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One City nine 'GhOst' tOwns?

-seeking an alternative growth model to vitalize the Lingang new harbor City in shanghai

Yuhui Jin yuhui.jin2012@gmail.com Student ID: 4242548 Department of Urbanism Faculty of Architecture TU Delft Graduation Studio: Design as Politics


Context ReseaRCh stRategies design Reflextion in geneRal


Context shanghai

Suzhou

Shanghai

Pudong Internatial Airport

Jiaxin

Yangshan Deepwater Port

0

10km

20km


Context PRessuRe of inCReasing PoPulation

Both population and population density increased a lot in Shanghai Central City during past decades, and Shanghai became one of most dense metropolitan in the world. 1843

1949

1979

Urban area of Shuanghai Source: Shanghai New Town - Serching for community and identity in a sprawling metropolis, 2010

Suzhou

Shanghai

Pudong Internatial Airport

(By 2013. Population: 24 Million. Density: 3,800 /km2) 1850

mat

ion

ity ns de

la opu sing p Increa

Jiaxin

Shanghai's urban density (people/km2) increases, despite the relocationof inhabitants ofthe Central City. Source: Shanghai Statistical Bureau 2009

tion

Esti

Incre

n atio p ul g po n i s a

Population growth since 1978:Citizens with an urban hukou (black), citizens with a rural hukou (dark grey), unregistered 'floating' residents (light grey) Source; Shanghai Statistical Bureau 2009

Yangshan Deepwater Port

0

10km

20km


Context 1-9-6-6 Plan: fRom mono CentRiC to Poly CentRiC

Suzhou

Shanghai

One central city with nine new towns

Pudong Internatial Airport

Lingang

Jiaxin

Yangshan Deepwater Port

0

10km

20km


Context Position of lingang aRea

Lingang area has huge potential to become a new harbor city

Suzhou

Shanghai

Pudong Internatial Airport

30km

Lingang

Jiaxin

30km

Yangshan Deepwater Port

0

10km

20km


Context lingang new haRboR City Plan A huge plan was proposed

We need a plan for 515.6km2 area and will build a 74km2 city to settle 0.8 million new residents by 2020

Suzhou

Shanghai Officer from government

Pudong Internatial Airport

Our plan has several advantages. It solves congestion, pollution and noise. Problems with land value and speculation can also be tackled. It creates a prime address for more than eight kilometres around the lake.'

Current Plan

Lingang Designer from GMP

19km Jiaxin

Yangshan Deepwater Port

2003

2005

0

10km

20km


Context lingang has diffiCuties in gRowth

The reality is: Hundreds billion of RMB was spend on Lingang area,

Current Plan

Reality

Linear village

Rural Area

Existing Villages Big Infrastructure Lingang Central City

New Built Neighborhood

New Built Area New Built Industry


Context emPty PRoPeRties

Empty properties (in Linang Central City)

Linear village

Rural Area

Existing Villages Big Infrastructure Lingang Central City

New Built Neighborhood

New Built Area New Built Industry


Context unvital new neighboRhoods

Unvital new neighborhoods (beside Nicheng old town)

Linear village

Rural Area

Existing Villages Big Infrastructure Lingang Central City

New Built Neighborhood

New Built Area New Built Industry


Context PRoblematiC uRban PatteRn

Problematic urban pattern

Linear village

Rural Area

Existing Villages Big Infrastructure Lingang Central City

New Built Neighborhood

New Built Area New Built Industry


PRoblem definition

PRoblem definition Most of the new built neighborhoods in Lingang area are empty or unvital, and a problematic urban pattern is dominanted in building this kind of new towns


design goals

design goals -Seeking an alternative growth model to vitalize the Lingang New Harbor City


Context ReseaRCh

(sPeCulative gRowth model is a Risky way to develoP new towns)

stRategies design Reflextion in geneRal


CuRRent Plan stRategies and theoRies used

Iconic plan as marketing tool It is risky way to develope new towns

Current Plan

Fig 2-2. The iconic urban pattern in Dubai, Source: Google Map

Fig.2-3. The design of Lingang Central City, Source: http://www.urbanplanet.org


CuRRent Plan stRategies and theoRies used

Function of current plan

Big infrastructure & large monofuntional zones Problems recognized: -Long distance between different functions, it -Big infrastructure, isolation


CuRRent Plan stRategies and theoRies used

Current built area

-Mono-functional package (Not enough urban services distance)

-Geometrical scheme of the current plan (iconic plan of Lingang Central City)

situation

old towns Built area in Phase 1 Unbuilt area in Phase 1


Result of CuRRent Plan: a deadloCk of fuRtheR gRowth

The growth base on the speculative model

fall into a DEADLOCK that both residences and enterprises are not willing to move in


CuRRent site situation infRastRuCtuRe

Yanshan Deep Water Port

Big infrastructures

INFRASTRUCTURE OF CURRENT SITUATION

Highway Fast way Metro line Train line

FUNCTION OF CURRENT SITUATION

Fastway

Highway

Highway

Bridge to the Yangshan Deep Water Port

Yangshan Deep Water Port

Metro Line

Highway

Train Line

Yanshan Deep Water Port

Railway


Logistic

CuRRent site situation funCtion

Airplan industry Car Manufacture Vessel Key Component Power Generation assembly Marine Engineering Construction Machine

Logistic

Luchaogang Town

FUNCTION OF CURRENT SITUATION

DEMOGRAPHY OF CURRENT SITUATION

Shuyuan Town

Shanghai Golf Club

WanxiangTown

Shanghai Nature park

Nature area along the coast line Flower industry

Rural Area (Linear Villages)

NichengTown

Logistic

Lingang Central City

Dishui Lake

Logistic Airplan industry Car Manufacture Vessel Key Component Power Generation assembly Marine Engineering Construction Machine

Companies that moved in Logistic

Luchaogang Town

Mainly the global oriented industry

Global oriented manufacturing industry


CuRRent site situation demogRaPhy

Population Old towns New built towns (neighbourhoods)

Population Density

Agriculture related population

Marine University

farmer live in the new built neighborhoods

51593 DEMOGRAPHY OF CURRENT SITUATION 48% 13137/km2

24973

governmental allowance after losing

34%

9941/km2

unconvinient to live in these new neighborhoods

New built neiborhood Source: Shanghai New Town - Serching for community and identity in a sprawling metropolis, 2010

57759

26% 6241/km2

12000 1796/km2 35000

12456/km2 16368 5930/km2

Population Old towns New built towns (neighbourhoods)

Population Density

Agriculture related population

Marine University

Ex-farmer living in new built neiborhood Source: Shanghai New Town - Serching for community and identity in a sprawling metropolis, 2010


CuRRent site situation vitality Where commerce & retail is concentrated (data from google map)

New built neighborhoods: unvital Lingang Central City: empty The old towns: vital but low quality

Old towns New built towns (neighbourhoods) Marine University

VITAL AREA OF CURRENT SITUATION

VITAL AREA OF CURRENT SITUATION

Main street in Nicheng

Informal commercial street in Nicheng

unvital

empty Lingang Central City

Lakefront in Lingang Central City

vital but low quality Where commerce & retail is concentrated (data from google map)

Old towns New built towns (neighbourhoods) Marine University

Empty commercial property in Lingang Central City

Empty housing property in Lingang Central City


leading aCtoRs goveRnmental baCkgRound enteRPRises

HIGH TECH

LIGHT INDUSTRY

Who initiate the new towns? Government HEAVY INDUSTRY

LOGISTIC

Who lead the development of these new towns? Governmental background enterprises: SOEs (State-owned Enterprises) or CE (Cenral Entreprises, which directly holding by central govern- ment)

Who Finance? Shanghai Lingang Economic Development (Group) Co., Ltd.

Shanghai Harbour City Develop (group) Co., Ltd

Leading actors in new town development

Who are the CEOs CEO

POLICIES

STOCKHOLDERS Municipal Municipal National Asset Land Banking Management Center Center

Central Government

Municipal debts

Municipality

BANK


leading aCtoRs goveRnmental baCkgRound enteRPRises

HIGH TECH

LIGHT INDUSTRY

HEAVY INDUSTRY

LOGISTIC

Shanghai Lingang Economic Development (Group) Co., Ltd.

