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TODAY & TOMORROW™


Welcome to our world! SEN Group is a global investment company investing in all main sectors such energy, oil & gas, technology and plant/ construction. We provide financial and technical solutions for customers in all markets. We support our customers through a worldwide network of offices in over 20 countries.

Our ability to finance large-scale projects, to design and develop high-technology products and then integrate these into sophisticated systems for use on land, sea and air, provides us with access to global markets.

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— 25 YEARS OF GROWTH, AND MORE AHEAD — SEN Group enjoys an excellent reputation. We are proud of that, and since 1987 we work every day to improve even more. Advancement requires clear goals and a well thoughtout concept. Effective, innovative, cooperative, open: SEN Group is your partner — a partner that thinks ahead.


MANAGEMENT

KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

REFERENCES

Table of contents Contents

07 Foreword by the President 09 Global Network

11 13 20 25 31

The year 2012 — Important progress and 25th anniversary SEN Group´s key business areas and subsidiary companies SEN Group at a glance SEN Group Finance AG — Financial Services & Investments Federal Export Credit Guarantees Hermes Cover

55 58 59 63 69 75 97

SENERGY — Business divisions & activities SEN Group — Energy Division Power Plant Solutions Wind Power Solutions Hydro Power Solutions Solar power Power generation

99 SENOIL — Oil & Gas 108 Exploration 110 Solutions for Midstream 119 SENTECHS — Technology 125 127 135 141 147 149 151 153 163 167

sengreenhouse® — Greenhouse & Agriculture World Hunger — a major global problem 2011’s Natural Disaster Events The year 2011 in pictures Climate change is already happening Largest Natural Catastrophes 1970-2011 Natural Catastrophes 2011 World map WORLD MAP OF NATURAL HAZARDS sengreenhouse® — Our Concept The development of a horticultural project from a to z

189 192 195 199 213

SENKON™ —Innovative building system — Our Technology — innovative prefabrication process Preparing the building site — A house in the making Surfaces SENKON™ References

225 Selected References

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— A. —


— B. —

— C. —

— D. — — E. —

SEN Group’s operations are divided into six business areas: — A. — Financial Services & Investment — B. — Energy — C. — Oil & Gas — D. — Technology — E. — Plant/Construction — F. — Agriculture & Food


Foreword by the President

Dear Customers, Dear business partners of the SEN Group, Welcome to our world! — Since 1997, SEN Group has been in close and regular contact with the leaders of developing countries rich in natural resources. We are confident that our activities within these countries will be an integral element for the success in their efforts to achieve the goals of a sustainable economic development process. We would expect priority to be assigned to those projects which will be essential for industrialization and for rapid development of these countries. Economic independence is also considered to be a major objective. The projects offered by us are turnkey projects. As such, we as SEN Group are providing all key components of any wouldbe project including design, implementation and funding of all phases in a turnkey manner. We are proud to state that we have undertaken and successfully completed a number of projects in various countries so far. There exist many other projects still underway or at the design stage. These projects will be started as soon as the formalities are completed and agreements concluded. SEN Group is capable of providing funds and credits for any feasible project regardless of the amount of capital needed. In our efforts to develop and implement the said projects, our groups of companies have been effectively cooperating with our partners in Germany and in other European countries. With the credits and funds supplied by SEN Group, our group companies are in a position to provide financial on favorable terms which would be most advantageous to investor countries.


MANAGEMENT

KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

REFERENCES

Foreword by the President Global network/Locations

Behind any successful business is a general vision, and the strong will to make this dream reality. The projects developed and offered by us to the aforementioned countries aim at achieving more economical independence in their efforts towards industrialization. SEN Group, putting a special emphasis on financial issues, offers a range of possibilities for funding such projects. To this end, a number of contracts have been agreed and then have come into effect till today. SEN Group has been effectively cooperating with its German and other European partners in all stages of the projects undertaken by us. We, as SEN Group, are able to provide credits and finance for a project with virtually no upper limit. The projects funded by SEN Group serve to marry the purposes of capital holders and industrial companies of Europe in giving them the opportunity to realize high whilst making substantial contributions to the efforts of developing countries aiming at industrialization and sustainable development. Main activities 2012 are: -Acquisition of oil wells in Russia -Waste treatment plant YekaterinburgAcquisition of oil wells and raw materials (coal, silicon, rare elements). We believe that our ability to serve clients globally with solutions tailored to their needs gives us a strong advantagein today’s rapidly changing and highly competitive marketplace.

Turgut Sen

Turgut Sen —President, SEN Group Finance AG —Founder of SEN Group


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Global Network

u Global Network w Key Business w Financial Services w Energy w Oil & Gas w Plant/Construction w Agriculture

Your partner for global business

Antalya

Ankara

Moscow

Nizhniy Tagil

Syktywkar

Istanbul Yekaterinburg

Astana Ashgabat

Recklinghausen

Biel / Bienne

Algiers

§

Marrakesh

Hangzhou Accra Dubai Porto-Novo

Cairo Khartoum

Abu Dhabi Manama Riyadh

— SEN Group operates a global network more than 20 locations worldwide — propelling the Group toward global leader in such diverse areas as investment, financing, plants construction, energy and agriculture. EUROPE

MIDDLE EAST

ASIA

AFRICA

HO Germany

Saudi Arabia

Russia

Morocco

Switzerland

United Arab Emirates

Turkmenistan

Algeria

Istanbul

Bahrain

Kazakhstan

Tunisia

Ankara

Kuwait

Azerbaijan

Ghana

Antalya

Oman

China

Egypt

Benin Sudan


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COMMUNICATION MAKE LIFE

GROUP

INVESTMENT

TECHNOLOGY

KNOW-HOW

ENVIRONMENT

PATIENCE

UNDERSTANDING

FAITH PHILANTROPY GIVE

REWARD

VISION GROWTH FUTURE

INNOVATION INSPIRING

EXPANSION

GOOD

SUCCESS

RESPONSIBILITY LEADER

CHALLENGE

TODAY

SKILLS TOMORROW PRINCIBLES GREENTECH

EMPOWERMENT TEAMWORK

TRUST

THINKING ENCOURAGE

ENERGY

PEOPLE STAFF

OIL&GAS PROCESS

VISION

COMMITMENT

STRATEGY

RESOURCES

FUND FOCUS

BUSINESS

COMPETENCE

AGRICULTURE

SOCIAL

BELIEVE

UNIVERSE

COMMITMENT

GIVE

CHANGE

GLOBAL

Our Challenges — The World‘s Biggest Problems —1.— Economic Collapse——————— Fragilities in the current global economy could tip the developed world into conditions not seen since the 1920s. —2.— Rapid Climate Change——While the debate rages on about the causes of climate change, global warming is an empirical fact. The problem is both a curse and blessing, in that people from different cultures will either have to work together or face mutual destruction.—3.—Global Hunger—— The world is facing a hunger crisis unlike anything it has seen in more than 50 years.925 million people are hungry.

—2.—Rapid climate change

—1.—Ecomomic collapse —3.—Global hunger

© Sen Group 2012


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The year 2012 — Important progress and 25th anniversary

progress 2012 is a year of important

for SEN Group.

2.navigator

1.diversification

3.multinational


TODAY & TOMORROWTM

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4.research & development

5.growth & stability

6.competence in finance


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SEN Group´s key business areas and subsidiary companies

1987— 2012 — TODAY & TOMORROW™

— F. — sengreenhouse®

— B. — SENERGY

— C. — SENOIL

— D. — SENTECHS

— E. — SENKON

— A. — SEN Group Finance AG

— 1. —

diversification

SEN Group’s operations are divided into six business areas: — A. — Financial Services & Investment — B. — ENERGY — C. — Oil & Gas— D. — Technology— E. — Plant /Construction— F. — Agriculture & Food


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— 2. —

navigator

The SEN Group is a key partner in helping countries navigate through the current financial crisis. At a time when billions of dollars owned by capital holders and potential investors were lying idle, our economists were hard at work seeking remedies and planning strategies in order to direct idle funds into fruitful investments so as to fuel stagnant economies.


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200 thousand employees until the end of 2012

Dr. Adnan Icemer, Turkey;

— 3. —

Dr. Cyril K. King, Ghana;

Sue Wu, China;

multinational

Mohammed Al-Blaihed, Saudi Arabia;

SEN Group is a multinational company with a worldwide network of companies which together offer their customers financial solutions, comprehensive planning, construction, design and service support.


Working with over 40 scientists worldwide

— 4. —

research&development

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Over 40 scientists working in R&D labs in areas such solar, oil & gas, energy and agriculture for SEN Group. In addition to working closely with internal SENTECH research labs, over 40 scientists also work within a global network of more than 20 universities worldwide.


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Key figures 2012 VOLUME OF ORDERS AND PROJECT PIPELINE

US$

— 5. —

bn

growth & stability

The full project pipeline and high level of orders on hand point towards improved results in the second half of 2012.


MANAGEMENT BOARD

KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

REFERENCES

SEN Group at a glance

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— b. —

— c. —

— a. —

— d. —

— f. —

— 6. —

— e. —

competence in finance

SEN Group’s operations in the Finance sector are divided into six business areas: — a. — Trade & Export Finance — b. — Structured Finance— c. — Leasing— d. — Transaction Services— e. — Advisory & Service— f. — Project Finance


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Key business areas and subsidiary companies

w Global Network u Key Business w Financial Services w Energy w Oil & Gas w Plant/Construction w Agriculture


MANAGEMENT BOARD

KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

REFERENCES

SEN Group at a glance

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SEN Group at a glance

— A. — FINANCIAL SERVICES SEN Group is capable of providing funds and credits for any feasible project regardless of the amount of capital needed. In our efforts to develop and implement projects, our group of companies have been effectively cooperating with our partners in Germany and in other European countries. With the credits and funds supplied by SEN Group, our group companies are in a position to provide financial support on favourable terms which would be most advantageous to investor countries. — B. — ENERGY The Power business area – comprising the Groups Power Generation and Power Transmission and Distribution – offers a comprehensive spectrum of energy solutions, ranging from electricity generation to the transport of electrical energy frompower plant to consumer. — C. — OIL & GAS SEN Group has been in continuous contact with major Russian oil and gas companies. The negotiations with Russian and Kazakh authorities are presently underway in order to conclude an agreement through which extensive oil resources will become available to us. We envision that the continuous supply of oil from Russia will be provided to the refineries to be owned by our group.

— D. — TECHNOLOGY SENTECHS is a technology and engineering company providing its services with a special focus to all renewable energies, PV and microelectronic areas & applications, ranging from business — E. — PLANT/CONSTRUCTION SEN Group applies optimal engineering capabilities to offer the best solutions for customer needs regarding diesel engine/gaspower plants. SEN Group is strengthening its involvement in environmental plants as well as renewable energy business, including wind and solar power plants. And the Group is expanding into offshore structures and plants, including the sophisticated FPSO vessels. SEN Group is leveraging know-how in civil works, building and housing construction to expand into high-rise apartment and build-transfer-lease (BTL) projects. The Group is also acquiring the platform to perform large-scale projects inside and outside Russia, including port facilities, shipbuilding facilities and port communities. The new highway project in Russia, is an opportunity to demonstrate the construction competencies of SEN Group. — F. — AGRICULTURE & FOOD How will we provide food for ourselves and for future generations? —sustainable agriculture & sengreenhouse® concept— is the answer. Greenhouses have become increasingly larger and more complex projects in a relatively short space of time. sengreenhouse® has the expertise to coordinate complex projects under a wide range of different circumstances and conditions. From an early stage sengreenhouse® ensure correct planning and close supervision of all the various partners involved in a project.


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Current projects and locations in Russia

Murmansk Kaliningrad

Arkhangelsk

Bryansk

Moscow Syktyvkar Lipetsk

Khanty-Mansiysk

Nizhniy Tagil Krasnodar

Volgograd

Yekaterinburg Syssert

Stavropol

Tyumen

Krasnoyarsk Kemerovo

—1.— Waste incineration plant (500,000 t / y, 200 MWe), Yekaterinburg —2.— Greenhouses (incl. animal breeding) and construction of staff housing —smarthouse—, Syssert —3.— New railway line in Komi Republik (Belkomur), Russia —4.— Construction of the Moscow Ring Road 1, Russia —5.— Oil refineries (10 m t / y), Russia

—1.— Waste to Energy, Yekaterinburg

—2.— sengreenhouse

®

AREA OF THE GREENHOUSE: 40 x 1.008,00 m2 TOTAL AREA: 40.320,00 m2

US$ 400 m

Utilization systems for 500.000 t — from house, trade and biological waste to valuable materials and final products

Nowadays all over the world the construction and operation of horticultural projects are subject to increasingly strict norms and environmental requirements. Of course sengreenhouse® Horticultural Projects takes these local requirements into account and only develops projects that fully comply with these standards. — However, sengreenhouse® is going further.— By developing more innovations we can even meet the environmental standards of tomorrow.


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Current projects

Russia

—1.—

—2.—

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23

Current projects

Jan.—July

April

May

—A1.— —A2.— —A3.—

—A1.— Again a very active half year for our president Turgut Sen (72) — more than 50,000 miles —A2.—— Acquisition of oil fields —5 x 200m to, Russia ——A3.—Acquisition of cogeneration power plant in Turkey — 275 MWe,140 ton/h steam A4.———Oil refinery Volgograd, Murmansk, Bryansk—A5.—Acquisition of a shopping mall in Turkey


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Current projects

Russia

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—3.— Belkomur new railway, Rep. Komi

US$ 2.5bn

795 km

The project of the new rail way — Arkhangelsk—Syktyvkar—Kudymkar—Perm within the Nothern Transport Corridor Finland— Urals—Far East and Middle Asia will serve a quicker economic development of Russian North-West regions, business, foreign trade expansion of the Republik of Komi, Perm region, Arkhangelsk and Sverdlovsk Regions. The project included in the Russian Federation railways development strategy till 2030.

—4.— Volgograd oil refinery, Russia

US$ 3.5bn

10 MTPA


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KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

REFERENCES

SEN Group at a glance Financial Services & Investment

Financial Services & Investment

—A.—


SEN Group Finance AG


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SEN Group Finance AG — Financial Services & Investment

w Global Network w Key Business u Financial Services w Energy w Oil & Gas w Plant/Construction w Agriculture

Global Finance Globalisation, constant technological progress and the merging of the lending and capital markets mean that companies are faced increasingly with new and individual challenges. Our advice for optimising equity and debt structures is equally individual, and our customers benefit from this. We offer you integrated concepts tailored to your long-term financing strategies.

For more information please visit: www.senfinance.eu


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SEN Group at a glance

Global Finance

Financial Services & Investment Global Finance

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STRUCTURED FINANCE ————————————— Steer your business in the right direction with structured financing. - Put us at the wheel. Driven to exceed expectations in all major industry sectors and product areas, our Global Origination team helps your business succeed.

Due to our well established contact to Export Credit Agencies (“ECA s”) such as Euler Hermes Kreditversicherungs-AG , SEN Group has excellent access to the OECD export guarantee systems and their instruments of comprehensive cover in favour of our customers.

Whether you are a multinational or a local company, large or small, our aim is to help you gain a competitive advantage in your sector. Understanding your financial needs, we provide innovative, tailor-made solutions that offer you the perfect balance of product capability, industry skills and local knowledge.

PROJECT FINANCE ——————————————— Non-recourse project financing is becoming increasingly popular, particularly in the US, Asia, South America and Central and Eastern Europe. This type of financing enables borrowers to “ring-fence” the risks associated with a particular project by structuring the loan; thus only the cash flow generated by that project is required to be used to service the debt to the lender. This is achieved by structuring the project as a legally separate economic unit (project company), with banks having security over the project company’s assets as only collateral for the loan. Project finance can be used both on new projects as well as on projects involving expansion and modernisation. expansion and modernisation.

Our award-winning structured finance deals help give you the edge. You can rely on us to go the extra distance.

ADVISORY & SERVICE ————————————— Not only people are highly individual, but markets too. Our employees understand both – your needs and the needs of the markets. You will realise this when you get in touch with us. And get advice and service which really help you. Fast-moving markets require a reliable partner who provides you with up-to-date information, has profound knowledge of the markets and offers state-of-the-art execution. We go out of our way to achieve exceptional results which meet your individual needs and wishes. LEASING ——————————————————— Time is money. Especially if you supply high-quality products. The latest machines can make your work easier but commit valuable liquidity. But well planned leasing concepts maintain investment capital. This is why we advise you already in the phase of investment planning and realisation, and in the same way for insurance and subsequent marketing. TRADE & EXPORT FINANCE ———————————— SEN Group develops individual financing strategies for its clients through both supporting the activities of its German export customers on the international stage and helping international investors implement their projects. Our comprehensive expertise in various industry sectors enables us to offer customised financial strategies. In the area of export and project finance, SEN Group has a substantial track record, which includes comprehensive experience in international business activities and industrial know how. SEN Group closely cooperates with banks such as ING, UBS, Credit Suisse, WESTLB (Portigon Financial Services), LBBW and other european central banks.

For SEN Group such project finance is based on the following prerequisites: • The project volume should be at least € 25 million; • The sponsor must be competent and experienced in the specific industry; • The technology is proven and efficient, and • The supply of raw material and the off-take of the products should be subject to long-term contracts.


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SEN Group Finance AG — Financial Services & Investment

w Global Network w Key Business u Financial Services w Energy w Oil & Gas w Plant/Construction w Agriculture

Creating value: Driven by effective financing solutions

SEN is a financial partner for large corporate clients including financial institutions, mid-sized corporates, and project developers SEN has a strong international reputation in the following product areas: • • • • • • • •

Project and Structured Finance Asset Backed Financing Asset Management Credit Products Equity Solutions M&A Advisory Trade & Commodity Finance Treasury & Fixed Income

We offer financial solutions for: • Enabling equipment and infrastructure investments – from leasing and lease-purchase models to project financing • Creating additional liquidity through receivables financing • Skillfully managing business risks –from insurance solutions and investment management to longterm currency and interest rate management Effective finaxncing solutions arise from an in-depth understanding of our customers’ business. We know the market not only from research but also from our long-standing experience as part of Sen Group. As a customer, you can draw on our financial expertise as well as our industry know-how in a wide range of sectors.This is how we develop customized solutions that can help you become even more successful in your market. Our international network of financing companies in over 20 countries and our employees’ extensive financial expertise form the basis for the successful implementation of a wide range of diverse financial projects.


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KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

REFERENCES

SEN Group at a glance Financial Services & Investment

Global Finance

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Scope of Services

What makes SEN Group so special? Strength, openness, international focus, partnership, performance, and innovation.

SEN Scope of Services As advisor and arranger, SEN’s typical scope of work would include:

Financial Structuring

Project Finance Execution

M&A Advisory

Develop optimal financial structure given multiple classes of debt obligations

SEN would act as advisor, under Provide support to client throughout writer, placement agent, arranger and bidding process lender (as appropriate)

Finalize financial models

Drafting material to be presented to rating agencies

Assist client in developing a target valuation

Work with appropriate third-party consultants

Present material to rating agencies with the intention of obtaining the optimal rating for the Project

Assist client in all aspects of financial, contractual, and structural due diligence

Present at meetings with financing sources

Assist in preparation of offering memorandum, investor presentations, financing agreements and other materials

Provide financial support letters as required

Evaluate potential financing sources

Assist with other activities necessary in connection with intercreditor issues, institutional / bank financing of the Project

Structure bridging facilities as may be required on terms acceptable to client and SEN

Source and negotiate with mezzanine

Š Sen Group 2012


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SEN Group Finance AG — Financial Services & Investment

Federal Export Credit Guarantees Hermes Cover

w Global Network w Key Business u Financial Services w Energy w Oil & Gas w Plant/Construction w Agriculture

The German government supports the activities of German companies abroad by means of its foreign trade and investment promotion scheme and in doing so maintains their competitiveness, contributes to job security and promotes exports thus acting as an important growth factor. A consortium of Euler Hermes Kreditversicherungs-AG and PricewaterhouseCoopers Aktiengesellschaft Wirtschaftsprüfungsgesellschaft (PwC AG)was appointed by the German government to manage these promotion schemes. Government guarantees offer coverage for foreign trade and investment activities in order to make the inherent risks more predictable and manageable. Guarantees are an essential element of risk management and facilitate foreign market access. Export credit guarantees secure exports against (economic) buyer risks and (political) country risks. Investment guarantees protect foreign direct investments against political risks. Untied loan guarantees back commodity supplies to Germany and contribute to the economic development abroad.

Three Pillars of Hermes Covered Transactions

State Guarantees

Bank Guarantees / Securities or Corporate risk basis

(Public sector)

(Private sector)

Infrastructure projects

Creditworthiness of the buyer / bank • Short-term business (e.g. consumer goods) • Medium-/long-term business (capital goods)

Knock-on financing with plans for privatisation

Project Finance or Structured Finance

Capability of the project to finance itself


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SEN Group at a glance Financial Services & Investment

Global Finance

32

Scope of Services

Project Finance

Non-recourse project financing is becoming increasingly popular, particularly in the US, Asia, South America and Central and Eastern Europe. This type of financing enables borrowers to “ring-fence” the risks associated with a particular project by structuring the loan; thus only the cash flow generated by that project is required to be used to service the debt to the lender. This is achieved by structuring the project as a legally separate economic unit (project company), with banks having security over the project company’s assets as only collateral for the loan. Project finance can be used both on new projects as well as on projects involving expansion and modernisation. expansion and modernisation.

For Sen Group such project finance is based on the following prerequisites: • The project volume should be at least € 25million; • The sponsor must be competent and experienced in the specific industry; • The technology is proven and efficient, and • The supply of raw material and the off-take of the products should be subject to long-term contracts.

ECA Project Finance Subcontractor

Sponsor

Exporter/Contractor

7

3

4

Project Company/ Borrower

2

6

Export Credit Agency

1

7 Bank

Supplier of Raw Materials

Government/ Local Authorities

4 5

Off Taker/Market

The chart describes the main parties involved. (1) A bank advises the project company and arranges the financing. (2) The necessary approvals and licenses must be obtained from the local authorities. (3) The provider of equity is typically known as the sponsor. Additionally to his financial support, the sponsor is in general engaged in the respective industry. (4) The project company concludes binding offtake and supply agreements. (5) The revenues resulting from the off-take agreements will be separated into an escrow account for debt service. (6) The exporter as EPC-contractor is responsible for the construction and commissioning of the plant, and (7) the bank and exporter benefit from comprehensive ( i. e. political and commercial) ECA-cover.


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SEN Group Finance AG — Financial Services & Investment

w Global Network w Key Business u Financial Services w Energy w Oil & Gas w Plant/Construction w Agriculture

Innovative financing concepts by an experienced team Structured Finance provides you with flexible and customized financing solutions for strategic projects. Our global network of relationships enables us to open doors and find the right contacts for you. We provide individual solutions – tailored to your needs and the requirements of the banking industry. We do this in the following areas:

Acquisition financing We provide support in seeking viable external financing solutions for planned acquisitions. You benefit from our expertise in: + Bank financing + Bridge loans While we concentrate on the debt financing needed for the transaction, we can put you in touch with potential equity investors if necessary. The following services are also offered in connection with acquisition financing: + Analysis of the debt capacity of the buyer and the target company + Development of a financing structure and ap propriate terms commensurate with risk + Syndication and assembly of a suitable group of banks


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REFERENCES

SEN Group at a glance

Global Finance

Financial Services & Investment Scope of Services

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Management and Leveraged Buyouts

Advisory

We provide active support for management and leveraged buyouts (MBOs/ LBOs). While management – and in certain cases other investors – take on the risk in the form of shareholders’ equity, Structured Finance organizes the necessary borrowed funds.

For companies that are looking for tailored, complex financing solutions, such as structured, cross-border leasing, we can provide an experienced, interdisciplinary team for advising companies.

Structured Finance can arrange and manage the syndication of loans. Requirements: + High, stable, free cash flows + Little additional investments necessary in subsequent years + Established products, client relation ships in a mature sector Objectives: + To preserve independence + To generate entrepreneurial momentum + To facilitate strategic options such as initial public offerings, acquisitions, mergers, etc.

We work closely with specialists at international investment banks and with a team of external advisors (tax, law, accounting). This enables us to advise you even on the most complex issues. Our extensive contacts with investors help us place the lease transactions with local or international investors. Example: structured leasing Via tailored leasing structures, the following advantages can be achieved: + Balance sheet optimization through the use of off-balancesheet items (sales and leaseback) + Simplified budgeting (lease pay ments remain the same) + Reduced financing charge (tax-optimized leasing)


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SEN Group Finance AG — Financial Services & Investment

Why ECA-Financing ? — Consolidation of existing trade relations — Opening of new business especially in emerging markets — Support for our partners abroad also in difficult phases of development and restructuring Key to financing facilities — Promotion of German export as key objective of the — Federal Government‘s economic policy — Technology and know-how transfer

$Basic Hermes Cover Tools 1

Delivery of consumer goods, semi-finished goods, raw materials, chemicals etc. with short term credit periods

+ Multiple Transaction Guarantees

– Wholeturnover Policy (turnover with various customers worldwide) – Revolving Policy (turnover with one specific Brazilian customer)

+ Single Transaction Policy (a single transaction with a customer)

1

Medium/long term policies for capital goods and related services with credit periods over 2 years

+ Insurance of the exporter against risks arising during the production phase (manufacturing risk)

+ Insurance against risks arising after delivery (export risk)

– Supplier Credit Cover ... for the exporter‘s claim – Buyer Credit Cover (Finance Credit Cover) ... for the financing bank‘s repayment claim for amounts owing under their loans

1

Cover for counterguarantees

w Global Network w Key Business u Financial Services w Energy w Oil & Gas w Plant/Construction w Agriculture


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SEN Group at a glance Financial Services & Investment

Global Finance

Scope of Services

$ Advantages of Hermes Cover (Supplier Credit Cover)

2 For the German exporter:

+ Competitive terms of payment can be offered + Risk protection + Liquidity by selling the receivables to a German bank 2 e.g. for the Russian buyer:

+ Long repayment terms + No charges to the line of credit given by the Russian house bank

$ Advantages of Hermes Cover (Buyer Credit Cover)

2 For the German exporter:

+ Competitive terms of payment can be offered + Immediate liquidity after delivery 2 e.g. for the Russian buyer:

+ Financing of the project making use of German interest rates + Even if Hermes fees are included often more favourable conditions than financing by a Russian Bank

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Expertise for Project Financing and Structured Finance

Before the Interministerial Committee (IMC) decides whether to grant cover for a project financed transaction, as a rule an expertise given by a certified auditor on the economic viability of the project is required, which must be commissioned by the applicant. As from 1 March 2004 the Federal Government laid down the following pre-requisites and procedures relating to expertise for project financing: A. AUDITOR PROFILE

w Global Network w Key Business u Financial Services w Energy w Oil & Gas w Plant/Construction w Agriculture

• Effectively operating, protected IT systems for the evaluation of large quantities of data including text documents and mathematical models on different data processing media • Experience in the evaluation of market studies conducted by international consultants and market researchers III. CO-OPERATION WITH MINISTRIES REPRESENTED IN THE INTERMINISTERIAL COMMITTEE (IMC) AND THE MANDATARY CONSORTIUM

The auditor must satisfy the following criteria: I. GUARANTEE OF INDEPENDENCE • Risk assessment from the perspective of the Federal Government • Professional and economic independence • Exclusion of any conflict of interests • Discretion/confidentiality

II. INTERNATIONAL AUDITING COMPANY • Comprehensive theoretical and practical knowl edge of the instruments and elements of project financing and structured finance constructions. • Knowledge of the underwriting instruments and special requirements of the Federal Government, export credit agencies and political risk insurers • Experience with the operational procedures of international banks and financial institutions (IFIs etc.), financial advisors and other experts and project sponsor groups • Assignment of experienced, qualified staff with aneducational background in business studies, economics, law (international contract law), stat istics and environmental studies • Good expertise in financial modelling with the ability to carry out model checks; basic technical under standing with regard to plant configuration, manufacturing processes, factor input rates and specific product requirements; guarantee of uni form auditing standards through quality assurance

• Close co-operation with the mandataries right from the beginning of the verification process • Providing information to the ministries and themandataries during the auditing process • Preparation of the expertise in German • Presentation of the detailed expertise results to the working group in Berlin or Hamburg • Willingness to attend and actively participate in national and international meetings with project sponsors, banks and advisors • Monitoring the projects after formal completion of the contract or a temporary suspension of work, if required


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REFERENCES

SEN Group at a glance

Global Finance

Financial Services & Investment Scope of Services

38

Stuctured Finance

B. CONTENT AND SCOPE OF THE EXPERTISE The content and scope of the expertise depend on what aspects are of significance for the individual case. The review generally aims at ana lysing the economic viability of the project and evalu ating the justifiability of risk from the perspective of the Federal Government. As a rule, the expertise contract is to be awarded without any restrictions. In general the expertise should cover the following main issues: • Initial project description • Statutory basis of the project – Type of company/details on those involved in the project and their participating interests – Main contractual arrangements • Economic situation of the participants in the project • Analysis and evaluation of the project design – Market analysis – Investment costs and financing – Collateral construction • Evaluation of the economic feasibility of the project (cash flow analysis) – Basic assumptions and results of the cash flow analysis – Analysis of the cash flow calculation provided by the applicant – Simulation analysis (sensitivity analysis) • Summary of the examination results Depending on the individual case, additional criteria may need to be included in the analysis.

