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Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

Demonstration Projects in Berlin Rainwater harvesting, stormwater management and building climatization

Marco Schmidt Technische Universit채t Berlin Institute of Architecture Dep. of Building Technology and Design


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

sustainable infrastructure ?


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

sustainable infrastructure ? Building requirements are becoming increasingly complex. Current building design call not only for accepted technical standards, but also for an optimization of a variety of objectives, some of which conflict with each other. The main objective is to organize the planning, building and management of projects to ensure that environmental and natural resources are conserved, the highest standards possible are reached with regard to environmental and social impacts, and sustainable living and working conditions are achieved and maintained.


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

Urban Climate • • •

reduced evapotranspiration increased thermal radiation increased heat, „urban heat island“

Naturalistic Landscape: • 80% evapotranspiration, 20% groundwater recharge and runoff • 86% of „consumed“ radiation balance (Prec. Berlin: 680 mm, PET 760 mm)


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

Semi -Permeable Surfaces

GtE

Buildings 27% Street (Concrete) 5%

Partly Sealed Surfaces 27% Platten 8% Pflaster 5%

Monitoring for the “Berliner Waserbetriebe” 01/1999 – 12/2004

Mosaik 5% Polygonalverband 0%

Green Areas 43%

wassergebundene Wegedecke 4% Rasengittersteine 3%


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

Annual Retention Evapotranspiration, surface runoff and groundwater recharge Hydrology of different surfaces [in mm] 1.1.2001-31.12.2004 TU Berlin 100% 90%

157 275

80% 70%

416

60%

320

475 569

185 584

10

50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

382 315

241 182 88

73

0%

Groundwater Recharge

Surface Runoff

Evapotranspiration

327


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

Urban Hydrology • escalated flood risks • polluted surface waters

GtE


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

Energy • thermal discomfort inside of buildings • increased energy consumption for indoor climate control and rise of operating costs in energy consumption


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

Increase of CO2 emissions due to cooling in Europe Kt CO2 (EU Total) 68070

400% Germany (%)

350%

Greece (%) France (%)

58070

Spain (%)

300%

Italy (%) EU Total (% and Kt CO2/a)

48070

250% 38070

200%

28070

150% M.Schmidt 2006 after: EECCAC 4/2003

100%

18070 2000

2005

Source:

2010

2015

2020

Energy Efficiency and Certification of Central Air Conditioners (EECCAC) Study for the D.G. Transportation-Energy (DGTREN) of the Commission of the E.U.


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

• Rainwater harvesting for climate control of the building • No rainwater sewerage service (zero runoff) • Complete runoff management inside of the building complex • Reduction of operating costs

Institute of Physics Humboldt-University Berlin


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

Goals: Drawing up and establishment of standard guidelines for the design, construction and management of building projects: - reducing costs of design and building, - minimizing operating costs for water and energy as well as building life cycle costs. The Berlin Program for Urban Ecological Model Projects has entailed a further development in the field of residential and urban construction, led to new technologies as well as guidelines for public and publicly funded construction projects.


Rainwater Management in one of the courtyards

0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 -0.05 -0.10 -0.15 -0.20 -0.25 -0.30 -0.35 -0.40 -0.45 -0.50 -0.56 -0.75

20

15

10

5

0

0

5

10

15

20

25

30


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

Difference in Surface Temperatures Conventional Roof – Green Roof (Infrared measurements) 60,0

[°C]

Temperatures 20.6.2001 Surface Black roof

50,0

Surface Green roof Sealing Green roof

40,0

Air 0m Green roof Air 1m Green roof

30,0

20,0

10,0

23:00

22:00

21:00

20:00

19:00

18:00

17:00

16:00

15:00

14:00

13:00

12:00

11:00

10:00

9:00

8:00

7:00

6:00

5:00

4:00

3:00

2:00

1:00

0:00

,0


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

Reduced evapotranspiration in urban areas increases thermal radiation and changes up to 95% of the radiation balance to heat

Bitumen roof

Uncomfortable microclimate

Energy balance, daily mean

Disadvantages

High surface runoff, low evapotranspiration

Global Radiation 5354 Wh

Latent Heat 1827 Wh

Reflection 482 Wh Niederschlag

Marco.Schmidt@TU-Berlin.de 2002

Low durability of the sealing of the roof

Pollution of the surface waters

Evaporationcooling 123 Wh

Increased Thermal Radiation 2923 Wh Main Influencing Factors: Surface colour (Albedo)

Thermal Radiation Balance 7555 Wh

Radiation Balance 1949 Wh

Heat capacity of the surface Exposition

Ă˜ Daily Mean in Wh/m² June-August 2000 UFA-Fabrik Berlin-Tempelhof


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

On a green roof, evapotranspiration reducces thermal radiation and changes up to 65% of the radiation balance to evaporative cooling

Extensive Greened Roof Energy balance, daily mean

Improvement of the microclimate

Advantages

High durability of the sealing of the roof Reduction of the runoff by evapotranspiration

