This design proposal is to be turned into Deborah Shackleton and Gilly Mah at Emily Carr University no later than the date of October 18th, 2012. An exposition of the testable prototype will be due on the date of November 29th, 2012. The final presentation for this project is set for the date of December 13th, 2012.

See 9.0/10.0 for a visual of the time allocations for this project.

To date the current indicators of audience response have been very positive. During the first explanation of my proposal to Russsell Maynard, a PHS working with inSite, Russell got excited and told me how he could see this system creating a tighter safety net for women who work the street around the area. They have a message system where woman can send small PSA’s, such as if there is a dangerous John roaming around, job classified ads; but it would also empower and enable these women to create a closer knit community. It strengthened my thesis that SMS based message systems can benefit both health care/ service staff and IDU’s at the inSite facility.

6.2

Feasibility factors in the research are fairly un-restrained. Darwin, the coordinator of inSite, seemed to be open to the idea of providing me with a focus group in

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DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

which to collaborate with the IDU’s who interact with inSite. This would allow for an exemplary primary research source, and would lead me to a design solution with the end user in mind. Ultimately, co-creation resources like this will lead to a more humanistic and feasible design. Darwin is open to exchanging information and research statistics with me about the inSite facility. For security and privacy reasons, they cannot exchange any of the patients information kept on their health logs. General information about inSite including numbers of visitors per day, the range and frequency of different occurrences in the facility, and market research about the residing demographic are all available through Darwin and the inSite facility. This will give a real-world basis of knowledge through a primary resource, meaning knowledge will mirror that which resides in the working field. It is my hope that following the design of this prototype, it will be possible to get a second focus group to interact with the project. This will give me, as the designer, a way of validating my research and getting contextual feedback elucidating the first prototype and providing a platform from which to extend into a second prototype.

7.0 Educational Goals Through this project I hope to research how we can leverage “solutions from disadvantaged countries (Tischler, 2012)” in order to meet the communication design needs of a specific cultural community: that of the lower east side. By exploring and widening my knowledge of cultural sustainability, and how communication design can support and add to this notion, I will further refine my practice as a designer. I will become more adept at using software design systems such as Adobe Suite, mock-up software such as OmniGraffle, and presentation software like Keynote. By complementing my primary and secondary research with physical practice of software, I will be able to further communicate my idea, and design an effective PSA and marketing strategy.

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Resources/ Contacts/ Mentors

8.0

The primary resource for this project is going to be Darwin Fisher. Please see the user profile on Darwin Fisher for a more complete understanding of how I will be interacting with him throughout my design process. His contact information is found on the profile located in the appendix. To this date he has given me an in-depth, personal account of his experience and opinions about the inSite facility. He also personally walked me through the waiting room, intake room, and come-down facility providing a detailed account of how they work and why they are effective. He will prove to be a valuable contact, resource, and mentor. Deborah Shackleton (dshack@ecuad.ca) and Gilly Mah (gmah@ecuad.ca), Core Design Studio 410 teachers at Emily Carr University are also primary contacts for this project. They will receive this proposal and provide design direction and critique for myself and the rest of the class.

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DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

9.0/10.0 Schedule/Deliverables/Time Budget December 13, 2012: Public Presentation of Phase Three and Phase Four March 14, 2012: Final Project and Prototype due. Week of March 21 and 28: Undergrad Research Symposium April 18: Last class, final files due for university archives May 3: Degree Exhibition Opens.

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DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

11.0 Appendix A A: Literature Review Heuristic Design The solutions from disadvantaged countries can often help industrialized countries rethink entrenched products or services. Design is all about learning from doing,” Brown says. “That’s how we evolve to the best solution. (Tischler, 2012)”

Tim Brown, the head CEO at Ideo design firm believes that it is in a multinational corporation’s best interest to invest in things like “health, education, and economic prosperity (Tischler, 2012)” in developing countries. He believes that if you build sustainable communities around the globe then you will contribute to a homeostatic market. Investments in countries that are still developing economically raises the standard of living in general. If we propel people out of poverty then they will become a viable part of the market and live with dignity and virtue. This idea attempts to answer the question that is often posed by investors involved with financing design projects: Beyond philanthropy, why should global companies invest in social impact projects in developing countries? In a world of competing demands and economic challenges-even for the wealthiest companies-–why is this a good use of resources (Tischler, 2012)? Designing for the developing world goes a step further than simply providing aide. An interesting example brought up in Linda Tischler’s article about Tim Brown is the banking system in Jordan. Here they are de-constructing what it means to be an account holder with a bank. They are starting to view it as a more encompassing entity, as a family ecosystem instead of as an individual. There the patriarch acts “as the chief investment officer (Tischler, 2012).” Also, when you create products in the environment where the demographic resides, you raise the probability of producing a more desirable product. 27


Another point the article brings up is that constraints can lead to practical innovation. When we are limited in scope, we expand and get creative to tackle a design problem. This type of thinking favors “designing for the consumer (Nussbaum,2004).� An in-depth knowledge of the consumer will lend towards a more viable and altruistic product. It will also have an impact in terms of sustainability because you are getting feedback from the user-demographic throughout the design process.

Branchless Banking The CGAP is an online community that is dedicated to providing platforms to prevent and reduce poverty worldwide. They release statistics, develop strategies, and enable collaboration on many different aspects of poverty in the world. Researching different trends and ways poor people gain, collect, and store capital is the main mission of this online website. Trend spotting within this context brought them to do more research into the number of people in developing countries who don’t have banks but have access to mobile phones: An estimated 1.7 billion unbanked customers have access to mobile phones.... One of the major impediments to providing convenient financial services for the poor has been the high cost inherent in the traditional brick-and-mortar branches model (CGAP,2012).