Shanghai Harbour City Develop (group) Co., Ltd

Leading actors in new town development

CEO POLICIES

STOCKHOLDERS Municipal Municipal National Asset Land Banking Management Center Center

Central Government

Municipality

BANK

The government plays both the role of "referee" and "sportman" at the same time in building new towns


2

leading aCtoRs goveRnemtal baCkgRound enteRPRises low effiCienCy

THE PERFORMANCE OF GOVERNMENT DRIVEN INVESTMENT, MASURED IN THE RATE OF GDP/ FIXED ASSETS

1

Mid

dle

2000

4

Eas

t No

3

We st

Re

gio

2002 Reg

rthe

ion

n(

2004

nR

6p

rov

es)

2008

egio

(11

n (3

pro

pro

2010

2012

Data: China statistical bureau, Haitong Securities Research Institution

Shanghai is belong to East Coastline Region (11 previnces)

vinc

es)

vinc

es)

The governmental driven development was increasingly inefficient, it decreased 2.37 times in terms of GDP/Fixed Assets Investment. In other worsd, the over government driven 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 developement (eg.bureau, building new city) is Data: China statistical Haitong Securities Research Institution unsustainable, and will cause big problem to theThe national econmy in the coming future. governmental driven development was

2

The governmental driven new town 1

2000

2006

inc

2002

increasingly inefficient, it decreased 2.37 times in terms of GDP/Fixed Assets Investment. In other worsd, the over government driven developement (eg. building new city) is unsustainable, and will cause big problem to the national econmy in the coming future.

Shi Xiaomin Economist

Shi Xiaomin Economist

THE PERFORMANCE OF GOVERNMENT DRIVEN INVESTMENT, MASURED IN THE RATE OF GDP/ FIXED ASSETS Mid

dle

4 Eas

t No

3

We st

Re

gio

Reg

rthe

ion

n(

6p

nR

rov PERFORMANCE OF GOVERNMENT DRIVEN INVESTMENT, THE inc es) MASURED IN THE RATE OF GDP/ FIXED ASSETS

4

n (3

pro

dle

pro

Eas

es)

Re

gio

vinc

We st

n(

es)

t No

vinc

3

2

Mid

egio

(11

ROI ( RETURN OF INVESTMENT) COMPARISION

Reg

rthe

ion

nR

6p

rov

Shanghai is belong to East Coastline Region (11 previnces)

inc

es)

egio

(11

n (3

pro

pro

Shanghai is belong to East Coastline Region (11 previnces)

vinc

es)

vinc

es)

( RETURN OF INVESTMENT) COMPARISION AverageROI ROI of 115 (non-fiAverage ROI of 30 famous nancial) Central Entreprises Entreprises in NASDAQ ROIof of 2012 115 (non-fiAverage ROI of 30 famous in China inAverage the end from 2000-2012 nancial) Central Entreprises Entreprises in NASDAQ VS

2.93% 2.93%

in China in the end of 2012

VS

7.19% 7.19%

from 2000-2012

2

1 2000

1 2002

2000

2004

2002

2006

2004

2006

2008

2008

2010

2010

2012

Data: China statistical bureau, Haitong Securities Research Institution

The governmental driven development was The governmental driven development was increasingly inefficient, it decreased 2.37 times increasingly inefficient, it decreased 2.37 times in terms of GDP/Fixed Assets Investment. In other worsd, theAssets over government driven in terms of GDP/Fixed Investment. developement (eg. building new city) is In other worsd, the over government driven unsustainable, and will cause big problem to developement (eg.econmy building new city) is the national in the coming future. unsustainable, and will cause big problem to Shi Xiaomin the national econmy in the coming future. Economist

Shi Xiaomin Economist ROI ( RETURN OF INVESTMENT) COMPARISION

1. There is no clear boundary between officers and

2012

Data: China statistical bureau, Haitong Securities Research Institution

SEOsis no clear boundary between officers and 1. There 2.The ROI(return on investment) is too low, the opporSEOs tunity cost is too high is too low, and the opporinvestment) NOT be REFEREE should ROI(return 2.The3.The governmenton same time at the high cost is too tunitySPORTMAN 4. I think we shoud put more effort in service industry 3.The government should NOT be REFEREE and SPORTMAN at the same time Xu Dingbo 4. I think we shoud put more effort in service industry

Accounting Professor

Xu Dingbo Accounting Professor


finanCial model of muniCiPality tow looPs shoRt-teRm benefits looP is unsustainable

ECONOMIC VITALITY

SOCIAL VITALITY

DESIRABLE FUTURE

ENVIRONMENTAL

VITALITY

CULTURAL VITALITY

+

COMMON GOOD

LAND BUSINESS

Current focus:

60% Revenue

from Land Municipal Revenue

which in unsustainable Currently, the municipality can get a lot of revenue from land business, 60% on average of municipal revenue is from selling land to the private developers and important motive they have to focus on

Municipality

Investment

Public Service

Municipal Debt

Operation Cost

Others


shoRt-teRn benefits looP is not a PeRPetual motion

The new towns were succeed in making short term benefit, BUT failed in making long term benefit in terms of social, environmental and economic The new towns were at first economically motivated. In this sense, they succeed. Even if 70% of the housing is empty, as in the notorious empty city in China, the city has still been a success: After all, all the housses have been sold, even if only for speculative ends. - Introduction chapter of book Rising in the East, 2011

We should pay more effort in creating common good

Michelle Provoost

Wouter Vanstiphout


finanCiCal model of muniCiPality detailed

ECONOMIC VITALITY

SOCIAL VITALITY

DESIRABLE FUTURE Tax CULTURAL

ENVIRONMENTAL

VITALITY

VITALITY

COMMON GOOD

DEBT RATIO

Financical model *Several facts behind it

REAL ECONOMY (see appendix 1)

10%

20%

-Land ownership in China -Municipal debt -Financial leverage of municipality -Debt ratio of China's real economy

SYSTEM OF TAX SHARING BETWEEN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT AND MUNICIPALITIES

Cost structure of Merketized Properties

LAND BUSINESS

40%

Profit National Revenue from other tax & fee

Construction Cost

(see appendix 1)

Tax & Fee

52% : 48%

Land Profit

29%

governmnet and municipalities

1%

Share of the tax

Revenue from Land

Infrastructure Cost

Revenue from other tax & fee

40%

60%

Land Cost

Central Governmental Revenue

Municipal Revenue

LAND OWNERSHIP IN CHINA

Central Government

Municipality

(see appendix 1)

Investment

Public Service

Municipal Debt

Operation Cost

Others

Share of the task

85% : 15%

MUNICIPAL FINANCIAL LEVERAGE (see appendix 1)

MUNICIPAL DEBT (see appendix 1)


summaRy/ ConClusions

Mix land use Compact building design Range of housing opportunities Walkable neighborhoods Strong sense of place GROWTH UNIT: Mono-functional claster R=10km

Open space/ Nature beauty Strengthen existing communities

Speculative growth model is a risky way to develop new towns. Lingang area, which is based on this model, fall into a deadlock of further growth, that is both residences and SMARTER enterprises are notGROWTH willing to move in. MODEL GROWTH UNIT: Multi-functional claster R=400m

Variety of transportation choices

TIPS

Cost effective

Public participation/ Stakeholder collaboration

SPECULATIVE GROWTH MODEL

FINANCE: Government finance (with municipal debts)

-More local (small) business is needed -We should create more job opportunities to low educated MAIN TASKS: Infrastructure construction Investment attraction Stimulationg local business stimulationg more public participation

-Government should not directly developing the new towns MAIN TASKS: Infrastructure construction Investment attraction Factory construction

FINANCE: Multi finance

LEADING ACTOR: SOEs (State owned enterprises) CEs (Central enterprises)

LEADING ACTOR: New Town Vitalization Co,.Ltd BOARD/ STOCKHOLDERS: Government BOARD/ STOCKHOLDERS: Government+Institutions+Public

PARTNER: More experts

PARTNER: Less experts

CEO: From government

CEO: From market


Context ReseaRCh stRategies (smaRteR gRowth model)

design Reflextion in geneRal


gRowth model fRom sPeCulative to smaRteR gRowth

Mix land use Compact building design Range of housing opportunities Walkable neighborhoods Strong sense of place GROWTH UNIT: Mono-functional claster R=10km

Open space/ Nature beauty Strengthen existing communities GROWTH UNIT: Multi-functional claster R=400m

Variety of transportation choices

TIPS

Cost effective Public participation/ Stakeholder collaboration

SMARTER GROWTH MODEL

SPECULATIVE GROWTH MODEL

FINANCE: Government finance (with municipal debts)

MAIN TASKS: Infrastructure construction Investment attraction Factory construction