C. PROCEDURE • APPLICATION PROCEDURE/INITIAL CURSORY REVIEW The exporter/bank appoints a certified auditor of his own choice at an early stage in the proceedings, pre f erably before the Interministerial Committee has decided on an initial cursory review which will then be followed by the verification process. • SUBMISSION OF THE EXPERTISE The certified auditor submits his expertise to the relevant authorities (government departments/mandataries). As a rule, the applicant receives the final version of the expertise after the Federal Government has declared that it is in principle prepared to grant cover. D. QUALITY AND COSTS OF THE EXPERTISE The responsibility for the quality of the expertise remains with the applicant. The applicant must also bear the costs of the expertise. The requirements set out above also apply to struc tured finance transactions if the Federal Government considers an expertise necessary. CONTACT If you have any queries, please do not hesitate to contact us.


39

Individual financing structure for your success

w Global Network w Key Business u Financial Services w Energy w Oil & Gas w Plant/Construction w Agriculture

KNOW-HOW AND STRONG PARTNERS ARE A GUARANTEE FOR SUCCESS. Global Export and Project Finance with Sen Group Finance.

SEN Group’s export and project finance was launched at the end of the 90s by establishing a team of specialists at SEN Group’s headquarters in Germany. Since then offices have been established in Russia, Kazakhstan, Switzerland, Turkey, Tunis, Bosnia Herzegovina and China in order to take account of the growing number of exports to Asia as well as industrial projects within this region and worldwide. SEN Group develops individual financing strategies for its clients through both supporting the activities of its German export customers on the international stage and helping international investors implement their projects. Our comprehensive expertise in various industry sectors enables us to offer customised financial strategies. In the area of export and project finance, SEN Group has a substantial track record, which includes comprehensive experience in international business activities and industrial know how. SEN Group closely cooperates with banks such as ING, UBS, Credit Suisse, WestLB (Portigon Financial Services) LBBW and other european central banks. Due to our well established contact to Export Credit Agencies (“ECAs”) such as Euler Hermes Kreditversicherungs-AG, SERVE, etc. SEN Group has excellent access to the OECD export guarantee systems and their instruments of comprehensive cover in favour of our customers.

Instruments of Export Finance SEN Group provides long-term loans for companies abroad importing capital goods produced by German or other European companies and from the US. The Buyer‘s Credit without a bank guarantee, which is covered by ECAs including amongst others Euler Hermes Kreditversicherungs-AG, Coface, Cesce, EKN, US-Exim has gained increased significance. Across various industry sectors, SEN Group structured and arranged many ECAcovered loans for companies over the past five years. This type of financing can alternatively be structured as a bank-to-bank loan to a bank in the Buyer’s country.


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Buyer credit cover

40

Export Finance

Buyer credit cover protects the lending bank’s claim to repayment, as stipulated in the loan agreement with the foreign borrower, of the loan amount disbursed to the exporter.

SEN 7. Advance payment/opening of L/C 8. Delivery(ies)

Exporter

Importer

6. Exporter´s agreement

4. Loan agreement

9. Disbursement(s)

10. Repayment of loan

2. Request-/promise non-payment risk

Lending Bank

3. EULER HERMES insurance ECA

*Contractual relationship in case of a “simple”buyer credit

5. Payment guarantee

4. Loan agreement

Importer´s bank


41

FAQs

w Global Network w Key Business u Financial Services w Energy w Oil & Gas w Plant/Construction w Agriculture

What risks are covered? The buyer credit to be covered must be based on an export Buyer credit cover offers protection against payment default if

contract (tied buyer credit). Buyer credit cover may be granted either separately or in combination with supplier credit cover in

– the borrower fails to make payment within one month

favour of the exporter.

after due date (protracted default)

In the latter case, the exporter receives protection against the

– the borrower becomes insolvent

risk that, after shipment of the goods, the lending bank fails

– adverse measures are taken by foreign governments or

to make disbursements to the exporter (non-payment risk).

warlike events arise – local currency amounts are not converted or transferred

Furthermore, the exporter has the possibility of insuring nonfinanced interim payments.

The loan may be disbursed in Euros or in a foreign currency.

The bank undertakes to cancel a promised loan only with the

The currency governing the loan agreement and the export

approval of the Federal Government. Consequently, the buyer

contract need not necessarily be the same. The interest

credit ensures smooth performance of the supply contract.

specified in the loan agreement will be included in the cover up to the scheduled maturity of each instalment without any

What horizon of risk is covered?

additional premium being charged.

Cover takes effect when and to the extend that disbursements are made under the loan and ends with the full payment of the

Who can apply for buyer credit cover?

covered amount owing. Liability is not accepted for amounts which have been allocated but not yet disbursed.

Buyer credit cover is available to all German banks, to the branch offices of foreign banks in Germany and, under cer-

Can it be used for refinancing?

tain conditions, also to foreign banks. The claims arising under the Buyer Credit Guarantee may – What is buyer credit cover?

together with the claim to repayment of the loan – be assigned to other banks or forfaiting houses for refinancing purposes.

Export transactions are often – generally through the agency

Furthermore, the conditions of buyer credit cover may be en-

of the German exporter acting as an intermediary – financed

hanced by means of a Securitisation Guarantee, thus enabling

by means of a buyer credit. A buyer credit is operated in

the bank to seek refinancing at a favourable interest rate (see

the following manner: A lending bank provides the foreign

Product Information securitisation guarantee).

buyer or bank with a loan which serves to pay the amounts owing to the exporter already at the time of shipment of the

How much does it cost?

goods. For this commonly used type of financing, the Federal Government issues cover.

The costs consist of the processing fee and the cover premium. The processing fee depends on the amount of the loan. A cer-

The lending bank providing the buyer credit acts as policyhol-

tain percentage of the loan amount (interest excluded) is char-

der in the case of buyer credit cover. Compared with a sup-

ged as cover premium. The premium level is mainly determined

plier credit where the exporter allows the foreign buyer time

by the buyer’s rating, the country risk and the length of credit.

for payment and, if necessary, seeks to refinance himself,

Insurance tax is not payable. If buyer credit cover is combined

this has several advantages. The exporter does not have

with supplier credit cover, the premium is not doubled.

to conduct negotiations on credit terms and his company profits from an immediate balance sheet relief and enhanced

To give you an estimate of the premium applicable in your

liquidity.

specific case, an interactive premium calculator is available on the Internet. Further details are given in the information sheet

What is the link between buyer credit cover and the export transaction?

premia.


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SEN Group at a glance Financial Services & Investment

Main features of buyer credit cover at a glance:

Export Finance

Eligible policyholders:

German banks, certain

foreign banks, and all German

42

branch offices of foreign banks Amounts owing (principal Object of cover:

and interest) under tied buyer credits Borrower’s failure to make

Covered risks:

payment within 1 month after due date (protracted default), other commercial risks (e.g. insolvency), as well as political risks (e.g. warlike events) In principle: All countries;

Eligible countries:

Exception: Exports with repayment terms not exceeding two years to EU member states and the OECD core countries (i.e. Canada, Iceland, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Switzerland, USA), however, subject to certain conditions and limited in time until the end of 2011, Bulgaria, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania and Romania, in principle classified as marketable risks, may qualify for cover

5% for all risks Uninsured portion: Application and, Processing fees:

if necessary, renewal and issuing fees, depending on the loan amount A certain percentage of the

Premium:

Sen Group Finance AG Germany Branch Waldstr. 24 c 45661 Recklinghausen

loan amount

Š Sen Group 2012


43

Export guarantee portfolio

The statutory cover limit in the budget law for 2010 was increased from 117 billion to 120 billion euros. 89.6 % of this had been utilized at year-end. For the budget year 2011, the legislator raised the cover limit to 135 billion euros. The federal government’s actual outstanding risk rose by 15.8 % to 76.4 billion euros. The volume of commitments in principle declined by 16 %. Debt forgiveness on 7.6 million euros of capital repayment due to the federal government became effective in 2010.

Total commitments of the Federal Government (Exposure) Breakdown by country groups and statutory maximum exposure limit in billion EUR. Stat. max exp. limit

117.0 117.0 120.0 101.3 9.2

Uncategorisable* Emerging economies and developing countries Industrialized countries

107.8 107.5 11.7

79.9

79.9

12.2

16.2

2008

2009

7.5

78.0

22.0

2010

* „uncategorisable“ exposure refers to allocations made for wholeturnover policies under the statutory maximum exposure limit.

TOTAL OUTSTANDING RISK BY COUNTRY GROUPS

2009 million EUR

Share in %

2010 million EUR

Share in %

Emerging economies and developing countries

50,457.8

76.5

53,506.4

70.0

Latin America

5,846,0

8.9

7,936.0

10.4

COUNTRIES*

Africa

4,917.8

7.5

5,258.9

6.9

Asia

22,661.6

34.3

22,963.8

30.0

Europe

17,032.4

25.8

17,340.8

22.7

Industrialized countries

15,533.3

23.5

22,898.9

30.0

Total:

65,991.1

100.0

76,405.3

100.0

*see country classifications


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SEN Group at a glance

Global Finance

Financial Services & Investment

44

Export Guarantee Portfolio

STATUTORY COVER LIMIT AND TOTAL COMMITMENT LEVEL Export credit guarantees are granted on the basis of amounts authorized by the budget. This statutory cover limit is set every year in the Budget Law and stipulates the maximum aggregate amount of cover available (export credit guarantees for business with public and private buyers and tied buyer credits to foreign debtors). The Federal Office for Central Services and Unresolved Property Issues (BADV) registers the maximum amounts for which liability is accepted and monitors the utilization of the statutory cover limit. The members of the mandatary consortium notify new entries on a monthly basis as well as the discharge of liability in the case of risks which have ceased to exist. Cover granted for interest is not set off against the statutory limit. In order to be able to make sufficient funds available for state export credit guarantees in future as well, the Federal Government raised the statutory limit in the budget law 2010 to 120 billion euros. 117 billion euros had previously been available for Hermes cover. The increased facility had been 89.6 % utilized at yearend.On the initiative of the Federal Government, the legislators raised the statutory cover limit to 135 billion euros for 2011, thus giving adequate scope for the cover of future export business. The total commitment level (exposure) of the Federal Government under export credit guarantees (without interest) went down slightly (-0.3 %) to 107.5 billion euros. This figure represents the exposure level actually recorded by the BADV at the end of the year. It is only a very rough guide to the amounts actually at risk, however, since the full amount of the transactions remains on the register until they are finally discharged, irrespective of the stage of repayment. In the year under review new policies in the amount of 19.3 billion euros were issued as against old commitments with a value of 19.7 billion euros which were deleted.

Total outstanding risk of the federal government by maturities in billion EUR

40+18+1032J

31.7%

40.8%

9.6%

17.9%

up to 1 year 1 to 5 years more than 5 years no fixex maturity:

Total 2010:

76.4

Total outstanding risk of the federal government in billion EUR 9.3 8.6

Russia R.F. 6.9 6.8

United States 4.0 4.4

Turkey

3.4 3.0

South Africa

3.3 4.0

Iran United Kingdom

Besides this, new cover had been issued at year-end for interest of 45.3 billion euros (2009: 41.3 billion euros). This brought the total commitment of the Federal Government from guarantees assumed and interest to 152.8 billion euros.

2.2

3.3

3.0 2.6

China P.R. Switzerland 0.1

OUTSTANDING RISK The federal government’s actual outstanding risk including interest increased by 15.8 % and stood at 76.4 billion euros at year-end. Half of the total risk was accounted for by nine countries (see p. 90). The share of outstanding risk in respect of the industrialized countries jumped to 30 %, while 70 % of the risk is accounted for by the emerging economies and developing countries.

13.6 31.2 24.2 7.4

2.8

South Korea

2.4 2.3

India

2.1 2.3

Subtotal 2010: 40.5 (52.9%)

Total 2010:

76.4 (100%)

2010 2009

Š Sen Group 2012


45

Project Finance – decision process and FAQs

PROJECT FINANCE WITH FEDERAL EXPORT

of project finance specialists from the ministries and

CREDIT GUARANTEES (HERMES COVER)

euler hermes kreditversicherungs-ag.

The Official Export Credit Guarantee Scheme has been

A further specialty of project finance transactions is that

rotecting German exporters and banks since 1988

an experienced auditing company has to examine the

successfully against the risk of non-payment arising in

economic, legal and financial viability of the project. The

connection with project finance transactions. Since then

auditing company has to assess the underlying risks

transactions in all business sectors have been covered

of the project from the perspective of the risk-taker, i.e.

(e.g. Telecom, Power, Mining, Oil & Gas, Petrochemical

the Federal Government. The applicant may select and

Industry, Steel, Transportation Systems).

commission the auditing company according to the preconditions as laid out in Hermes Cover Special on the

This kind of business also falls under the common Guar -

Expertise for Project Financing and Structured Finance

antee Scheme of the German Government. However, due

of March 2004.

to the complexity of project finance deals the decision process has some special elements, which we would like to highlight hereafter. All decisions with regard to project finance transactions are made by the federal republic of germany in an Interministerial Committee (IMC). These decisions are prepared in a special working council, in order to acceler ate the decision process in the IMC. This council consists

THE THREE-STEP DECISION MAKING PROCESS STEP 1: INDICATION Project presentation to Euler Hermes Documents needed: - Short project description

Short report by Euler Hermes

Project presentation to the Government - Discussion between Euler Hermes and the Government (working council)

Indication

Informal feedback on the general acceptance of the overall structure of the Project. A Letter of Interest may be issued if requested.

STEP 2: PRE-ASSESSMENT Assessment of the project by Euler Hermes Documents needed: -Application -Financial Model -Project Information Memorandum

Report by Euler Hermes

Evaluation of the project by the Government Detailed discussion between Decision on Euler Hermes and the govern- Pre-Assessment ment (working council and IMC)

Formal Feedback (legally not binding): Clearance to progress into the next phase. The Government will then ask for a report of an auditing company on the (final) project documention.

STEP 3: APPROVAL Detailed Assessment of the final project structure Documents needed: -Final drafts of documents -Report of the auditing company

Decision by the Government Detailed discussion between Report by Euler Hermes, representatives Euler from the auditing company Hermes and and the Government (working report by the auditing council and IMC) company

Approval

Preliminary approval: Offer of cover (legally binding) After signing: Final approval Issuance of guarantee


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SEN Group at a glance

Global Finance

Financial Services & Investment Export Guarantee Portfolio

46

Project Finance

FAQS: HOW LONG DOES IT USUALLY TAKE TO GET A DECISION FROM INDICATION TO FINAL APPROVAL?

IS EULER HERMES IN GENERAL PREPARED TO UNDERTAKE SITE VISITS?

In a standard project finance case, the full threestep decision process normally takes approximately six months. The first two steps can be taken fairly quickly, often in a matter of weeks. However, in order to get (preliminary) approval, the project must have progressed to a point in time where negotiations have resulted in final drafts of all relevant project documents. So effectively the timing is largely dependent on how quickly these documents can be made available to Euler Hermes and the auditing company.

Yes, on a case-by-case basis. Especially in large multisourcing transactions and in cases where there are environmental concerns we do take part in site visits.

HOW MUCH IS THE REPORT BY THE AUDITING COMPANY LIKELY TO COST? The cost of the report will be agreed upon between the applicant and the auditing company. Euler Hermes does not have information on the rates charged by the various auditing companies. HOW CLOSE IS THE COOPERATION BETWEEN EULER HERMES AND THE AUDITING COMPANY? The auditing company supports Euler Hermes and the Federal Government in the decision process. In that context the task of the auditing company is to assess the viability of the project on the basis of the documentation received, since Euler Hermes does not accept any documentation risk. There is usually a close cooperation between the auditing company and Euler Hermes so that any potential concerns can be identified at an early stage.

DOES THE PREMIUM OR THE COVER SCHEMEDIFFER FROM CORPORATE FINANCE TRANSACTIONS? No, there is fundamentally no difference. Project finance transactions are covered under the general cover scheme like corporate finance transactions and the premium is basically calculated in the same way. ARE THERE MINIMUM CRITERIA FOR THE SECURITY PACKAGE THAT EULER HERMES REQUIRES? Euler Hermes does not have a catalogue of minimum criteria to be applied to each and every project finance transaction. Nevertheless, Euler Hermes expects the security package to contain the typical project finance elements adequately mitigating the inherent project risks. There are no strictly defined elements which by themselves would make or break a deal, the overall package has to give the Lenders sufficient comfort. IS THE OFFICIAL COVER POLICY ALSO OF RELEVANCE FOR PROJECT FINANCE TRANSACTIONS? It is likely that the official country cover policy will be applied even more flexibly, especially in projects which generate hard currency.

DOES EULER HERMES WISH TO PARTICIPATE IN THE NEGOTIATION PROCESS? Euler Hermes does not normally participate in the negotiation process. Nevertheless, especially in multisourcing transactions where several ECAs are involved in the financing and where it is crucial to establish a common position as soon as possible Euler Hermes is prepared to join the other institutions in negotiating the terms of the transaction.

DOES EULER HERMES GET INVOLVED IN THE PROCESS OF SELECTING LENDERS’ COUNSEL (TECHNICAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, LEGAL OR OTHER)? Yes, especially in large multi-sourcing transactions where Euler Hermes is involved in negotiating or structuring the deal.

© Sen Group 2012


47

Combined use of Export Credit and Investment Guarantees

The German economy is focussed to a high degree on the export of goods and services. Companies who want to establish themselves over the long term in foreign markets normally not only have to adapt themselves to foreign standards and legal systems, but need to take account of local com petitors and consumer behaviour which may differ from that on the German market. In many cases this means that the German exporter automatically be comes an in vestor over time: as a measure to support the sale of his products it is often ne cessary not only to set up marketing and service companies, but also production lines in the im porting country. The export credit guarantees and the investment guarantees are export promotion schemes of the German Government which have proved them selves to be successful over the years and can provide support precisely tailored to the individual project for German companies which want to go abroad. The two forms of guarantees can be deployed either alone or in combination. While export credit guarantees cover export trans actions gainst the (commercial) buyer risks and/or (political) country risks, investment guarantees protect direct investments abroad exclusively against political risks. The OECD Consensus does not apply to investment guarantees and, in contrast to the export credit guarantees, the premium is normally independent of the country and buyer risk in the individual case, and is a uniform 0.5% p.a. There is a whole range of options for using the two instruments. The following pages illustrate a number of practical examples. PRACTICAL EXAMPLES A. MARKETING COMPANIES Small and medium-sized enterprises which in the past delivered their products directly to foreign buyers have frequently moved on to establish their own marketing and service companies in their key foreign markets in the developing and emerging countries. Today, selling only from Germany is as a rule an inadequate solution to meet the demands placed on a company faced with global competition. There are many reasons for this. On the one hand, it is worth mentioning here the numerous local regulations concerning imported foreign goods which the exporter constantly needs to monitor and apply to his own product range. On the other hand, long-term cus tomer loyalty is of outstanding importance in the case of high-value industrial and consumer goods, in order to be able to optimise planning in procurement and manufacture. Over the long term, this can only be secured with a local presence. The German exporter who does not establish a local marketing and service company in most cases loses market shares in the long run. In the worst case this can lead to being completely squeezed out of the market, which in the end has consequences not only for German exports, but for the economic viability of the German exporter and the jobs he provides.

Federal Government guarantees support German companies in the situation described above and provide cover commensurate with the risks for the different phases of opening up a new market: In the initial phase of a foreign business venture, the German exporter delivers goods directly to foreign buyers whose financial strength he is only partially able to assess. He is therefore exposed to both commercial and political risks. In this situation ex port credit guarantees help to reduce both types of risk. In a second phase the German enterprise estab lishes a marketing company locally, in order to open up the market for the long haul. Some time has already passed since the first deliveries were made from Germany, and in the meantime enough experience has been gained with regard to potential customers and the requirements they have as to the features, design and quality of the products. As a result, the commercial risks of the market have usually become more easily calculable. The political risks, however, are still beyond the power of the German company to influence. For this phase, too, the Federal Government makes individually tailored cover available to German companies in the form of export credit guarantees for goods and services as well as investmentguarantees for the business commitment in the foreign country. While investment guarantees can only provide cover against political risks for the equity par tici pation of the German company in the marketing company in such cases, the scope of cover avail able under the export credit guarantees varies according to whether one of two basic scenarios is given. If the receivables due to the marketing company from the foreign buyer are openly assigned to the German exporter prior to the commencement of the risk, both commercial and political risks in connection with these claims can be covered by an export credit guarantee. The Federal Gov ernment does, however, exclude any further risks which may be involved in such a contractual construction from cover compared with transactions contracted directly with the exporter. Both the German exporter and the foreign marketing company are obliged to follow any instructions given by the Federal Government. Moreover, the German exporter must be answerable for the actions of the foreign marketing company. However, if it is not possible to openly assign the receivables due to the marketing company from the buyer to the German exporter, cover under the export credit guarantees only applies to the receivables due for the delivery to the marketing company (subsidiary) and is limited to political risks (including insolvency caused by political (measures). The two forms of cover described above can be deployed in parallel. Especially for German small and medium-sized businesses with only limited equity capital, the combined use of both instruments can present a distinct advantage. The promotion schemes of the Federal Government impact both on the liquidity and the creditworthi ness of the German companies, thus helping to safeguard German manufacturers and ensuring a level playing field in international competition.


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48

Export Guarantee Portfolio Combined use of Export Credit and Investment Guarantees

B. PROJECT FINANCE In practice, the focussed combination of both instruments is also found in project finance constructions. Project finance means the financing of the investment costs of a business entity (a project company) where the borrowed funds are repaid exclusively from the (future) cashflow of the busi ness entity. In principle, the assets of this business entity are the only collateral available to the lenders. In international plant construction projects above a certain size and with a significant interest from the state institutions of a country are often given a project finance structure in which a project company acts as buyer for the plant and is obliged to operate it for a fixed number of years after construction. The conditions of tender for such projects usually stipulate an equity participation in the project company by the exporter and thus a contribution towards the financing of the project. The state is also often involved in the project company, either directly or indirectly via state-owned enterprises, and is in many cases involved in addition as granting authority for concessions or through off take agreements for the products.

ment-like loans are therefore particularly suitable for finan cing local costs. They are not subject to the OECD Consensus and for that reason can have variable credit periods and capital repayment schedules. In a standard project finance case, the full threestep decision process normally takes approximately six months. The first two steps can be taken fairly quickly, often in a matter of weeks. However, in order to get (preliminary) approval, the project must have progressed to a point in time where negotiations have resulted in final drafts of all relevant project documents. So effectively the timing is largely dependent on how quickly these documents can be made available to Euler Hermes and the auditing company.

The German exporter is exposed to a variety of risks over which he has no influence in such projects. On top of this, in such project constructions it is inherently difficult to separate the commercial and the political risks. Since the liability risks in project finance business remain in principle at the level of the project itself, and do not extend to the creditworthiness of those involved in it, it is of crucial importance in deciding whether a project can be financed to clearly limit the identified risks. Federal export credit and investment guarantees provide firm sup port here, since both promotion schemes can be built into the collateral construction of the financing, thus helping to secure the realisation of the project: In such cases the export credit guarantees secure exports as well as the tied loans given to the project company in this connection against commercial and political risks. Investment guarantees, on the other hand, protect the German exporter’s equity investment against political risks. (You can find fur ther information on the use and types of investment guarantees in project finance in the information leaflet “peculiarities of operating models”.) Over and above this, investment-like loans from the German shareholder or from German banks are also often factored into the financing construction of projectfinanced transactions in addition to tied loans. Investment-like loans can be covered under investment guarantees, provided that they comply with the requirements defined by the Federal Gov ernment for the eligibility for cover. The precondition for this is that the investment interest in the foreign project is paramount, not the financing of German supplies of goods and services. Invest-

© Sen Group 2012


49

Project Finance – the Essentials

COMBINED USE OF EXPORT CREDIT AND INVESTMENT GUARANTEES Export credit guarantee

Bank

Investment guarantee

export

tied loan

German bank

German company

equity participation

Project company

investment-like loans

Foreign companies

Cover combining both instruments in a project has up to now been used primarily in connection with infrastructure, energy and mineral resources projects. Since this combination presupposes an intensive process of consultation between all the entities involved, it is advisable to contact the consortium mandated by the Federal Government to handle this business – Euler Hermes Kreditversicherungs-AG and Pricewaterhouse- Coopers AG Wirtschaftsprüfungsgesellschaft – at the earliest possible stage of project design. Only in this way can it be guaranteed that the decisions necessary to secure cover for the project are taken in good time.

The Export Credit Guarantees of the Federal Republic of Germany are an instrument for the promotion of German exports and react flexibly to the constantly changing developments in the export and finance world. This is in fact the only way in which they can retain their effective- ness in fulfilling this remit. That is especially true in the specialized segment of project finance, which has been offered by the Federal Government since 1988. The Federal Government, with the mandatary consortium consisting of Euler Hermes Kreditversicherungs-AG and PricewaterhouseCoopers Aktiengesellschaft Wirtschaftsprüfungsgesellschaft, was one of the first state export credit insurers to become involved in this field of finance. In the intervening period the requirements stipulated by the Federal Government in connection with this business have become increasingly more precise and differenti- ated, especially with regard to collateral. On the other hand it has become apparent that transactions of this type must be approached flexibly on a case-by-case basis. The description of the Federal Government’s requirements for project finance cover set out on the fol- lowing pages can therefore often only sketch a theo- retical ideal of this type of business. WHAT DOES THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT REGARD AS BEING PROJECT FINANCE BUSINESS?

The term project finance is firmly established in the fi- nancing world, even though there is no generally agreed definition for it. Starting from the normally accepted features, the Federal Government defines a project financed transaction as being an investment project made by a LEGALLY AND ECONOMICALLY INDEPENDENT SPECIAL PURPOSE COMPANY (SPC), which EXCLUSIVELY GENERATES THE OPERATING COSTS AND SERVICES THE DEBT REPAYMENT OUT OF THE PROCEEDS OF THE PROJECT. It is

thus a form of finance which focuses on the direct revenues of the project (cash flow-related lending) which, as off-balance sheet financing, does not appear in the financial statements of the investor. WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF PROJECT FINANCE? Investments in the project finance field often have a large volume. If the investor were to borrow the neces- sary funds via a normal buyer credit, it would have a NEGATIVE IMPACT ON HIS BALANCE SHEET RATIOS, and this would have an adverse knockon effect on his credit- worthiness. This aspect is a crucial one, especially when we consider the minimum capital adequacy rules for banks’ credit risks under the Basel II Convention. In order to realize such a project OFF THEIR OWN BALANCE SHEET, investors therefore set up an SPC as project company, which is the sole borrower in its own right. The borrowed funds needed for the project thus only appear on the balance sheet of the SPC. The shareholders of this SPC are the investors, who on theone hand supply the equity and on the other – on a secondary level – share in the proceeds of the company via the dividends they receive.