It is easier to reach more un-banked people than ever before. The types of technology that exists include: agent banking, card-reading, point of sales terminals, and mobile phones. CGAP calls this type of banking and capital investment as branchless banking. Branchless banking constitutes many different types of business models. Sometimes the bank is the backbone of the business. Other times the mobile network operators (MNOs) drive the capital investment. An important thing that was gathered from studying the content on this website is that: The industry as a whole is still working to demonstrate the viability of these different models and partnership arrangements (CGAP,2012).

This was important to keep in mind throughout the research process. As an emerging field, there are possibilities that might not have a precedent from which to research what has come before. These could reside in different examples of platforms incorporating these ideas. 28


DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

This article was very interesting because it gave a jumping off point to start studying different types of branchless banking corporations that exist. It gave one good example: M-PESA. This is an SMS based application that can reside on the mobile phones that exist in the developing world. It is more secure than traditional currency as it attempts to target the 1.7 billion unbanked customers who still have mobile phones in their pockets. It has been quite successful: ...by early 2012, M-PESA in Kenya had 16 million customers served by a country-wide network of almost 30,000 agents. Early successes have shown the huge potential that technology can offer, but the journey toward financial inclusion via branchless banking is just getting started (CGAP,2012).

The smooth transition from branchless banking into an already successful case study made it apparent that e-commerce has been a viable option for people in the developing world who cannot make it to traditional banks. Another great resource about branchless banking came from a paper titled MWallet: An SMS Based Payment System. It is named M-Wallet and it is a branchless banking, e-commerce platform, that: aims at replacing the current payment solutions like credit cards; debit cards, and cash with a simple Short Messaging Service (SMS) based solution that would work on all mobile phones irrespective of the network carrier and the manufacturer(Rai et all, 2012).

One important aspect of this technology is that merchants don’t need to buy into the service platform for financial transactions to take place between them and consumers. By opening the platform to merchant, regardless of whether they have an account or not, they have greatly increased the buy-in potential of consumers. The number of mobile phones is far greater than any other device that could be used to facilitate payment between consumer and merchant. Mobile commerce has the highest by in by people where their population is unbanked: By 2012, it is estimated that there will be 1.7 billion people with a mobile phone but not a bank account [and the] combined market for all types of mobile payments is expected to reach more than $600B globally by 2013 (Rai et all, 2012).�

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The mobile payment services with the most market share are Interbank Mobile Payment Services (IMPS), Nokia’s mobile money, and Google wallet. Mobile money only works on Nokia phones. IMPS is vulnerable to “replay attacks or mobile number spoofing” because it uses a simple PIN based security system. M-Wallet hopes to surpass these shortcomings. M-Wallet transactions are based solely on messages and use applications only as an extra layer of user-interaction. This makes them secure to the types of attacks described (Rai et all, 2012). A unique one time key is sent to the registered users mobile number which eliminates mobile spoofing and replay attacks. Within the M-Wallet system you can recharge your account(using the National Electronic Funds Transfer (NEFT)), make payments, and control recurring payments (Rai et all, 2012). Not only did this paper outline the important aspects of this e-commerce banking system, it outlined the types of buy in’s that are necessary in order for it to be successful:

Fig1.This chart shows how M-wallet works, acting as a mediator between payer and payee. notice that the payee needn’t subscribe or sign up to to Mwallet to interact with a payer using the platform.

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DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

Micro-Finance: An article outlining the types of opportunities that branchless banking uncovers aims to internalize the hindrances that need to be abolished. Micro-finance can be extended through-out branchless banking and other ideas, but first: We need to overcome an access barrier (last mile infrastructure), a relevance barrier (right-sized products and services) and a usability barrier (friendly and intuitive customer experience). The problem is that we tend to think of these separate, or at least we think we can tackle them sequentially (microfinance. cgap.org)

This article is talking about the need for a third party when it comes to financial transactions. One that could take an Amazon-like role. A third party would be responsible for “managing customer insight, presenting relevant offers, and organizing the delivery chain behind them (microfinance.cgap.org).� This article talks about simplicity and proximity. Get close to customers, streamline the product, and standardize the features. Money transactions need to be clear, consistent, and have beautiful design. Through this system you can combine features of savings, credit, and insurance and offer a variety of self discipline tools. It must have a top-down management where the customer is on top. This service must also be available and delivered in any quantity that people need it. It must also have convenient local liquidity options. An amazing article from the KIVA foundation (www.kiva.org/microfinance) illustrates the types of micro-financing that happens in developing worlds. In a tone of optimism and unbridled, open-mindedness, this quote exemplifies exactly the type of thinking that Tim Brown is advocating design for the developing world encourages: Poor people save all the time, although mostly in informal ways. They invest in assets ...They may set aside corn from their harvest to sell at a later date. They bury cash in the garden or stash it under the mattress. They participate in informal savings groups where ...they are awarded the pot on a rotating basis. Some of these groups allow members to borrow from the pot as well. The poor also give their money to neighbors to hold or pay local cash collectors to keep it safe� (http://cgap.org).