MAIN TASKS: Infrastructure construction Investment attraction Stimulationg local business stimulationg more public participation

FINANCE: Multi finance

LEADING ACTOR: SOEs (State owned enterprises) CEs (Central enterprises)

LEADING ACTOR: New Town Vitalization Co,.Ltd BOARD/ STOCKHOLDERS: Government BOARD/ STOCKHOLDERS: Government+Institutions+Public

PARTNER: More experts

PARTNER: Less experts

CEO: From government

CEO: From market


gRowth model fRom sPeCulative to smaRteR gRowth

Mix land use Compact building design Range of housing opportunities Walkable neighborhoods Strong sense of place GROWTH UNIT: Mono-functional claster R=10km

Open space/ Nature beauty Strengthen existing communities GROWTH UNIT: Multi-functional claster R=400m

Variety of transportation choices

TIPS

Cost effective Public participation/ Stakeholder collaboration

SMARTER GROWTH MODEL

SPECULATIVE GROWTH MODEL

way of resource using FINANCE: Government finance (with municipal debts)

MAIN TASKS: Infrastructure construction Investment attraction Factory construction

MAIN TASKS: Infrastructure construction Investment attraction Stimulationg local business stimulationg more public participation

FINANCE: Multi finance

LEADING ACTOR: SOEs (State owned enterprises) CEs (Central enterprises)

LEADING ACTOR: New Town Vitalization Co,.Ltd BOARD/ STOCKHOLDERS: Government BOARD/ STOCKHOLDERS: Government+Institutions+Public

PARTNER: More experts

PARTNER: Less experts

CEO: From government

CEO: From market


gRowth model fRom sPeCulative to smaRteR gRowth

Mix land use Compact building design

Providnigďźš

Range of housing opportunities Walkable neighborhoods Strong sense of place

ECOMOMIC AND SOCIAL BASES OF URBAN VITALITY GROWTH UNIT: Mono-functional claster R=10km

Open space/ Nature beauty Strengthen existing communities GROWTH UNIT: Multi-functional claster R=400m

Variety of transportation choices

TIPS

Cost effective

1. Balance of global business & local business

Public participation/ Stakeholder collaboration

* For Linang area, more Local (small) business should be stimulated

SMARTER GROWTH MODEL

SPECULATIVE

2. Collaboration ofGROWTH moreMODEL stakeholders FINANCE: Government finance (with municipal debts)

SPATIAL BASES OF URBAN VITALITY 1. Growth unit 2. Small urban grid 3. Active street frontage

MAIN TASKS: Infrastructure construction Investment attraction Factory construction

MAIN TASKS: Infrastructure construction Investment attraction Stimulationg local business stimulationg more public participation

FINANCE: Multi finance

LEADING ACTOR: SOEs (State owned enterprises) CEs (Central enterprises)

LEADING ACTOR: New Town Vitalization Co,.Ltd

BOARD/ STOCKHOLDERS: Government

Diversity

BOARD/ STOCKHOLDERS: Government+Institutions+Public

PARTNER: More experts

PARTNER: Less experts

CEO: From government

CEO: From market


Growth unit: Large mono-functional cluster

Growth unit: Multi functional cluster within walkable distance

Mix land use Compact building design Range of housing opportunities Walkable neighborhoods Strong sense of place

GROWTH UNIT: Mono-functional claster R=10km

Open space/ Nature beauty Strengthen existing communities GROWTH UNIT: Multi-functional claster R=400m

Variety of transportation choices

TIPS

Cost effective Public participation/ Stakeholder collaboration

SMARTER GROWTH MODEL

SPECULATIVE GROWTH MODEL

FINANCE: Government finance (with municipal debts)

It's the Spatial Bases of urban vitality MAIN TASKS: Infrastructure construction Investment attraction Factory construction

FINANCE: Multi finance

LEADING ACTOR: SOEs (State owned enterprises) CEs (Central enterprises)

MAIN TASKS: Infrastructure construction Investment attraction Stimulationg local business stimulationg more public participation

LEADING ACTOR: New Town Vitalization Co,.Ltd BOARD/ STOCKHOLDERS: Government BOARD/ STOCKHOLDERS: Government+Institutions+Public

PARTNER: More experts

PARTNER: Less experts

CEO: From government

CEO: From market


stRategies on uRban sCale gRowth unit "the dna of new towns"

Multi functional cluster within walkable distance R=400m

Growth unit: Multi functional cluster within walkable distance A healthy new town must have enough weekly, monthly needs in certain range of distance

Daily needs

Weekly needs

15km

20km

City hall

University

5km

Genral hospital

Large park

Higher education

Leisure Center

Health center

Sports hall

3km

Theater

400m

Shopping Center

Post office

Primary school

Restaurant

Shop

Home

Fig 3-1. Garden City concept, Source: Ebenezer Howard, 1902

Monthly needs


Shanghai Golf Club

stRategies on uRban sCale new stRuCtuRal vision Plan key site to be inteRvened

Shanghai Nature park

Shanghai Nature park

Flower industry

Light Industry High Tech

SUMMARY OF URRENT SITUATION

Because: 1. TOD (train station) 2. closed to the vital old town center 3. closed to the industryLogistic zone Airplan industry 4. Easier in Car land acquisition Manufacture Vessel Key Component Logistic Logistic Power Generation assembly (less stakerholder) Marine Engineering

New Neighborhood

- base on "multi functional cluster Logistic within walkable distance" University

Airplan industry Car Manufacture Vessel Key Component Power Generation assembly Marine Engineering Construction Machine

Shanghai Golf Club

Logistic where already vital in priority

Flower industry

Key site to be intervened

New plan based on growth unit old town

Comprehension of current situation

Shanghai Golf Club

Logistic

Construction Machine

Shanghai Nature park

Flower industry

SUMMARY OF URRENT SITUATION old town

STRUCTRAL VISION PLAN

KEY SITE IN THE FIRST STEP

New Neighborhood

Shanghai Golf Club

Shanghai Golf Club

Logistic University

Airplan industry Car Manufacture Vessel Key Component Power Generation assembly Marine Engineering Construction Machine

Logistic

Shanghai Nature park

Shanghai Nature park Logistic

Light Industry High Tech

Flower industry

old town

Flower industry

=

Light Industry High Tech

New metro connection about 8 km

Neighbourhoods: Multi functional cluster in a walkable distance R=400m

New Neighborhood

STRUCTRAL VISION PLAN

Train-Metro Station

Logistic

Logistic

Logistic

University

Airplan industry Car Manufacture Vessel Key Component Power Generation assembly Marine Engineering Construction Machine

Airplan industry Car Manufacture Vessel Key Component Power Generation assembly Marine Engineering Construction Machine

Shanghai Golf Club

Logistic

Logistic

New towns Logistic

Shanghai Nature park

Light Industry High Tech

=

KEY SITE IN THE FIRST STEP Shanghai Golf Club

Neighbourhoods: Multi functional cluster in a walkable distance R=400m

Logistic Airplan industry Car Manufacture Vessel Key Component Power Generation assembly Marine Engineering Construction Machine Light Industry High Tech

New towns Logistic

Transportation Center Leisure Center Connections: bus, bike lane, etc

Flower industry

STRUCTRAL VISION PLAN

Logistic

Shanghai Nature park Logistic

Transportation Center Leisure Center

Flower industry

= Neighbourhoods: Multi functional

Connections: bus, bike lane, etc

Light Industry High Tech

New metro connection about 8 km

Airplan industry Car Manufacture Vessel Key Component Power Generation assembly Marine Engineering Construction Machine

Logistic

Logistic

Neig Mult clust dista


site Condition logistiC aRea

INTERVENTION AREA


new leading aCtoRs fRom monoPoly to CollaboRation and ComPetition

Mix land use Compact building design Range of housing opportunities Walkable neighborhoods

Creating a new leading actor is more practicable

GROWTH UNIT: Mono-functional claster R=10km

Strong sense of place Open space/ Nature beauty

Instead of directly change the behavior of the SOEs and Central Emtreprises (whole GROWTH UNIT: Multi-functional claster system), a more practicable way is to R=400m create an alternative enterprise to lead the development of Lingang area.