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SEN Group at a glance

Global Finance

Financial Services & Investment Export Guarantee Portfolio

50

Project Finance — The Essentials

The investors are liable to the lenders, and thus also towards the Federal Government, with the equity they have contributed to the SPC. If the investors have no further liability beyond this, we have a case of non- recourse financing. Under normal circumstances the Federal Government does, however, expect the investors to undertake further commitments with regard to the project (e.g. through an obligation to make additional contributions in the event of construction cost overruns). This type of scheme is known as limited-recourse financing. WHAT PROJECT FINANCE RISKS ARE COVERED BY THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT? The entire palette of Federal Government cover is available for project financed business. The exporter will first of all think here of COVER OF MANUFACTURING RISKS as well as the RISK OF NONDISBURSEMENT OF THE LOAN under a (similarly covered) buyer credit. The financing bank can get buyer credit cover to insure against the RISK OF THE LOAN AMOUNT BEING UNCOLLECTABLE for commercial or political reasons. The Federal Government is also prepared to carry the risk of completing the plant in project financed transactions. This willingness is of crucial importance, since the risk that the plant is not completed on time or at all is one of the central risks of the project, which far transcends the pure initial construction schedule for the project. In line with normal procedures, the Federal Government also does not accept any DOCUMENTATION RISKS, i.e. the policyholder bears the risk that the underlying con- tractual agreements concerning payment obligations and collateral may not be legally valid. The Federal Government insists on this position even in cases in which the mandataries are involved in negotiations concerning the financing scheme. Examining contractual documents or taking part in site visits in this context are also undertaken solely with the purpose of coming to a swift decision on cover. And in fact it has proved very helpful in the past to involve representatives of the mandataries in negotiations at an early stage.

HOW DOES THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT CHECK THE ECONOMIC VIABILITYOF PROJECTS? Since the project only has a chance of success if the project company has sufficient funds available for operating costs and to service the loan, an in-depth forecast of the expected cash flow (FINANCIAL MODEL) is crucial. The Federal Government therefore expects to be provided by the applicant with a financial model drawn up according to best practice rules. A formal audit of the model is not compulsory. It is also not in itself a problem if the model is drawn up by the project com- pany. It is however absolutely essential that the model is delivered to the mandataries in electronic form which enables stress tests to be carried out on the calculations.


51

Project Finance – the Essentials

Based on this financial model, the specific SENSITIVE ASPECTS are then investigated to determine the robust- ness of the project with regard to changes on the cost and the revenues side. The focus for the Federal Gov- ernment here is whether sufficient funds are generated at all times from cash flow to service debt repayment. The crucial element here is the debt service cover ratio (DSCR). You can find further details in the brochure FLEXIBLE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR PROJECT FINANCE TRANSACTIONS.

WHAT IS THE FRAMEWORK FOR THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT GIVING COVER FOR PROJECT FINANCE?

In principle, cover for project finance is subject to the STANDARD NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL FRAMEWORK applying to all export credit cover. Project financed trans- actions are however frequently handled with particular flexibility where the cover policy for a specific country imposes restrictions, such as ceilings, limits on the size of individual transactions and the like. Provided that the project risks are externalized to the greatest degree possible, cover can be given on a case-to-case basis even when the country concerned is off cover for other types of business. In view of the international framework it should be stressed that the OECD ARRANGEMENT ON OFFICIALLY SUPPORTED EXPORT CREDITS also applies without restrictions to project financed business. This is the agreement among the countries of the OECD to observe common guidelines on the granting of cover by officially supported export credit schemes. It stipulates for in- stance that advance payments of at least 15 % of the covered order value must be made. The OECD Arrangement further contains regulations applying to the repayment profile and maximum credit horizons. In respect of the latter, however, project financed transactions have been given privileged status, so that tailor- made financing is possible. This means that flexible capi- tal repayment as well as a grace period can be agreed, while the maximum permitted credit horizon, too, is significantly longer than with financing on the basis of corporate risk. WHAT ENTITIES INVOLVED DOES THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT PAY PARTICULAR ATTENTION TO?

A project finance construction consists as a rule of an extremely complex and intricate structure of contractual relations among a large number of participants in the project. The relative importance of these participants varies according to the type of project concerned; not-withstanding, certain participants are typically involved: The investors in the project (generally also called the SPONSORS) are crucially important in assessing the project’s chances of success. Two types of sponsors are normally distinguished: financial investors, who want to realize a project out of primarily financial motives, without having any roots in the sector of industry concerned, and strategic sponsors, who are already active in busi-

ness in the sector or a closely related one. Each of these groups of sponsors can bring different strengths to the development, construction and operation of the project and are therefore acceptable in principle to the Federal Government. The main duty of the sponsor is first of all to contribute a sufficient level of equity to the project. From the per- spective of the Federal Government, it is an absolutely essential priority to ensure that this requirement is ful- filled. The equity will normally be in place prior to the first disbursement of borrowed capital, or there will be ap- propriate security for the obligation to pay in the equity funds. The primary source of borrowed capital for the project are the BANKS which provide the long-term financing for the project (the senior lenders), as well as any other lenders who may be involved, e.g. suppliers (vendor financing) or mezzanine lenders. As the Federal Government sees it, the circle of banks eligible for cover includes not only all banks domiciled in Germany, but also in principle foreign banks. Although the loan contract exists between the bank and the foreign borrower, it is important for the Federal Gov- ernment that the conditions of the contract take due account of the interests of the German exporter. After all, the export credit guarantee scheme is intended pri- marily to promote German exports, and therefore to support German exporters. Mezzanine finance, on the other hand, is not suitable for export credit guarantee cover; the Federal Government may however be able to give a direct investment guarantee on it (you can find further details of this type of cover in the brochure COMBINED USE OF EXPORT CREDIT

AND INVESTMENT GUARANTEES).

THE ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITIES OF THE COUNTRY concerned (host governments) play an important role, especially in infrastructure projects, which are frequently realized on the basis of a public-private partnership (PPP). Involving the Federal Government here can often positively influence the willingness of the administrative authorities in the host country to issue a letter of comfort or similar declarations of support, to the benefit of the project.


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SEN Group at a glance

Global Finance

Financial Services & Investment Export Guarantee Portfolio

52

Project Finance — The Essentials

The entire plant, or parts of it, are delivered by a German exporter, who also provides the work and services connected with erecting it. This German exporter is also frequently the general contractor (perhaps as a member of a construction consortium). This means that he is not only responsible for his own part of the material and work, but that the obligation to fulfil the contract he has taken on also encompasses the engineering, procurement, and construction for the entire project (EPC contract). This is often a turnkey contract, which obliges the contractor to deliver a fully functioning plant to the project company. The Federal Government prefers turn-key EPC contracts, wherever possible at a fixed price, since they reduce the risk of non-completion. The existence of such a contract is not, however, a compulsory condition precedent for Federal Government cover. The decisive factor is that the non-completion risk is adequately taken account of. Thus there could be, e.g. a completion guarantee from the sponsor. In addition, it is also an important aspect for the Federal Government whether the exporter or the consortium of exporters has sufficient experience to bring the export transaction to a successful conclusion. In cases where the plant or individual parts of it consist of innovative new technology, the Federal Government expects the exporter in his turn to shoulder his responsibility by taking adequate precautions to offset the additional risk involved. Especially in projects realized by financial investors, an operating contract covering the operation, maintenance and servicing of the plant is concluded with a company specialized in the operation of such plants (the operator). If, on the other hand, the sponsor is a strategic investor, he will often also be the operator of the plant, either directly or indirectly. It is an essential prerequisite for granting cover that the Federal Government is given proof of the expertise of the operator, since only the successful operation of the plant – like its completion – can ensure sufficient cash flow to cover the operating costs and debt service. On top of this it contributes towards stabilizing the project if the operator is involved in the risks associated with the project as a sponsor in addition to his operating contract. With regard to the supply of raw materials, it is important that there is a sufficiently secure supply of FEEDSTOCK. If long-term procurement contracts are standard practice in the sector concerned, the Federal Government expects the project company to conclude a supply contract of adequate volume, which should cover wherever possible the entire repayment period. In order to reduce the price risk, the Federal Government in addition favours fixed- price agreements, as far as such a pricing agreement fits the market conditions and makes economic sense. The sale of the project products to the OFFTAKER is of course the crucial factor which determines the success of the project. Where market conditions permit it, such as in projects in the energy sector, the Federal Government expects long-term offtake agreements covering the entire output of the project, if

possible at fixed prices. If such an agreement is not possible, or is not customary in the sector concerned, cover can still be given if the market risk appears acceptable to the Federal Government in the context of the overall project structure. This is particularly the case for projects producing commodities. WHAT DISTRIBUTION OF THE RISKS DOES THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT EXPECT IN PROJECT FINANCE? The Federal Government expects a fair distribution of the risks between those involved in the project (FAIR BURDEN SHARING). Against this background it is im- portant that the sponsors first of all make an adequate financial contribution to the project. The Federal Government does not, however, stipulate a particular minimum equity holding. Neither does it demand that the banks should share in the default risks with an unsecured loan (commercial tranche). Should such a tranche be present, however, it would be regarded by the Federal Government as a significant point. What is absolutely indispensable is that there should be a TYPICAL PROJECT FINANCE SECURITY PACKAGE. This not only includes the typical security taken over loans (e.g. charges over assets and assignment of receivables) but also all the agreements between and obligations of the entities involved in the project in respect of the over- all project structure, the construction, supply and operation of the plant, offtake of the products and cash flow, as well as the overall financing scheme. The details will always depend on the individual facts of the project. The project security should also be available to all the senior lenders equally (pari passu clause). The details of this are typically regulated in an INTER-CREDITOR AGREEMENT. The important aspect for the Federal Government here is that due account is taken of the status and the interests of the individual lenders and the individual ECAs, especially with regard to voting rights.


53

Project Finance – the Essentials

WHAT SPECIAL ASPECTS NEED TO BE OBSERVED IN MULTISOURCING PROJECTS? With increasing globalization, more and more major projects are being realized by exporters from a number of different countries. The state export credit agencies have developed cooperation models for the support of such transactions (parallel insurance, coinsurance and reinsurance) to accurately reflect the involvement of the individual exporters (see here the brochure MULTI-SOURCING PROJECTS). In the case of transactions on the basis of corporate risk, considerable importance attaches here to reinsurance agreements. In contrast, reinsurance very rarely plays a role in project financed business. Here PARALLEL INSURANCE is the general rule, i.e. each ECA acts separately. However, the normal process of consultation between the different ECAs in parallel insurance takes on a particular quality in project finance, since as a rule here a COMMON LEGAL ADVISOR FOR THE ECAS packages the individual interests of the agencies to ensure that they present one face towards the project company or the sponsor. This approach has proved to be the best way to reach positive decisions on cover from all the ECAs involved swiftly and effectively. In multisourcing projects it may exceptionally occur that the exporters involved only definitively become clear after the conclusion of the loan contract. The Federal Government permits the financing bank to apply for cover here without having to name the German exporters at the time of application.

WHAT NEEDS TO BE CONSIDERED WITH REGARD TO THE POSSIBLE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE PROJECT? Granting Federal Government cover to a project financed venture presupposes that it complies with the national and international rules and regulations on environmental impacts, especially the so-called COMMON APPROACHES agreed by the OECD. These guidelines determine how stringently a project is examined in this respect, pri- marily by dividing projects into Categories A, B or C. Category A projects are those with the greatest environmental impact. In order to gain a clear picture to what extent a project affects the environment, an environmental impact as- sessment (EIA) is normally carried out in connection with project finance deals. Such an EIA is frequently needed for the environmental audit procedure in the buyer country or is required by the banks, which adopted the Equator Principles. An eia must be submitted to the Federal Government or its mandataries as part of the application procedure at least for CATEGORY A projects.

In addition to this, the Common Approaches stipulate the publication of environmentally relevant information for Category A projects at the latest 30 days prior to the final decision on cover. This publication (posting the EIA on the Internet) can be done either by the applicant or at the request of the applicant by the mandataries. You can find further details in the brochure PROVISIONS OF THE OECD COMMON APPROACHES FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL AUDIT OF OFFICIALLY SUPPORTED EXPORT.

WHEN DOES IT MAKE SENSE TO COMBINE AN EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE WITH A FEDERAL GOVERNMENT INVESTMENT GUARANTEE? IT IS POSSIBLE TO COMBINE AN EXPORT CREDIT GUAR- ANTEE AND AN INVESTMENT GUARANTEE. This always MAKES SENSE

when a German investor is involved. It should be remembered here that both the object of cover and the scope of risks covered differ. While a Federal Export Credit Guarantee protects the receivables under a German export contract or the amounts due under a buyer credit tied to it against commercial and political risks, the investment guarantee covers the direct investment (equity participations, endowment capital, loans with an equity character and other financial rights) against political risks (you can find more details concerning this instrument of cover in the brochure COMBINED USE OF EXPORT CREDIT AND INVESTMENT

GUARANTEES).

ARE THERE ANY REQUIREMENTS AS TO MINIMUM VOLUME FOR FEDERAL EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEES? In line with the general principles of the Federal Export Credit Guarantees as an instrument for promoting German exports, there are also NO MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS AS TO PROJECT size to be fulfilled for project financed deals in order to get cover. However, because of its inherent characteristics project financed business in practice has a significant volume. This is due to the fact that considerable fixed costs are always incurred in this type of business (fees for financial and legal advisors, market consultants etc.). Against this background, the realization of a project through project finance schemes is generally only economically viable if the overall investment volume exceeds 30 million Euros. HOW DOES THE PROCESS OF GETTING COVER FOR PROJECT FINANCE BUSINESS WORK IN PRACTICE? The first contact with the mandataries is often made in practice by phone or e-mail. This is generally followed by a presentation of the project at their Head Office in Hamburg. The project design has often not crystallized very far at this stage. Nevertheless the Federal Government offers to assess the project and gives an indication as to whether the project financed transaction is in principle suitable for cover. If requested by the applicant, the Federal Government can decide at the same time whether to issue a letter of interest. This consultative process by the Federal Government is free of charge for the applicant.


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SEN Group at a glance

Global Finance

Financial Services & Investment Export Guarantee Portfolio

54

Project Finance — The Essentials

INDICATION as to whether the project financed transaction is in principle suitable for cover. If requested by the applicant, the Federal Government can decide at the same time whether to issue a LETTER OF INTEREST. This consultative process by the Federal Government is free of charge for the applicant.

The further veting process for the project is then initiated with a formal APPLICATION. Based on the project information memorandum (PIM) and a financial model submitted by the applicant, a so-called PRELIMINARY REVIEW is then made by the mandataries. This primarily involves checking the project design, the use and sourc- ing of funds, the entities involved in the project, the market situation and the economic viability. Details of the security package are often still very vague at this stage. If the Federal Government concludes as a result of this preliminary review that the project is to be assessed positively, the applicant is requested to commission an expertise on the economic viability of the project from an auditing company (You can find further details in the brochure EXPERTISE FOR PROJECT FINANCING AND STRUCTURED FINANCE). As soon as this expertise has been submitted to the mandataries they draw up and submit a recommendation for a decision on cover by the Federal Government. All DECISIONS ON COVER by the Federal Government are made in the INTERMINISTERIAL COMMITTEE (IMC), on which, in addition to the Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology, which has the lead function, the Federal Ministry of Finance, the Federal Foreign Office and the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development are also represented. Besides the ministries, experts from industry and the banking sector as well as representatives of the mandataries also take part in the meetings of the IMC. For reasons of effectiveness and to avoid taking up too much of the time at the IMC meetings, every project finance-related decision in the IMC is preceded by a discussion dealing with the project in the project finance working group. All four ministries are also represented in this body, which always meets two weeks in advance of the IMC meetings. Besides preparatory work on the actual cover decision in the IMC, the Project Finance Working Group also oversees the contents of the project from its inception up to the discharge from liability of the Federal Government for the risks connected with it. WHAT COSTS WILL BE INCURRED? There are no special rules for project finance as regards the costs for Federal Government cover, so that the normal premium system applies. The costs therefore comprise the HANDLING FEE and the PREMIUM. The handling fee depends on the order value or the loan amount in connection with the project. The PREMIUM is mainly dependent on the credit- worthiness

of the country and the ECONOMIC STABILITY OF THE PROJECT, as well as on THE RISK HORIZON. The minimum premium rates for the COUNTRY RISK are here fixed by multilateral agreements within the OECD. The so-called buyer surcharge, which takes account of the economic stability of the project, is then – as also in other cases – determined on a case-by-case basis by Euler Hermes. For this, the classical project finance risks (the noncompletion risk, supply risks, market risks) are assessed and allocated to risk groups. There are five risk groups in all, Category 1 being the best. The premium is then calculated on the basis of the country category, buyer category and the risk horizon as a percentage of the insurable loan amount. No insurance tax is payable. If cover in favour of the exporter is taken out in addition to the buyer credit cover, there is no double charging of premium. This means that a separate additional premium is only payable when additional risks are covered to protect the exporter (e.g. manufacturing risk cover). You can find an interactive calculation tool on our Internet website to calculate your individual premium rate. Further information can be found in the brochure premia.

Due to the application procedure described above, which normally involves commissioning an expertise on the economic viability of the project from an auditing company, there will be additional costs for the expertise, which must be borne by the applicant. The fee for this is a matter for negotiation between him and the auditing company.


— B. — SENERGY

Divisions

Energy Oil & Gas

+ Gas Turbines (< 50 MW)

Business activities

+ Steam Turbines (< 200 MW), Compressors + Oil & gas solutions

SENERGY, a company of SEN Group offers its customers a broad portfolio of high-efficiency, flexible power plant and oil-&-gas solutions which also minimize environmental and climatic impact.

Fossil Power Generation

Renewable Energy

+ Products (e.g. utility gas and

+ Wind turbines generators

steam turbines, generators)

(on- and offshore as well

+ Energy Solutions (e.g. turnkey power plants)

as services) + hydroelectric generators

(Up-, Mid- and Downstream,

+ Instrumentation & controls

+ solar panel

power-supply systems for

+ Fuel cells, gasifier technology,

+ Other renewables

the oil & gas industry) + Municipal and industrial power generation solutions

Decomm. projects


infinite energyâ&#x201E;˘

Energy Service

+ Services for oil & gas and

Power Transmission

+ High-voltage AC and DC

Power Distribution

+ Medium- voltage equip-

industrial applications

transmission systems (turn-

ment (components, gas-

+ Operating plant services

key substations, gas insula-

and air-insulated circuit-

+ e.g. spareparts, longterm

ted switchgear, gas insula-

breakers, switchgear)

service contracts, main-

ted lines, circuit breakers,

+ Solutions for the automa-

tenance and repair moder-

non switching devices, ins-

tion of power grids and

nization and upgrades, en-

trument transformers)

substations, protection

vironmental systems and

+ Steam Turbines (< 200 MW),

and control

services + Turbocare

Compressors + Power transformers + Distribution transformers

+ Services, consulting, network planning


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SENERGY — BUSINESS AREAS

w Global Network w Key Business w Financial Services u Energy w Oil & Gas w Plant/Construction w Agriculture

Infinite sustainable energy — for the world... — Global energy demand will be about 30 percent higher in 2040 compared to 2011, as economic output more than doubles and prosperity expands across a world whose population will grow to nearly 9 billion people. Energy demand growth will slow as economies mature, efficiency gains accelerate and population growth moderates.


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ENERGY Business areas

SEN Group — Energy Division

58

—1.—

—6.—

—5.—

—2.—

PO

—4.—

GENE WER

R AT I

ON

—3.—

—1.— Solar power —2.— Power plants —3.— Biofuels —4.— Wind power —5.— Hydroelectric power —6.— Geothermal power

SENERGY stands for innovation, customer focus and global competitiveness all around the world. Generating synergies for a unique array of products, services and solutions, ourbroad portfolio gives us a competitive edge, particularly in tough times. The Power business area – comprising the Groups Power Generation and Power Transmission and Distribution – offers a comprehensive spectrum of energy solutions, ranging from electricity generation to the transport of electrical energy from power plant to consumer.

© SEN Group 2012


59

SENERGY — BUSINESS AREAS

w Global Network w Key Business w Financial Services u Energy w Oil & Gas w Plant/Construction w Agriculture

Power Plant Solutions In today’s complex power market you need a partner who can provide you with competitive solutions to improve customer plant profitability.


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SEN Group — Energy Division

60

Combined Cycle Power Plants

Simple Cycle Power Plants

Steam Plants

In a combined cycle power plant the hot exhaust gas of a gas or oil fired gas turbine is utilized to generate steam in a separate water / steam cycle. The hot steam is expanded in a steam turbine providing power to drive a generator. The combination of gas and steam turbine cycles allows electric power generation with highest efficiency.

In a simple cycle power plant gas or oil is burned to drive a gas turbine. The gas turbine drives a generator to produce electricity.

In a steam power plant coal (or oil or gas) is burned and the hot combustion gas is used to produce superheated steam in a boiler. The superheated steam is expanded through a steam turbine providing power to drive a generator. Steam power plant cycles are characterized by the pressure level they are operated at subcritical cycles use pressures below the critical pressure of H2O while supercritical cycles operate above the critical pressure providing higher efficiency.

IGCC

Co-Generation Plants

Wind Power

IGCC - integrated gasification combined cycle - a low carbon power generation option for the future IGCC is a power generation technology that uses proven gasification technology to transform coal and other fuels into a synthetic gas (syngas) which is used in a combined cycle to produce power. This technology is available today that is attractive by enabling pre-combustion capture of up to 90% CO2 from the syngas for storage or enhanced oil recovery.

Combined cycle plants are used in a wide spectrum of power and heat generation applications in industries ranging from utilities to the food, pulp and paper, and chemical industries.

Today, the increasing energy demand and the need for clean power generation leads everyone’s mind to the concept of renewable energy sources.

Power Generation Management

Clean Energy

Our extensive experience makes us a skilled partner in managing finance and insurance risks.

Our financial solutions are based on intelligent processes combined with proven tools. They ensure speed, transparency and quality.

Example: We act as center of competence for all insurance-related matters. Our entrepreneurial approach focuses on delivering tailor-made innovative risk solutions and highly established risk-management concepts designed to meet our clients’ needs.

Our gas turbine are based on a preplanned design concept with capacities from 100 to 350 MW per unit for the 50 Hz and 60 Hz market. These plants offer excellent operational flexibility for cycling, peaking or continuous service while providing additional benefits through high fuel flexibility.

The number of possible industrial cogeneration applications is virtually unlimited for a combined cycle plant. The most common is to utilize back-pressure steam at about 8-10 bar or to extract steam for industrial processes.

Example: The projects developed and offered by us to the afforementioned countries aim at achieving more economical independence in their efforts towards industrialization. SEN Group, putting a special emphasis on financial issues, offer a range of possibilities for funding such projects.

With highly efficient, solid and reliable wind turbine SENERGY offers a solution to meet energy needs and environmental awareness.


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SENERGY â&#x20AC;&#x201D; BUSINESS AREAS

w Global Network w Key Business w Financial Services u Energy w Oil & Gas w Plant/Construction w Agriculture

Turnkey Services SEN Group and SENERGY offer full scope, turnkey services to upgrade your obsolete analog controls with digital solutions

SENERGY stands ready to assist in assessing your control system needs. Our dedicated staff has experience with a variety of digital control issues. Our partners have performed and managed reviews and reassessments, as well as digital control upgrades, at numerous plants.

5360

MW

Power Plant efficiency depends largely on the capability of control systems to manage plant systems precisely and reliably. Legacy analog control platforms no longer supported by original equipment manufacturers, create a need for alternative control strategies. Digital control systems offer ideal solutionsat minimal costand optimum performance.

Power Plants with a combined capacity of app. 5360 MW are reviewed and in the verge of been approved in various regions of the Russian Federation.


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Our professional, experienced staff of engineers has developed cutting edge methods to: + Provide Project Management customized to project applications + Develop functional requirements based on target system ope rational requirements + Design detailed specifications for hardware, software, firmware, installation and testing requirements, and develop system integration and installation plans + Prepare detailed design modification packages + Perform cost/benefit analysis of alternativesorganizations.


63

SENERGY â&#x20AC;&#x201D; BUSINESS AREAS

w Global Network w Key Business w Financial Services u Energy w Oil & Gas w Plant/Construction w Agriculture

Wind Power Solutions

7 RAPID GROWTH PREDICTED IN THE GLOBAL WIND ENERGY MARKET Annual new installations worldwide will increase from 20 000 MW to 107 000 MW in the next ten years. Globally, there could be some 718 000 MW installed wind capacity by 2017.


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Nordex N100 (2.5 Megawatt)

OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT

The Nordex N100/2500 kW is a 2.5 MW wind turbine specially configured for low and moderate wind conditions.

The N100/2500 is controlled by Nordex Control 2 (NC2), a software/hardware system for managing the central wind power system components right up to wind farms or the power station networks of non-centralized energy producers. The software system continuously evaluates all operating and weather data measured and ensures yield-optimized operation of the system. To this end, Nordex programs each system with turbine and location-based parameters. The wind turbines are fitted with two devices (anemometer) to record wind data. The first one is used to manage the system and the second one monitors the first device. If one device fails, the other takes over.

The prominent feature of the N100 is its 49 meter long rotor blades, resulting in a large rotor diameter of some 100 meters. At 7,823 square meters, this produces an increase of 23 percent in rotor sweep compared with the N90/2500 turbine, making the N100 particularly suitable for low wind conditions with average wind speeds 7.5 m/s. The N100 marks a further development of the N80/N90 family. More than 1000 N80/N90 turbines have been produced since the year 2000. All enhancements to the N80/N90 turbines developed over the past seven years have been incorporated in the turbine design. Numerous new detail solutions ensure heightened availability and greater yield in non-coastal locations in particular. Grid compatibility is based on the proven engineering model used in the N90/2500. The turbine will be certified in accordance with DIBt2 and IEC 3a. It is supplied in a 50 Hz version, with a 60 Hz version also available for the US market. The turbine is available on 100 meter steel tube towers.

Each system is linked to a remote monitoring system for controlling the components (hardware and software). In this way, all data and signals are transmitted by ISDN and can be viewed using an Internet browser. This ensures data monitoring as well as active remote management (e.g. start-up, deactivation and wind tracking) for each turbine from the Nordex service center in Rostock. The remote monitoring office works around the clock and is automatically alerted in the event of any deviation in operating data from standard parameters. The system is backed by an emergency power supply. Together with the batteries fitted to the pitch system, the system is deactivated securely in the event of any loss of power. In addition, the turbine can be fitted with a condition monitoring system to ensure proactive maintenance. This early warning system alerts the operator when a component needs to be replaced in the foreseeable future. In this way, it is possible to avoid an unscheduled shutdown.


65

SENERGY â&#x20AC;&#x201D; BUSINESS AREAS

2,5

49

w Global Network w Key Business w Financial Services u Energy w Oil & Gas w Plant/Construction w Agriculture

MW

M

The prominent feature of the N100 is its 49 meter long rotor blades, resulting in a large rotor diameter of some 100 meters.

1,000 More than 1000 N80/N90 turbines have been produced since the year 2000.


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66

Project services for the optimal wind farm configuration Thanks to our long-time experience in the technical planning of wind park systems, we at Nordex are able to offer the installation of turnkey wind parks with the substation including grid connection. Within the framework of micrositing we can also help you to find the suitable wind turbine and determine its exact position within your wind park. Our partners have DIN ISO 9001 certification for the planning, delivery, installation and commissioning of all electrical and technical automation systems as well as for the infrastructural measures required for wind turbines. With our many years of wind energy know-how we can help our customers with forecasts, planning, the licensing procedures and the installation of turnkey wind parks. Your advantages: + risk minimization due to a fixed price and guaran teed deadlines + minimization of the work involved via planning interfaces + support in financing questions + time saving by advanced services in connection with planning and grid connection As part of our turnkey service we also offer to set up the complete wind park substation. The substation is a turnkey modular system, especially designed for the link-up of the wind park network to the high-voltage grid of the power supplier. Set up as an outdoor plant, the substation converts the alternating voltage, which as a rule lies between 110 kV and 380 kV, to 20 or 30 kV. The current is then distributed further. We ensure that the electrical energy created in the wind energy system is optimally and punctually fed into the high-voltage grid.