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It also carries an optimistic outlook on the ability of individuals to rise above abject poverty and create a better life for themselves. It is not the only way to combat poverty; but it is a useful tool. Much like how you cannot create cement without the appropriate ingredients. Micro financing helps in building a structure from which people can stand proud on the pedestal they have built themselves. The idea behind it is that individuals or organizations “supply loans, savings, and other basic financial services to the poor” (http://cgap.org) It is called micro finance because they usually involve small savings accounts or small loans. Micro finance institutions provide these loans and range from non profit organizations to large commercial banks.

Design to connect Micro Finance to the Developing/Developed World How do you grasp the seemingly insurmountable task of connecting two financially and culturally different ways of life? Arguably the answer was to study applications that have successfully embarked on the journey to design communities, applications, and products that leverage mobile technologies, branchless banking, and micro-financing to provide financial opportunities to people who would not otherwise get them. KIVA makes it very easy for people in the developed world, or those who have a little extra capital, to make a loan for a business worldwide. They collaborate and partner with over one hundred and sixty different organizations. They “... believe providing safe, affordable access to capital to those in need helps people create better lives for themselves and their families (www.kiva.org).“ They have over 450 volunteers. They are operating in over sixty different countries and have raised over 350 million in loans with a 098.98 percent repayment rate. KIVA collaborates with micro finance institutions to provide loans to people without access to traditional banking systems. KIVA hinges on the ability for lenders (anyone willing) to make an optional donation. They also gain capital through “grants, corporate sponsors, and foundations (www.kiva.org).” On the website users have the ability to make a loan, purchase a KIVA card, spread awareness, gain job/volunteer opportunities, and “learn more about micro finance and why it is unique (www. kiva.org).” 32


DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

They also have made four applications that connect kiva to social media platforms, show statistics, graphs, and maps. You can also query Kiva’s data via a SQL interface. There is also an application that makes it easy for lenders to manage their donations There is also “a live map of global Kiva loans in all stages: fund raising, funded, in repayment, and paid (www.kiva.org).” Tapping on visual cues gives the user more information on entrepreneurial opportunities in the area. KIVA, and the associated text that was researched about it, gave a great example of how two different worlds can exist within the same sociological framework.

Design in a developing world. Technological advancements in healthcare can provide services that could once only be provided in a doctors office. A report done for the Unicef foundation by the consulting company PSFK, presenting on the Future of Health, was a great resource for precedents in the advancements of technology and phone applications residing in different hardware devices. The best part about these new advancements is that they can be housed on multiple platforms and are available on “low-tech affordable solutions” These hardware devices cut down cost, time, and geographic location constraints within the health care deliverance system. Systems checkers can also be incorporated into low-tech systems; with an added function of relaying information to a central medical care facility. There data can be analyzed and then reacted to on a quicker basis. It increases productivity in the healthcare system because there are fewer trips to the hospital. This is also followed by a social behavior change, one that ”is seeing increased access to and sharing of health information.” According to the PSFK the implications of SMS, real-time based services are as follows: Trusted and Reliable: SMS systems can build trust and encourage repeat usage by providing timely responses to questions and submissions. Bite Sized Info: Concise informations is easy to remember and spread, while also serving as efficient use of user time and battery on mobile devices. Low Tech: SMS negates the need for more advanced smartphones and cellular infrastructure in developing countries. Maintains Privacy: Services can provide users with the options to maintain anonymity and privacy when asking sensitive information. -(PSFK, 2011)

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The literature review was a necessary spark to ignite the flame of research-based design. It followed a natural path of looking into heuristic design. Using this idea as a lens, research progressed towards ideas including branchless banking, micro-financing, and SMS based messaging e-commerce platforms. Then with these technologies and systems in mind, research was done into how to connect these technologies, that reside mostly in the developing world, with the developed world. Although, more research could be done into any of these fields, it has provided a basic structure from which to formulate a research questions and a consolidated thesis.

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DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

Appendix B B: Annotated Bibliography COMPARATIVES/COMPETITION www.kiva.org. 2005-2012. KIVA. Empower People with a $25 loan. accessed: Tuesday Oct 2, 2012 KIVA makes it very easy for people in the developed world, or those who have a little extra capital, to make a loan for a business worldwide. KIVA hinges on the ability for lenders (anyone willing) to make an optional donation. This provided a great jumping off point to start researching other comparatives and competition that resides within the market.

http://wishes.causes.com/. 2012. Causes. About. accessed: Tuesday Oct 2, 2012 Causes is a website that allows you to create a cause that you are passionate about. The tools they provide are free and range from ideas like a “boilerplate petition” to video viewing pages. You can also support a cause/action that has already been done if you do not feel like it is time to take the reigns yet. Every cause that is created incorporates open integration within Facebook which means they promote non-monetary marketing via timeline and newsfeed within Facebook. “The ability for supporters to tweet, email, and post a Facebook status update is a click away on every campaign page.” Email subscriptions are free, allowing for members to reach a wide audience at no cost. There is also the ability to make safe, secure donations with an easy, intuitive horizontal slide bar.

http://www.safaricom.co.ke/personal/m-pesa/m-pesa-services-tariffs/relax-youhave-got-m-pesa. 2008-2012. Safaricom: M-PESA. Relax you’ve got M-PESA. accessed: Tuesday Oct 2, 2012 This system of e-currency is very important in societies that have a varied demographic between rich and poor. A Kenyan woman who raises sheep for a living is going to have a very different monetary system than a business man who works in downtown. M-Pesa makes it easy to pay bills, buy airtime, and do currency transactions. Safaricom (http://www.safaricom.co.ke/index.php) owns M-PESA and manages the e-commerce account. When you activate your M-PESA account you receive a secret word that you should not share

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with anyone other than the customer support at Safaricom. This case study is very important because it starts to outline how technology can help shape the developing world.