Strengthen existing communities Variety of transportation choices

TIPS

Cost effective Public participation/ Stakeholder collaboration

SMARTER GROWTH MODEL

SPECULATIVE GROWTH MODEL

FINANCE: Government finance (with municipal debts)

Government Background Enterprises

New Town Vitalization Co,. Ltd MAIN TASKS: Infrastructure construction Investment attraction Factory construction

MAIN TASKS: Infrastructure construction Investment attraction Stimulationg local business stimulationg more public participation

FINANCE: Multi finance

LEADING ACTOR: SOEs (State owned enterprises) CEs (Central enterprises)

LEADING ACTOR: New Town Vitalization Co,.Ltd BOARD/ STOCKHOLDERS: Government BOARD/ STOCKHOLDERS: Government+Institutions+Public

PARTNER: More experts

PARTNER: Less experts

CEO: From government

CEO: From market


CEO

Officers aCtoRs new leading Officers main tasks

ATIVE MODEL

FINANCE

Bank R=400m

GROWTH UNIT: Multi-functional claster R=400m

FINANCE

Cost effective

Variety of transportation choices

TIPS

CEO

FINANCE

Public participation/ Stakeholder collaboration

Cost effective Profesional

Managers

Profesional Managers

Public participation/ Stakeholder collaboration

SPECULATIVE GROWTH MODEL

SMARTER GROWTH MODEL

SMARTER GROWTH MODEL

NEW TOWN VITALIZATION

NEW TOWN VITALIZATION

STATE OWNED ENTERPRISES STATE OWNED ENTERPRISES

LEADING ACTOR: Es (State owned enterprises) CEs (Central enterprises)

MAIN TASKS MAIN TASKS: Infrastructure construction Investment attraction Factory construction

MAIN TASKS: PARTNERS Infrastructure construction Investment attraction FINANCE: Factory construction Multi finance

MAIN TASKS

OARD/ STOCKHOLDERS: Government

FINANCE: Multi finance

PARTNERS

PARTNERS

Think Tank

Real Estate Developer

Developer

Municipality

Real Estate Developer

Municipality

BOARD/ STOCKHOLDERS: Government

MAIN TASKS: Infrastructure construction Investment attraction MAIN TASKS: Stimulationg local business NEW TOWN VITALIZATION CO.,LTD. Infrastructure construction MAIN TASKS stimulationg more public participation Investment attraction PARTNERS SERVICES TO SMALL Stimulationg local business MAIN TASKS stimulationg more public participation

NEW TOWN VITALIZATION CO.,LTD.

Developer LEADING ACTOR: New Town Vitalization Co,.Ltd Municipality

Municipality

SERVICES TO SMALL ENTERP

Think Tank

LEADING ACTOR: New Town Vitalization Co,.Ltd Real Estate Developer

Municipality

Developer

Infrastructure Investment Construction Attraction BOARD/ STOCKHOLDERS: Developer Real Estate Developer

Municipality

+

Infrastructure Government+Institutions+Public Construction Municipality Municipality

Infrastructure Construction

Investment Attraction Infrastructure Construction

Investment Attraction

PARTNER: More experts

CEO: From market CEO: From market

Stimulating more public participation

Incubator

Network

Marketing

-Training -Finance (loan) -Legal Investment assistance Attraction etc

-Website -Startup clubs -VCs etc

-

+

BOARD/ STOCKHOLDERS: Government+Institutions+Public

PARTNER: More experts CEO: From government

ENTERPRISES

Stimulating Local (small) Business

Stimulating more public participation

Network

Marke

-Training -Finance (loan) -Legal assistance etc

-Website -Startup clubs -VCs etc

-

Culture

Consultant

Construction

-exhbitions -event etc

-Big data -Index -Think tank etc

-

Stimulating Local (small) Business

Main difference:

1. Not only focus on global oriented industry, but also fucus on local business, stimulating small business 2. Stimulating more public participation

Incubator

It's the Economic and Scoial Bases of urban vitality

Culture

Consultant

Constru

-exhbitions -event etc

-Big data -Index -Think tank etc

-


R=10km

SMARTER BOARD STOCKHOLDERS/ GROWTH UNIT: GROWTH MODEL STOCKHOLDERS/ BOARD

SPECULATIVE GROWTH MODEL

new leading aCtoRs boRad/Ceo/PaRtneRs

Strengthen existing communities Variety of transportation choices

TIPS

Multi-functional claster R=400m

Cost effective

STOCKHOLDERS/ BOARD STOCKHOLDERS/ BOARD

Public participation/ Stakeholder collaboration

STOCKHOLDERS/ BOARD STOCKHOLDERS/ BOARD

SPECULATIVE GROWTH MODEL

STOCKHOLDERS/ BOARD Central Government

STOCKHOLDERS/ BOARD STOCKHOLDERS/ BOARD Municipality

Central Government

Municipality

Municipality

TASKS: MunicipalityMAINCentral Infrastructure construction Government

NANCE: ment finance nicipal debts)

STOCKHOLDERS/ BOARD

Investment attraction Factory construction GROWTH UNIT: Mono-functional claster R=10km Municipality Central Bank Government

CEO

BOARD/ STOCKHOLDERS: Government

Municipality

Central Government

Municipality

Officers

Central Government

FINANCE

Investor

CEO

LEADING ACTOR: SOEs (State owned enterprises) CEs (Central enterprises) CEO: Bank From government

FINANCE

BOARD/ STOCKHOLDERS: Government

FINANCE

Municipality

Central Government

PARTNER: More experts

PARTNER: Less experts

LEADING ACTOR: New Town Vitalization Co,.Ltd Bank

MAIN TASKSLEADING ACTOR:

SOEs (State owned enterprises) PARTNERS CEs (Central enterprises)

MAIN TASKS

Real Estate Developer BOARD/ STOCKHOLDERS: Government

MAIN TASKS

Municipality

Developer

Real Estate Developer

Municipality Developer

Municipality

Infrastructure Construction

Investment Infrastructure InvestmentInfrastructure Construction Attraction Attraction Construction

Municipality Suppliers

Think Tank Think

VITALIZATION

Developer

NEW TOWN

Universities

Tank

CEO

Professional Magagers

Profesiona Managers

MAIN TA Infrastructure c Investment a Stimulationg loc stimulationg more pu

CEO:

MAIN TASKS

Think Tank

SERVICES TO SMALL ENTERPRISES SERVICES TO SMALL ENTERPRISES BOARD/ STOCKHOLDERS:

Government+Institutions+Public NEW TOWN

Real Estate Developer

Developer Incubator Networ Infrastructure Investment Institutions -Training -Website Construction Developer Attraction Incubator Network Marketing MunicipalityInfrastructurePARTNER: -Finance (loan) -Startup c Investment More experts -Training -Website Developer Incubator Network Marketing -Legal -VCs Infrastructure Investment Construction Developer Attraction Incubator -Finance Network Marketing Infrastructure Municipality (loan) -Training -Startup clubs -Website Investment assistance etc Suppliers -Website Construction Attraction-Training Public Municipality -Legal -VCs Real Estate Developer

VITALIZATION partners

Municipality

Real Estate Developer

Municipality

+

Municipality

Municipality

Investment Attraction

Municipality

NEW TOWN VITALIZATION CO.,LTD. Investment STATE OWNED ENTERPRISES CEO: Attraction From governmentPARTNERS MAIN TASKS PARTNERS

+ +

Construction

Attraction

+

-Finance (loan) -Startup clubs assistance -Legal -VCs etcetc assistance etc CEO:

-Finance (loan) -Legal etc assistance etc

MAIN TASKS Think

Tank Real Estate Developer

-Startupetc clubs -VCs etc

NEW TOWN VITALIZATION CO.,LTD.