MICROSITING Whether a location is suitable for the use of wind energy depends primarily on the local wind conditions. Long-term wind measurements can provide information on this. As soon as the information is available regarding the local wind conditions it is possible to draw up the layout of the wind park and select the optimal wind energy system.

WE OFFER ASSISTANCE * with data analysis and processing, * drawing up projections for noise emission and shade * allowing for the required distances from neighbouring housing sites and minimum distances of the wind turbines

from each other, * explaining and fulfilling the regulations relating to planning and building law, * obtaining answers to questions relating to the accessibility of the wind park, * determining the optimal siting of the wind turbines in the wind park.

PROJECT ENGINEERING As part of our turnkey service, we offer support and practical implementation in connection with calculating projections and all the planning and construction steps for your wind park. We find the best line layout for the requirements of our customers. We plan the entire communications network and the mediumvoltage network for connecting your wind park to the highvoltage grid. Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s more: we assist you in dealing with the authorities, evaluating analyses on environmental compatibility and recommendation of compensatory measures.


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SENERGY â&#x20AC;&#x201D; BUSINESS AREAS

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Service Buying a wind turbine is an investment in the future. For the next years it will supply clean energy for our lives in an efficient manner. Here the smooth, interruption-free operation of the turbine is of crucial importance.

24

- HOUR REMOTE MONITORING

SCOPE OF SERVICES Regular inspection and maintenance It goes without saying that regular maintenance is part of our service packages. Fault repair The repair of faults at short notice by our local service engineers. Our service engineers are always stationed in the vicinity of the wind turbine. 24-hour remote monitoring and remote service for all turbines 24 hours, round the clock, your turbines are monitored by our remote control system, malfunctions repaired via teleservice or, if necessary, service engineers are sent to repair faults in the system. Stocking and supply of spare parts In our partners central service depot in Germany and in our service vehicles we keep a constant supply of all spare parts in stock. Emergency service We can also be reached round the clock on weekends and public holidays as well as during the night. Customer advice and customer service Our service assistants are there to provide advice and practical assistance by telephone at any time. Training for customers and operators We shall be pleased to welcome you to our Service Academy should you wish to attend our training courses. Swift and secure supplies of replacement parts Our partner has service points at locations in the immediate vicinity of his wind farms, holding supplies of frequently used

spares and consumables for its turbines. At the central service depot in Germany our partner stores turbine components including large-scale items. The sites are electronically linked to the central depot and the field service teams via an information system. This ensures that movements of outgoing goods are automatically registered and reorders triggered to ensure that supplies of the replacement parts required on a regular basis are always in stock at the service points. The advantage of this is that repairs can be completed swiftly as the parts required are always available in the quantity and quality required. In this way, we are able to replace the defective part within 24 hours of completion of the error analysis so that the turbine can be returned to productive operation again swiftly.


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KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

REFERENCES

ENERGY Business areas

SEN Group â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Energy Division

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All SENERGY customers, regardless of the contractual arrangements, benefit from swift delivery of replacements. Larger inventories of replacement parts are in stock at service points at particularly demanding wind farm locations where standard parts are subject to greater wear.

Customer advice and customer service

Central spare parts depot

Training for customers and operators

Our central Nordex spare parts depot is located at our European production site in Rostock. The depot supplies all service bases around the world with the necessary parts. Materials for all system generations and types are stocked there. The central depot operates on a 365-day basis. Parts in stock ordered before five in the afternoon are dispatched on the same day. The parts are then delivered within Germany by nine on the next morning and in Europe within 24 hours depending on the destination.

We shall be pleased to welcome you to our Service Academy should you wish to attend our training courses.

Turbine Management We also offer our customers the turbine management for wind farms. Thanks to our full access to the operational data of the Nordex wind turbines, something which external operators do not have, we are able to offer our customers unique economic benefits. They benefit from the short information paths within the company on the one hand and our ability to access all of the crucial databases held by Nordex on the other. Our activities concentrate on monitoring, supervising, implementing, documenting and analyzing. This applies not only to the turbines themselves but also the entire wind farm infrastructure. We monitor the state of the turbines, the substation and the wind farm infrastructure. We analyze errors, evaluate operating data, oversee the performance of maintenance and repair work and check the plausibility of the service reports.

Our service assistants are there to provide advice and practical assistance by telephone at any time.

Swift and secure supplies of replacement parts Our partner has service points at locations in the immediate vicinity of his wind farms, holding supplies of frequently used spares and consumables for its turbines. At the central service depot in Germany our partner stores turbine components including large-scale items. The sites are electronically linked to the central depot and the field service teams via an information system. This ensures that movements of outgoing goods are automatically registered and reorders triggered to ensure that supplies of the replacement parts required on a regular basis are always in stock at the service points. The advantage of this is that repairs can be completed swiftly as the parts required are always available in the quantity and quality required. In this way, we are able to replace the defective part within 24 hours of completion of the error analysis so that the turbine can be returned to productive operation again swiftly.


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SENERGY â&#x20AC;&#x201D; BUSINESS AREAS

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Hydro Power Solutions


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KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

REFERENCES

ENERGY Business areas

SEN Group — Energy Division

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71

SENERGY — BUSINESS AREAS

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SENERGY is also active in the hydro power industry, providing total power plant solutions. Custom-tailored equipment, commissioning and service are our hallmark. The company’s unique and unified global process and project management is second to none in the industry.

2,000 Water has been used as a source of energy for centuries. The Greeks used water wheels to grind wheat into flour more than 2,000 years ago. In the early 1800s, American and European factories used water wheels to power machines.

SENERGY´s business model is based on the central value of trust, developed through long-term customer relationships.

and who offer total solutions with the highest possible returns. Here SENERGY will play a vital role.

The corporate culture of the entire SEN Group is built around long-term partnerships. Trust, fairness, innovation and reliability are the core values upon which each operating unit conducts business.

Our combined experience enables us to better understand our customers’ needs. Our integrated technology and coordinated R & D focus create more complete and innovative solutions resulting in more value for the customer – and with only one interface, your projects are completed more efficiently.

These relationships are founded on mutual respect, through professionalism, and performance-based project management. Internally, we rely on the expertise of long-term staff, who perform their work in a commitment-based culture. Each employee works in a global network of professionals to meet the needs of our international clientele. Global team spirit and professionalism ensure that we provide “Engineered reliability” to our customers and to each other. In today’s rapidly changing energy market, power producers must optimize their investments. They are looking beyond the simple cost of equipment, toward the lowest total ownership cost. They need partners who share their goals, their expertise


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KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

REFERENCES

ENERGY Business areas

SEN Group â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Energy Division

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Global connection and understanding The internationality of SEN Group´s business activities is reflected in its global positioning providing unique solutions in a uniform and consistent manner.

6 1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

3

SEN Group and his partners are always close to its customers in the major markets of the world. Additionally, a Research and Development network is globally connected and locally available for the most advanced technology in hydro power equipment.


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SENERGY — BUSINESS AREAS

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Large dams are still being designed. The world’s largest is the Three Gorges Dam on the third longest river in the world, the Yangtze River. Apart from a few countries with an abundance of hydro power, this energy source is normally applied to peak load demand, because it is readily stopped and started. It also provides a high-capacity, lowcost means of energy storage, known as “pumped storage”. Hydropower produces essentially no carbon dioxide or other harmful emissions, in contrast to burning fossil fuels, and is not a significant contributor to global warming through CO2. Hydroelectric power can be far less expensive than electricity generated from fossil fuels or nuclear energy. Areas with abundant hydroelectric power attract industry. Environmental concerns about the effects of reservoirs may prohibit development of economic hydropower sources. The chief advantage of hydroelectric dams is their ability to handle seasonal (as well as daily) high peak loads. When the electricity demands drop, the dam simply stores more water (which provides more flow when it releases). Some electricity generators use water dams to store excess energy (often during the night), by using the electricity to pump water up into a basin. Electricity can be generated when demand increases. In practice the utilization of stored water in river dams is sometimes complicated by demands for irrigation which may occur out of phase with peak electrical demands.

* Hydraulic turbine and electrical generator

Not all hydroelectric power requires a dam; a run-of-river project only uses part of the stream flow and is a characteristic of small hydropower projects. A developing technology example is the Gorlov helical turbine.

715,000 MW Hydroelectric power now supplies about 715,000 megawatts or 19% of world electricity.


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KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

REFERENCES

ENERGY Business areas

SEN Group — Energy Division

74

Implementation and documentation All of our principles are implemented in the management system of each company of SEN Group.

The system creates the general organizational, staff-related and technical conditions and ensures that suitable methods and instruments are applied. The objectives of this management system are to sustain customer satisfaction, profitability and employee satisfaction. The management system is documented in company-specific manuals, including the associated instructions for each process. These contain a description of the objectives, strategies and processes which, measured against the expectations and requirements of our customers, have a particular influence.

stability and continuity – this all sets SEN Group apart. And will guarantee the successful future of the company and its partners. To ensure successful customer relationships, our documentation structure is based on continuous commitment loops among all staff involved in a project.

Our strategic approach sets the standard in a business where we want to be our customers’ long-term partners. Cooperation in a spirit of partnership and the dedication to joint solutions at a high level, but also dynamic development,

w CONDITIONS OF SATISFACTION satisfying commitments of who what and when

Assurance “Declare satisfied”

Negotiation “Promise”

w

w

Preparation “Request/Offer”

Performance “Declare complete”

w


75

SENERGY — BUSINESS AREAS / Solar Power

power „Within 6 hours desert receive more energy from the sun than humankind consumes within a year.“


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Why Solar Energy?

KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

ENERGY Business areas Solar Power

REFERENCES

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77

SENERGY — BUSINESS AREAS / Solar Power

SENERGY & Partners developed a standard modular concept for all PV technologies and for all markets. It is the “one partner, one solution” answer to the needs of customers operating in the global PV market. Each part of the solution – trackers, inverters, transformers, control system, etc – is delivered in pretested, containerized 1 MW modules for scalability, cost efficiency and rapid installation. Whether the plant has a capacity of 1 MW or 100 MW, the modules are easy to integrate and the solution is repeatable at any site and in any country. SENERGY offers a complete range of solar trackers – of all types and all materials. All other products and systems are made by ABB and are designed for the special requirements of PV plants and the demands of a high-performance modular solution.


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Why Solar Energy?

KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

REFERENCES

ENERGY Business areas Solar Power

78

Some key facts on solar energy highlight its significant potential in resolving the climate change crisis: —1.— The Sun has sufficient helium mass to provide the Earth with energy for another five billion years and, every 15 minutes, it emits more energy than the earth‘s population uses in an entire year. — 2. — The Earth receives only one half of one billionth of the Sun‘s radiant energy, but in just a few days it gets as much heat and light from this radiant energy that could be produced only by burning all the oil, coal and wood on the planet. — 3. —The Sun represents 99.8% of the total mass of our solar system, its surface temperature is 6000ºC, and its total energy could melt an ice cube the size of planet Earth in just 30 minutes. — 4. — Globally, there are some two billion people who are without electricity. For these populations it is more economically viable to install solar panels than to extend established electricity grids. — 5. — Harnessing solar energy can reap significant benefits for businesses, individuals and governments alike.

Businesses across the globe can use solar energy to reduce the risk of volatile and rising fossil fuel prices, thereby reducing or stabilizing operating costs. This is particularly true where governments have moved to tax carbon emissions. Additionally, some world governments offer incentives and rebates to increase the use of renewable energy sources as well as reduce the risk and costs of power outages. Moreover, businesses can strengthen relationships with customers and the community alike, by showing concern for climate-related issues by using clean energy. Governments across the globe are concern about the environment and providing clean air for their citizens as well as for future generations. Additionally, the possible shortages of fossil fuels can play havoc on world economies. Individuals around the world are concern about a cleaner planet for their children and future generations as well as economic reasons as conventional energy sources are depleted and become more costly.


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Advantages of solar energy

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— a. — No Pollution

— b. — Free energy

COMPLETELY RENEWABLE

— d. — Sustainable

— c. — Location

— a. — No Pollution — Solar power does not release carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide nor mercury into the atmosphere. It does not burn fuel and generates no emissions. — b. — Free energy — The prices of coal, natural gas and oil and other fossil fuels are prone to increase constantly. Solar energy, on the other hand, is free — c. — Location — solar energy is not location specific unlike certain other forms of energy. Regardless of whether a person is in a crowded city or in a remote village, in an arid desert or in a lush green forest, at sea or up in the mountains...solar energy is available to one and all. — d. — Sustainable — One of the biggest advantages of solar energy is that it is a renewable source of energy. Energy can be produced as long as the sun lasts, which is for next millions of years. Therefore, solar energy can truly be called a long-lasting source of energy.


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Key Solar Power Facts

KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

REFERENCES

ENERGY Business areas Solar Power

80

Historical Solar Power Facts • As far back as 1447, industrialization fuelled by sun was foreseen by Leonardo Da Vinci. • In 1990 the fist aircraft flew across the USA without fuel, only using solar power. • Renewable sources will account for half of the world’s energy resources in 2040. Global Facts • 2 billion people don’t have access to electricity. • Comprising 5 % of the world’s population, Americans consume over one quater of the world’s energy. • Most amount of electricity is consumed by electric ovens. PV Panel Facts • PV cells are panels that can be installed to your roof or walls. Each one is made of one or two layers of semiconducting silicon. Exposure to light creates an electric field across the layers. Thats how the electrycity is produced. • The strength of a PV cell is measured in kilowatt peak (kWp) which refers to the amount of energy the cell generates in full sunlight. • A 1-kilowatt home solar system consists of about 10-12 solar panels and it produces around 1,600 kilowatt hours per year in a sunny climate. • Each month, your 1-kilowatt home solar system will save 170 lbs. of coal and 105 gallons of water, while also preventing 300 lbs of CO2 to be emitted.


81

SENERGY - Concepts for a better life

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; From sand to module â&#x20AC;&#x201D; The highest quality in all production steps

Wafer

Ingot & Block

PV Cell

Module

Silicon

System

Silicon & Wafer

Solar Cell & Module

Thin Film Module

Semiconductor & Microelectronics

This solar energy can be utilised in many ways, through the use of photovoltaics (PV), for example. German PV technology is in use on every continent on the globe, supplying electricity to grid-connected and off-grid systems.


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KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

REFERENCES

ENERGY Business areas Solar Power

Market development

— a. —

— b. —

39.5 GW

15 GW

The capacity installed worldwide has increased within a decade from about 1.5 GW in 2000 to over 39.5 GW in 2010.

of newly installed systems

The photovoltaic industry has experienced strong growth in recent years, and the industry expects global demand to increase further. With 15 GW of newly installed systems – equivalent to a total investment sum of around 50 billion euros – the output installed worldwide at the end of 2010 amounted to almost 40 GW. Over the course of a year, this capacity currently generates around 50 terawatt hours (TWh) of PV electricity. The majority of this capacity, approximately 28 GW, is installed in Europe, making up about 70 % of total installed capacity, followed by Japan (3.7 GW) and the USA (2.6 GW). China plays a role mainly as producer of solar cells and modules; the installed output there amounts only to ca. 0.7 GW. — a. — The capacity installed worldwide has increased within a decade from about 1.5 GW in 2000 to over 39.5 GW in 2010. — b. — Installed PV capacity (GWel) in Germany, 2000 – 2010.

In 2010, the installed generation capacity of photovoltaics in Germany increased by about 76 % over the previous year. By the end of 2010, grid-connected PV systems were producing approximately 17,200 MWp in Germany, and the PV industry’s turnover was approx. 10 billion euros. The industry also plays an important role in Germany’s job market, employing around 133,000 people in the industry, related trades and wholesaling at the end of 2009. German research institutions are setting internationally-recognised quality standards. State-of-the-art photovoltaic factories all over the world are equipped with German systems and machines, and planned and built by German companies.

In 2010, Germany’s PV industry’s export quota amounted to around 50 %. Many years of experience in this field enable it to manufacture increasingly efficient and inexpensive solar cells. German companies produce crystalline solar cells and modules as well as top quality thin-film modules in the most modern factories all over the world, while German manufacturers supply production plants and products that meet the most stringent quality criteria. The world’s most efficient inverters, for example, were developed and are made in Germany.

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83

SENERGY - Concepts for a better life

w Global Network w Key Business w Financial Services u Energy w Oil & Gas w Plant/Construction w Agriculture

Thinking fossil fuel dies out â&#x20AC;&#x201D; guaranteed.

Fossil fuel are finite. That is well known. In addition, the burning fossil fuels stresses the environment to a precarious extent. Also that is well known. Today nobody doubts the direct connecton between CO2 emissions and global warming. The consequences could be catastrophic and are to be noticed everywhere: Storms, flooding, rising sea levels....short: the complete climatic disaster. Already today the damages from an ever more unpredictable climate are in the billion-dollar area, with an increasing tendency.


KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

REFERENCES

ENERGY Business areas Solar Power

84

Children born today will experience that there is no more oil.â&#x20AC;&#x153;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; World Energy Stocks (Ministry of Economics and Technology, Germany)

45

45 years

160

60

60 years

160 years

Oil

Natural Gas

for oil, the reserve/ production ratio was less than 10 years for Western Europe and for North America it was about 25 years.

The ultimate available uranium is believed to be sufficient for at least the next 85 years, although some studies indicate underinvestment in the late twentieth century may produce supply problems in the 21st century.

Coal The ultimate available uranium is believed to be sufficient for at least the next 85 years, although some studies indicate underinvestment in the late twentieth century may produce supply problems in the 21st century.

DER SPIEGEL (45/1996-234)

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85

100% renewable energies: The market of tomorrow â&#x20AC;&#x201D; guaranteed.

SENERGY stands for intelligent and imaginative handling of regenerative energies and pollution-control technologies. For comprehensive concepts for the use of existing resources. For economic efficiency and an agreeable coexistence of environ-ment, nature and people. Technology is for people. It secures the basics, covers needs, creates progress and improves our standard of living. It provides the chance for a better understanding and handling of our most precious resource: Planet Earth. Times of change, we learn from the past. Inconsiderate exploiting for short-term profit causes damage, whose effects we get to feel slowly, but increasingly more clearly. Those who make money fast through exploitation, pay in the long run. Not everybody has realized that; it is a concept that is gaining more and more acceptance. The market for regenerative energies and lasting technologies grows over-proportionally. The industry is on the precipice of a boom, which will be as significant as the one in the IT- and Mobile Communication industry. It is a multi billion dollar market of the future, with a future. No longer just for idealists. SENERGY is ready for this challenge. With matured products and patented developments SENERGY is far ahead of its competition.The bar has been set high. And SENERGY puts it constantly a little bit higher.

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â&#x20AC;&#x201D; A better world is possible - with SENERGY it is feasible.


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The force that moves the earth

KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

REFERENCES

ENERGY Business areas Solar Power

86

A shift in thinking also in the „Fossil“ camp: Oil will be to precious in the future, to burn it today for conventional power production.

— The light of the sun has so much energy that even a fraction of the sunlight of the Sahara alone would be sufficient to cover the power requirement of the world. The Sun is the mighty power station that created and maintained life on earth since the beginning of time. Sun power is clean, secure and available everywhere in the world. Renewable energy is both the future of the energy market and the future of our planet and its inhabitants.

— a. —

— b. — — c. —

— a. —

— b. —

— c. —

The energy needs of the world: 800 x 800 km = 640.000 km² = 100.000 TWh

Europe 320 x 320 km = 102.400 km² = 18.000 TWh

Germany 180 x 180 km = 32.400 km² = 5.000 TWh


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SENERGY: for a 100 % RES* and 100% ADS** future

— a. —

Nature demonstrates: Long-term functioning systems are based on a 100% balanced cycle: That is the strength of the SENERGY concept .

The basis of the SENERGY SOLAR DIVISION is transformation of ligth into electricity — the power connection to the sun — . Available everywhere the world inexhaustible, clean, secure, and thanks to the unique SENERGY concept: economical.

The SENERGY concept essentially consists of four components

• Energy saving • Energy and water supply with renewable energy sources (100 %RES) • Biological disposal of wastes and re-use of water for underground irrigation, • An aesthetic, domestic and marketable solar architecture *Renewable energy sources

— a. —

**Autonomous Decentralized Sustainable


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The SENERGY concept: Ecological, independent and profitable

KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

REFERENCES

ENERGY Business areas Solar Power

88

— 100 % ADS — IS THE KEY TO THE ECOLOGICAL FUNCTIONALITY AND ECONOMIC PROFITABILITY OF THE BLUENERGY CONCEPT. This is made possible through combining the most modern technologies and intelligent ideas into a complete solution. The strength of the SENERGY concept is the production of self-sufficient systems, able to work independently from local supply and disposal facilities by using 100 % alternative energy sources. Energy is used from sunlight, geothermal power and biomass. 100 % RES are also used for water purification, underground irrigation and seawater desalination.

— b. —

-100 m = 11° C Geothermal System 900 m= 39° C

— b. — Energy production from:

— Biomass — Geothermal power — Photovoltaic —

Supply and disposal: — Water supply — Water purification — Irrigation —


89

SENERGY overlapping cell connection (world patent applied)

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Heart and soul of the Photovoltaic are photosensitive, mono

Reflecting surfaces and surface contamination have an unwan-

or polycrystalline silicon semiconductors.To be able to retrieve

ted effectfor the Photovoltaic: valuable light is lost for power

the energy, connections are ne-

production. A glass pane be-

cessary which are normally visib-

haves like a water surface.The

le as soldering strips on the sur-

lower the angle of the radiati-

face. Not so with SENERGY.

on, the more light is reflected;

—c.—

under an angle of 45 degrees

—a.—

—b.—

SENERGY has developed a me-

appr. completely. Since the sun

thod, which makes possible to

cannot be fixed to one point,

overlap the contact tracks with

and it is not always possible to

the semiconductor elements.

optimize the alignment of the solar panels (not every roof area points to the south), SENERGY

This may not sound exciting, but the advantages are convincing:

has developed a polymer foil, made with a micro structure that

besides an aesthetic optics and an optimal use of the surface,it

catches the incident light from all angles, and is self-cleaning

is avoided that soldering fat causes corrosion, which can destroy

(Lotus flower effect). All SENERGY products have these speci-

the modules on a long-term basis. In addition it saves steps in

fications.

production, which simplifies the production procedure, and thus increases productivity.

This is an essential and unique advantage, because conventional cells need to be cleaned on a yearly basis in order to maintain

— Altogether a revolution for the PV-market.

the efficiency.This complex and expensive procedure is avoided with the SENERGY modules.

SENERGY anti reflecting foil, stain resistant, self cleaning (patents pending) The Dendrite structure in the nanometer range prevents reflections and improves the dirt-deflecting characteristics of Fluor polymer. Reflecting surfaces and surface contamination have an unwanted effectfor the Photovoltaic: valuable light is lost for power production. A glass pane behaves like a water surface.The lower the angle of the radiation, the more light is reflected; under an angle of 45 degrees appr. completely. Since the sun cannot be fixed to one point, and it is not always possible to optimize the alignment of the solar panels (not every roof area points to the south), SENERGY has developed a polymer foil, made with a micro structure that catches the incident light from all angles, and is self-cleaning (Lotus flower effect). All SENERGY products have these specifications.

—a.— Conventional pv-modules with soldering strips on the surface.

This is an essential and unique advantage, because conventional

—b.— SENERGY pv-element for the production of overlapping modules.

cells need to be cleaned on a yearly basis in order to maintain the efficiency.This complex and expensive procedure is avoided with the SENERGY modules.

89

—c.— The Dendrite structure in the nanometer range prevents reflections and improves the dirt-deflecting characteristics of Fluor polymer.


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KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

ENERGY Business areas Solar Power SENERGY SOLAR TRANSRAPID

SENERGY SOLAR TRANSRAPID

— d. —

REFERENCES

90

Flying through the dessert with the Power of the Sun

As of today, 22,000 km of Transrapid Tracks are planned worldwide, which is very low compared to conventional rail systems. The expectations for the total network of the Transrapid are up to 50,000 km for the next 20 years. The future for the Transrapid began with the first commercial line in Shanghai (from Downtown to the Airport), and will soon be continued. It is planned to realize a solar powered Transrapid network of about 300 km, with a solar coverage of 600,000 sqm, or a load of 75-100 Megawatt peak, dependent on the efficiency of the solar-cells used. This corresponds to an investment-volume of Euro 337 450 Million in SENERGY modules within the next 5 years.

Electrical calculation Jeddah – Riadh TRACK ONE WAY

Appr. 1.000 km

WIDTH SOLAR ON THE TRACK

2m

AREA TOTAL

2.000.000 m2

PV.-INSTALLATION/M2

150 Wp

TOTAL PV.-INSTALLATION

300 MWp

AVERAGE SOLAR RADIATION

6 kWh/m2/d

POWER PRODUCTION

1.800 kWh/d

ENERGY USE JEDDAH-RIADH

10 MWh

— d. —

*Bluenery AG Germany and other partners


91

ADVANTAGES OF THE SENERGY STR

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— e. — The maglev transrapid creates lowest noise in comparison to other railway systems. — f. — Extreme low energy use by Transrapid technic ist he best precondition for solar powering. — g. — SOLAR TRANSRAPID with the following advantages : • the track is the support system for photovoltaics • no additional space for photovoltaic modules • photovoltaic is applied on the elevated track • no contact with the photovoltaic elements • photovoltaic is protected against vandalism and • dirt rejecting with each run on the fluorpolymer surface • track surface protected against heat

— e. —

— f. —

Measurement of noice

Energy demand

— g. —


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SENERGY SOLAR TRANSRAPID

KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

ENERGY Business areas Solar Power SENERGY SOLAR TRANSRAPID

REFERENCES

92

— h. —

— h. — The SENERGY Fiberglass Teflon-Modules represent the highest security standards and an optimal energy

production.

The investment in Photovoltaic for the Transrapid, can be even more lucrative through the feeding-back of electricity into the public grid, which is possible (mandatory) through the Regenerative Energy Law of the European Union. The unbreakable SENERGY Fiberglass-Teflon-Modules are glued onto the tracks, in a way that no water can leak in between the steel plates and the modules. There will be no corrosion possible. In addition, the SENERGY Fiberglass Teflon-Modules are inextricably screwed onto the tracks. All mechanical influences of the passing train through over- and underpressure do not destroy the SENERGY modules. The screws, depending on the size of the cells (up to 2,000 mm x 2,000 mm), can be placed in a way that the fixing of the module is secured, even under the most extreme conditions. (Glue and screws together = highest security). The stainless steel screws can only be loosened with special tools, thus protecting the modules from theft. Even the most extreme load during operation of the Transrapid cannot loosen the modules. The resistant Teflon-surface of the modules receives a so-called dendrite structure, which allows capturing the sunlight from all angles, thus providing a maximum energy production from the sunlight.


93

ADVANTAGES OF THE SENERGY STR

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— i. — SENERGY Photovoltaic-perforated stainless steel sheets — j. — SENERGY has developed a completely new module — k. — The electrification of the Transrapid train with solar energy was a task, which represented a large challenge.

SENERGY Photovoltaic-perforated stainless steel sheets

— i. —

— i. — SENERGY Photovoltaic-perforated stainless steel sheets with an insulation layer under the pv-module will solves the arching problem reducing the temperature on and under the guideway. The only alternative to fly through the dessert, no sand dune can stop the Transrapid.

— j. — Conventional photovoltaic modules with a glass body could not withstand the enormous over and under pressure produced by the over 400 km/h trains. For this and other applications, SENERGY has developed a completely new module, whose carrier is made from a perforated, stainless high-grade steel plate (V2A sheet metal) -practically indestructible, and once again - unique in the world. The developed procedure can be applied to many other materials i.e. plastics.