MICRO FINANCING http://www.kiva.org/about/microfinance. 2005-2012. KIVA. About Micro Finance. accessed: Tuesday Oct 2, 2012 It also carries an optimistic outlook on the ability of individuals to rise above abject poverty and create a better life for themselves. It is not the only way to combat poverty; but it is a useful tool. Much like how you cannot create cement without the appropriate ingredients. Micro financing helps in building a structure from which people can stand proud on the pedestal they have built themselves. The idea behind it is that individuals or organizations “supply loans, savings, and other basic financial services to the poor” (http://cgap.org) It is called micro finance because they usually involve small savings accounts or small loans. Micro finance institutions provide these loans and range from non profit organizations to large commercial banks.

BRANCHLESS BANKING http://www.cgap.org/topics/mobile-banking. 2006-2012. CGAP. Mobile banking. Washington DC. accessed: Tuesday Oct 2, 2012 It is easier to reach more un-banked people than ever before. The types of technology that exists include: agent banking, card-reading, point of sales terminals, and mobile phones. CGAP calls this type of banking and capital investment as branchless banking. Branchless banking constitutes many different type of business models. Sometimes the bank is the backbone of the business. Other times the mobile network operators (MNOs) drive the capital investment. This article was very interesting because it gave a jumping off point to start studying different types of branchless banking corporations that exist. It gave one good example, M-PESA.

Rai,Nitika, Ashok,Anurag, Chakraborty,Janhvi, Prajakta Arolker, Saumeel Gajera. March 2012. M-Wallet: An SMS Based Payment System. St. Francis Institute of Technology, Mumbai. National Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering & Technology. pg 258-253. One important aspect of this technology is that merchants don’t need to buy into the service platform for financial transactions to take place between them

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DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

and consumers. The number of mobile phones is far greater than any other device that could be used to facilitate payment between consumer and merchant. Mobile commerce has the highest by in by people where their population is unbanked. A unique one time key is sent to the registered users mobile number which eliminates mobile spoofing and replay attacks.

http://microfinance.cgap.org. 2012 CGAP. The Great Financial Inclusion Juggling Act. Gap Micro finance blog This article is talking about the need for a third party when it comes to financial transactions. One that could take an Amazon-like role. Outlining the steps that are necessary in an e-commerce, micro-financial role provided valuable insight to the world of mobile app development.

Bai Meera. 2011. Insite, a Nurse’s Perspective. http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=u5Vyyq89mjw accessed October 14th, 2012. This you tube segment is an interview with Meera Bai, a nurse who works at Insite. She explains her experience with the patients and the relationships she builds with them when they come to safely use intravenous drugs at the facility. She also makes a strong case for Insite’s ability to alleviate the strain that drug users were putting on the physical hospital environments. Meera explains how, through the repeated act of helping a drug user find a clean vein, she was able to convince the hesitant user to undergo IV treatment for a sore on an abscess that would have taken his life. A colorful example about the power of the patient health-provider relationship comes when Meera and other providers far surpass their technical- job requirements to provide a humanistic, and deep relationship with their patients.

Mas, Ignacio, Porteous, David. A LiFi World of Safe, Cheap and Convenient mobile technology. 2012. This article outlines the important opportunities that the developing world can have in the role in developing cost effective mobile technology. It outlines some of the existing content and ways to extend these platforms. This article is important because designers must always be thinking on the cusp of what could be.

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DESIGN: IN A DEVELOPING WORLD Tischler, Linda. Ideo’s CEO: 5 Reasons Global Firms Should Serve The Developing World 2012. www.fastcompany.com. accessed: Tuesday Oct 2, 2012 Tim Brown, the head CEO at Ideo design firm believes that it is in a multinational corporation’s best interest to invest in things like “health, education, and economic” prosperity in develop This article is important because it reminds us that when we are limited in scope, we expand and get creative to tackle a design problem.

Nussbaum, Bruce. 2004. Business Week: The Power of Design. http://dvandewalle.cox.smu.edu/POWER%20OF%20DESIGN-BusinessWeek2004.pdf accessed Tuesday Oct 2,2012. pgs1-9. Bruss Nussbaum is the head CEO at IDEO where they do design for product innovation and company business evolution. This article talked about a case study with Kaiser Permanente. They made the hospital a better place by collaborating with users. This allowed IDEO to implement cost effective initiatives for the Kaiser Permanente Corporation.

PSFK. 2004. A PSFK Consulting Report: Future of Health Care. www.psfk.com This two hundred page article is a document prepared for Unicef put together by the PSFK consulting firm in order to provide an in-depth analysis in the advances of technology into decentralized healthcare. A quote that helped to solidify my idea: “The mobile phone and connected tablet computer are allowing for the distribution of a broad range This is especially important in countries with little or no healthcare infrastructure...These technologies also allow trained professionals to perform quality control remotely.” Technological advancements in healthcare can provide services that could once could only be provided in a doctors office. The best part about these new advancements is that they can be housed on multiple platforms and are available on “lowtech affordable solutions” These hardware devices cut down cost, time, and geographic location constraints within the health care deliverance system. Systems checkers can also be incorporated into low-tech systems.