PARTNERS

From market

SERVICES TO SMALL ENTERPRISES Stimulating Stimulating

Real Estate Developer

Public part Stakeholde

SMARTER GROWTH MODEL

VITALIZATION

Real Estate Developer

Municipality

Cost effect

VITALIZATION FINANCE: NEW TOWN VITALIZATION CO.,LTD. Multi finance VITALIZATION CO.,LTD. PARTNERS MAIN TASKS PARTNERS NEW TOWN VITALIZATION CO.,LTD. NEW TOWN VITALIZATION CO.,LTD. MAIN TASKS SERVICES TO SMALL LEADING ACTOR: PARTNERS PARTNERS SERVICES TO SMALL ENTERPRISES MAIN TASKS New Town Vitalization Co,.Ltd Think

Real Estate Developer

Municipality

Municipality

PARTNER: Less experts

Profesional Managers

MAIN TASKS: Infrastructure construction NEW TOWN Investment attraction Factory construction

NEW TOWN Tank

Developer

Real Estate Developer

Municipality

CEO

VITALIZATION

PARTNERS

Variety of t

Profesional Managers

market NEW From TOWN

NEW TOWN

PARTNERS

Strengthen

FINANCE

VITALIZATION

STATE OWNED ENTERPRISES STATE OWNED ENTERPRISES PARTNERS

Open spac

BOARD/ STOCKHOLDERS: Government+Institutions+Public

Profesional Managers NEW TOWN

STATE OWNED ENTERPRISES STATE OWNED ENTERPRISES

PARTNERS

CEO

PARTNER: More experts

CEO: From government

Construction

FUND Profesional Managers

CEO: From market

FINANCE

FINANCE

Officers

TERPRISES Infrastructure

Profesional CEO Managers

FINANCE

FINANCE

SPECULATIVE GROWTH MODEL

CEO

FINANCE: Government finance (with municipal debts)

MAIN TASKS

property management company (PMC)

FINANCE: Multi finance

Strong sen

MAIN TASKS:TIPS Infrastructure construction Investment attraction Stimulationg local business stimulationg more public participation

R=400m BOARD/ STOCKHOLDERS: Government+Institutions+Public

NEW TOWN

Officers

Officers

GROWTH UNIT:

Central Government Municipality

Walkable n

CEO

FINANCE Multi-functionalCEO claster

Investors

MAIN TASKS: Bank Infrastructure construction Bank Investment attraction FINANCE FINANCE Factory construction

CEO

Community

Developer LEADING ACTOR: New Town Vitalization Co,.Ltd

Bank

FINANCE

Officers

The public

Central Government Municipality

Central Government Municipality

Real Estate Developer

Range of h

-Multi stockholding -More stakeholders in the board

Bank

STOCKHOLDERS/ BOARD Bank

Compact b

Infrastructure construction Investment attraction Stimulationg local business stimulationg more public participation

Local

Municipality

FINANCE: Multi finance

Central Government

CEO

Municipality

GLOBAL

Central Government

Municipality

LEADING ACTOR: s (State owned enterprises) Es (Central enterprises)

Mix land us

SMARTER GROWTH MODEL MAIN TASKS:BOARD STOCKHOLDERS/

MAIN TASKSConsulta Culture -exhbitions

-Big data

Culture Consultant Consultant Construction Construction -event -Index Culture Consultant Culture Construction public Local -exhbitions (small) Stimulating more Stimulating -exhbitions -Big- data -Big data Stimulating Stimulating etc -Think tank Stimulating -exhbitions -Big data Stimulating participation -event -Index Business -event -Index more public Local etc (small) more public -event -Index Local (small) Think etc more public Local (small) etc-Think tank -Think tank etc-Think tank participation Business participation etc Business participation Business etc etc

Tank


new finanCing fRom muniCiPal debts to multi stoCkholding

Mix land use Compact building design Range of housing opportunities Walkable neighborhoods Strong sense of place GROWTH UNIT: Mono-functional claster R=10km

Open space/ Nature beauty Strengthen existing communities GROWTH UNIT: Multi-functional claster R=400m

Variety of transportation choices

TIPS

Cost effective Public participation/ Stakeholder collaboration

SMARTER GROWTH MODEL

SPECULATIVE GROWTH MODEL

Multi stockholding FINANCE: Government finance (with municipal debts)

MAIN TASKS: Infrastructure construction Investment attraction Factory construction

MAIN TASKS: Infrastructure construction Investment attraction Stimulationg local business stimulationg more public participation

FINANCE: Multi finance

LEADING ACTOR: SOEs (State owned enterprises) CEs (Central enterprises)

LEADING ACTOR: New Town Vitalization Co,.Ltd BOARD/ STOCKHOLDERS: Government BOARD/ STOCKHOLDERS: Government+Institutions+Public

PARTNER: More experts

PARTNER: Less experts

CEO: From government

CEO: From market


new finanCing fRom muniCiPal debts to multi stoCkholding The new leading actor can help shaping more sustainable as the result, creating win-win situation to all the stakeholders

ECONOMIC VITALITY

SOCIAL VITALITY

DESIRABLE FUTURE

ENVIRONMENTAL

VITALITY

ECONOMIC VITALITY

SOCIAL VITALITY

DESIRABLE FUTURE

CULTURAL VITALITY

ENVIRONMENTAL

VITALITY

COMMON GOOD

CULTURAL VITALITY

COMMON GOOD

+

NEW TOWN VITALIZATION

LAND BUSINESS

National Revenue from other tax & fee

LAND BUSINESS 52% : 48%

Share of the tax

60% Revenue

Revenue from Land

from Land Municipal Revenue

Revenue from other tax & fee Central Governmental Revenue

Municipal Revenue

Central Government

Municipality

Investment

Public Service

Municipal Debt

Municipality

Operation Cost

Others

Investment

Public Service

Municipal Debt

Operation Cost

Others

Share of the task

85% : 15%


Mix land use Compact building design Range of housing opportunities

Spatial bases of urban vitality

GROWTH UNIT: Mono-functional claster R=10km

Walkable neighborhoods Strong sense of place Open space/ Nature beauty Strengthen existing communities

GROWTH UNIT: Multi-functional claster R=400m

Variety of transportation choices

TIPS

Cost effective Public participation/ Stakeholder collaboration

SMARTER GROWTH MODEL

SPECULATIVE GROWTH MODEL

FINANCE: Government finance (with municipal debts)

MAIN TASKS: Infrastructure construction Investment attraction Factory construction

MAIN TASKS: Infrastructure construction Investment attraction Stimulationg local business stimulationg more public participation

FINANCE: Multi finance

LEADING ACTOR: SOEs (State owned enterprises) CEs (Central enterprises)

LEADING ACTOR: New Town Vitalization Co,.Ltd BOARD/ STOCKHOLDERS: Government BOARD/ STOCKHOLDERS: Government+Institutions+Public

PARTNER: More experts

PARTNER: Less experts

CEO: From government

CEO: From market


SPATIAL BASES OF URBAN VITALITY 1. Growth unit 2. Small urban grid 3. Active street frontage Diversity


sPatial bases of vital uRban aRea uRan gRid size: small

Bijlmermeer

FAILED URBAN PRACTICE

Failed urban project in super block, Bijlmermeer


sPatial bases of vital uRban aRea uRan gRid size: small

A city is not a tree. “Overlap” is important in creating urban life Christopher Alexander 1966

Kevin A. Lynch

High degree of accessibility, visibility, adjacency, permeability or reacability is at issue for creating vital urban centres and generating economic activties inside them. Destination The “overlap” refers to choices of paths, but also the mixture of programs, because “destinations” (Lynch, Gehl) generate flows

So far, research has shown that the location of shops, retail, national and international firms and the location of urban centres depends on a high degree of integration of the street network on various scale levels [Hillier, 1999c], [Hillier et al., 1993], [Rocco and van Nes, 2005], [Mulders-Kusumo, 2005], [van Nes, 2005b] and [van Nes, 2002]. Likewise, land values and rent process tend to be influenced by the various integration values of the street network [Desyllas, 2000].

URBAN GRID SIZE: Small is good! Bill Hillier

Jan Gehl 1987

Geometrically symmetrical is not important Cities or urban spaces with strong human activities usually do not look geometrically symmetrical or regular from the air (Gehl, 1987).

Shorter urban blocks Jacob (1961) suggests the use of shorter urban blocks for the benefit of articulation Jane Jacob 1961

L

LOCAL INTEGRATION

G

GLOBAL INTEGRATION

D

DENSITY OF GRIDS

I

INTER-CONNECTIVITY

P

PERMEABILITY

F

FRONTAGE ACTIVITY LEVEL

Akkelies van Nes

The theory of Space Syntax which based on many experiments indicates that: Small block size is easier to generate urban economic activities.

Failed urban project in super block, Bijlmermeer


sPatial bases of vital uRban aRea uRan gRid size: small

But how small is small?


