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A group of people working together to advance their shared artistic beliefs. Some would say that the difference between design movements is a separation of belief and style, but I would look at it from another perspective. Simply, that all design is in a way, the same. From El Lissitzky to A.M. Cassandre and from charcoal to the modern computer, design has started with the same pure process; the human touch. I speak of the moment before clarification, the moment of experimentation, the moment of pure creation. The beginnings of design when the artist sketches out their ideas and composition is the moment which connects all design movements throughout the ages. With a new perspective, we can view all design movements as one unified belief of the pure process of creation.


uc h r u t iz e w bb n o or is f t k n h h in e c o w p r om b e ep ar mu lon at ni t g s io n y w to f o ho th rt e he i s c d l ne e a u t y r w o i l if n g f t h e. t h � e e - V fie ar l a ld t i s t d i of a m ir t h e s a Ta ol tl i d n ci

e” w ed g h e r ed w ith t hi t e s tion t he w evolu “ b e at tion ple s s i t l ed , sian R u ni c a t u p r in c i e Ru s e si gn comm c to r io t hr e e t of t h ar e v i t i c al d v i su a l i l s o a s t he / / s t ar h e v ik y’s po r n ed t u t c tion” 1917 / d s si t zk e B ol s n i on s tr u t in g a y of t h // E l L and c d p a in 1919 / d Arm e e n R x tur e o / / t he i c s , te aband o 1920 / e c ton c he nk i te s “ t // Rod an w r 1921 / k s ei G // A le 1922 /

“ t he v q u a i su a l f o litie rm s be t he f o r m d e v e l o p c o mi n g e s an t he d fr c on d co o te l o r s m t he .” intu nt and i t i ve K as ex imir o r g a p r e s si M al e v i c n iz a t i o v e n of h

“Kauffer has an affinity with all artists who have ever aimed at expressiveness through simplification, distortion, and transposition and especially the cubist,” to produce “not a copy, but a simplified formalized and more expressive symbol.” - Aldous Huxley “The message must be given quickly and vividly so that interest is subconsciously retained... the discipline of reason conditions the expression of design...the designer constructs, winds the spring. The viewer’s eye is caught, the spring released.” - Abram Games 1931 /// A.M. Cassandre revitilized French advertising with his poster L’ Atlantique 1935 /// Paul Colin’s travel poster for Paris uses simple contour illustrations 1937 /// A.M. Cassandre designs the Peignot typeface 1937 /// E. Mcknight Kauffer prefers to advertise product in terms of form 1939 /// Nazi Germany invaded Poland, the beginning of WWII

“A neo-dada movement exploring conceptual and performance art, happenings, experimental poetry, and language art.” - Philip Meggs At the core of Fluxus activities was the idea of disorder and resistance to bourgeois aesthetic ideals and the art establishment.” - Jacqueline Strecker

1961 /// the term Fluxus first used by George Maciunas to purge the world of dead art 1962 /// the first Fluxus performance by Maciunas and Patterson in Germany 1963 /// George Maciunas writes the Fluxus Manifesto in New York City 1964 /// Shiomi Mieko meets Nam June Paik in Tokyo and is introduced to Fluxus 1969 /// Joseph Beuys radio recording “ja ja ja, nee nee nee�

1983 /// Louise Fili incorporated Retro into many book jacket designs 1984 /// Paula Scher and Terry Kopel partner and open a studio 1985 /// Retro becomes a national phenomenom because of Scher’s work 1985 /// Charles Anderson starts to use nostalgic revival graphics in his work 1987 /// Joe Duffy and Charles Anderson brand a line of clothing for Ralph Lauren “During the 1980’s graphic designers gained a growing understanding and appreciation of their history. A movement based on historical revival first emerged in New York and spread rapidly throughout the world. Called Retro by some designers, it was based on an uninhibited eclectic in modernist European design from the first half of the century.” - Philip Meggs “...a tangible and inherent artistic value. We see a new modernism evolving. One not based on sterile minimalism and an absence of humanity, but one that is rich in cultural vocabulary and personal expression.” - Charles Anderson

four movements, written and designed by nick george printed with epson stylus 2200 on hp photo matte stock 14 page board book with slip cover / 10 pt DIN typeface research compiled from “A History of Graphic Design,� third edition written by Philip B. Meggs, 1998 new york