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DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

PSFK. 2004. A PSFK Consulting Report: Future of Health Care. SMS Consultation. www.psfk.com Mobiles phones only need to carry basic SMS messaging and other low-tech capabilities to carry a myriad of services for the user interacting with them. This section of a larger document provides a summary outlining that solutions to providing health care services, insights, and research gathering can happen in a cost-effective, sustainable matter. This is very important to the project at hand, because the demographic of drug users in the lower east side shares statistical correlations to that of third world countries.

DESIGN: FOR HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS Beyrer, Chris. 2011. Safe Injection Facilities save lives. Department of Epidemiology, John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, MD, USA. www.thelancet. com accessed October 16th, 2012 This article talks about how needle exchange and other services help to drastically reduce the disease rate, morbidity and mortality, rate and providing other health initiatives for patients. It was listed that there was a thirty five percent drop in mortality rate within 500 m of the inSite facility. This article helped to place my research within the human rights scope. It also gave evidence that providing a sense of community helps to combat disease.

Marshall D L Brandon. Milloy M-J, Wood Evan, Montaner S G Julio, Kerr Thomas. 2011. Reduction in overdose mortality after the opening of North America’s first medically supervised safer injecting facility: a retrospective population-based study. British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS. St. Pauls Hospital. Vancouver, CA. This study outlined reasoning behind why safe injection sites should be considered where injection drug use is prevalent, particularly in areas with high densities of overdose. It drew from a census of death reports obtained from the British Columbia Coroners Service. They also examined statistical analysis of the amount of times the service was used by individuals. This wa aggregated by the Scientific Evaluation of Supervised Injecting study. They are responsible for the figure to the right, which is a great visual representation, showing where and how frequently overdoses are occuring in the lower east side.

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SUSTAINABLE DESIGN AIGA. 2009. The Living Principles: Genealogy of the Living Principles. AIGA. Center for Sustainable Design. New York. This article outlined sustainable design and how it can be integrated into a designer’s practice. It outlined four types of sustainability in design: aspirational, selective, integrated and actionable and how they overlap and blend into one another. This was an important document for my project because it highlighted the different aspect I can incorporate into my process.

www.designcanchange.org. Sustainable Design Checklist. SmashLab. accessed October 15th, 2012. This article, by SmashLab is a checklist that designers can use in order to make sure that their projects are incorporating a sustainable approach. It is formatted in a checklist format. The categories are strategy, execution, production, printer, paper, packaging, inks, post-press, distribution, and end-of-useful-life. Each sub-header contains lists that can be checked off in order to make sure that your project is fulfilling the sustainability requirements for each category.

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DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

Appendix C: Audience User Profile: 1. The User Personal Profile: Grace Phillips Grace is currently a resident in the Onsite facility. Working towards a life that is clean and sober, her time is spent going through rehabilitation routines. It was a long withdrawal process, but she is finally feeling clean and clear again. Some of the tactics being employed to help her recover are counseling sessions, therapy sessions, and programs to regain and maintain physical fitness. She used Insite a number of times when she was a user. When she was laid off from her job, she couldn’t find a reliable source of income. She began using on a recreational basis and then after some time, it turned into something that she could no longer control. Now that she is at Onsite, she is finally able to picture her sober way of life as a real, attainable option.

“I am gaining independence but I need a mentor when I leave the facility”

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Background 35 year old divorced woman Received BA Living in Onsite Novice Internet/phone User Owns a Nokia SMS messaging phone Wants a support system for when she is on her own She likes social media and messaging systems.


Grace has much anxiety about the next stages of her recovery process. Third stage housing has many more options and freedom. Although she is very excited about this new freedom because it means a closer assimilation to the normal life she had before, she is worried she might relapse and have to start back at square one in terms of her recovery. Because she hasn’t been able to have a job, she doesn’t have a reliable source of income. She does have unemployment insurance which accounts for a small income. She uses a basic SMS based messaging phone on the most basic plan; it accounts for text messaging and calls only. The rehabilitation program has limited her phone to only receive calls and texts from approved persons that they establish.

Attributes Younger Female Less wealthy Less experienced with internet Anxious about new independence.

Senario Grace wants to be able to work on her growing independence by leaving the second and third stage housing facilities; but she wants a reliable source of help and assistance because she knows there might be times when she is feeling vulnerable to relapse.

Customer Needs Simplicity and easy of use Guidance Learning tools Planning tools Help moving from big picture to specific actions Proactive communication Validation of decisions

Needs Prompt responsive support system Guidance

Feature Prompt SMS messages responding to her inquiries. Information

Behavior Grace feels more empowered each time she goes out on her own and find that she has to rely less and less on the SMS based message system for support; now she finds that she is resolving issues internally that she would previously have used the message system for. 41


DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

Audience User Profile: 2. The Researcher Personal Profile: Steve Shultze Steve is a current health care researcher and is also active with the research and development programs that deal with inSite and Onsite facilities and programs. He is a strong advocate of the needle exchange program and believes that providing sanitary conditions, safe alternatives, and recovery options is worth the money and effort put in by all parties involved. Jason is a strong advocate of research based programs because, it not only provides people with a better standard of living and more thorough recovery options; but it also provides him with statistics and “cold hard facts” that he needs in order to convince less inclined people that investing in initiatives such as Insite and Onsite are worth the time and monetary expense.

“I need statistics in order to help people. Together we can make lives better for others.”

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Background 35 year old, white male. Research and practice based associate Married, two children Intermediate internet/phone user Lives in Vancouver BC. Highly involved in aggregated research. Wants real time research


He is very interested in learning about how SMS applications can be leverage in a research context. Receiving real-time, text based, research statistics and information would be a very interesting thing for Steve. Although he is very interested in how these types of platforms can be leveraged, he does not know exactly what the best type to employ is, nor does he know exactly how it would be set up.