Global Radiation 5354 Wh Reflection 803 Wh

Evaporationcooling 1185 Wh Latent Heat 872 Wh

Marco.Schmidt@TU-Berlin.de 2002

Niederschlag

Increased Thermal Radiation 2494 Wh Main Influencing Factors: Field capacity of the soil

Thermal Radiation Balance7555 Wh

Radiation Balance 2057 Wh

Exposition Percentage of cover of the vegetation

Ă˜ Daily Mean in Wh/m² June-August 2000 UFA-Fabrik Berlin-Tempelhof


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

increased thermal radiation

Institute of Physics Berlin HUB-Adlershof

Connected Area

Adiabatic cooling systems:

7

Irrigated planters:

149

Connected roofs:

4700 m²

Pond in the courtyard:

225 m²


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

Mean daily evapotranspiration 7/15/05-09/14/05 correspondent cooling rate: 280 kWh per day [mm/d]

[kWh/m²d]

Mean ETP of a facade greening system, Adlershof Physik 7/15/05-09/14/05

30

south facade, 2nd floor

20,4

south facade, 3rd floor

25

south facade, 1st floor

17,0

courtyard, 1 st floor courtyard, 2nd floor

20

courtyard, 3rd floor

13,6

23:00

22:00

21:00

20:00

19:00

18:00

17:00

16:00

15:00

14:00

13:00

12:00

11:00

10:00

9:00

8:00

7:00

0,0

6:00

0

5:00

3,4

4:00

5

3:00

6,8

2:00

10

1:00

10,2

0:00

15


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

Evaporative cooling in Central Air Conditioners (CAC)

GtE


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

Difference in energy consumption with and without evaporative cooling 25,0

[kWh]

20,0

15,0 Reduction in energy consumption > 67 %

10,0

5,0

0,0 20.7.06 20.7.06 20.7.06 20.7.06 20.7.06 20.7.06 21.7.06 21.7.06 21.7.06 21.7.06 21.7.06 21.7.06 0:02 4:07 8:07 12:07 16:12 20:27 0:27 4:27 8:27 12:32 16:32 20:37


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

Costs: 1 g H2O 1 Liter 1 m³ 1,30 €

1 J = 1 Ws 2450 2450000 2450000000

kWh 0,00068 0,68 680,6 100,38 €

Rainwater instead of Tap water: Rainwater Tap water

Conductivity 30 µS 700 µS

max 1600 µS 1600 µS


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

Stormwater retention

Berlin: 180 m続 Seoul: 1200 m続

Daegu: 900 m続


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

First project: Concept for a careful urban renewal, quarter “108 Berlin-Kreuzberg”, Group “Ökotop” TU Berlin 1983


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

3. Belß-/ Lüdeckestraße Berlin-Lankwitz • Transormation from a low cost housing of the Fifties to an urban ecology demonstration project • e.g. cogeneration of heat and electricity • increasing the urban density from 142 to 402 flats • Rainwater harvesting out of the public stormwater sewer, supplying 250 inhabitants for toilet flush and limited irrigation

Architects: Baufrösche, Stadt- und Bauplanung GmbH • Kassel/ Berlin


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TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

Belß-/ Lüdeckestraße

Project data

Monitoring for the Berlin Senate for Urban Development, Department Ministerial Affairs of Building, section ecological construction

The building estate Belß-/ Lüdeckestreet Start of the project: Storage capacity: Average daily usage: Percentage of drinking water: Filter: Constructed wetland

March 2000 180 m³ (15 mm) 9,9 m³ 31 % 2x 2,5 m²


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TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

• Collection of the first flush • Treatment: constructed wetland inside of the building • Visualisation • UV- Radiation

200 180 160

Rainwaterharvesting Belß-/ Lüdeckestraße 9,3 mm Precipitation constant use

Volume in m³

140 120 100

increased use

80 60 40 20 0 21.6.99 25.6.99 29.6.99 3.7.99 8.7.99 12.7.99 16.7.99 20.7.99 24.7.99 28.7.99 2.8.99 6.8.99


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

4. Potsdamer Platz

Potsdamer Platz 1998


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TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

Potsdamer Platz – DaimlerChrysler area

Base requirement from the city council: Maximum drainage of stormwater 3.2 l/sec/ha


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

Architekten: Renzo Piano, Kohlbecker u.a. Landschaftsarchitektur: Krüger/ Möhrle, Daniel Roehr, Berlin Urbanes Gewässer: Atelier Dreiseitl, Überlingen


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

300

200

[mg/m²

Optimization of nutrient retention

Input and output of Nutrients (Sum NO3 - N and NH4 – N)

250

150 100 50 0 Niederschlag

Konv. Dach

Zeoflor

Ulopor

Terramineral

D5

D12

Terramineral

D5

D12

350 300

o-PO4-P

[mg/m²

250 200 150 100 50 0 Niederschlag

Konv. Dach

Zeoflor

Ulopor


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE


Source of data: Meisel 2005

01.12.04

02.09.04

26.05.04

09.03.04

16.12.03

24.09.03

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

27.06.03

14.04.03

11.10.02

10.07.02

25.04.02

01.02.02

01.11.01

06.08.01

15.05.01

21.02.01

23.11.00

07.09.00

12.04.00

0,06

17.02.00

20.12.99

27.10.99

01.09.99

05.07.99

Concentration in mg/l

Sustainable Infrastructure

GtE

Phosphorus (TP)