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SENERGY SOLAR TRANSRAPID

KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

ENERGY Business areas Solar Power SENERGY SOLAR TRANSRAPID

More People — More Mobility — More Flexibility — Economical Safety and Comfort — The Environmentally friendly and commercial Alternative

— j. —

— k. —

REFERENCES

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SENERGY — BUSINESS AREAS / Power plants

—2.— Power plants


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KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

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REFERENCES

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SENERGY — BUSINESS AREAS / Power plants

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— Power generation — Solutions for fossil power plants SENERGY power generation - A reliable partner for comprehensive solutions Experience of more than 40 years in power plant automation in more than 1200 turbine automation projects guarantees well proven and cost effective solutions Know how of various turbine types / suppliers assures state of the art technology and high quality Modular design of SENERGY-products allows • Custom tailored technical concepts • All sizes of applications and uniform solutions for all type of turbines • Step by step replacement of installed equipment • Most cost effective solutions for the customers Facts about SENERGY & Partners in power generation • • • • • • •

Worldwide system business of more than 2,000 MUSD Worldwide product business in the same range Over 3,500 employees, mainly engineers More than 40 local/regional business units/centers worldwide Covering whole range of Instrumentation, Controls and Electrical systems for Power Generation („ICE“) Working relations with key players in the industry Strong local competence


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Products Optimizations Solutions

System Integration and Service Solutions Automation Products

Solutions Electrical Products

Steam Power Plants — Diesel Plants — Co-gen — Waste-to-Energy —

Plant life cycle support engineering/design Consulting and project development procurement/production installation operation/maintenance/service and commisioning


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— C. — SENOIL

Oil & Gas Solutions for the Oil & Gas Industry

7

Our Vision

“Through the world-class dedication of our people, SEN Group will be the best long-term partner in specialised oil applications, doubling the business every five years.”


SENOIL


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SENOIL

SENOIL

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Intelligent Solutions to the core.

— Refinery — Gas — Gas to Petrochemicals — Polymers

Petroleum is one of our most versatile natural resources. In the past century and a half, petroleum has developed from a replacement for animal and vegetable oils in lighting and lubrication into one of the foundations of our economy. In addition to providing energy for transportation, petroleum is the source material for much of the chemical industry. Petroleum and petroleum products are so important to our society that they warrant a little more attention than the occasional trip to the gasoline pump.


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PETROLEUM FACTS AT A GLANCE — March 2012 release

— 1. — Total petroleum products delivered to the domestic market in March 2012 — (March 2011: 19,248,000 b/d). [API] — 2. — U.S. petroleum imports (crude & products) in March 2012 — (March 2011: 11,390,000 b/d). [API] — 3. — Total imports in March 2012 as a percentage of total domestic petroleum deliveries — (March 2011: 59.2 percent). [API] — 4. — Persian Gulf petroleum imports in January 2012 as a percentage of total imports — (January 2011: 18.2 percent). [DOE] — 5. — Average price for a barrel of OPEC crude oil for March 2012 — [DOE] — 6. — Average U.S. refiner acquisition cost in January 2012 for a barrel of crude oil. — [DOE] — 7. — U.S. crude oil production in March 2012 (of which 591,000 b/d was Alaskan) — (March 2011: 5,633,000 b/d). U.S. production of natural gas liquids in March 2012: 2,357,000 b/d — (March 2011: 2,168,000 b/d). [API] — 8. — U.S. marketed natural gas production in January 2012 (January 2011: 63.6 billion cf/d). — [DOE]

— 1. —

18,994,000 b/d

— 2. —

10,638,000 b/d

— 3. —

56.0 %

— 4. —

27.2 %

— 5. —

$106.21

— 6. —

$107.60

— 7. —

5,899,000 b/d

— 8. —

69.3 bn ft³/d


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SENOIL

“Dreams are today’s answers to tomorrow’s questions.”

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This section focuses on refining, the complex series of processes that manufactures finished petroleum products out of crude oil and other hydrocarbons.

Temp. (°F):

Crude Oil Distillation: The Firtst Step

Product Recovered: Butane & Lighter

Gas Processing

Light Straigt Naphta

Gasoline Blending

Naphta

Catalytic Reforming

350-450°

Kerosene

Hydro-Treating

450-650°

Distillate

Dist. Fuel Blending

Heavy Gas Oil

Fluid Catalytic Cracking

<90°

90-200° 200-350°

Crude Oil

Distillation Column

Unit/Use Sent to:

650-1000°

1000+° Simple Distillation The core refining process is simple distillation, illustrated in a stylized fashion at the right. Because crude oil is made up of a mixture of hydrocarbons, this first and basic refining process is aimed at separating the crude oil into its "fractions," the broad categories of its component hydrocarbons. Crude oil is heated and put into a still -- a distillation column -- and different products boil off and can be recovered at different temperatures. The lighter products -- liquid petroleum gases (LPG), naphtha, and so-called "straight run" gasoline -- are recovered at the lowest temperatures. Middle distillates -- jet fuel, kerosene, distillates (such as home heating oil and diesel fuel) -- come next. Finally, the heaviest products (residuum or residual fuel oil) are recovered, sometimes at temperatures over 1000 degrees F. The simplest refineries stop at this point. Most in the United States, however, reprocess the heavier fractions into lighter products to maximize the output of the most desirable products, as shown schematically in the illustration, and as discussed below. oil distillation capacity as any other United States region. (The difference is even greater for downstream processing capacity, because the Gulf Coast has the highest concentration of sophisticated facilities in the world.) As discussed in the section on Trade, the Gulf Coast is the nation's leading supplier in refined products as in crude oil. It ships refined product to both the East Coast (supplying more than half of that region's needs for light products like gasoline, heating oil, diesel, and jet fuel) and to the Midwest (supplying more than 20 percent of the region's light product consumption.) Downstream Processing Additional processing follows crude distillation, “downstream” (or closer to the refinery gate and the consumer) of the distillation process. Downstream processing is grouped together in this discussion, but encompasses a variety of highly complex units designed for very different upgrading processes. Some change the molecular structure of the input with chemical reactions, some in the presence of a catalyst, some with thermal reactions.

Residuum

Coking

In general, these processes are designed to take heavy, low-valued feedstock -- often itself the output from an earlier process -- and change it into lighter, higher-valued output. A catalytic cracker, for instance, uses the gasoil (heavy distillate) output from crude distillation as its feedstock and produces additional finished distillates (heating oil and diesel) and gasoline. Sulfur removal is accomplished in a hydrotreater. A reforming unit produces higher octane components for gasoline from lower octane feedstock that was recovered in the distillation process. A coker uses the heaviest output of distillation, the residue or residuum, to produce a lighter feedstock for further processing, as well as petroleum coke. As noted above and in the section on demand, U.S. demand is centered on light products, such as gasoline. As shown in the graph, refiners in the United States more closly match the mix of products demand by using downstream processing to move from the natural yield of products from simple distillation, illustrated earlier, to the U.S. demand slate, illustrated here. After simple distillation alone, the output from a crude oil like Arab Light would be about 20 percent of lightest, gasoline-like products, and about 50 percent of the heaviest, the residuum. After further processing in the most sophisticated refinery, however, the finished product output is about 60 percent gasoline, and 5 percent residuum. Crude Oil Quality The physical characteristics of crude oils differ. Crude oil with a similar mix of physical and chemical characteristics, usually produced from a given reservoir, field or sometimes even a region, constitutes a crude oil “stream.” Most simply, crude oils are classified by their density and sulfur content. Less dense (or “lighter”) crudes generally have a higher share of light hydrocarbons -- higher value products -- that can be recovered with simple distillation. The denser (“heavier”) crude oils produce a greater share of lower-valued products with simple distillation and require additional processing to produce the desired range of products. Some crude oils also have a higher sulfur content, an undesirable characteristic with respect to both processing and product quality. For pricing purposes, crude oils of similar quality are often compared to a single representative crude oil, a “benchmark,” of the quality class.


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OFFSHORE PRODUCTION

UPSTREAM

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ADVANCED OFFSHORE SOLUTIONS

SCALABLE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE SERVICES

Global energy demand is expected to rise by 50 percent by 2030. Oil and gas exploration and production is moving to increasingly hostile environments, including polar latitudes and ultra-deep waters. Complementing their diversification of portfolios, major players in the oil and gas industry are developing strategic partnerships and reevaluating existing technologies.

SEN Group and his partners has a tradition of going way beyond the conventional meaning of service. The scope of services spans from initial concept development and screening, concept selection to front-end engineering and project execution through the entire lifecycle. Supported by comprehensive diagnostic and logistic functions from service centers, factories and headquarters, SEN Group’s local and regional partner organizations deliver a full range of services, from on-call support through all-inclusive operation and maintenance. Availability guarantees can be included as optional parts of long-term operation and maintenance contracts.

Enter SENOIL and SEN Group. With a unique portfolio of rotating and electrical equipment, power generation, transmission and distribution systems, water management, process automation, instrumentation and life-cycle services, SEN Group provides a host of solutions designed to ensure ultimate performance in all mission-critical applications and meet all of tomorrow’s challenges, technical, economic and environmental. Moreover, through its global manufacturing and service network, SEN Group ensures maximum customer proximity and local content. Innovative design, excellence in engineering and project management, maximum value over asset lifetime, and uncompromising compliance with health, safety, environmental and industry standards are common denominators for all components, products, systems and services in the SEN Group offshore portfolio. Combining our competence and strengths with yours, we can together chart new territory and optimize the efficiency and economics of your offshore operations. Moreover, as project scopes widen, sourcing a vast share of products, solutions and services from a single supplier offers a variety of benefits to engineering, procurement and construction companies (EPC) and end-clients alike. Reduction of CAPEX and project management complexity can be realized, which can improve project scheduling, leading to earlier first oil. At SEN Group, the single-source supply concept is based on a customerfocused design and management system, integrating a multitude of technologies and processes tailored to deliver ultimate quality in every respect. SPEEDING UP INSTALLATION When there are weight and size limitations for shipping, offshore subsystems are constructed in a modular form with pre-installed and precommissioned equipment. SEN Group’s vast experience and a structured project-management process including a detailed logistic and installation execution plan, have alloweds much shorter project lead times compared to the market average.

OPTIMIZING ASSET SERVICE AND AVAILABILITY Fast response times from a team of dedicated specialists ensure minimized downtime and higher profitability. The centralized and specialized support center offers wide-ranging support services tailored to meet the needs of the individual long-term operation plan. Major components of equipment and systems can be connected to one of two Global Service and Diagnostic Centers for permanent online performance monitoring. The scheme allows the development of condition-monitoring based maintenance strategies, and comparative fault analyses of our partner’s entire fleet for the whole lifecycle. TAILORED TRAINING MEASURES Comprehensive training of customer personnel complements every contract. Programs include training on real-time simulators, duplicating essential parts of the information and control system, and allowing hands-on training without interfering with the actual operation, plus the proactive development of standard operating practices and emergency procedures.


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MANAGE PLATFORM OPERATIONS TO HIT PRODUCTION TARGETS Your offshore oil and gas production faces tough challenges. Everything is confined to the platform, so equipment size and weight is critical. Limited accessibility means reliability is a major concern. In your marine environment, you have additional monitor and control requirements. And, all of the systems in the platform must be coordinated to maintain safety while hitting production targets. Meet your toughest requirements with the “platform” of choice for the oil and gas industry: Integrated Architecture.

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METERING STATIONS * Interface to temperature pressure and flow instruments; AGA 3, 7 compensated flow calculations; interface to electronic flow metering devices; as well as communications to SCADA systems. PUMP STATIONS * Pump start/stop sequence; pipeline pressure/flow control and pump/motor protection; vibration protection and condition monitoring; and communications to the central SCADA system. COMPRESSOR STATIONS

Our products and systems help the petroleum industry to monitor, control and protect equipment used in offshore facilities. WELL HEAD PLATFORMS * Natural flow wells monitoring * Electric submersible pumps monitoring and control * Water/gas injection wells monitoring * Gas lift injection wells monitoring and control * Automated well test TOP SIDE PROCESSES * Gas/oil/water separation monitor and control * Automated well test * Oil heaters control and protection * Oil tank level control * Vapor recovery units control * Water treatment plants * Safety systems * Fire and gas systems HULL APPLICATIONS * Interface to vessel management and vessel positioning system * Propulsion control * Ballast control system * Mooring control system * Vibration protection and condition monitoring

* Compressor start/stop sequence; turbine or motor speed control; pressure/flow control; AGA 3, 7, 8 compensated flow calculations; turbine/compressor protection including vibration, temperature, over pressure/over speed, and surge suppression, condition monitoring and communication with the control system. HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACE Visualization software allows your operators, maintenance and engineering personnel to stay in control of the platform. With our ViewAnywhere strategy, a consistent visualization platform can be deployed at all levels of the system: compact operator panels and local HMIs at the stations, as well as the central control system. Whether it is monitor/control the production operation or maintain overall safety, the RSView SE Supervisory software provides the advanced visualization and control tools to: * Interface to controllers and RTU’s * Data repository for both real-time and historical data * Display functions for secure operations * Verified and protected command functions * Web-enabled or remote operations * Interface to historian and enter prise systems


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1.4% World primary energy consumption – including oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear and hydro power – grew by 1.4% in 2008, the slowest growth since 2001.


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Exploration Parallel to the further development of existing reserves, current energy demand projections imply a major surge in hydrocarbon exploration â&#x20AC;&#x201D; on a global scale and in territory so far uncharted. Exploration is of singular importance to ensuring future production levels will meet demand. It is also the part of the value chain that contains the highest risk. SEN Group solutions for offshore drilling and field development all work towards the common goal of achieving maximum efficiency, reliability and availability of operations, and keeping potential losses at a minimum. They provide a sophisticated answer to the quest for risk reduction in areas ranging from conceptual development and decision-making to the technology deployed. DRILLING + Power generation and distribution solutions + Variable speed drives for azimuthing thrusters, drilling and winch applications + Motor control centers with intelligent starters + Uninterruptible power supply and battery banks + Marine automation: power management

+ Safety systems, ballast and cargo control +Telecom and navigation systems FIELD DEVELOPMENT + Benchmarking, technology selection, economic analysis and risk assessment for oil and gas developments + Program for concept selection and field development planning + Program for pressure-relief system design and analysis + Platform positioning and navigation + Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of toxic-gas dispersion +Pipeline simulation +Evaluation of energy efficiency and carbon footprint of a field development


SENOIL

Innovative design, excellence in engineering, and maximum lifetime value are common denominators of all components, products, systems and services of SEN Group’s oil and gas portfolio. SEN Group solutions for onshore applications include:

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+ Gas and liquid separation including water treatment + Recompression and export gas compression + Gathering and refrigeration compressors + Gas injection - Gas lift + Prime movers for water injection + Power supply solutions

UPSTREAM

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For all Upstream Processes Completely integrated facility automation and control systems, including fire and gas detection systems, emergency shutdown systems, data acquisition and presentation, manufacturing execution systems and others.

TAP YOUR OPERATIONS’ FULL POTENTIAL

FIELD PROCESSING

From the well head to the separator stations and then to the tanks, you need to maximize production while you monitor your production, protect your assets, equipment and the environment — with minimal disruption to production.

Innovative design, excellence in engineering, and maximum lifetime value are common denominators of all components, products, systems and services of SEN Groups’ oil and gas portfolio. SEN Group solutions for field processing applications include:

Multiple types of wells and recovery methods add to the complexity: natural flowing, artificial lift, steam, water or gas injection, in geographically-dispersed, mostly unmanned facilities with harsh operating conditions. All while you coordinate these facilities so production rates are maximized. Meet your toughest requirements with the platform of choice for the oil and gas industry: Integrated Architecture. Our products and systems help the petroleum industry monitor, control and protect equipment used in onshore facilities. Well Head * Natural flow wells monitoring * Mechanical flow wells monitoring and control * Pump jack: across the line starters, soft starters, variable speed drives, pump off * Progressive cavity pump: variable speed drive * Electric submersible pumps: starters, variable speed drive * Water/gas injection wells monitoring * Gas lift Injection wells monitoring and control * Automated well test Gathering/Separator Stations * Gas oil separation monitor and control * Automated well test * Oil heaters control and protection * Oil tank level control * Vapor recovery unit control * Safety systems

+ Injection + Dehydration + Gas boosting + Recompression + Refrigeration + Test separators + Remote terminal units + Field data acquisition + Analyzers + Decentralized power supply + Field shelters FOR ALL UPSTREAM PROCESSES Completely integrated facility automation and control systems, including fire and gas detection systems, emergency shutdown systems, data acquisition and presentation, manufacturing execution systems (MES), and others.


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SOLUTIONS FOR MIDSTREAM Transporting crude oil and natural gas for processing involves operating and maintaining an extensive infrastructure. Thousands of kilometers of pipelines, vast tank farms, subterranean caverns with a working gas capacity of billions of cubic meters — all powered, automated and integrated into a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for the ultimate management of supply and demand. In addition, LNG requires an entirely different new set of solutions, from liquefaction and transportation via mega-tankers to re-gasification systems.

+ All-electric LNG and VSDS-driven refrigeration compressors of up to 100 MW + Standardized pipeline compressors + SCADA system based on common DCS hardware platform PCS 7)

CURRENT R&D PROGRAMS At SEN Group, continuous investments in research and development produce a steady stream of innovative solutions with unparalleled competitive edge. Current R&D programs for midstream applications include:

PIPELINE

COMPRESSOR AND PUMPING STATION

Totaling some 3.5 million kilometers worldwide, oil and gas transmission pipelines are among the largest physical infrastructures operated by man. For more than 100 years they have provided a safe and reliable means of transporting hydrocarbons from wellhead to consumer. Fully automated, today’s pipeline operations demand ultimate dependability from all employed rotating and electrical equipment.

Operational costs as well as environmental performance and safety of a pipeline are largely determined by the design of compressor or pumping stations in general, and specifically the applied compression or pumping solution.

With a wide range of compression and pumping, power generation and distribution, automation, telecommunications, industrial IT, security and life-cycle services, SEN Group and his partners provide a host of solutions designed to run pipelines with ultimate dependability and integrate pipeline operations for superior manageability, safety, reliability and efficiency. Innovative design, excellence in engineering, maximum lifetime value as well as ultimate compliance with health, safety, environmental and industry standards are common denominators for all components, products, systems and services in the SEN Groups pipeline portfolio. Moreover, through its global manufacturing and service network, we ensure maximum local content and customer proximity. Combining our competence and strengths, we can together achieve a winning performance and realize optimum leverage.

The compression and pumping solutions combine excellent environmental performance, economical operation, superior availability and wide maintenance intervals, translating into unrivalled lifetime value. Available with a wide range of power ratings, they are designed to match the needs of all stages and aspects of gas and oil transmission. Custom-designed machines are engineered to meet specific customer requirements, e.g. solutions with extended operating area to cope with daily or seasonal swings in demand. What’s more, SEN Group offers a range of pre-engineered standard packages for compression and pumping. A natural extension of the singlesource supply approach, they are designed for maximum efficiency and economy in a wide range of applications. Whether off-the-shelf or custom-built, SEN Group compression and pumping solutions undergo elaborate testing of all string components before delivery to customers’ sites, ensuring that tight project schedules won’t be obstructed by unforeseen problems.

MIDSTREAM

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Integrating all assets at a compressor or pumping station into a comprehensive automation and control system, the integrated compressor/pumping station control system ensures ultimate dependability and ease of facility management.

+ Building control systems + Active and passive cooled shelters + Solar panels + Earthing and lightning protection + Fire & gas protection systems

COMPRESSION, PUMPING

MIDSTREAM

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VALVE, METERING, CUSTODY TRANSFER STATION Gas and dual-fuel turbines from 5 to 30 MW class MW ap

+ Variable-speed drive systems (VSDS) from 1 to 65 + Compressors + Dry-dry compressor/motor solutions + Skid control systems for compression and pumping

Fulfilling manifold safety, environmental, fiscal and commercial requirements, valve and metering stations have to meet the most exacting standards, no matter where they are located or how adverse a local climate may be. In addition, with gas markets being progressively liberalized in a number of countries, custody transfer stations play an increasingly important role as part of sophisticated entry/exit systems.

plications STANDARD PIPELINE COMPRESSOR PACKAGES Based on gas turbines in combination with a direct-driven singleshaft vertical turbo-compressor (STC-SV) PIPELINE MAINTENANCE AND INTEGRITY + Leak detection and location + Predictive analysis + Pig and scraper tracking + Over-/under-pressure monitoring + Pipeline inventory & efficiency FIELD INSTRUMENTATION & ANALYTICS A comprehensive field instrumentation and analytics portfolio designed to provide operation-relevant data directly from all facilities along a pipeline, enabling the operations control system to run the facility at optimum productivity and efficiency. AUTOMATION + Integrated distributed control system, for compressor au tomation as well as compressor station control, including associated instrumentation + Advanced operations control solutions + Integrated data visualization software enabling informed decisions for asset utilization and operating efficiency + Energy management and control system (EMCS) POWER DISTRIBUTION + High voltage (HV) switchgear; HV/MV transformers + Medium voltage (MV) switchgear; MV/LV transformers; NER; protection and controls; cabling; bus ducts + Low voltage (LV) switchgear; protection and controls; cabling, bus ducts + Substation control + Motor control centers + Emergency diesel generator sets + Uninterruptible power supply systems + Station batteries + Power quality and power correction + Fault recording BALANCE OF PLANT + Lighting + Building ventilation systems

Linking field level and operations management, our portfolio for valve, metering and custody transfer stations provides comprehensive solutions for all of these applications, regardless of their scale and level of distribution. Building on robust field instrumentation networked through a dependable communications support structure, they make sure pipeline operators can be certain to know what is happening at every point along their widely distributed facilities. INSTRUMENTATION + Pressure transmitters + Temperature transmitters + Flow meters + Level measuring instruments + Gas analysers + Remote transmission units CONTROL SYSTEM FOR VALVES AND SCRAPER PIG + Remote transmission units + Valve control + Pig launch control unit + Pig receiver control unit + Emergency shut-down system + Flow calculation + Gas quality monitoring + Gas compression analysis + Process Device Manager software for operation, configuration, parametrisation, maintenance and diagnosis of intelligent field instruments + Sensors + Positioners + Cathodic protection


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MIDSTREAM

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Metering Station + Remote transmission units + Flow computer + Metering tubes + Instrumentation Power Supply + Solar Panels + Turbo expander + Batteries + Diesel gensets + Low-voltage (LV) distribution Balance of Plant + Active and passive cooled shelters + Earthing and lightning protection + Fire and gas protection system + Access control

MAIN CONTROL CENTER, SUB-CONTROL CENTER Backed by many years of experience and success with a wide range of pipeline applications around the world, Siemens offers pipeline operators and key decision makers simple, clearly understandable real time depiction of the process to assist operational and business-related decision making. The system also increases operational efficiency and safety, protects pipeline assets, while reducing both costs and environmental impact. The advanced supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system offered by Siemens ensures a high level of data integrity, redundancy, distributed redundancy and network security. The system also allows seamless integration with third party applications and legacy systems, as well as management information systems (MIS), manufacturing execution systems (MES) and enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, providing maximum leverage for pipeline operators. It also allows seamless integration with automation systems, remote transmission units and other instrumentation systems. SCADA

+ General control tasks + Alarms, event processing + Communication + Leak detection + Trend calculation + Alert control personnel + Online service + Pig position identification system + Leak detection and location + Nomination management

+ Predictive analysis + Pig and scraper tracking + Over-/under-pressure monitoring + Real-time optimization + Batch tracking + Planning/scheduling + Pipeline inventory and efficiency INFRASTRUCTURE SEN Group infrastructure solutions provide the power and communications backbone ensuring safe and reliable operation of the entire pipeline system. SEN Group power transmission and distribution equipment covers a wide range of supply-voltage levels and is designed for ultimate performance under any ambient conditions, including extremely high and low temperatures, high altitudes and special environments such as highly corrosive atmospheres. Integrating a host of communications technologies, SEN Groupsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; telecommunications solutions provide dependable coverage along the whole pipeline, including communications with maintenance personnel, among compressor stations, and air-to-ground communication. In order to reduce installation downtimes, SEN Group telecommunications solutions can be integrated into the SCADA system.


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What’s more, SEN Group offers the most comprehensive set of security solutions, not only for enclosed pipeline infrastructure such as main control centers, pump stations and valve stations, but also for the pipe itself. This includes the provision of intruder-detection systems protecting both pipeline and personnel, ensuring continuous accidentfree production. Balance-of-plant equipment provides effective protection to automation, communication and electrical systems to ensure maximum availability.

POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION +Planning, calculation and optimization of power grids + Power transformers + Converter and distribution transformers with cast resin insulation + High- and medium-voltage switchgear in gas- and in airinsulated design + Low-voltage switchgear + MCCs and distribution systems + Emergency power supply systems + Protection + Substation automation + Control center systems + Energy management + Fully installed and pre-commissioned E-houses (‘plug-and-play’ containerized substations) + Earthing and lightning protection

TELECOMMUNICATION + Fiber optic cable + Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) data transfer + Open Transport Network (OTN) + VSat satellite backup system + Trunk radio + High-frequency SSB system + Microwave + Data radio + FM airto-ground radio

+ PABX SECURITY OF PIPELINE + Fiber-optic based pipeline intrusion detection system SECURITY OF ENCLOSED INFRASTRUCTURE + Intrusion detection based on infra-red systems, video-based detection systems, leaky cable sys tems, glass break detection systems, contact sensors + Access control based on biometrics BALANCE OF PLANT + Active and passive cooled shelters AUTOMATION + Fire and gas protection system

MIDSTREAM

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SENOIL

LNG Over the past decades, LNG has matured to become an economically viable as well as technically matured and manageable scheme for transferring natural gas from remote production locations to distant consumers. Apart from globally rising prices for primary energy, this development has been driven by increased competition, economies of scale, an emerging spot market for LNG, and by substantial advances of technology. Reducing the specific cost of LNG by upscaling liquefaction trains and increasing their productivity through innovative technologies is the trend of the industry. The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and construction times became additional tasks, challenging traditional approaches. Enter SEN Group. With a wide range of rotating and electrical equipment, with power generation, transmission and distribution systems, water management, automation, telecommunications, industrial IT, security support systems, and life-cycle services, SEN Group provides a host of solutions designed to ensure optimum plant performance in any given technical, environmental, economical and political environment. Innovative design, excellence in engineering, maximum lifetime value, and compliance with health, safety, environmental and industry standards are common denominators for all components, products, systems and services in the SEN Group LNG portfolio. Moreover, through its global manufacturing and service network, SEN Group ensures maximum customer proximity and local content. Combining our competence and strengths with yours, we can together boost the profitability of your investment all along the LNG value chain.

LNG PRODUCTION Liquefying the treated natural gas, the refrigeration facility is at the heart of any LNG plant. Traditionally, gas or steam turbines are employed to drive its main refrigerant compressors. However, since a number of years, alternative schemes with fully e-motor driven compressors are a topic of much debate at business conferences and trade shows around the globe. We can today offer a choice of traditional and evolutionary drive systems, each with their own characteristics. Making this far-reaching decision about the driver concept at the very early stages of a LNG project takes some bold thinking but promises large rewards. But whatever the chosen scheme, it will have to prove its fitness to match the project require-

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MIDSTREAM

115

ments of geographical location, infrastructure, economics, available technologies and personnel, and environmental regulations. For SEN Group, the challenge is to engineer the best possible solution for any given framework, whether GT-LNG or E-LNG.

DRIVES FOR MAIN REFRIGERATION LOOPS + Gas turbines of up to 160 MW (ISO) + Electrical variable-speed drive systems (VSDS) of 75 to 90 MW as main drives + Electrical variablespeed drive systems (VSDS) from 10 to 40 MW as starter/helper motor, or modular starter/helper motor/ generator packages for gas turbines. Water-air cooled or water-water cooled electrical systems for all known environments.

GT-LNG — BETTER SOLUTIONS Next-generation LNG plants will be designed to achieve an annual output of 6 to 8 million tons or more, requiring upwards of 240 MW of total compressor power for the refrigeration process alone. As a result, compressors and their respective drivers will be considerably largerscale compared to today’s installed base. Tomorrow’s plants, however, won’t just be built around larger machines, but better solutions. New introduced units not only exceed currently available products in their respective class by approximately 20% in power rating. They are also optimized for maximum periods between inspections and shortest maintenance downtimes, requiring just four days of maintenance after 16,000 equivalent operating hours (EOH) and 16 days after 48,000 EOH. This is, in part, due to the silo combustors at each side of the gas turbine casing, which can be accessed by a normal-sized person for inside inspection. What’s more, the SGT6-2000E and SGT5-2000E can handle both low calorific fuel gas and gas with a high content of nitrogen. These gas turbines have proven their credibility in generator drive applications around the world — applications which are typically more demanding than continuous-load LNG operation. For small-size refrigeration trains, SEN Group offers the wellproven SGT-600 and SGT-700 mechanical drives, rated ISO 25.5 MW and 30 MW respectively.