Attributes Wants to manage risk. Privacy for users/ and recovering users is a priority. Smart about price/value relationships. Will stop use if it is not producing results. Needs transparence in research information. Senario Steve wants to gather more statistical information that can be directly linked to real- time causation. These types of statistics would include where users are living, how often they move, their spending habits, and other aggregated information.

Customer Needs Simplicity and easy of use Guidance Learning tools Planning tools Help moving from big picture to specific actions Proactive communication Validation of decisions

Needs Accurate information Anonymously aggregated to secure user’s privacy

Feature Prompt SMS messages responding to direct user behaviour. Information is kept anonymous.

Behavior Steve is happy to receive another layer of research on top of the more traditional studies that have come before. User’s are happy to know their information is being kept private.

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DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

Audience User Profile: 3. The Health Care Practitioner Personal Profile: Ellis Darby Ellis went to the University of British Columbia for nursing school and practiced nursing for a number of years. She loved being a nurse but she always wanted to study social work because her grandmother had a drinking problem. Ellis went back to school to the University of British Columbia and studied social work. She has been a major advocate for the inSite initiatives. Working at the Onsite facility brings her joy knowing that she is helping people regain a healthy, fulfilling and successful life again. She also supplements her time volunteering at the health resource room. This give her a lasting sense of connection with the people she works with. This is important for her in her life.

“I am interested in providing another layer of care.�

Background 27 year old, asian female Health practitioner Tech savvy/ internet/ phone user Lives in Vancouver, BC Highly involved with patients Wants real time support services. 44


Ellis owns a smartphone and is rather tech savvy. She knows how to subscribe to RSS feeds, and checks technology websites, such as Fastcompany and Mashable frequently. She is interested in how social media, and basic technological applications can be applied to her work at the facility. She sees many of her patients using different types of phones. Some of them have smartphones, but she sees the majority of them using cheap phones that do not cost a lot to maintain. She doesn’t want her patients to be able to reach her during her private time, off work; but she is open to the idea of being connected to patients via SMS messaging during her normal work hours as long as it does not negatively affect her work environment and productivity.

Attributes Wants to manage risk. Very loyal to the patients she works with. Able to fully understand the technology being employed. Will stop use if it is not producing results. Needs transparence in research information. Senario Ellis is worried that a patient who has spent months working hard to recover and regain their sobriety is cycling towards another relapse. She thinks that maybe the person is spending their money on drugs and alcohol during their time away from the housing facility.

Customer Needs Simplicity and functionality Needs to see obvious positive consequences for her patients. Learning tools Planning tools Prompt and responsive services

Needs Prompt responsive support system Guidance Ability to contact specific patients.

Feature Prompt SMS messages responding to her inquiries. Information

Behavior Ellis is able to keep communication with patients even when they are out of the housing facility. She can send reminders and comfort in the form of SMS messaging conversations. If she feels someone is close to a relapse they can go on “red� alert. 45


DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

Appendix D: Resources/ Contacts/ Mentors Primary Research Mentor: Darwin Fisher HIV AIDS & HARM REDUCTION Personal Profile: Coordinator of Supervised Injection Site (inSite) Address: 139 E Hastings Street. Vancouver, BC. v6A1n5 Telephone: 604.720.7587 Email: darwin.fisher@vch.ca

“I am interested in advocating Harm Reduction and I work to make IDU’s lives better here at the inSite facility.”

Background 46 year old, Caucasian male inSite Coordinator Tech savvy/ internet/ phone user Lives in Vancouver, BC Highly involved with patients Wants real time support services.

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“DARWIN FISHER is a Fine Arts graduate who has been working in Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside for the past 10 years. He is originally from Saskatchewan. His passion is working at Insite, but he is also a painter and a musician(http://www.cbc. ca/fifth/2008-2009/staying_alive/darwin_fisher.html).” “Provision of sterile injecting equipment to people who inject drugs has long been a cornerstone of HIV-prevention programmes, with pragmatic public health approaches leading policy development. But these approaches have proven difficult to implement in multiple settings, largely because of political, legal, and moral objections(Breyer, 2011).”

Attributes Wants to manage risk. Very loyal to the patients she works with. Able to fully understand the technology being employed. Will stop use if it is not producing results. Needs transparence in research information.

Duties Responsible for coordinating services for people at the inSite facility Stocking of needles and other medical equipment. Helping patients with information and project management Planning tools Providing prompt and responsive services for staff members.

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DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

Resources/ Contacts/ Mentors Primary Research Partner: inSite Safe Injection Facility HIV AIDS & HARM REDUCTION Web:http://www.vch.ca/ Address: 139 E Hastings Street. Vancouver, BC. v6A1n5 Telephone: 604.687.7438 Email: feedback@vch.ca

“Visit the Supervised Injection Site to learn more about our services, clients, neighbourhood and more. “ The image on the right shows the twelve booths where users can safely inject previously obtained drugs. Image courtesy of: http://www.flickr.com/ photos/alexguiry/4196573722/

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Insite “offers a supervised intravenous drug injection site designed to be accessible to injection drug users who are not well connected to health care services; men and women who use more than one drug; people who experience both addiction and mental illness; people with a history of trauma; people who are homeless, live in shelters or live in substandard housing; men and women of Aboriginal descent and people who have tried unsuccessfully in the past to overcome drug addiction (http://www.vch.ca/EN/find_services/find_services/?program_id=2711).” “Since opening its doors in 2003, Insite has been a safe, health-focused place where people inject drugs and connect to health care services – from primary care to treat disease and infection, to addiction counselling and treatment, to housing and community supports. Insite operates on a harm-reduction model(http://supervisedinjection.vch.ca/).”