60m

80m

100m

40m

120m

150m

Lingang Central City (unvital)

Bijlmermeer

470m

550m

Nicheng New Built Area (Unvital) 220m

Manhattan 290m

Nicheng old town (vital)

Barcelona

Bijlmermeer New 100m

Sacramento

Houston

Portland

sPatial bases of vital uRban aRea uRan gRid size: small 75*75~150*150m

75m

350m

200m

600m

Social integration Pedestrian movement Safety in the street

Flexibility of land use Developable land rate

30m*30m

Gird Size

500m*500m


sPatial bases of vital uRban aRea uRan gRid size: small 75*75~150*150m

The range of approriate urban grid size is found: 75*75~150*150m

Lingang Central City (unvital)

Empty

Abandoned

60m

80m

100m

40m

120m

150m

Bijlmermeer

470m

220m

Manhattan 290m

Nicheng old town (vital)

Barcelona

100m

Sacramento

Houston

Portland

Abandoned

Bijlmermeer New

Comparitive succeful block size

550m

Nicheng New Built Area (Unvital)

Unvital

75m

350m

200m

600m

Social integration Pedestrian movement Safety in the street

Flexibility of land use Developable land rate

30m*30m

Gird Size

500m*500m


sPatial bases of vital uRban aRea in bloCk sCale: aCtive fRontage/ mixed-use/ diveRsity

A typical negative street frontage

A typical active street frontage


sPatial bases of vital uRban aRea in bloCk sCale: aCtive fRontage/ mixed-use/ diveRsity

Spatial bases of vital urban area on block and architectural scale:

Active Street Frontage Diversity

Christopher Alexander 1966

Diversity is important Diversity in regard to spatial, social and economic characteristics is increasingly identified as the key to vitality in new urban environments.

Interactive urban interfaces If the edge fails, then the space never becomes lively. Studying from historical cities and urban spaces reveals that a lively city is made up of interactive urban interfaces, which have a fractal nature. A Pattern Language (1977)

mixed-use programs on the ground floor, and shorter blocks to encourage pedestrian flows and circulations

Jane Jacob 1961

Kevin A. Lynch

A good environment image gives an important sense of emotional security, satisfaction and pleasure, because space is always experienced in association with past memories.


FACTS BEHIND THE PROBLEMATIC URBAN PATTERN 1. Gated community is needed 2. The greedy side of private developers 4. Residential slab/ tower has its advantages


CuRRent dominant bloCk tyPology PRoblems & why GATED

The problems of this block typology: 1. Gated communities creating negative street frontage 2. Mono-functional block/ not enough daily urban service use within a walkable distance 3. Strict layout creating boring spatial quality

1

1

3

2

2

3


CuRRent dominant bloCk tyPology PRoblems & why GATED

1

Why is this block typology so popular in Lingang Area? - Gated community is needed - Private developers are greedy? - Residential Slab/ Tower has its advantage

3

2


CuRRent dominant bloCk tyPology PRoblems & why

1. Gated community is needed Many people in China like to live in gated community in search of security, privacy, low maintenance cost, etc. A survey in China shows the fact that more than half residents would like to live in gated communities.

Importance of gated strategy

Imp

NonGated

Crutial

GATED

Do you agree to open?

N orta ot nt

The amount of gated communities

Gated

80% Gated 20% Non-gated

Is it about security?

No Yes

No

Yes

Important

20.5% Crutial 66.0% Important 13.5% Not important

59.8% No 40.2% Yes

Fig 3-4. A servey of gated community in China (2011) Data: http://www.51poll.com/member/index.asp Reference: Could Wall, In the Ghetto/Design as Politics Graduation Studio, by Yin Mu, 2011

79.4% Yes 20.6% No


CuRRent dominant bloCk tyPology PRoblems & why 2. The greedy side of private developer if possible. So in many developing new towns, most of properties are built for investors instead of for people who will move in. And,

While the commercial use, which is important to a vital urban area, is

HOUSING

Interview question: Why are developers not willing to build different functions (like commerce) along the boundary of communites to activate the street frontage?

COMMERCE Lu Yin Architect

The developers is willing to build commercial along the boundary of community in vital area, but in the new towns because housing is more profitable and payed back more quickly than commercial use

I have contacted with many developers, they impressed me as purely profit seekers are ways of making more profit Li Hao Architect I think small business is difficult to survive except the restaurant and services, because retail is hit by e-commerce in China Liu Maosheng Architect


CuRRent dominant bloCk tyPology PRoblems & why GATED

Copying the Slab/ Tower-Strict layout is a way to reduce risks of spending more money and time to test something new. Because this building typology is, acceptable in housing market at least.

Replication is a more practable way to developing project in new towns, because we have to built a lot in a short period with limited financial resource Private Developer


CuRRent dominant bloCk tyPology PRoblems & why 4. Residential Slab/ Tower has its advantage Several living habits play important roles when people purchase their lighting and ventilation, the building need to face to south, etc. As a result, the Chinese residential slabs and towers, which is successfully meet these demands, became popular in real estate market, and later on, becoming the unwritten dogma in developing new towns.

Staircase

-Natural Lighting of toilet and kitchen -Facing South -etc.

Kitchen Toilet

Natural lighting & ventilation

Facin

Toilet

g sou

Toilet

Kitchen

Staircase

th

Typical residential slab

Typical apartment layout


summaRy/ ConClusions

FACTS BEHIND THE PROBLEMATIC URBAN PATTERN 1. Gated community is needed 2. The greedy side of private developers 4. Residential slab/ tower has its advantages SPATIAL BASES OF URBAN VITALITY 1. Growth unit 2. Small urban grid 3. Active street frontage Diversity

ECOMOMIC AND SOCIAL BASES OF URBAN VITALITY 1. Balance of global business & local business * For Linang area, more Local (small) business should be stimulated

2. Collaboration of more stakeholders


summaRy faCts & bases of uRban vitality PRinCiPles & tools

PRICIPLES

FACTS

FACTS BEHIND THE PROBLEMATIC URBAN PATTERN 1. Gated community is needed 2. The greedy side of private developers 4. Residential slab/ tower has its advantages SPATIAL BASES OF URBAN VITALITY 1. Growth unit 2. Small urban grid 3. Active street frontage

Gated community is needed

GATED

HOUSING

The greedy aspect of private developer

COMMERCE

Copying Good Let’s developing recommended block typologies Let’s copying good designed block

Residential slab/tower has its advantages

Diversity This typology can be reserved ,but more typologies should be added to increase diversity

BASES OF URBAN VITALITY

SPATIAL BASES

ECOMOMIC AND SOCIAL BASES OF URBAN VITALITY

* For Linang area, more Local (small) business should be stimulated

2. Collaboration of more stakeholders

Regulation + Motivation to creating more common good

Copying as a financial strategy

Diversity

1. Balance of global business & local business

New communities can be gated, but with active street frontage

Active street frontage Mixed-use Diversity etc

Stimulating and strenthening Local (small) business

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL BASES Strenthening public participation and stakeholder collabration


Summary FactS & baSeS oF urban vitality PrinciPleS & toolS

PRICIPLES

FACTS Gated community is needed

GATED

TOOLS

New communities can be gated, but with active street frontage

HOUSING

The greedy aspect of private developer

COMMERCE

Regulation + Motivation to creating more common good

3D ZONING Copying as a financial strategy

Copying Good Let’s developing recommended block typologies Let’s copying good designed block

Residential slab/tower has its advantages

Diversity This typology can be reserved ,but more typologies should be added to increase diversity

GOOD DESIGN BONUS

BASES OF URBAN VITALITY

SPATIAL BASES

INTERVENTION AREA

Active street frontage Mixed-use Diversity etc

Stimulating and strenthening Local (small) business

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL BASES Strenthening public participation and stakeholder collabration

TYPOLOGY COLLECTION


context reSearch StrategieS deSign reFlextion in general


Site condition logiStic area

INTERVENTION AREA


Daily needs 400m 3km

Weekly needs University

City hall

Theater

5km

Genral hospital

Large park

Higher education

Leisure Center

Health center

Sports hall

Shopping Center

Post office

Primary school

Restaurant

Shop

Home

Site condition logiStic area

Multi functional cluster within walkable distance R=400m

INTERVENTION AREA

15km 20km

Monthly needs


new Plan StrategieS and theorieS uSe Scenario Strategies and theories - Small grid size - Reuse the storage building as the hybird centers - Create and strengthen the connection between new town center to old town centers - Growth unit: multi-functional cluster within walkable distance (r=400m) - Others: Mix land use Compact building design Range of housing opportunities Walkable neighborhoods Open space/ Nature beauty Strengthen existing communities Variety of transportation choices Cost effective Public participation/ Stakeholders collaboration

Scenario (main tasks)