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DEDICATED SOLUTIONS FOR ELECTRIC LNG

ELECTRIC DRIVE SOLUTIONS

Over past decades, liquefaction of natural gas has matured to become an economically viable as well as a technically and commercially proven scheme for shipping natural gas from remote production locations to distant consumers. Reducing the specific cost of LNG by upscaling liquefaction trains and increasing their productivity through innovative technologies is a recognized industrial trend. The reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions and construction times has become an additional issue, challenging traditional approaches.

Driving the main refrigerant compressors, variable-speed drive systems (VSDS) are at the heart of the E-LNG plant concept. The system includes simple, robust and lowstressed, brushless synchronous motors renowned for their superior reliability and availability in the most demanding applications in many industries.

Enter SEN Group. With a complete range of rotating and electrical equipment, power generation, transmission and distribution systems, industrial controls & automation, and lifecycle services, SEN Group provides a host of solutions designed to realize maximum LNG plant availability, and meet any of tomorrow’s challenges, technical, economical or environmental. Innovative design, excellence in engineering and project management, maximum lifetime value, and uncompromising compliance with health, safety, environmental and industry standards are common denominators for all components, products, systems and services in the SEN Group LNG portfolio. Moreover, through its global manufacturing and service network, SEN Group ensures maximum customer proximity and local content. Combining our competence and strengths with yours, we can together push the limits of LNG plant productivity even further, to meet the most rigorous contractual commitments of LNG production and delivery. THE UNIQUE ADVANTAGES OF ELECTRIC LNG While today’s vast majority of refrigeration compressors in LNG liquefaction plants are driven by gas turbines, E-LNG schemes stand out as an economically and ecologically superior approach — despite a higher initial investment for a larger thermal power plant. With variable-speed electric motors available for all relevant refrigerant compressors, the concept of electrical liquefaction of natural gas (E-LNG) can be applied equally well to all recognized and proprietary LNG liquefaction cycles, offering a host of benefits. The E-LNG concept has been made feasible by SEN Groups’ and his partners distinctive technology position in large motors and drives, which are available to match the top end of the refrigerant-compression duties now demanded by the scale-up of LNG train capacities.

Electric motors for E-LNG compressor drive utilize established, proven design concepts and materials that have been used in power generation for decades. Identical mechanical, thermal and electrical stress levels in both applications virtually eliminate the risk of “unproven” equipment application. Variable speed-drive electronic equipment is actually proven in much higher ratings, e.g. in highvoltage DC transmission applications. Allowing for a customized and optimized compressor string design, Siemens offers electric-drive solutions for E-LNG plants in power ratings of up to 90 MW and speeds exceeding 3600 rpm.

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SENOIL

TERMINAL MANAGEMENT AND AUTOMATION Innovative design, excellence in engineering, and maximum lifetime value are common denominators of all components, products, systems and services of SEN Groups’ oil and gas portfolio. SEN Group solutions for terminal management and automation include: + Automation and safety systems + Automated loading system + Tank gauging + Distribution planning + Batch management + Product reconciliation and inventory management + Blending and re-branding facilities + Business systems integration UNDERGROUND STORAGE SEN Group solutions for underground storage applications include: + Compression with gas turbine and electric motor drive + Power distribution + Automation and safety systems

Making this far-reaching decision about the driver concept at the very early stages of a LNG project takes some bold thinking but promises large rewards. But whatever the chosen scheme, it will have to prove its fitness to match the project requirements of geographical location, infrastructure, economics, available technologies and personnel, and environmental regulations. For SEN Group, the challenge is to engineer the best possible solution for any given framework, whether GT-LNG or E-LNG.

DRIVES FOR MAIN REFRIGERATION LOOPS + Gas turbines of up to 160 MW (ISO) + Electrical variable-speed drive systems (VSDS) of 75 to 90 MW as main drives + Electrical variablespeed drive systems (VSDS) from 10 to 40 MW as starter/helper motor, or modular starter/helper motor/

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generator packages for gas turbines. Water-air cooled or waterwater cooled electrical systems for all known environments.

GT-LNG — BETTER SOLUTIONS Next-generation LNG plants will be designed to achieve an annual output of 6 to 8 million tons or more, requiring upwards of 240 MW of total compressor power for the refrigeration process alone. As a result, compressors and their respective drivers will be considerably largerscale compared to today’s installed base. Tomorrow’s plants, however, won’t just be built around larger machines, but better solutions. New introduced units not only exceed currently available products in their respective class by approximately 20% in power rating. They are also optimized for maximum periods between inspections and shortest maintenance downtimes, requiring just four days of maintenance after 16,000 equivalent operating hours (EOH) and 16 days after 48,000 EOH. This is, in part, due to the silo combustors at each side of the gas turbine casing, which can be accessed by a normal-sized person for inside inspection. What’s more, the SGT6-2000E and SGT5-2000E can handle both low calorific fuel gas and gas with a high content of nitrogen. These gas turbines have proven their credibility in generator drive applications around the world — applications which are typically more demanding than continuous-load LNG operation. For small-size refrigeration trains, SEN Group offers the wellproven SGT-600 and SGT-700 mechanical drives, rated ISO 25.5 MW and 30 MW respectively.


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OIL REFINERY PROCESSES

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Exceptional Performance and Value With today’s changing market conditions, it’s more important than ever to achieve exceptional performance while staying on schedule and within budget. Leading technologies and experience can help you reach these goals. Over the past years, SEN Group has accumulated with his partner extensive experience in the oil & gas industry giving us a keen appreciation of your issues and an in-depth understanding of the tools you need to address them.

Utilize Exceptional Performance and Value through: + Innovation — Increase your return on assets using cutting-edge technologies and solutions + Project Excellence — Providing you low total cost solutions through a large team of specialists and technologies + Sustainable Operations — Enhance safety, reliability and support environmental stewardship

1408.7 Million Barrels

World`s proved oil reserves — including oil sands by the end of 2008

Notes: Proved reserves of oil – Generally taken to be those quantities that geological and engineering information indicates with reasonable certainty can be recovered in the future from known reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions.


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— D. — SENTECHS

Technology


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SENTECHS â&#x20AC;&#x201D; WE BRING TECHNOLOGY, BUSINESS AND OPERATIONS TOGETHER.

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We introduce & establish high-tech technology businesses.

Our portfolio is directed to provide solutions & services in following fields:

Renewable Energies / PV

Semiconductors

Optoelectronics

OLED

Technologies

Business expertise

We have capabilities to manage the whole extend of technologies, from technology transgfer thru technology/product qualifications to operational equilibrium.

We provide comprehensive technology industry insights. We eleaborate challenges & oppurtunities and set business propositions into perspective.

Technology Know How

Operations Capabilities

We have the in depth know how, to identify & assess the right technology solutions for an anticipated proposition.

We have ingredients & capabilities to lead a technology operation into equilibrium. We establish a functional & self sufficient operations.

Hybrids/Nano


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SERVICE PORTFOLIO

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SENTECHS drives and supports technology based innovation, business development and improvement in the field of renewable energies, photovoltaics and microelectronics (incl. semiconductors, optoelectronics and display technology).

Our services include:

• Technology market and operations studies and strategy consulting • Company evaluation and due diligence • Optimization, strategic reorientation and restructuring of technology enterprises • Development and business development from idea to commercialization • Business initiation & development of technology enterprises

- initial business planning and investor packages

- Investor search, procurement of capital

• Technology and partner search, contracting and licensing of technologies • Technology & operations know-how transfer & introduction • Operations design & build up — service of expert knowledge for conception and enterprise — local skill development & training • Interim management until oprations maturity

© Sen Group 2012


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SENTECHS â&#x20AC;&#x201D; WE BRING TECHNOLOGY, BUSINESS AND OPERATIONS TOGETHER.

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Our service portfolio is of modular nature, customizable to client needs

Technology operations

Technology services

Business services

Comprehensive, pervasive services reflecting all aspects to introduce a new venture and/or technology

Specific process technology services

Complementary services adressing all associated business aspects

search brokerage trading

market studies

business initiation market governance people operations architecture operations management

technology introduction know how transfer procurement services

economical studies due dilligences business planning alliances investors partnerships


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ENERGY Technology

SERVICE PORTFOLIO

We are uniquely positioned both technically and geographically as THE EXPERTS in ALL types of Solar and PV developments

• SENTECHS has been involved in the development of the Photovoltaic Industry from the early days of commercialization and has a thorough understanding of the technology food-chain from manufacturing of Silicon through the manufacturing of PV cells in silicon, thin film and concentrator technologies, to the development of solar farms for harvesting of energy.

• Because SENTECHS are based in the center of leading PV development country in Europe SENTECHS have developed an excellent link and relationships with leading development technologists in the PV industry in both academic and industrial worlds.

• With this insight and experience SENTECHS is uniquely positioned to advise and develop a long term strategy for the research into PV technologies in a way that has both research flexibility and a relevance to commercialization of these technologies.

• Additionally SENTECHS has an excellent overview of the manufacturing equipment that for both research and manufacturing needs to be defined, purchased, installed and exploited in the development of soler generated power for all 3 main stream technologies.

• SENTECHS have not only developed business plans and budgets, but have managed the design, procurement, hiring, training and logistics (incl. Export Administration Regulations experience) of new projects in bith research and manufacturing.

• SENTECHS has worked on many projects where it is essential to integrate technically and logistically with the facilities and construction contractor either as primary contractor or as a sub-contractor.

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— 006 —

Agriculture


—2.—Rapid climate change

—1.—Ecomomic collapse


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2012 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statistics — sengreenhouse® —

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— sengreenhouse® —

World Hunger — a major global problem


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— 2012 World Hunger —

REFERENCES

— 1. —

— 2. —

— 3. —

— 4. —

— 5. —

925 million hungry people in 2010 — 1 in 7 people are hungry. — 1. — 575 million people — Asia and and the Pacific — 2. — 239 million people — Sub-Saharan Africa — 3. — 53 million people — Latin America and the caribbean — 4. — 37 million people — Near East and North Africa — 5. — 19 million people — Developed countries Source: FAO.

The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations estimates that we need to double global agricultural production in the next 50 years in order to satisfy global hunger.


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2012 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statistics — sengreenhouse® —

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— No one really knows how many people are malnourished. — The statistic most frequently cited is that of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, which measures 'undernutrition'. The FAO did not publish an estimate in its most recent publication, 'The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2011' as it is undertaking a major revision of how it estimates food insecurity (FAO 2011 p. 10). The 2010 estimate, the most recent, says that 925 million people were undernourished in 2010 (FAO 2010). As the figure below shows, the number of hungry people has increased since 1995-97. The increase has been due to three factors: —1.— neglect of agriculture relevant to very poor people by governments and international agencies; —2.— the current worldwide economic crisis, —3.—the significant increase of food prices in the last several years, which has been devastating to those with only a few dollars a day to spend. 925 million people is 13.6 percent of the estimated world population of 6.8 billion. Nearly all of the undernourished are in developing countries. In round numbers there are 7 billion people in the world. Thus, with an estimated 925 million hungry people in the world, 13.1 percent, or almost 1 in 7 people are hungry. The FAO estimate is based on statistical aggregates. The FAO first estimates the total food supply of a country and derives the average per capita daily food intake from that. The distribution of average food intake for people in the country is then estimated from surveys measuring food expenditure. Using this information, and minimum food energy requirements, FAO estimates how many people are likely to receive such a low level of food intake that they are undernourished. Undernutrition is a relatively new concept, but is increasingly used. It should be taken as similar to malnutrition. (It should be said as an aside, that the idea of undernourishment, its relationship to malnutrition, and the reasons for its emergence as a concept is not clear to Hunger Notes.) Children are the most visible victims of undernutrition. Children who are poorly nourished suffer up to 160 days of illness each year. Poor nutrition plays a role in at least half of the 10.9 million child deaths each year--five million deaths. Undernutrition magnifies the effect of every disease, including measles and malaria. The estimated proportions of deaths in which undernutrition is an underlying cause are roughly similar for diarrhea (61%), malaria (57%), pneumonia (52%), and measles (45%) (Black 2003, Bryce 2005). Malnutrition can also be caused by diseases, such as the diseases that cause diarrhea, by reducing the body‘s ability to convert food into usable nutrients. According to the most recent estimate that Hunger Notes could find, malnutrition, as measured by stunting, affects 32.5 percent of children in developing countries — one of three (de Onis 2000). Geographically, more than 70 percent of malnourished children live in Asia, 26 percent in Africa and 4 percent in Latin America and the Caribbean. In many cases, their plight began even before birth with a malnourished mother. Under-nutrition among pregnant women in developing countries leads to 1 out of 6 infants born with low birth weight. This is not only a risk factor for neonatal deaths, but also causes learning disabilities, mental, retardation, poor health, blindness and premature death.


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2012 World Hunger — sengreenhouse® —

Does the world produce enough food to feed everyone? The world produces enough food to feed everyone. World agriculture produces 17 percent more calories per person today than it did 30 years ago, despite a 70 percent population increase. This is enough to provide everyone in the world with at least 2,720 kilocalories (kcal) per person per day according to the most recent estimate that we could find.(FAO 2002, p.9). The principal problem is that many people in the world do not have sufficient land to grow, or income to purchase, enough food. What are the causes of hunger? Poverty is the principal cause of hunger. The causes of poverty include poor people‘s lack of resources, an extremely unequal income distribution in the world and within specific countries, conflict, and hunger itself. As of 2008 (2005 statistics), the World Bank has estimated that there were an estimated 1,345 million poor people in developing countries who live on $1.25 a day or less.3 This compares to the later FAO estimate of 1.02 billion undernourished people. Extreme poverty remains an alarming problem in the world’s developing regions, despite some progress that reduced „dollar--now $1.25-- a day“ poverty from (an estimated) 1900 million people in 1981, a reduction of 29 percent over the period. Progress in poverty reduction has been concentrated in Asia, and especially, East Asia, with the major improvement occurring in China. In SubSaharan Africa, the number of people in extreme poverty has increased. The statement that ‚poverty is the principal cause of hunger‘ is, though correct, unsatisfying. Why then are (so many) people poor? The next section summarizes Hunger Notes answer. Harmful economic systems are the principal cause of poverty and hunger. Hunger Notes believes that the principal underlying cause of poverty and hunger is the ordinary operation of the economic and political systems in the world. Essentially control over resources and income is based on military, political and economic power that typically ends up in the hands of a minority, who live well, while those at the bottom barely survive, if they do. We have described the operation of this system in more detail in our special section on Harmful economic systems. Conflict as a cause of hunger and poverty. At the end of 2005, the global number of refugees was at its lowest level in almost a quarter of a century. Despite some large-scale repatriation movements, the last three years have witnessed a significant increase in refugee numbers, due primarily to the violence taking place in Iraq and Somalia. By the end of 2008, the total number of refugees under UNHCR’s mandate exceeded 10 million. The number of conflict-induced internally displaced persons (IDPs) reached some 26 million worldwide at the end of the year . Providing exact figures on the number of stateless people is extremely difficult But, important, (relatively) visible though it is, and anguishing for those involved conflict is less important as poverty (and its causes) as a cause of hunger. (Using the statistics above 1.02 billion people suffer from chronic hunger while 36 million people are displaced [UNHCR 2008]) Hunger is also a cause of poverty, and thus of hunger. By causing poor health, low levels of energy, and even mental im-

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pairment, hunger can lead to even greater poverty by reducing people‘s ability to work and learn, thus leading to even greater hunger. Climate change Climate change is increasingly viewed as a current and future cause of hunger and poverty. Increasing drought, flooding, and changing climatic patterns requiring a shift in crops and farming practices that may not be easily accomplished are three key issues. —¹— See the Climate Change report page 90

Progress in reducing the number of hungry people The target set at the 1996 World Food Summit was to halve the number of undernourished people by 2015 from their number in 1990-92. (FAO uses three year averages in its calculation of undernourished people.) The (estimated) number of undernourished people in developing countries was 824 million in 1990-92. In 2010, the number had climbed to 925 million people. The WFS goal is a global goal adopted by the nations of the world; the present outcome indicates how marginal the efforts were in face of the real need. So, overall, the world is not making progress toward the world food summit goal, although there has been progress in Asia, and in Latin America and the Caribbean. (Updated December 4, 2011)


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sengreenhouse®

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Our Vision and Mission — to

help feed the world affordable


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OUR VISION AND MISSION

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ENERGY Technology Agriculture

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sengreenhouse®

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— 1. — In 1950, the world’s population was just 2.5 billion. In October 2011, it hit 7 billion. We can expect another 2 billion people on our planet by 2050. Meanwhile, urbanization and soil erosion are reducing available farmland. So while one hectare could feed two people in 1950, by 2030 it will have to feed five. Already, food demand is outstripping supply in some regions. Farmers must grow more from less: our business is to help make that possible. — 2. — With nearly a fourth of its 1.1 billion population hungry, India indeed is the world’s hunger capital.

> 2.5 billion

> 7 billion

1950

2011

> 9 billion — 1. —

2050

— 2. —


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WORLD POPULATION GROWTH

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Sustainable agriculture can help fight world hunger.


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2011â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Natural Disaster Events

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JAPAN EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI

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ENERGY Technology Agriculture / sengreenhouse速

Japan The world endured a very active year in 2011, marked by a series of devastating natural disaster events. Japan suffered from a historic earthquake and tsunami that left nearly 16,000 people dead.

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The cost of climate change

Climate Change

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Global natural disaster activity in 2011 produced 820 separate events that caused significant impacts to various parts of the world. The 820 events (defined as natural meteorological or climatological occurrences that caused noteworthy insurance losses, economic losses, human casualties or a large humanitarian impact) aggregated to an economic loss of USD380 billion and insured losses of USD107 billion. The economic losses in 2011 make it the costliest natural disaster year on record. The insured losses incurred in 2011 make it the second costliest year on record â&#x20AC;&#x201C; second only to 2005â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s USD120 billion, which was dominated by the USD90 billion in losses causedby major hurricanes Katrina, Rita and Wilma.

Over

Over

Over

820 7,000 $380 bn

natural disasters recorded during 2011

lives lost

in financial losses


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JAPAN EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI

— 1. — JAPAN 2011 —The effects of climate change are more damaging and expensive than most would believe. This is an overview of what 2011 looked like in terms of natural disasters around the globe.

The greater Christchurch metropolitan region in New Zealand faced a major rebuilding effort after being struck by two separate earthquakes. Extraordinary severe weather outbreaks in the United States spawned a record number of tornadoes, damaging winds and destructive hail. Major flooding covered vast areas of Southeast Asia, while floods also impacted parts of Australia, North America and South America. Hurricane Irene made landfall in the United States, the first U.S. landfalling hurricane since 2008. Ten additional tropical cyclone landfalls occurred worldwide. 2011 was the eleventh warmest year in history since temperature data began being recorded in 1880.

— 1. —

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sengreenhouseÂŽ

Russia burns during the hottest summer ever â&#x20AC;&#x201D; European summer of 2010 was the most ferocious on record, and this could be the century of the mega heatwave.

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WORLD POPULATION GROWTH

A SEN Group Company

— Fire, water, earth and air – the four basic elements have seldom been so destructive as in 2010. Wildfires in Russia, the devastating flood in Pakistan, major earthquakes in Haiti, Chile, China and New Zealand, and Winter Storm Xynthia caused losses worth billions and destroyed the homes and possessions of millions of people. Although the hurricane season proved extremely active as predicted, it did not cause any major losses, but that was only due to the fortunate circumstance that the hurricanes followed a less destructive track. All in all, 2010 was the year with the second-highest number of loss-related natural catastrophes, 2007 being the highest, since we began keeping global statistics in 1980. With 960 loss events due to natural hazards, the number of catastrophes documented in 2010 far exceeded the average for the last ten years (785 events). The overall economic loss amounted to some US$ 150bn, with earthquakes alone accounting for almost one-third of this total. Alltogether, the insurance industry had to shoulder losses in the order of US$ 37bn for natural catastrophes worldwide in 2010. Australia’s east coast was hit by severe floods from the end of 2010 to mid-January 2011, primarily affecting coal mining areas in Central Queensland around the turn of the year, and the city of Brisbane from the beginning of January 2011. Overall losses amount to several billion US dollars and the insured losses are also signifi cant. The amounts are subject to considerable uncertainties due to the complexity of the event and unresolved coverage issues relating to the insured losses. Following the disappointing outcome of the climate negotiations in Copenhagen, progress was once again made at the Cancún Climate Summit in December 2010. At least a minimum objective has been achieved with the points adopted in the Cancún agreement, leaving the door open for a follow-up agreement to the Kyoto Protocol. We analyse the results of the negotiations and show how SEN Group actively contributes to the process.

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The disaster in Japan on 11 March 2011 has made clear how vulnerable society and the economy are in the face of geophysical events, which have been receiving less attention in recent years due to the all-pervading discussion on climate change. The Tohoku quake was also possibly the first natural disaster leading to long-term energy policy changes (nuclear phase-out in Germany and Switzerland, cancellation of the introduction of nuclear power in Italy) in numerous countries far away from the affected region. Our column on page 56 sheds light on background factors of the hazard posed by geophysical risks. With economic losses amounting to some US$ 380bn, 2011 has been the most expensive natural disaster year to date, far surpassing the previous record (US$ 220bn) set in 2005. At US$ 105bn, insured losses also reached a new high. The loss figures were dominated by 2011’s earthquakes – in addition to Japan, above all the devastating event in New Zealand. The year also saw disastrous floods in Australia, Thailand, France and Italy and the tornado outbreak in the USA.Weather-related risks in the USA and Canada are constantly altering as a result of anthropogenic climate change and natural climate cycles like La Niña. We report on such phenomena and other topics in the chapter entitled “Facts, figures, background” on page 40. A special publication on “Weather risks in North America”, our in-depth analysis of the natural hazard situation in this region, is due to appear in May 2012.


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The year 2011 in pictures

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10 to 14 January Floods: Australia Overall losses: US$ 2,800m Insured losses: US$ 1,875m Fatalities: 22

12 to 16 January Flash floods, landslides: Brazil Overall losses: US$ 460m Insured losses: US$ 50m Fatalities: 900

31 January to 6 February Winter storms: USA Overall losses: US$ 1,900m Insured losses: US$ 1,425m Fatalities: 39

2 to 7 February Cyclone Yasi: Australia Overall losses: US$ 2,500m Insured losses: US$ 1,300m Fatalities: 1

22 February Earthquake: New Zealand Overall losses: US$ 16,000m Insured losses: US$ 13,000m Fatalities: 181

11 March Earthquake, tsunami: Japan Overall losses: US$ 210,000m Insured losses: US$ 35,000â&#x20AC;&#x201C;40,000m Fatalities: 15,840

April to May Severe storms, tornadoes: USA Overall losses: US$ 39,000m Insured losses: US$ 20,500m Fatalities: 585

18 April to 23 May Floods: USA Overall losses: US$ 4,600m Insured losses: US$ 500m Fatalities: 9

April to May Floods: Colombia Fatalities: 90


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Earthquakes, wildfires, floods, droughts, hurricanes, storms

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11 May Earthquake: Spain Overall losses: US$ 200m Insured losses: US$ 100m Fatalities: 10

May to July Wildfires: Canada Overall losses: US$ 1,500m Insured losses: US$ 720m Fatalities: 1

June to July Floods: China Overall losses: US$ 2,000m Fatalities: 355

October 2010 to September 2011 Drought: East Africa Fatalities: >50,000

22 August to 2 September Hurricane Irene: Caribbean, USA Overall losses: US$ 7,400m Insured losses: US$ 5,600m Fatalities: 55

August to November Floods: Thailand Overall losses: US$ 40,000m Insured losses: US$ 10,000m Fatalities: 813

23 October Earthquake: Turkey Overall losses: US$ 550m Insured losses: US$ 40m Fatalities: 604

4 to 9 November Flash floods: Italy, France, Spain Overall losses: US$ 2,100m Insured losses: US$ 1,100m Fatalities: 14

16 to 18 December Tropical Storm Washi: Philippines Overall losses: US$ 40m Fatalities: 1,268

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The year 2011 in figures

— C. — Climatogical events (extreme temperature, drought, wildfire) — G. — Geophysical events (earthquake, tsunami, volcanic activity) — H. — Hydrological events (flood, mass movement) — M. — Meteorological events (storm)

— H. — 37%

— M. — 37%

— M. — 11%

— H. — 25%

— M. — 19%

— H. — 17% — C. — 3%

— C. — 2% — G. — 9%

— C. — 17%

820 events*

— G. — 62%

— G. — 61%

Fatalities: 27,000*

Overall losses: US$ 380bn*

— *Percentage distribution worldwide

— The year 2011 was the most expensive natural catastrophe year ever in national economic terms. At US$ 380bn, it far exceeded 2005, previously the costliest year on record. Insured losses also came to a record US$ 105bn. Munich Re’s Geo Risks Research recorded 820 lossrelated events, which corresponds to the average for the past ten years. Hurricanes in the North Atlantic accounted for the bulk of the enormous claims expenditure in 2005 but last year’s severe earthquake disasters in Japan and New Zealand alone accounted for overall losses of US$ 228bn and insured losses of US$ 50bn. Nearly 90% of 2011’s events were weather-related. Overall and insured losses from weather-related natural catastrophes were the second-highest on record since 1980 (taking inflation into account). Consequently, 2011 also goes down as a year of extreme weather-related catastrophes. Number of events Depending on the monetary and humanitarian impact of these events, we divide them into six categories, ranging from minor losses to great natural catastrophes. The following five events from last year fall into loss category 6 (great natural catastrophes, with thousands of fatalities and/or hundreds of thousands left homeless and/or substantial economic/insured losses). −−22 February: Earthquake, New Zealand −−11 March: Earthquake, tsunami, Japan −−April to May: Tornado outbreaks, USA −−August to November: Floods, Thailand −−October 2010 to September 2011: Drought: East Africa

The breakdown of loss-relevant events between the main geophysical, meteorological, hydrological and climatological hazards is more or less in line with the average over the past 30 years. In 2011, 91% of the world’s natural catastrophes were weatherrelated: 300 storms, 310 floods, storm surges and mass movements caused by torrential rain. The climatological events category – wildfires, droughts, heatwaves and cold waves – comprised 140 events, including 117 wildfire events. Geophysical natural hazards made up 9% – namely 54 earthquakes and 16 volcanic eruptions that caused personal injury and/or property damage. The percentage breakdown by continent is also in line with the long-term average, most catastrophes occurring in Asia (240) and America (290); in Europe there were 150, in Africa 80 and in Australia 60.


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— 2. —

Fatalities In 2011, 27,000 died in natural disasters, which was well below the longterm average; since 1980, the average has been 73,000 fatalities per year. The severe earthquake and tsunami in Japan caused 15,840 fatalities. In Brazil, 900 people were killed by landslides. Devastating floods caused thousands of deaths: in Pakistan (520), Thailand (813) and the Philippines (1,268). The storms in the USA in April and May 2011 resulted in 585 fatalities. The number of deaths reported for 2011 does not yet take account of the catastrophic drought and subsequent famine on the Horn of Africa, one of the year’s worst humanitarian catastrophes.

— Overall earthquake losses were around US$ 230bn, 22% of which were insured losses – around US$ 50bn; the average for insured losses is approx. 10%. — Globally, only 37% of insured losses were caused by windstorm events, the average being 76%. One reason for this was the very active but relatively benign hurricane season, with only three US landfalls and insured losses of some US$ 5bn; over the past ten years, annual US hurricane losses have been close to the US$ 17bn mark on average. Devastating tornadoes in the USA caused record insurance industry losses in 2011. The total came to around US$ 25bn, which is more than 50% of all insured windstorm losses in 2011.

Losses The year’s overall losses (US$ 380bn) are the highest ever recorded in Munich Re’s loss database. Insured losses also reached the record high of US$ 105bn. The 2011 figures differ significantly from the overall loss pattern since 1980:

— The US$ 15bn in insured flood losses made up 13% of insured losses. The floods in Australia (in January) and Thailand (August to November) were the most expensive events.