0,07

Phosphor Main Lake 1999 - 2004

0,05

0,04

0,03

0,02

0,01

0


01.12.04

02.09.04

26.05.04

09.03.04

16.12.03

3

24.09.03

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

27.06.03

14.04.03

14.01.03

11.10.02

10.07.02

25.04.02

01.02.02

01.11.01

06.08.01

15.05.01

21.02.01

3,5

23.11.00

[mg/l]

07.09.00

12.04.00

17.02.00

20.12.99

27.10.99

01.09.99

05.07.99

Sustainable Infrastructure

GtE

Nitrogen (TN)

4

Total Nitrogen Tank / Main Lake 1999 - 2004 TN Tank C1 TN Main Lake

2,5

2

1,5

1

0,5

0

Source of data: Meisel 2005


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

5. WATERGY and Cycler Support A novel solar humid-air-collector system for combined water treatment, space-cooling and heating; construction of two prototypes for applications in architecture and greenhouse horticulture


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

Buoyancy tower

Cooling duct Evaporation layer Shading

Vegetation zone


Sustainable Infrastructure

Free air circulation

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

Constant water evaporation

GtE


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

Research focus in the current project Horticulture • Approval of suitable species • Measurement of growth rates at increased temperatures, humidity and CO2 values • Approval of plant protection benefit / new problems


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

Main results Irrigation with ~1,5 l/m2 at ~65% water recovery • This means a real water consumption of ~ 0,5 l / m2 comparable value of conventional greenhouses: 2 - 3 l / m2 • Water autarky is already reached as this is less than the value of the average dayly rainfall/m2 in the region


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

Main results • Plant production in closed environment along four vegetation periods with comparable yield to standard cultivation • No use of pesticdes • CO2 Fertilisation at double atmospherical concentration (at average)


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TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

WATERGY Prototype 2


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

Sixth Framework Programme FP6-2002-INCO-MED/SSA-2 INCO – Mediterranean Partner Countries Specific Support Action

Cycler Support Supporting the implementation of FP6 research activities related to waste water use and recycling by using new generation greenhouse systems, adapted to the requirements of the MED partner countries


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

Cycler Support A project supporting new technologies of greenhouse integrated water recycling and water purification • technologies for proper re-use of wastewater in irrigation • technologies for solar sea - or brackish water desalination • technologies of rainwater harvesting


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

• re-use of wastewater including pre-selection, pre-treatment and adapted irrigation technologies • use of seawater for evaporative greenhouse cooling • dehumidification of greenhouse air as a source of fresh water by water condensation or water absorption and - desorption.

http://www.cycler-support.net/


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

Conclusions • There is an increased need for passive cooling techniques, in Europe as well as in tropical countries • Rainwater harvesting techniques and stormwater management can be combined with energy saving measures • The benefit of evapotranspiration in improving indoor climatic conditions and the microclimate around buildings is frequently underestimated • develop strategies for the future: New directive of the european parliament on the energy performance of buildings (2002/91/EC) !! • Learn from the past !


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

Learn from the past: Rainwater harvesting system in the neighborhood


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

Predicted Results:

[mm]

< Berlin >

Precipitation

120

â&#x20AC;˘ Ratio of Precipitation to pot. Evapotranspiration

Pot. Evapotranspiration 100

80

60

< Rio de Janeiro >

Marco.Schmidt@TU-Berlin.de

[mm]

GtE

160

Precipitation

140

40

Pot. Evapotranspiration

120

20

100

Marco.Schmidt@TU-Berlin.de

80 60 40 20 0 Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

0 Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

400

Pot. Evapotranspiration

300

Precipitation

< Singapore >

Pot. Evapotranspiration

300

Dec

Precipitation

< Seoul, Korea >

350

350

Nov

[mm]

Dec

[mm]

Oct

250

250

Marco.Schmidt@TU-Berlin.de

200

200 Marco.Schmidt@TU-Berlin.de

150 150 100 50

100 50 0

0 Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Source of Data: FAO


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

Radiation (source: PhysicalGeography.net)

GtE


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

Meet the MDGs: Improve the conditions of 100 million slum dwellers

Favela Santa Martha, Rio de Janeiro, 12/2003


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

GtE

New: directive of the european parliament on the energy performance of buildings (2002/91/EC) New Standard (ASTM): DIN 18599 (2006):

> 800 pages !


Sustainable Infrastructure

TU Berlin Building Technology & Design

Thank you for your attention ! Muito obrigado ! Vielen Dank ! http://www.gebaeudekuehlung.de

Thanks to:

GtE

BerlinRainwater harvesting, stormwater management and building climatization  

BerlinRainwater harvesting, stormwater management and building climatization

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