2014-2020: Essential functions & Labor training

2020-2025: Extension & Spatial quality

2025-2035: Apply to the rest area of Lingang

New neighbourhoods


new Plan hybrid ccenter aS local Service center

Hybrid Centers in multi-functional cluster in a walkable distance R=400m


new Plan Zone into neighborhood Scale

New neighbourhoods


new Plan Zone into neighborhood Scale

Hybrid Town Centers Geerator of the new town Hybrid Centers in multi-functional cluster in a walkable distance R=400m


new Plan hybrid town center aS generator oF new town NTV Headquater NTV Incubator Urban Farming Lab Labor Training Center Creative Industry Light Manufacturing

Hybrid Town Centers Geerator of the new town


new Plan road connection

Use existing infrastructure

Hybrid Town Centers Geerator of the new town Hybrid Centers in multi-functional cluster in a walkable distance R=400m


three toolS

PRICIPLES

TOOLS

New communities can be gated, but with active street frontage

Regulation + Motivation to creating more common good

3D ZONING Copying Good Let’s developing recommended block typologies Let’s copying good designed block

Diversity This typology can be reserved ,but more typologies should be added to increase diversity

INTERVENTION AREA

GOOD DESIGN BONUS

Y Active street frontage Mixed-use Diversity etc

Stimulating and strenthening Local (small) business

Strenthening public participation and stakeholder collabration

TYPOLOGY COLLECTION


TYPOLOGY COLLECTION

tool 1 tyPology collection PrototyPe + bim Store

The typology collection

GATED The typology collection is a tool to achieve diversity urban typology, at the same time, respect the facts that private developers tend to copy residential

Let's copying good designed block diverSity oF urban tyPology Copying as a


TYPOLOGY COLLECTION

tool 1 tyPology collection PrototyPe + bim Store

Block typology/ prototype

Block prototype collection:

recommended block prototypes! The private developer can pick a recommended block prototype to develop a certain block

Real Estate Developer

Developer


TYPOLOGY COLLECTION

tool 1 tyPology collection PrototyPe + bim Store

Architecture project designed by BIG Group

BIM Store

2 designed blocks!

purchasing the copyright of BIM model

Also, private developers can purchase the copyright of building information model of good

NEW TOWN VITALIZATION

1

change the parametric or modify the model

iBlock

Real Estate Developer

The public

Developer

Community

Choosing a BIM model which has similar site condition

3 Change the parametric according the site condition

NEW TOWN VITALIZATION

Reference: Block City, Toward a standard for plot sizes. Bart Goldhoom, Volume 21


new Plan Zone into neighborhood Scale

Hybrid Town Centers Geerator of the new town Hybrid Centers in multi-functional cluster in a walkable distance R=400m


3D ZONING

tool 2 3d Zoning regulation concePt

GOOD DESIGN BONUS

GATED

TYPOLOGY COLLECTION

3D Zoning regulation

Gated community is needed

3D Zoning regulation is a tool to achieve active, mix-used, diverse and pedestrian it reserves the goodness of the gated HOUSING

GATED

COMMERCE

The greedy aspect of private developer

active Street Frontage mixed-uSe diverSity


3D ZONING

tool 2 3d Zoning regulation concePt

zone along the boundary of block

GOOD DESIGN BONUS

Private Owned

Private Owned

Block section

Private owned (for 70 yeas) Ownership

Real Estate Developer

The public

Developer

Community

State Owned

Collabrative Owned

Operated by

More regulations here

NEW TOWN VITALIZATION

Municipality

Startups Small business etc

Target

Collactive owned Operator by

VITALIZATION

Street frontage Active street frontage Mixed-use Diversity

6m

NEW TOWN

6m

TYPOLOGY COLLECTION

DIversity street frontage


3D ZONING

tool 2 block develoPment without 3d Zoning

GOOD DESIGN BONUS

TYPOLOGY COLLECTION

Land ownership Current limitation

Private owned (for 70 yeas)

Real Estate Developer

The public

Developer

Community

State Owned

Municipality


3D ZONING

tool 2 block develoPment without 3d Zoning

Current limitation

GOOD DESIGN BONUS

TYPOLOGY COLLECTION

Off

ice

Su ma perrke t Lig Ind ht ust ry

Block Design Block design

P Re s com idenc mu ial nity

State Owned

Municipality


ark

et

Lig tool 2 Ind ht ust ry block develoPment without 3d Zoning P 3D ZONING Block Design

Re s com idenc mu ial nity

GOOD DESIGN BONUS

TYPOLOGY COLLECTION

Office

Supermarket Light Industry

Gated communites

P Residencial community

The boundary is fenced which results in negative street front


Informal sales of vegetables by migrants on the pavement source: Den Hartog, Harry: Shanghai New Towns - Searching for community and identity in a sprawling metropolis. 2010


3D ZONING

tool 2 block develoPment with 3d Zoning develoPing the block

GOOD DESIGN BONUS

3D zone TYPOLOGY COLLECTION

ivacy

Options: 1. develope it 2. leave it to NTV


tool 2 block develoPment with 3d Zoning develoPing the block

3D ZONING

GOOD DESIGN BONUS

Real Estate Developer

Developer

Preliminary Block Design How to due with the overlaped 3D zone?

TYPOLOGY COLLECTION

Two options

Develop it

The process of developers' side

Leave it empty

More regulations: 1. density of entrances Block

Block

NEW TOWN VITALIZATION

NTV will develop it later 2. Mix-use 3. etc

Further Design Construction For Sale

1st Phase 2nd Phase 3rd Phase


tool 2 block develoPment with 3d Zoning develoPing the block

3D ZONING

1. develope it 2. leave it to NTV

Real Estate Developer

GOOD DESIGN Developer BONUS Preliminary Block Design

How to due with the overlaped 3D zone? Two options

Develop it

Leave it empty

More regulations: 1. density of entrances Block

Block

NEW TOWN VITALIZATION

NTV will develop it later 2. Mix-use 3. etc

TYPOLOGY

ivacy COLLECTION Further Design Construction For Sale

1st Phase 2nd Phase 3rd Phase

Space reserved

Preliminary block design


tool 2 block develoPment with 3d Zoning develoPing the block

3D ZONING

Space reserved

Real Estate Developer

GOOD DESIGN Developer BONUS Preliminary Block Design

How to due with the overlaped 3D zone? Two options

Develop it

Leave it empty

More regulations: 1. density of entrances Block

Block

NEW TOWN VITALIZATION

NTV will develop it later 2. Mix-use 3. etc

TYPOLOGY COLLECTION Further Design Construction For Sale

Entrance to the block (community)

1st Phase 2nd Phase 3rd Phase

Community public space

Further Design + Construction For sale

Parking

Leave it empty

Developed by Private Developer


3D ZONING

tool 2 block develoPment with 3d Zoning develoPing the block

GOOD DESIGN BONUS

Real Estate Developer

Developer

Preliminary Block Design How to due with the overlaped 3D zone?

TYPOLOGY COLLECTION

Two options

Develop it

Leave it empty

More regulations: 1. density of entrances Block

Block

NEW TOWN VITALIZATION

NTV will develop it later 2. Mix-use 3. etc

Further Design Construction For Sale

1st Phase 2nd Phase 3rd Phase

The process of NTV's side


3D ZONING

tool 2 block develoPment with 3d Zoning develoPing the 3d Zone: PhaSe 1

Main tasks for the 1st phase:

Urban farming (Ex-farmers can use their skills) & Training the exfarmers with new TYPOLOGY COLLECTION skills

GOOD DESIGN BONUS

-Advertising the new town and Attract more startups -To increase the income of ex-farmers by urban farming -To train the low educated people (like ex-farmers), and help them to start their own small business or find

NEW TOWN VITALIZATION

Construction & Operation

Garden Urban farming Sport facility

$

$ Ex farmers


3D ZONING

tool 2 block develoPment with 3d Zoning develoPing the 3d Zone: PhaSe 2 Main tasks for the 2nd phase: -Advertising the new town and Attract more startups

TYPOLOGY COLLECTION

-Construction within 3D zone -To incubate the small business

property management company (PMC)

NEW TOWN VITALIZATION

Management

farmers to start their own small business

GOOD DESIGN BONUS

Loan Incubator

Construction & Operation

For Startups Small business New inhabitants

Ex farmers After training


3D ZONING

tool 2 block develoPment with 3d Zoning develoPing the 3d Zone: PhaSe 3

Main tasks for the 2nd phase: GOOD DESIGN BONUS

Long-term

-Advertising the new town and Attract more startups -Construction within 3D zone -To incubate the small business

TYPOLOGY COLLECTION

NEW TOWN VITALIZATION

Rewords from vitality

$$$ Small business


3D ZONING

tool 2 block develoPment with 3d Zoning develoPing the 3d Zone: PhaSe 1 Residential Slab