Attributes Not a stand alone facility. Partnered with PHS Community Services Society. Onsite is the second stage facility located directly above inSite. Provides a safe and clean place for users to inject drugs . Provides drug treatment and recovering options.

Duties It keeps people from transmitting infectious diseases. Form relationships and encourage marginalized people to access health care services, including primary care and addiction treatment.. Improving public order and reducing the number of injections taking place on the street.

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DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

Appendix F: Sustainable Design Sustainable Goals: SMS text message system for inSite Safe Injection Facility AUDITING DECISIONS TO MAKE SUSTAINABLE PROJECTS

“One serious problem for designers is that, even with a systems approach, there are few tools in existence that wrap these issues together. Instead, designers, must learnto match together a series of disparate approaches, understandings, and frameworks in order to build a complete solution. “(AIGA, 2009).

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Strategy Best serves the clients needs. Employs an effective message. Fulfills the objects. Serves multiple purposes . Doesn’t require subsequent or parallel efforts to support it. Has limited environmental impact throughout its life cycle.

Execution Uses as few materials as possible. Uses the most appropriate format. Maximized the use of space. Raises social awareness. Up- cycles materials. It is easy to recycle. Paperless.

Production Marketing material is on target with print qualities. Uses local vendors and sources local materials. Minimizes transport and shipping. Uses vendors that utilize renewable energy..

Packaging Eliminates adhesives by using an alternative binding. Does not require secondary or tertiary containers. Minimizes that gave of the materials. Is robust, reducing the amount of protective materials. Is refillable.

Distribution Has mailing lists that are up to date. Accurately targets our audience. Avoids shipping by air. Avoids use of labels by printing addresses directly on the piece.

End-of-useful life Can be recycled. Can be reused. Minimizes the de-inking process. Is biodegradable.

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DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

Appendix G: Comparatives Millenium Villages Project: ChildCount+ Rapid SMS This project is based on the open sourced platform Rapid SMS. The website for the project is www.childcount.org. The reason this is such an important application is because it provides a pay-off for the people residing in the communities as they receive healthcare and support when previously they wouldn’t have been able to receive it before. Also, the healthcare system benefits because they are delivered with registered health information of the people in the communities. With this data, they can paint a picture of health for the entire community. Plus, this is all done in real time, not subjected to intermediaries, ensuring that the data paints an accurate, real-time picture of the health of the community.

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This real-time aggregation of health information helps health care providers find fluctuations of health patterns. Discrepancies between community health statistics can help researchers understand what is affecting the health and well being of these communities as a whole. It might lead to the discovery of new health patterns that were not noticeable before because health information about people in these communities were either not deliverable, or were delivered at a rate that was not providing an accurate portrayal of the health variation in these communities. 53


DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

Comparatives Truth on Call: Healthcare professionals collaborate through text

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This company is based of out San Franscisco California. Physicians answer questions through text messages in order. How it works is that after you have registered online as a health care practitioner, you would receive a multiple choice question pertaining to your area of specialty. Then in an advertised eight seconds, you would answer the question. Every text message answer that you give to the database earns you ten dollars. Once the user has earned one hundred dollars, you have the option to be compensated or, even better, donate that money to charity (http://www. truthoncall.com/). If you are a physician, dentist, NP, optometrist, pharmacist, PA, or hospital CFO then you can sign up and begin using the service.


How it works is that industry members have the ability to create and ask thousands of doctors and other healthcare providers a multitude of SMS based message questions. First an industry member creates a question. Then Truth on Call sends the question to registered health care professionals. When they receive the questions they must respond within twenty four hours. Once this response has been confirmed, industry partners receive the answers to the questions in a couple of hours. Compensation is provided to the healthcare professionals for participating in the study. On their contact page you can send Truth on Call an inquiry with the understanding that you will get a response immediately(http://www.truthoncall.com/ contact/).

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DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

Comparatives Sibesonke: Bringing people together This company started as a spin off from the Nokia Siemens Network. They have built a social network service that can go across virtually every mobile phone platform on the market today. Classified, chat forums, and other information is all accessible for users through a basic SMS messaging application. They have even been hyper sensitive to the fact that sometimes old phones are not capable of downloading the latest versions of different software, thus limiting the applications scope and ability to get buy-in from users who have interact with older hardware. The service works using SMS and the USSD text-based protocol, both of which are part of the GSM technical standard, meaning there is no need to upgrade a phone or establish an internet data connection (PSFK,2011).

From their website, it is apparent that Sibesonke is all about making communities and trying to establish close knit communities using sustainable and simple tools. Its target market are the “worlds 2.5 billion phone users in the developing world who 56


are without the internet(http://www.sibesonke.com/).” Their mission is to empower mobile phone users with life relevant new information. This means that they have many partnerships with global NPO’s and other companies. They specifically built the foundation of the service on the internet but they leverage it so it can exist on almost any hardware device, even if it does not have internet access. A thorough understanding of consumer insight is important in order to integrate into all demographic markets. The pilot was successfully developed in 2009 in South America. They have experience overwhelming growth, boasting that it works on every platform of mobile phone. How do they achieve across-hardware compatibility?