— 61% of overall losses and 47% of insured losses were caused by earthquakes – the long-term average is 22% for overall losses and 10% for insured losses.

— 2. — CHINA 2011 — June to July mFloods: China — Overall losses: US$ 2,000m —Fatalities: 355


145

2011’s Natural Disaster Events

— 3. — JAPAN, March 11, 2011 —The most deadly event in 2011 was the March 11th Japan earthquake and tsunami event.

Global natural disaster activity in 2011 produced 253 separate events that caused significant impacts to various parts of the world. The 253 events (defined as natural meteorological or climatological occurrences that caused noteworthy insurance losses, economic losses, human casualties or a large humanitarian impact) aggregated to an economic loss of USD435 billion and insured losses of USD107 billion. The economic losses in 2011 make it the costliest natural disaster year on record. The insured losses incurred in 2011 make it the second costliest year on record – second only to 2005’s USD120 billion, which was dominated by the USD90 billion in losses causedby major hurricanes Katrina, Rita and Wilma. Asia, the United States and Oceania (Australia, New Zealand and the South Pacific Islands) endured the majority of insured losses in 2011 due to historic earthquakes in Asia and Oceania, widespread springtime U.S. severe weather, and flooding in Asia and Oceania. The economic losses were dominated by the Japan earthquake and tsunami, which became the costliest economic natural disaster event on record. Extensive flooding in Thailand, two earthquake strikes in New Zealand and numerous severe weather outbreaks in the United States each led to significant economic losses as well.

— 3. —

Of the top 10 insured natural catastrophe events in 2011, four were severe weather events (tornadoes, hail or damaging winds), three were earthquake events, two were flood events and one was a tropical cyclone event. The costliest insured loss and economic loss event of the year was the Japan earthquake and tsunami, which caused an estimated USD35 billion in insured losses and approximately USD210 billion in economic losses. The magnitude-9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami occurred on March 11th, and led to the deaths of at least 15,844 people in Japan alone. Exhibit 1 shows the Top 10 Insured Loss Events in 2011 that caused a combined USD86.25 billion in losses, or nearly 81 percent of the year’s insured loss total. The remaining USD20.90 billion was a combination of losses from winter weather, severe weather, flooding, tropical cyclones, earthquakes, drought, volcano eruptions and wildfires.


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146

Exhibit 1: Top 10 Insured Loss Events in 2011

Event Date

Event Name or Type Event Location

3/11

Earthquake

# Of Deaths

Japan

# Of Structures/ Claims

15,844

Economic Loss Estimates (USD)

1,100,000

35.00 billion

2/22

Earthquake

New Zealand

182

156,313

13,50 billion

7/25-11/30

Flooding

Thailand

790

4,000,000

45,00 billion

4/22-4/28

Severe Weather

U.S. (Southeast, Plains, Midwest)

344

700,00

10,20 billion

5/21-5/27

Severe Weather

U.S. (Plains, Midwest, Southeast)

181

750,000

9.10 billion

8/22-8/30

HU Irene

U.S., Bahamas, Caribbean Isl.

46

835,000

8.55 billion

12/21-1/14

Flooding

Australia (Queensland)

36

58,463

30.00 billion

4/3-4/5

Severe Weather

U.S. (Midwest, Southeast, Plains)

9

225,000

2.80 billion

6/13

Earthquake

New Zealand

1

53,963

*30.00 billion

4/14-4/16

Severe Weather

U.S. (Plains, Southeast, Midwest)

48

150,000

2.50 billion

All Other Events

86.69 billion

Totals

434.84 billion

*The New Zealand government has only released a combined USD 30 billion economic loss total for September 2010, February 2011 and June 2011 EQ events

Exhibit 2: Top 10 Human Fatality Events in 2011 Event Date

Event Name or Type Event Location

3/11

Earthquake

# Of Structures/ Claims

Economic Loss Estimates (USD)

15,844

1,100,000

210.00 billion

# Of Deaths

Japan

12/16-12/17

TS Washi

Philippines

1,257

48,499

31.70 million

1/10-1/14

Flooding

Brazil

903

21,500

1.20 billion

7/29-11/30

Flooding

Thailand

790

4,000,000

45,00 billion

10/23

Earthquake

Turkey

604

15,000

750.00 million

8/12-9/30

Flooding

Pakistan

520

1,600,000

2.00 billion

4/22-4/28

Severe Weather

Southeast, Plains, Midwest

344

700,000

10.20 billion

9/10-10/31

Flooding

Cambodia

250

250,000

521.000 million

6/1-6/24

Flooding

China

239

500,000

6.65 billion

10/19-10/21

TS 02B

Myanmar

215

8,000

1.70 million

The overall number of fatalities recorded in 2011 as a result of natural disasters was approximately 24,500, with at least eight separate events killing a minimum of 250 people. The 2011 total was well below the number seen in 2010, when an estimated 303,000 people lost their lives. The 2010 number was elevated due to the roughly 230,000 people that were killed in the Haiti earthquake and an additional 56,000 people who died in Russia as a result of a dangerous heat wave and wildfires.

The most deadly event in 2011 was the March 11th Japan earthquake and tsunami event. The main tremor and subsequent tsunami killed at least 15,844 people in Japan (3,451 others officially remained listed as missing) and also caused dozens of additional fatalities elsewhere around the outer rim of the Pacific Ocean. This event became the fifth deadliest earthquake event in Japanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s recorded history, only surpassed by temblors which struck in 1923, 1896, 1707 and 1293. Exhibit 2 shows the top 10 human fatality events in 2011, as caused by natural disasters.


147

2011’s Natural Disaster Events

Climate Change is already happening — And today´s wild weather is one sign of it Since the 1980s, climate scientists have predicted that a warming planet—largely the result of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from human activities like the burning of coal and oil—would bring more violent weather, from droughts to fierce storms. In this decade, that prediction is coming true. In fact, weather disasters have struck every part of the globe in recent years. So far, 2011 has brought us plenty of wild weather, including Hurricane Irene, and hurricane season is not yet over. Extreme weather begins with heat, and we’ve had plenty of that, setting new records in each of the last three decades. Last year was the hottest ever, but it’s unlikely that record will stand for long.# All that heat loads the dice for weird weather, because warmer air holds more evaporated water, which provides more energy to shifting air currents and changing weather patterns. The result is more intense hurricanes, typhoons, nor’easters, rainstorms, floods, blizzards, heat waves and drought. It’s time to admit the weather isn’t what it used to be—and to start doing something about it.


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148


149

Largest Natural Catastrophes 1970-2011

w Global Network w Key Business w Financial Services w Energy w Oil & Gas w Technology w Plant/Construction u Agriculture

sengreenhouse®

Winter Storm Lothar $11,500 110

Hurricane Ike Hurricane Andrew

60

Northridge Earthquake

33

170

$38,000

$26,500

$44,000

40

25

Great USA Floods

— 1,300

10

Hurricane Frances

40

$22,000

$21,000

Hurricane Katrina

Hurricane Rita

$125,000

$16,000

500

Hurricane Charley

40

125

Chile Earthquake

KEY Event Location Source: Munich RE, Swiss, RE 2011

Overall Loss in MN USD

$18,000

Hurricane Ivan

$23,000

Haiti Earthquake 220,000 $8,000

$30,000

2,000

Fatalities

Hurricane Wilma

$12,000

Hurricane Jeanne

$9,200


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Earthquakes, wildfires, floods, droughts, hurricanes, storms

150

1970-2011

70,000

Heatwave Europe

25,000

$13,800

Spitak Earthquake

$14,000

84,000

Sichuan Earthquake

$85,000

6,000

50

Winter Storm Kyrill

4,000

$10,000

Yangtze River Floods

Kobe Earthquake

$100,000

$30,700

Japan Earthquake and Tsunami TBC

60

40

European Floods

$16,500 3,000

220,000

Indian Ocean Tsunami

$10,000 Queensland Flood TBC

Christchurch Earthquake TBC

Typhoon Mireille

China Floods

$10,000

$24,000


151

Natural Catastrophes 2011 World map

w Global Network w Key Business w Financial Services w Energy w Oil & Gas w Technology w Plant/Construction u Agriculture

sengreenhouse®

— M. — Severe storms, tornadoes — USA, 20-27 May

— M. —

Winter Storm Joachim France, Switzerland, Germany, 15-17 Dec.

— C. — Wildfires Canada, 14-22 May

— M. — Hurricane Irene USA, Carribean 22 Aug.-2 Sept. — H. — Floods USA, April-May

— C. — Drought USA, Oct. 2010 — ongoing

— M. — Severe storms, tornadoes USA, 20-27 May — C. — Wildfires USA, April/Sept.

— H. — Floods, landslides Guatemala, El Salvador 11-19 Oct.

— H. — Landslides, flash floods Brazil, 12/16 Jan.


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— H. — Flash floods, floods Italy, France, Spain 4-9 Nov.

— G. — Earthquake Van, TURKEY 23 Oct.

— G. — Earthquake, tsunami, Japan, 11 March

— M. — Tropical Storm Washi Philippines, 16-18 Dec. — H. — Floods Pakistan Aug.-Sept.

— M. — Cyclone Yasi Australia, 2-7 Feb. — H. — Floods Thailand Aug.-Nov.

— H. — Floods, flash floods Australia, 2010- Jan 2011 — C. — Drought Somalia Oct. 2010 — Sept. 2011

— G. — Earthquake New Zealand, 22 Feb. — G. — Earthquake New Zealand, 13 June


153

WORLD MAP OF NATURAL HAZARDS

sengreenhouse®

GREENLAND (DEN.)

CANADA GERMANY

UNITED STATES

ALGERIA

MEXICO

NIGER

VENEZUELA NIGERIA

BRAZIL

CLIMATE IMPACTS Main impacts of climate change already observed and/ or expected to increase in the future — Change in tropical cyclone activity — Intensification of extratropical storms — Increase in heavy rain — Increase in heatwaves — Increase in droughts — Threat of sea level rise — Permafrost thaw — Improved agricultural conditions — Unfavourable agricutural conditions

S A ARGENTINA


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Earthquakes, wildfires, floods, droughts, hurricanes, storms

RUSSIA

KAZAKHSTAN

MONGOLIA

TURKEY

CHINA IRAN EGYPT SAUDI ARABIA

INDIA SUDAN

I N D O N E S I A

MADAGASCAR

AUSTRALIA

SOUTH AFRICA

Data resources Bathymetry: Amante, C. and B. W. Eakins, ETOPO1 1 Arc-Minute Global Relief Model: Procedures, Data Sources and Analysis, National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce, Boulder, CO, August 2008. Extratropical storms: KNMI (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute). Tempera- ture/Precipitation 1978–2007: Climatic Research Unit, University Climatic Research Unit, of East Anglia, Norwich.

154


155

Severe floods in Australia,the USA and Thailand

Major earthquake disasters obscured somewhat the fact that 2011 was also a year of severe flood disasters. Wellabove-average rainfall, lasting for several months in some places, brought floods on a scale not seen for decades. Catastrophe portraits Queensland, Australia: The country had already suffered heavy precipitation in December 2010. Shortly before the end of the year, a new series of torrential rains began that lasted until mid-January. Flash floods occurred, the worst on 10 January in the town of Toowoomba, where 22 people died. Reservoirs filled up in no time and rivers became swollen. A flood wave on a scale last seen in 1974 swept through the two-million metropolis of Brisbane. The entire city centre commercial district was flooded metre-deep. For almost two weeks, disaster management teams, residents and business owners fought against the waters. In the end, overall losses from all the December and January events were in the order of US$ 7.3bn, of which a third (US$ 2.4bn) was insured. No sooner was the worst over than a Category 4 cyclone (Yasi) began moving in the direction of Queensland. This time people were lucky however: the storm made landfall several hundred kilometres north of Brisbane and the rain fell over largely unpopulated areas. It nevertheless inflicted damage in the amount of US$ 2.5bn, of which US$ 1.3bn was insured. Although reports that “floodwaters covered an area the size of France and Germany combined” were not correct (in fact the floods spanned a total area of this size), it was nevertheless true that the magnitude of the floods was unexpected. By contrast, unusually heavy precipitation lasting several weeks came as no surprise. Due to the La Niña weather phenomenon, an exceptional rainy season was to be anticipated in Australia. In addition, the western Pacific off the coast of Australia had never before been as warm as at the turn of 2010/2011 – ideal conditions for high evaporation rates and a high water content in the air masses flowing towards the mainland. USA: In May and June 2011, the worst floods in decades occurred along the Mississippi and some of its main tributaries. Although losses were heavy, they were comparatively moderate considering the scale of the event, and stayed within the single-digit billion US-dollar range, to a large extent because the flood management system in the USA is much more efficient than in most other countries. In the early summer of 2011, large areas of land were not at the whim of uncontrolled flooding, as is often the case in other regions, since the flood waters were diverted through designated spillways into areas with a lower density of assets. Thailand The broad flat plain of the Chao Phraya river that crosses Thailand from north to south is not just the country’s most productive agricultural area but also its heartland. Shortly before the river empties into the Gulf of Thailand, it flows through the

seven-million megacity of Bangkok, whose surrounding area is home to a further five million people. This plain, in which 40% of Thailand’s gross national product is generated, was worst hit by the 2011 disaster, although other parts of the country together with Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam also experienced heavy floods. Months of rain Central Thailand’s rainy season lasts from mid-May to October. The southwest monsoon brings moist, warm air that generates rainfall over the plain or, ultimately, on reaching the mountains. This season accounts, in an average year, for some 1,000 to 1,300 mm of rain – a good 80% of the region’s annual precipitation. In 2011, La Niña probably played a key role here too; during this phase, the monsoon is particularly intense. Increased precipitation occurred in South and Southeast Asia. In the north of Thailand, 3.5 times the normal amount of rainfall in March led to numerous flash floods in the mountains and virtually filled the Bhumipol and Sirikit reservoirs. The summer monsoon began in May, bringing well-above-average precipitation over a period of several months. During each two-month period from March to October, rainfall in the north of Thailand was significantly above the relevant two-month long-term average, in some places by as much as 1,000 mm. The first major floods occurred when, at the end of July, Typhoon Nock-ten made landfall in northern Vietnam, pouring veritable torrents of rain over the entire region all the way to northern Thailand. Again flash floods occurred in many places. The floods spread from the north to the south in the subsequent two months, particularly as the two major dams had to be increasingly opened to avoid overspill, largely losing their flood-control function. Vast amounts of water from the north of Thailand converged in the Chao Phraya. By mid-September, practically all lowlying areas in central Thailand as far as the northern outskirts of Bangkok were inundated. Floodgates at the entrances to irrigation channels were opened or broke. The water masses poured into paddy fields, villages and towns. The town of Nakhon Sawan at the confluence of the Ping and Nan, the two rivers that meet to form the Chao Phraya, was submerged in no time. The historic capital of Ayutthaya with its wonderful temples was also flooded, as were numerous large industrial parks. However, this overflowing benefited Bangkok by attenuating the approaching flood wave. At the beginning of October, all the reservoirs were so full that the operators had to discharge large quantities of water to protect the dams. This exacerbated the flooding situation downstream and increased the hazard for Bangkok and the industrial parks on the Chao Phraya plain. Sandbag barriers were feverishly erected, repaired and heightened. Nevertheless, 32 of the city’s 50 districts were submerged and two million people were ordered to leave their homes. Fortunately, Bangkok’s city centre business district escaped flooding.


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— 1. — When the Brisbane River burst its banks many parts of the city of Brisbane were inundated. — 2. — During each two-month period from March to October, rainfall in the north of Thailand was significantly above the relevant two-month long-term average, in some places by as much as 1,000 mm.

— 1. —

— 2. —


157

Catastrophe portraits

In early November, the waters slowly began to recede, starting in the north of the country. In the Chao Phraya valley gradients are shallow, and in some areas the water even had to be pumped away. Not until the end of the year had the water drained off completely. The floods did not affect the Chao Phraya region alone. People battled against the flood waters – often in vain – in 64 of Thailand’s 76 provinces, including the east of the country, on the Khorat Plateau where, however, monetary losses were much lower in the absence of major values. The consequences in humanitarian terms were nonetheless at least as bad there as in central Thailand. Overall losses approximately US$ 40bn The floods were the worst Thailand had experienced in 50 years but the extent of the areas flooded was less shocking than the scale of the overall losses in the US$ 40bn region caused by the flood waters. Over the past 30 years, Thailand has experienced rapid development. With its burgeoning population (1980: 46.5 million; 2010: 68 million) and economic growth, there has been a proliferation of huge new settlements, particularly commercial and industrial parks, with assets valued in the tens of billions. The traffic and supply infrastructures have also been significantly extended, especially in Greater Bangkok. With the economy booming, the flood hazard became a side issue and was generally underestimated. However, the hazard was even increasing, as widespread tracts of land that had previously served as a buffer for flood waters were swallowed up by development.

The large industrial parks were the principal loss drivers. Seven such parks, with 1,000 production halls in which almost half a million people worked, were metre-deep in water. Massive damage was caused to property, production was halted, supplies and deliveries were interrupted, sometimes for weeks on end, ultimately with global repercussions. The worst hit sectors were the electrical, computer and automotive industries, manufacturers of medical equipment and the food industry. Nine Japanese car producers were forced to cease operations, resulting in a production loss of 6,000 cars a day. Global players were among those companies most affected, as supplies from Thailand were disrupted. The closure of a hard drive plant had a worldwide impact. One quarter of all hard disk drives are manufactured in Thailand. The sector was hit by shortages and prices rose. Away from the industrial parks too, many factories were affected; estimates ranged from 10,000 to 15,000 businesses in 20 provinces. At least 900 of the 2,150 factories in the region of Ayutthaya alone were affected. Some 300,000 people are likely to have lost their jobs permanently and a further 700,000 to have been temporarily unemployed. Hundreds of thousands of homes were flooded as well as utility companies, supply lines, schools and universities, including the renowned Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) and Thammasat University – one of the main evacuation centres, which

itself then had to be evacuated. Several hospitals were also cleared. Roads and railway lines were rendered impassable by the floods, and additionally many bridges and flyovers were blocked by vehicles parked there by their owners to save them from being damaged. The damage to roads and motorways was in the order of half a billion US dollars. However, things could have been far worse in Bangkok: two of its main transport systems, the Skytrain and the underground, were left virtually unscathed. The international airport was also operating more or less normally, while the airport used for domestic flights was completely inundated and had to close. Nevertheless, Bangkok had to contend with substantial traffic problems, with flood waters at least 80 cm deep in more than 30 districts, home to some 800,000 people. Throughout the period of flooding from July to November, over 13 million people were affected, two million being forced to leave their homes. Thailand’s agricultural and livestock sectors were also badly hit. A total of 1.6 million hectares of agricultural land (more than 10% of the total) were flooded and destroyed or damaged, including 1.35 million hectares of paddy fields. A quarter of the harvest was lost. Some ten million farm animals were at risk or had to be evacuated and many of them died. According to the Tourism Authority’s estimates, the industry suffered losses of at least US$ 2bn, as some 300,000 guests stayed away. Low insurance density – Heavy losses Never before during an inland flood had such high insured losses been incurred (previous record: United Kingdom in 2007 at US$ 6bn) despite Thailand’s being a country where the insurance density is generally not high. Estimates (as at February 2012) stand at US$ 10bn. Approximately 90% of all insured losses were incurred by industrial business, largely relating to seven industrial parks with assets valued at nearly US$ 20bn that had been completely inundated. Loss ratios were in the 50% range, which is very high for river floods. The floods also resulted in business interruption losses (manufacturing coming to a halt due to flooded production lines) and contingent business interruption losses (caused by disruptions to supply chains and transport links) which are proving very hard to quantify, especially as they affected companies worldwide. Following the Tohoku earthquake in Japan, the floods in Thailand once more demonstrated the problems associated with far-reaching business interruption policies. Four-fifths of the insured industrial losses were incurred by Japanese companies hit by the Tohoku quake which had relocated their production facilities to Thailand.


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— 3. — A number of historic sites, such as this temple to the north of Bangkok, were completely cut off by the waters. — 4. — Many drivers parked their vehicles on flyovers, impeding traffic.

— 3. —

— 4. —


159

Climate change

Climate change is increasing our risk of both heavy rains and extreme droughts. But why is that? Arenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t the two contradictory? Take a look at our new visual guide to how climate change impacts the water cycle. â&#x20AC;&#x201D; The water cycle: Water evaporates from the land and sea and returns to the earth as rain and snow. Climate change is intensifying that cycle. Higher temperatures mean there is more evaporation. Warmer air can hold more water vapor, which can lead to more intense rainstorms. But much of the water runs off into the rivers and streams, and the soil remains dry. More evaporation from the soil increases the risk of drought. This graphic draws a picture of how global warming changes the water cycle, and in turn is changing the weather we see outside. Take a look at this graphic and share it with your friends. Climate change is having an impact on the water cycle, raising the issue of whether we should be investing in adapting to these impacts or focusing on more pressing water resource issues, such as providing water and sanitation for increasing populations? If investment in adapting to climate change is a priority, then is it best to invest in protecting natural ecosystems or developing engineered infrastructure? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; The traditional way of handling extreme events such as floods and droughts, with engineering works should be complemented with the ecosystems approach which integrates the management of land and water that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way.


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— 5. — Higher temperatures mean there is more evaporation from the land and sea into the atmosphere. — 6. — As air gets warmer, it can hold more water vapor. This can lead to more intense rainstorms. — 7. — Intense rainstorms increase the risk of flooding. Much of the water runs off into rivers and streams. — 8. — This, combined with increased temperatures, increases the risk of drought.

— 5. —

— 6. —

— 7. —

— 8. —

— Climate change is an important issue, but it needs to be seen in context of the many other global challenges affecting water resources such as population growth, urbanization and land use change. Adaptation is vital – but we need to adapt to the full range of factors that are stressing water resources, and not focus on human-forced climate change to the exclusion of everything else.


161

Records Disasters

— 9. — Devastating earthquakes and U.S. storms made 2011 the costliest year on record for the insurance industry in terms of natural-disaster losesses, according to Munich Re, one of the world´s largest reinsurance companies.

9.0 magnitude

$210 billion

Earthquake near the east cost of Honshu, Japan in March killed at least 15,703 people, with 4,647 missing. The resulting tsunami caused most of casualties and damage, including those at several nuclear reactors.

Economic losses caused by Japan quake and tsunami

— 9. —

Number of Earthquakes (2011)

COST OF OTHER TOP 2011 DISASTERS Thailand floods and landslides

$40 billion

New Zealand earthquake

$16 billion

U.S. severe storms and tornadoes in April

$ 15 billion

Hurricane Irene in the U.S.

$15 billion

Magnitude

Worldwide

U.S.

8.0 to 9.9

1

0

7.0 to 7.9

19

1

6.0 to 6.9

183

3

5.0 to 5.9

2,239

51

4.0 to 4.9

12,670

338

3.0 to 3.9

2,613

1,719

2.0 to 2.9

3,386

2,732

1.0 to 1.9

39

39

As of Dec. 26, 2011


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Why Greenhouse?

Die Störung des natürlichen Gleichgewichts der Atmosphäre durch Eingriffe in den Naturhaushalt und durch anthropogene Emission von Treibhausgasen verstärkt den natürlichen Treibhauseffekt und führt zur globalen Erwärmung, die ihrerseits mit zahlreichen Folgen verbunden ist. Seit 40 Jahren warnen Wissenschaftler weltweit vor den heute noch unabsehbaren Folgen der globalen Erwärmung. Seit 30 Jahren beobachten wir das Problem der globalen Erwärmung und haben als eine Lösung für den bevorstehenden Chaos das „Greenhouse-Projekt“ ausgearbeitet. Während das Arktis-Eis als Folge der globalen Erwärmung schmilzt, werden auch die Gletscher in den Himalaya-Gebirgen und den Alpen rapide schmelzen, wodurch das Gleichgewicht der Luftdruckunterschiede zwischen Hoch und Tief gestört wird (Zyklon-Antizyklon). Es werden sehr hohe Windgeschwindigkeiten auftreten, die sich zu Taifunen entwickeln werden. Wasserdampfgefüllte Wolken können so ruckartig Ihre Richtung ändern. Die Wasserverdunstung wird mindestens um das 8-fache der vor 20 Jahren gemessenen Werte steigen. In den kommenden 20 Jahren wird es zu einem sehr starken Anstieg der Wasserverdunstung kommen, die zu heftigen Regenfällen führen werden. (2010) Riesige Regenwolken werden entstehen, die ganz Deutschland und seine Nachbarstaaten bedecken werden. Es wird zu wochenlangen Niederschlägen kommen. Auch in anderen Regionen der Welt wird es zu Flutkatastophen kommen Die direkte Folge der Katastrophen werden Hungersnöte sein, da sowohl Vorräte als auch Saatgut vernichtet werden und zudem der Boden jahrelang verringerte Erträge bringen und als Weide kaum zu gebrauchen sein wird. Brot wird 10 US$ kosten. Millionen hungernde Menschen werden auf die Straßen gehen und ein großes Chaos verursachen. Die weltweite Wirtschaftskrise wird andauern. Der Negativ-Trend wird sich fortsetzen. Der wirtschaftliche Aufschwung der vorangegangenen Jahre wird es nicht mehr geben. Der Lebensstandard breiter Bevölkerungsschichten wird sinken. Die Welt wird Chaos und Zerstörung in einem bislang nie dagewesenen Ausmaß erleben. Für die bevorstehenden Chaoszeiten müssen geeignete Maßnahmen getroffen werden. Unsere Firma hat für diese Zeiten gezielte Maßnahmen entwickelt, die die Intensität und die Wucht dieser Tage etwas mildern werden. Eines unserer Projekte ist das „Greenhouse-Projekt“, welches das Ziel hat, Großgewächshäuser für Gemüseanbau zu errichten und Viehzucht zu betreiben. Die Besonderheit unserer Gewächshäuser liegt in der robusten Bauweise. Sie können Windgeschwindigkeiten bis zu 180 km/h und starken Sturmfluten bis 2 Meter Höhe, sowie faustgroßen Hageln standhalten. Aufgrund von extrem temperaturbeständigen Materialien und Nano-Technologie, können wir unabhängig von Aussentemperaturen (-30 bis +60 Grad Celsius) zu jeder Jahreszeit Gemüse produzieren. Das Projekt schafft Arbeitsplätze und reduziert innerhalb von 5 Jahren die Lebensmittelabhängigkeit des jeweiligen Projektlandes auf ein Minimum. Die Lebensmittelproduktion (Gemüse- und Fleisch) wird für die bevorstehende Hungersnot eine einfache, schnelle und bedeut-

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same Lösung sein. Außerdem wird sie in den kommenden 10 Jahren die Fleischeinfuhr verringern und zu einem signifikaten Anstieg des Fleischausfuhrs beitragen, was zusätzlich wertvolle Devisen ins Land bringen wird. Die hergestellten Produkte (frisches und trockenes Gemüse, Wurst, Schinken etc.) werden wir sowohl im Inland als auch im Ausland vermarkten. Unser Ziel ist es, neben dem Anbau von Gemüse, auch ein über alle Produktionsstufen integrierter Fleischvermarkter zu sein. Außerdem werden wir in unseren eigenen Lebensmittelfabriken Fertiggerichte herstellen, mit denen wir Militärkantinen, Behörden, Banken, Schulen und andere Einrichtungen beliefern werden. Angepasst an die lokalen Essensgewohnheiten, werden unsere Fertiggerichte auch in den Supermärkten angeboten. Selbstverständlich werden Fertiggerichte 3-4 Jahre brauchen, um sich im Markt zu etablieren. Da die gesamte Wertschöpfungskette in unserer Hand liegt, können wir Lebensmittel und Fertiggerichte sehr günstig anbieten, welches sich als Kaufargument durchsetzen wird. Im Jahre 2030 werden die durchschnittlichen Temperaturen höher liegen. Es werden viel mehr Flut- und Umweltkatastrophen vorkommen, welches viele Menschen- und Tierleben kosten wird. Regierungen werden große Schwierigkeiten haben die Probleme zu bewältigen. Wenn wir heute schon mit dem Greenhouse-Projekt anfangen, können die Länder Ihren eigenen Bedarf an Bio-Gemüse und Fleisch decken und auch Exporteinnahmen erzielen. Außerdem wird es Arbeitsplätze schaffen. Deshalb ist das „Greenhouse-Projekt“ ein lebenswichtiges Projekt für die Zukunft! Da SEN Group die Finanzierung beschaffen wird und das Projekt finanziell selbsttragend ist, wird es dem Staat keine Lasten verursachen. Die Regierung wird günstige Grundstücke zur Pacht zuteilen und die Bau- und Betriebsgenehmigungen für die geplanten Gewächshäuser, Tierställe, Fleischwaren- und Fertiggerichtfabrik sowie den Supermärkten erteilen. Ohne diese staatliche Hilfestellungen ist das Greenhouse-Projekt nicht realisierbar. Die Förderung des Staates liegt in der Zuweisung des Grundstücke


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sengreenhouse® — Our Concept

EAT GOOD. EAT CHEAP.

senfood

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— 1. — 24/7 production of food — helping to feed the world — 2. — Low-cost production of food — helping to feed the world affordable — 3. — Job creation — Acting for the long-term — 4. — Export of food — independence in the food sector — 5. — Employee homes & small cars per employee family — higher standart of living — 6. — Economic and social development — Prosperity and Peace


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sengreenhouse® concept

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— By the year 2050, nearly 80% of the earth‘s population will reside in urban centers. Applying the most conservative estimates to current demographic trends, the human population will increase by about 3 billion people during the interim. An estimated 109 hectares of new land (about 20% more land than is represented by the country of Brazil) will be needed to grow enough food to feed them, if traditional farming practices continue as they are practiced today. At present, throughout the world, over 80% of the land that is suitable for raising crops is in use (sources: FAO and NASA). Historically, some 15% of that has been laid waste by poor management practices. What can be done to avoid this impending disaster?