Community Playground

GOOD DESIGN BONUS

Urban farming

TYPOLOGY COLLECTION

Pedestrain Vegetable Store

BBQ

2014-2018


3D ZONING

tool 2 block develoPment with 3d Zoning develoPing the 3d Zone: PhaSe 2

GOOD DESIGN BONUS

Urban farming Vegetable Store TYPOLOGY COLLECTION

Bar

Retail

Repair

2018-2020


3D ZONING

tool 2 block develoPment with 3d Zoning develoPing the 3d Zone: PhaSe 3 Garden

GOOD DESIGN BONUS

Book Store Youth Hotel Restaurant Vegetable Store

TYPOLOGY COLLECTION

Retail Bar Garden Repair Restaurant

Street Museum

Contemprary construction zone

2020-2022


3D ZONING

tool 2 block develoPment with 3d Zoning building tyPologieS

6m

4m 4m

GOOD DESIGN BONUS

Construction zone

10m

Temporary construction zone

3m

3D Zone Limitation

Urban Restaurant

TYPOLOGY COLLECTION

Store

Container Studio

Urban Farming

Cafe

Restaurant

Youth Hotel

Playground

Bar

Street Musuem

Urban Forum

Street gallery

Street garden


GOOD DESIGN BONUS

tool 3 motivation: good deSign bonuS concePt

Real Estate Developer

Developer TYPOLOGY COLLECTION

Preliminary Block Design

Density rewards

How to due with the overlaped 3D zone?

If the developer develop the block in the manner of, for example, opening to the public, more public space in the street frontage, including more recommended program, flexible floorplan, eco-friendly, energy saving, etc, it can have a certain addtional FSI as rewards

Two options

Develop it

Leave it empty

More regulations: 1. density of entrances Block

Block

NEW TOWN VITALIZATION

NTV will develop it later 2. Mix-use 3. etc

Further Design Construction For Sale

1st Phase 2nd Phase 3rd Phase

Financial reword From the 3rd Phase, the developer can take a share of the VAT & rent from small business through NEW TOWN FUND for a certain range of years (eg. 10years)


GOOD DESIGN BONUS

tool 3 motivation: good deSign bonuS in block Scale

TYPOLOGY COLLECTION

No density bonus Standard GSI=30% Standrad FSI= 1.0

Gated

Open FSI rewards

Gated No density bonus

1. Open to the public FSI +10%


GOOD DESIGN BONUS

tool 3 motivation: good deSign bonuS in architecturual Scale

TYPOLOGY COLLECTION

Zone in to architectural scale

Reference: Freestyle 02 Seoulutions,by Bart Reuser / NEXT architects


GOOD DESIGN BONUS

tool 3 motivation: good deSign bonuS in architecturual Scale

Zone in to

TYPOLOGY COLLECTION

2. More public space on the street fratage FSI + (a*p*b) max 10% a=standard ratio p=% groundfloor to public space b=%bonus= 50% for pilotis type, 120% for open type

3. Recomm FSI + (a*g

a=standard ratio g=% recommend b=% bonus (eg.

Reference: Freestyle 02 Seoulutions,by Bart Reuser / NEXT architects


GOOD DESIGN BONUS

tool 3 motivation: good deSign bonuS in architecturual Scale Zone in to architectural scale

TYPOLOGY COLLECTION

street fratage % open type

3. Recommended programe FSI + (a*g*b) a=standard ratio g=% recommended use (eg. cultural or social) b=% bonus (eg. social rent 20%)

Reference: Freestyle 02 Seoulutions,by Bart Reuser / NEXT architects


GOOD DESIGN BONUS

tool 3 motivation: good deSign bonuS 2. More public space on the street fratage in architecturual FSI Scale + (a*p*b) max 10% a=standard ratio p=% groundfloor to public space b=%bonus= 50% for pilotis type, 120% for open type

3. Recomm FSI + (a*g*

a=standard ratio g=% recommend b=% bonus (eg. s

TYPOLOGY COLLECTION

4. Integrated parking FSI + (a*p*b) a=standard ratio p=% groundfloor to integrated parking spaceb=% bonus

5. Design Eco-friend Energy sav

Reference: Freestyle 02 Seoulutions,by Bart Reuser / NEXT architects


tool 3 bonuS programe GOODfratage DESIGN motivation: good deSign street 3. Recommended BONUS in architecturual Scale %

FSI + (a*g*b)

open type

a=standard ratio g=% recommended use (eg. cultural or social) b=% bonus (eg. social rent 20%)

TYPOLOGY COLLECTION

aceb=% bonus

5. Design Eco-friendly FSI +5% Energy saving FSI +5%

Reference: Freestyle 02 Seoulutions,by Bart Reuser / NEXT architects


tyPical Street SectionS

Bonus

Bonus RESIDENCE

MIX USE

RESIDENCE

MIX USE

RESIDENCE

MIX USE

RESIDENCE

MIX USE


aPPly three toolS to other block tyPologieS

Hybrid Town Centers Geerator of the new town Hybrid Centers in multi-functional cluster in a walkable distance R=400m


aPPly three toolS to other block tyPologieS


aPPly three toolS to other block tyPologieS


aPPly three toolS to other block tyPologieS


aPPly three toolS TOOLS area oF lingang to the reSt

gated, tage

3D ZONING

TOOLS GOOD DESIGN BONUS

good

3D ZONING

Linear village

Rural Area

nded

ed block

TYPOLOGY COLLECTION Existing Villages Big Infrastructure

ved ,but added

ning

cipation ion

Lingang Central City

New Built Neighborhood

GOOD DESIGN BONUS

New Built Area New Built Industry

TYPOLOGY COLLECTION


Mix land use Compact building design Range of housing opportunities Walkable neighborhoods Strong sense of place GROWTH UNIT: Mono-functional claster R=10km

Open space/ Nature beauty Strengthen existing communities GROWTH UNIT: Multi-functional claster R=400m

Variety of transportation choices

TIPS

Cost effective Public participation/ Stakeholder collaboration

SMARTER GROWTH MODEL

SPECULATIVE GROWTH MODEL

FINANCE: Government finance (with municipal debts)

MAIN TASKS: Infrastructure construction Investment attraction Factory construction

MAIN TASKS: Infrastructure construction Investment attraction Stimulationg local business stimulationg more public participation

FINANCE: Multi finance

LEADING ACTOR: SOEs (State owned enterprises) CEs (Central enterprises)

LEADING ACTOR: New Town Vitalization Co,.Ltd BOARD/ STOCKHOLDERS: Government BOARD/ STOCKHOLDERS: Government+Institutions+Public

PARTNER: More experts

PARTNER: Less experts

CEO: From market

CEO: From government

PRICIPLES

FACTS Gated community is needed

GATED

TOOLS

New communities can be gated, but with active street frontage

HOUSING

The greedy aspect of private developer

COMMERCE

Regulation + Motivation to creating more common good

3D ZONING Copying as a financial strategy

Copying Good Let’s developing recommended block typologies Let’s copying good designed block

Residential slab/tower has its advantages

Diversity This typology can be reserved ,but more typologies should be added to increase diversity

GOOD DESIGN BONUS

BASES OF URBAN VITALITY

SPATIAL BASES

INTERVENTION AREA

Active street frontage Mixed-use Diversity etc

Stimulating and strenthening Local (small) business

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL BASES Strenthening public participation and stakeholder collabration

TYPOLOGY COLLECTION


context reSearch StrategieS deSign reFlection in general


reFlection in general

Startup courses


reFlection in general

urbaniSm ProFeSSion

Think highly of desirable future

what iS good

enterPriSe ProFeSSion

Think highly of execuation, risk

how to make thingS haPPen


reFlection in general 3D ZONING

TOOLS TOOLS

3D ZONING GOOD DESIGN BONUS 3D ZONING

thinking aS urban Planner doing aS entrePreneur! NEW TOWN VITALIZATION GOOD DESIGN BONUS TYPOLOGY COLLECTION GOOD DESIGN BONUS

TYPOLOGY COLLECTION TYPOLOGY

Profile for Design as Politics

One City - Nine 'Ghost Towns'  

Graduation Presentation Yuhui Yin. Mentor team: Leo van den Burg and Marta Relats. Date of Graduation 26-06-2014

One City - Nine 'Ghost Towns'  

Graduation Presentation Yuhui Yin. Mentor team: Leo van den Burg and Marta Relats. Date of Graduation 26-06-2014

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