SMS and USSD, a part of the GSM technical standard(http://www.sibesonke. com/About.html)” they can facilitate for every type of consumer market. USSD is a browsing protocal that is strictly text based. The download times are faster that SMS.

It works by dialing “xxx#“ on the user’s cell phone. A text screen shows up on the cell phone which is the byproduct of a data call. Then the user follows the instructions on the screen and and selects the “next page“ option by pressing “answer“ and “send”(http://www.sibesonke.com/About.html). Market research is a basic goal of this service. Their service permeates and gathers research on commercial market culture at a minimal cost on topics ranging from products, marketing, advertising, health issues, and even HIV awareness. 57


DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

Comparatives Text in the City: Mount Sinai Adolescent Health Center This is an example of where collaborations between mobile marketing companies and health centers can provide new products that enrich the quality of health care that patients receive. Technological platforms can provide a service to strengthen the connections between patient and health care provider. This can lead to a more in depth, humanistic relationship within the demographic residing in the hospital environment(www.psfk.com). This initiative provides a free and reliable health education platform for teenagers through their primary means of communication, texting. The service offers a questions and answer function birth control reminders, and weekly “healthbytes.� (PSFK,2011).

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Immediately, there are direct correlations between how this platform is benefiting young girls within their social lives, and how it could be constituted into a methodology to help drug users. Many drug users fall into a patter of repeated social functions that might emulate those of troubled teenagers.


They have a supplemental blog www.textinthecity,posterous.com, to outline exactly what Text in the City provides, and to whom it provides their service. It is specifically for teens attending the Mount Sinai Adolescent Health Center in New York. They have a twitter feed that anyone is welcome to follow. Their blog focuses on other products, leveraging their existing products and services they send via text message. A good example of these are Textbytes. Below is a photo depicting how powerful bonding tools are created through cell phone usage and text messaging services.

A new effort to help teens quit smoking makes use of one of teens’ most constant companions—the mobile phone. According to the program’s developers, 75% of youth between the ages of 12 and 17 own a cell phone, so “there is immense potential for mobile technologies to affect health awareness and behavior change among teens.”[1] Aside from the “cool factor” of the text message, recently published data suggest that text messaging helped almost 11% of smokers stop smoking, compared with almost 5% of those in a control group.[2](http://textinthecity.posterous.com/).

These ideas play on existing psychological and social motivators. Current professional health providers, marketing professionals, and concerned citizens saw a problem : the need to create a deeper bond for young women attending the health center. They moved together towards and initiative to provide relief from that problem not by drastically changing the girls behavior. Instead they noticed a pattern; these young women love to interact via SMS messaging, and leveraged to provide 59 health services.


DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

Comparatives mPedigree: Identifying fake medicines via mobile phone. The mPedigree system is collecting and cataloguing a growing database of medicine that is in current distribution in developing countries. This system is a comprehensive database of that attempts to help people make decisions about the drugs they are considering to put in their bodies. Sometimes drugs get circulated via street knowledge, without the consumer knowing exactly what it is they are putting into their system. By creating a large resource of drug classifications that label drugs as illegitimate or genuine and making it available on a basic mobile platform, users from anywhere can be assured that they are purchasing or suing safe medicine.� (PSFK,2011).

They collaborate with telecom operators in Africa, pharmaceutical industries, and fortune 500 technology industries to provide a service to African patients such as protection for illegitimate drugs. Almost a million people a year are killed in the de60


veloping world from the ingestion of counterfeit drugs. Pharmaceutical companies also benefit from this service because a consequence of the mPedigree system is the recovery “of the more than $200 million that legitimate pharmaceutical companies lose DAILY to this genocidal trade”(http://mpedigree.net/mpedigree/index. php).” They call themselves and “electronic resource system.“ As the pharmaceutical trade grows between east Asia and Africa, it is important to make explore how this affects Africa’s under-resourced health sector.

This process allows users to ask questions about the medicine in their possession. Just like the precedents that have been explained, this comparative SMS messaging system aims to help the direct consumer with humanistic goals in mind as well as create a community that leverages the physical partnerships that exist. Not only does mPedigree save lives by helping consumers identify counterfeit drugs, but it also aims to create strong bonds between drug manufacturers, pharmacists, and regulators. Patients and consumers should not feel that every time they take medication, they are gambling with their lives. Regulators should not look on powerless as better resourced criminals lay waste to the health sectors of Africa, India , and elsewhere. (http://mpedigree.net/mpedigree/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&i d=47&Itemid=54). 61


DESN 410 Proposal: Paul Rarick

Appendix H: Early Ideation Street Workers: Leveraging message boards and alerts. During the first explanation of my proposal to Russsell Maynard, a PHS working with inSite, Russell got excited and told me how he could see this system creating a tighter safety net for women who work the street around the area. They have a message system where woman can send small PSA’s, such as if there is a dangerous John roaming around, job classified ads; but it would also empower and enable these women to create a closer knit community. It strengthened my thesis that SMS based message systems can benefit both health care/ service staff and IVU’s at the inSite facility.

1.

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Problem with existing solution. A message from a street worker must first go to an administrator. Than the administrator posts the message. The message gets posted much later than when the street worker created it. This loss of time could mean dangerous situation for women working on the streets.

2.

New Solution Outfit these women with up-cycled SMS based message phones. Then, when they need to make a post, they send a message. This message goes out to all the people with this phone. It also gets automatically relayed to a central database. In the database, the message is tagged, stored by date and time, and aggregated with all the other posts.


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