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sengreenhouse® — Our Concept

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A SEN Group Company

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—a.— Vegetables — Dry vegetables Tomatoes, Cucumbers, eggplant, squash, melons, carrots, lettuce, and peppers.

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—b.— Animal breeding

—c.— Frozen dinner

—d.— Marketing

Sustainable Farm Animal Breeding and Reproduction

A TV dinner usually consists of a cut of meat, usually beef or chicken, with a vegetable, such as peas, corn or a potato. The entrée could also be pasta or a common type of fish, such as Atlantic cod. Rice is a common side item.

Marketing the goods in our own and all key supermarkets and shopping outlets

Animal breeding and reproduction are at the top of the animal production pyramid and hence define the quality of all animals used in agriculture.

(Cash & Carry).


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— 1. — 24/7 production of food — helping to feed the world — 2. — Low-cost production of food — helping to feed the world affordable — Reducing Living Costs — 3. — Job creation, Employee homes & small cars per employee family— Acting for the long-term —3.1— Loan agreement with employees — 4. — Export of food — independence in the food sector — 5. — Economic and social development — Prosperity and Peace

Low cost food production — Reducing Living Costs

senfood

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500

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Prosperity and Peace

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YESTERDAY TODAY TOMORROW

Governments are good at investing in public bads sengreenhouse´ new report: Growing a Better Future describes a new age of growing crisis: food price spikes and oil price hikes, devastating weather events, financial meltdowns, and global contagion. Behind each of these, slow-burn crises smoulder: creeping and insidious climate change, growing inequality, chronic hunger and vulnerability, the erosion of our natural resources. Based on the experience and research of sengreenhouse® staff and partners around the world and, Growing a Better Future shows how the food system is at once a driver of this fragility and highly vulnerable to it, and why in the twenty-first century it leaves 925 million people hungry. The report presents new research forecasting price rises for staple grains in the range of 120–180 per cent within the next two decades, as resource pressures mount and climate change takes hold. WE support a new campaign with a simple message: another future is possible, and we can build it together.


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Sustainable agriculture

Sustainable lettuce cultivation The cultivation methods of Deliscious provide for lettuce of a consistently high quality. Moreover, we continually strive to achieve the most sustainable production methods possible. This means: producing plants that are less vulnerable to diseases and plagues, as well as finding economical ways of handling energy and water.

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it again. This way we hardly waste any water. All the water used comes from rainwater, collected in large water tanks during downpours. Sustainable agriculture is the practice of farming using principles of ecology, the study of relationships between organisms and their environment. It has been defined as „an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a sitespecific application that will last over the long term:

Less vulnerable lettuce Because the lettuce is cultivated in gutters and not in the ground, the plants are less vulnerable to diseases and plagues. Therefore, the use of pest management resources can also be limited. Furthermore, the harvest is inspected by an independent agency (TNO) on a monthly basis. Deliscious considers it important that its root-ball lettuce satisfies the highest environmental requirements. Saving energy Deliscious limits its energy consumption as much as possible. Naturally, lettuce plants need warmth to grow. We can provide our lettuce plants with the ideal temperature, because they grow at a height of one meter above the ground. As a result, we can save a considerable amount of energy. Moreover, we employ a system that keeps the greenhouses as full as possible. The distance between the gutters is adjusted according to the growth stage of the plants. Eventually this system requires less energy per head of lettuce. In addition, we store away the excess heat that arises in the climate chamber in the ground, in order to use it again for heating the greenhouses if necessary. Saving water Water usage is also limited as much as possible. We nourish our lettuce plants with water through the gutters, which form a closed system together. After the water is used, it is directed to a purification installation. After the water is purified, we use

• Satisfy human food and fiber needs • Enhance environmental quality and the natural resource base upon which the agricultural economy depends • Make the most efficient use of non-renewable resources and on-farm resources and integrate, where appropriate, natural biological cycles and controls • Sustain the economic viability of farm operations • Enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole.


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More than just a project sengreenhouse® one of the leading companies of the world

sengreenhouse® is the specialist in the field of hi-tech horticulture. We develop horticultural projects from a to z. That is, we design, manufacture, and install the greenhouses as well as the electrical, screening, heating, irrigation, and computer installations. Our strength is that we develop and produce all projects in our own facilities. sengreenhouse® projects are therefore fully integrated, and hence, giving more and faster productions of the highest quality. Furthermore our specialization is not limited to one area, but in all areas of the horticultural field like vegetables, pot plants and flowers. As a result we are now one of the leading companies in the world. sengreenhouse® Projects provides you with more than just a project. You an count on reliable advice, excellent service and the renowned product guarantee. We think along with you and your company: not just in the early stage during the initial period leading up to the construction, but also after the actual construction work has been completed. Moreover everybody at sengreenhouse® - from the CEO to the person on the work floor - is always open to your ideas and requests in order to come up with the best possible solution. — That’s partnership. —


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sengreenhouse® Leading in the field of hi-tech horticulture

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— a. —Horizontal screens b. —Darkening c. —Facade screens d. —Roof rolling screens — e. —External screens — f. — Decorative screens — g. — Insect gauze — h. —Air mechanism — i. — Special products — j. —Service and maintenance

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More than just a project sengreenhouseÂŽ one of the leading companies of the world

As a developer and builder we closely follow the latest technological developments. And in a number of cases we have contributed to the greenhouse as it is in its present form. We are in the front line of new insights. Design, engineering and manufacturing is all done in-house. Moreover, we can also react flexibly to differing demands placed on projects. The efficiency in the process will not be affected at any point: the modular construction of a greenhouse allows us to work with high cost efficiency. At all stages of a project we focus on dealing with things better and even more efficiently. â&#x20AC;&#x201D; The right greenhouse for each and every project


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sengreenhouse® Leading in the field of hi-tech horticulture

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sengreenhouse® has a wealth of experience with a wide diversity of types of greenhouse, built under very different conditions. Knowledge of local guidelines – all over the world – is partnered with expertise in dealing with different climatic conditions. Innovation is our second nature. Not only in our own specialism, but also, for example, in the application of geothermal energy as an alternative energy source. We forge enduring relationships with our customers through our approach to work. A strikingly high number of governments build successive projects wants to use our concept. That is a fact to be justifiably proud of. And to take into account in our daily actions: every day we engage in a process of optimising the products, installations and processes that result in the ideal project.


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Getting the maximum return on your investment is always a matter of control. — One need to be in control of the environmental conditions to get constant high quality and the highest possible yield of production. A greenhouse provides this control. It gives the means of such growing environment without any concern of climate or even seasonal conditions. Besides, it makes possible to predict the crop quantity enabling the grower to assess required personnel and raw materials. Better for our environment Moreover, anyone who commands the — Growing — in a greenhouse conserves our precious environment. Compared with conventional agriculture this production process uses far less water, agricultural land and fertilizers. In addition, excess water and fertilizers can be collected and recycled. So fewer fungicides and pesticides are needed. It may be clear that growing in a closed environment is both a sustainable and economical sound production method.

— 1. —


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ENERGY Technology Agriculture sengreenhouse® concept

sengreenhouse® Leading in the field of hi-tech horticulture

— 1. — The highest production of the best quality under ideal environment conditions

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TOP Quality for the best performance State-of-the-art equipment carefully checks and controls the entire process

For a successful horticultural project with the maximum production of the highest quality you need the best systems made today. Dalsem has an excellent reputation in system design and manufacturing. In the matter of heating for example we are the only company in the world that designs and manufactures heating and steam sterilizing boilers ourselves. All of our greenhouse systems are fully integrated in the overall design. This guarantees maximum efficiency and lower (energy) costs.

Drop by drop Water is valuable. Our irrigation systems are especially designed to make sure that all water is optimally distributed and can be reused. State-of-the-art equipment carefully checks and controls the entire process and assures that every plant gets the exact amount of water and fertilizers it needs.


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sengreenhouse® Leading in the field of hi-tech horticulture

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— 2. — 24/7 Services — Your project needs to run smoothly at all times. In case something unexpectedly happens our technicians are ready for you. That’s service 24 hours seven days a week.

Integrated design guarantees maximum efficiency and lower energy costs. The needed temperature at the lowest costs A heating system must run economically and provide a uniform temperature to ensure optimum growth. Our fully integrated heating systems take care of an even distribution of temperature across the entire surface of the greenhouse. Of course the heating system need to be adjusted to the local conditions. In some places it maybe necessary to choose for tubular heating while in other places hot air heating will be sufficient. sengreenhouse® has all the experience in making the right choices. Computerization In a greenhouse the climatical conditions are regulated and fine-tuned by computers. In addition sengreenhouse® also designs and integrates the equipment that is necessary for efficient operation. This involves a wide range of electronic systems, ranging from electronic equipment that simplifies the harvesting and transportation of the products, to systems that record the growth process.

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Exceeding all quality norms and regulations All our systems are fully customized to get the highest yield and the best quality

Nowadays all over the world the construction and operation of horticultural projects are subject to increasingly strict norms and environmental requirements. Of course sengreenhouse® Horticultural Projects takes these local requirements into account and only develops projects that fully comply with these standards. However, sengreenhouse® is going further. By developing more innovations we can even meet the environmental standards of tomorrow. Today’s regulations, for example, is that water and fertilizers cannot simply be discharged, but have to be reused. Because other countries will start to follow these regulations soon, sengreenhouse® develops irrigation and heating systems which not only meet the strictest of quality standards, but in this respect also takes the projected future developments into account. Innovating is herein the key factor.


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sengreenhouse速 Leading in the field of hi-tech horticulture

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Innovating in co-generation and natural heat resources We are one of the few pioneers that use waste and geothermal heat as the source of energy for the heating installations of greenhouses sengreenhouse速 has developed several projects that make optimum use of power station generated waste heat and geothermal energy for their greenhouse heating. The result: a huge reduction in energy costs and less harm to the environment. The knowledge and practical experience acquired with these projects are used in similar projects elsewhere in the world.


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— 3. —

sengreenhouse® goes one step further in the design and construction of greenhouses. We build various types of greenhouses such as the world famous Venlo greenhouse, and the innovative polyethylene foil greenhouses. They will be perfectly adjusted to the local climate circumstances. The greenhouses are built of top-quality galvanized steel and have an aluminium superstructure. The covering can be made of glass or polyethylene. Our greenhouses can be perfectly adjusted to the local climatological conditions.

sengreenhouse® innovations — The sengreenhouse® Poly Greenhouse With the latest poly greenhouse sengreenhouse® revolutionized both the construction and the growing methods in Poly greenhouses. The installation process is easy and fast, while the structure design endures both the heaviest crop loads as well as wind and possible snow loads. The substructure is multifunctional and suitable for screening, insect netting, technical installations and suspension of cultivation systems. The sengreenhouse® Poly greenhouse integrates all systems in a complete horticultural project.


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sengreenhouse® Leading in the field of hi-tech horticulture

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— 3.— The Venlo greenhouse — Made of top-quality galvanized steel, with an aluminium superstructure and covering of glass. Available in any size or variation. sengreenhouse® Poly Greenhouse — revolution in greenhouses Easy and fast construction with a polyethylene covering, based on the multifunctional Venlosubstructure that endures both the heaviest crop loads as well as wind and possible snow loads. Moreover our state of the art poly greenhouses require less maintenance then conventional poly greenhouses. The Design, new generation greenhouse design Based on the advanced steel gutter, one of our innovations, the design offers less light interception and less condensation.

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sengreenhouse® Horticultural Projects takes all the work of developing a successful project out of your hands. From the initial R & D to the manufacturing and logistics of all parts until the installation and complete project management locally. Every link is under our supervision and only one company is accountable for the whole process. This will not only makes it easier for you, but also guarantees low costs and the best results of an integrated horticultural project.

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Design

sengreenhouse® experts using their experience and knowledge in working out the best solutions. • Development • Research • Design

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Manufacturing

Genuine craftsmansehips woirkgingn on the construction of all needed parts. Manufacturing and assembly, all is done in-house. • Manufacturing • Assembly • Craftsmanship

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Logistic

All materials and necessary paperwork are sent from our facilities. This guarantees quick and accurate deliveries being an important strength of sengreenhouse®. • Packing • stowage • shipping


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sengreenhouse® Leading in the field of hi-tech horticulture

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Project Schedule The development of a horticultural project from a to z

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Installation

Under sengreenhouse® supervision local employees work on-site on the assembly and installation of the horticultural project. Finally the project management starts. • Assem bly • Installation • Project management

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After Sales

Our service on which you can count 24 hours, seven days a week, worldwide!


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sengreenhouse® Leading in the field of hi-tech horticulture

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• All production facilities and product knowledge have found a place in-house. • Reliable advice, excellent service and a renowned product guarantee come standard. • Integrated project design for maximum efficiency and lower energy costs. • All our projects are developed with the sole purpose of maximum yield of the highest quality.


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Exceeding all quality norms and regulations A complete project in the hands of one company saves a lot of time and money

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Focuse on environmentally friendly hi-tech horticulture.


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sengreenhouse® Leading in the field of hi-tech horticulture

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— All the activities of the sengreenhouse® group are focused on environmentally friendly hi-tech horticulture. A project in which quality, efficiency and high production (yield) are the key results. The groups philosophy is reflected in all our related companies: controlling all facets of a project in to every detail, keeping all critical items in-house and design an optimal project which will result in cost efficient projects with the highest possible quality production.

sengreenhouse® MUSHROOM —

Another subsidiary of the sengreenhouse® is sengreenhouse® Mushroom. This company is specialized in the design and construction of complete mushroom producing farms. To deliver a complete package sengreenhouse® Mushroom designs and constructs the technical installations, the comport processing equipment, the computer controls and the entire equipment housing. In many cases sengreenhouse® Mushroom also provides cultivation management.


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The poetry of the earth is never dead. ~John Keats


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sengreenhouse速 Leading in the field of hi-tech horticulture

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SENKON

—Innovative building system —

— 3. — Job creation, Employee homes & small cars per employee family

SENKON

Reinventing urban housing.


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—innovative prefabrication principle —

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Agriculture sengreenhouse® concept SENKON™ employee houses concept

Feel free to concentrate on the important things!

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SENKON

—innovative prefabrication principle —

#1 [ABOUT SENKON™] — innovative building technologies —SENKÔN™ implies its technology to create Eco-Friendly low energy luxury houses, Commercial building, Plush villas. —SENKON™ is an innovative prefabrication principle for modern residential and commercial buildings. Initiating a wave of innovation in construction technology. SENKON™ holds exclusive patent to- SENKON™ steel light weight concrete compound systems technology. OUR SPECIALITIES Our fundamental idea, however, involves setting up a circulation system which develops economically and ecologically meaningful cycles. By integrating further innovative production processes and state-of-the art Building technologies, highly innovative buildings are created while efficiently and economically handling resources and energy. MISSION SENKON™ is committed to Industrial production of customized low-cost, low-energy, ecological buildings all over the world. Through its innovative construction technology SENKON™ makes available low cost houses to common man all over the world. SENKON™ has not restricted itself to low cost housing but has also made an commitment towards mother nature. Implementation of its technology in field of construction is seamless. And SENKON™ is committed to share its patented technology with its collaborative partners for well being of mankind and nature.


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#2 [OUR TECHNOLOGY] — innovative prefabrication process Our innovative prefabrication process consists of integrating the static load bearing system (framing construction method) into the production process of wall, ceiling, and roof elements. In this process custom-built cold rolled iron light section elements are used. By means of our patented process, the bulk densities of our wall construction materials can be adjusted to the different structuralphysical demands. Even bulk densities of 350 kg/m² do not cause static problems! The light structural steel frame is completely filled and enclosed by lightweight concrete. The result is a composite element with a high degree of bearing capacity and fire resistance. Our elements are delivered by default with finished interior surfaces which do not require any additional plastering. If needed, ductwork for electrical lines, air conditioning and other equipment can be preinstalled. Window elements, steel door frames and other components are pre-installed prior to placement of concrete. THE CORE SENKON™ realizes his vision by employing CAD drawing . SENKON™‘s core is software developed on basis of experience and experiments conducted in the construction methodology.


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SENKON

—innovative prefabrication principle —

INVESTMENT Less capital more value

PERFORMANCE efficient and efffective organization MIDDLE EAST focused and synergetic position

SUSTAINABILITY environment friendly and sustainable housing

5 SENKON

COST EFFECTIVE SOLUTION

#3 [OUR PROCESS] — optimizing the value chain Production + Raw materials used in buildings are subject to increasing prices + Especially steel production is energy intensive SENKON™ system uses 15% less steel and concrete per square-meter + Renewable materials such as wood, volcanic or recycling materials (EPS) can be mixed into concrete as insulation

Logistics + Transporting materials to the site + SENKON™ elements 60% lighter, more square-meters per truck + Less trips, fewer contractors + consolidated raw material deliveries give another 10% price advantage

Construction + Conventional: Long-term deployment of oil-fuelled construction machinery + Most works are efficienctly concentrated at the factory + SENKON™ builds quickly, precisely and economically with less equipment, staff & energy + No disturbances by weather conditions + Only 1-2 days per house on site

Operation + Insulation part of the system: passive cooling + Solar energy is collected within the wall + Uses: Heating, Cooling, Electricity + Savings accumulate over building life-span


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—01.—

#4 [STRUCTURE] — Structure of an SENKONHOUSE WALLS/CEILING/ROOF SENKON™ elements may reach a length of 10m compared to 3m in conventional systems. Additionally SENKON™ elements weight about 60% less than conventional walls, which comes as a huge advantage in handling and transporting them. Everything, from the cellar up to the roof, may be constructed with their help. Supply tubes and the heating system are integrated during production. All elements may be combined with conventional constructions. PROFILES All SENKON™ Elements are connected by the profiles of the bordering steel frames. They are specially designed to form groove and tongue concepts and add much to the overall good statics. STEEL FRAME In SENKON™ elements a frame of cold-formed, thin steel substitutes conventional steel mats. These steel frames tent to be lighter than conventional mats, while resisting the same amount of pressure. Because of this technique, it is possible to seperate static and physical properties of the elements. LEIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE The steel frames are filled with leightweight concrete made of water, cement and wood. These ingredients may be varied in proportion to adjust the pysical properties of the resulting concrete to the given needs. The crucial value is the density of the material, which can be varied from 300 to 1800 kg/m3.

—01.—Structure of an SENKON™ house


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—innovative prefabrication principle —

#5 [PREPARING THE BUILDING SITE] — A house in the making

Preparations

Base plate

Transporting the elements

Before installing the base plate, the ground is fi lled with a layer of gravel to drain off water from the foundations.

The base plate has to be concreted locally. Stripe foundations, which usually support basic walls, are not necessary. If a cellar was wished for, it could be either constructed by conventional means or with the help of Imaton elements.

Due to their leightness, one transport can move two to three times as many Imaton elements as conventional elements from the production centre to the building site. Elements are best transportet in supporting frames as shown above. Unloading the whole frame leaves the lorry free to return for more parts at once. Even within the production area and on the building site handling of the elements becomes much easier and faster. Handling and transportation costs are minimized.


MANAGEMENT BOARD

KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

Agriculture sengreenhouse® concept SENKON™ employee houses concept A SENKON-HOUSE in the making

REFERENCES

196

#6 [BUILDING THE HOUSE]

Putting the house together

Topping-out ceremony

Moving in

To erect the house, the walls are detached from the frame with a crane one by one. To install a wall element, it takes the help of the crane and two people. The parts are easily fi tted into the correct position. Supports ensure, that the walls keep upright until the connections are put fi rmly into place. Ceiling, upper stories and the roof are fi tted in much the same way. Apart from the crane, no other machines are needed on the building site. This saves money and space.

Approximatly 100m² living space have been set up in two days. The toppingout ceremony is due. The shell now already contains the heating system and tubes for easy installation of electricity and water.

Until it is time to move in, some work still remains to be done. The Imaton house allows for normal handling in all the remaining aspects as for example fi ne installations. It leaves the owner free to decide on colours, windows, doors and carpets instead of having to control the daily work on the building site.


197

SENKON

—innovative prefabrication principle —

#7 [ADRESSING ECOLOGYCAL ISSUES]

Innovative heating system SENKON™ integrates a highly innovative heating and cooling system within its wallsand roofs. A mesh of pipes either emmitts or absorbes heat, depending on the weather conditions outside. Additionally a constant exchange of fluit within the mesh distributes absorbed heat immediately around the house. Therefore the inside of an Imaton house has always constant temperature. A heat exchanger and heat storage take in surplus energy during the day, so that it can be reinfiltrated into the mesh by night. Heating costs can be minimized to the costs produced by running the pumps.

Airconditioning by radiation

Earthquake safe

SENKON™ provides an airconditioning system. It establishes a healthy living climate even for people, who suffer from allergy.

SENKON™ walls offer fire, sound and corrosions protection but they also resist strong thrusts. Thrusts affect houses during earthquakes or tsunamies and can cause them to collapse eventually. Imaton houses are protected by their groove and tongue connections, which react to the thrusts and drain them off. The Forschungszentrum Jülich is currently doing an expertise on earthquake safety of SENKON™ buildings.

Regenerating raw materials Foam concrete consists of cement, water and wood. While other additives use polluting or fossile materials, wood is a regenerating raw material. Foam concrete can be fully recycled.


MANAGEMENT BOARD

KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

REFERENCES

Agriculture sengreenhouseÂŽ concept SENKONâ&#x201E;˘ employee houses concept A SENKON-HOUSE in the making

#8 [THE PRODUCTION PROCESS]

STEEL FRAMES

SUPPLIES

INSTALLATION

As a first step in the production process,galvanized sheets of steel are formed into the different profi les. This process is energy saving, as the steel does not have to be heated.

Supply tubes for electrical equipment and the cooling mesh for the cooling and heating system are integrated into the steel frame. All of these steps can be realized seperately from the final concreting.

The elements may be either stored or transported directly to a building site. Handling and installing them may be done very precisely and with apparent ease.

JOINTING The profi les are then jointed into light steel body frameworks. A special jointing technique has been established and certified for this step of the production.

CONCRETE Before applying the foam concrete to the framework, it has to be mixed in the predetermined formula. Finally the concrete is distributed and fl attened by machines and left to harden. Window and door openings have already been taken into consideration. The actual windows may also be perinstalled.

198


199

SENKON

—innovative prefabrication principle —

#9 [SURFACES] — A house in the making

5The first wall of a double wall is put into the fresh concrete (second wall).

5Fleece-Structure

5Plaster-Structure

5Exposed Concrete


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KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

REFERENCES

Agriculture sengreenhouse® concept SENKON™ employee houses concept A SENKON-HOUSE in the making

#10 [INSTALLATIONS]

5Cable loops have different sizes and threads to move any kind of ferroconcrete elements.

5Thread-anchor to load massive walls

5Integrated sockets and empty conduits

5View over the production with plotter and rotation construction. The elements are concreted and smoothed before they are sent into the temper chamber.

5Thread-sleeve to load massive ceilings

5Philipp-Rail to connect massive walls

200


201

SENKON

—innovative prefabrication principle —

5 Manufacturing floor slab


MANAGEMENT BOARD

KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

Agriculture sengreenhouse® concept SENKON™ employee houses concept A SENKON-HOUSE in the making

5 Delivery of prefabricated elements

REFERENCES

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203

SENKON

—innovative prefabrication principle —

5Assembly of the prefabricated elements


MANAGEMENT BOARD

KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

Agriculture sengreenhouse® concept SENKON™ employee houses concept A SENKON-HOUSE in the making

5Assisting means

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205

SENKON

—innovative prefabrication principle —

5Three one-family houses are built within a short period of time


MANAGEMENT BOARD

KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

Agriculture sengreenhouse® concept SENKON™ employee houses concept A SENKON-HOUSE in the making

#11 [CONNECTING ELEMENT]

5Connecting Elements

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207

SENKON

—innovative prefabrication principle —

Software von cadwork

53D Construction

5Regenerating the walls

5Automated elementation 5Create lists


MANAGEMENT BOARD

KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

Agriculture sengreenhouse® concept SENKON™ employee houses concept A SENKON-HOUSE in the making

#12 [PROFILE DESIGN]

5Formation of a profile

5Manufacturing a profile

Wall cross section

REFERENCES

208


209

SENKON

—innovative prefabrication principle —

#13 [HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM]

5Wall cross section

6Wall surface with integrated air conditioning system


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KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

Agriculture sengreenhouse® concept SENKON™ employee houses concept A SENKON-HOUSE in the making

#14 [CONNECTION DETAILS]

5connection wall - ceiling

5detail wall - ceiling

5Manufacturing a profile

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211

SENKON

—innovative prefabrication principle —

5design and elementation ceiling

5complete design and elementation to roof


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KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

Agriculture sengreenhouse® concept SENKON™ employee houses concept A SENKON-HOUSE in the making

5ceiling suspension

5Building is completed

REFERENCES

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213

SENKON

—References—

[REFERENCES]


MANAGEMENT BOARD

KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

REFERENCES

Agriculture sengreenhouse® concept SENKON™ employee houses concept A SENKON-HOUSE in the making References

ACTIVITIES CURRENTLY SIGNED —2 major projects

ONGOING NEGOTIATIONS (2.500 m²)

Iran

—1 construction element plant (1.500m²)

India

—1 construction element plant (2.500m²)

Russia

—1 construction element plant—Romania —1 construction element plant—Russia —1 construction element plant—Netherland —1 construction element plant—France —1 construction element plant—India

214


215

SENKON

—References—

Home for elderly protected homes for 180 people Construction year: May 2004    Location: Oberhausen Client: Hans-Dieter Ringelings Construction time:  4 Monate Gross floor area:  5.500 m² Cubature: 18.700 m³  Floors: 5 Size of elements: 1 m² to 22 m² Weight of elements: 0,3 to to 10,5 to m²  Walls: 6.155 m² Ceiling: 4.690 m²


MANAGEMENT BOARD

KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

Agriculture sengreenhouse® concept SENKON™ employee houses concept A SENKON-HOUSE in the making References

REFERENCES

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217

SENKON

—References—

Accor Hotelpark Berlin— 210 Beds Construction year: April 2003 Location: Berlin Client: KapHag Architektur und Baugesellschaft Construction time:  6 Monats Gross floor area:  24.598 m² Cubature: 71.366 m³  Floors: 8 and basement Size of elements: 3 m² t 22 m² Weight of elements:

0,6 t to 8 t m² 


MANAGEMENT BOARD

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Agriculture sengreenhouse® concept SENKON™ employee houses concept A SENKON-HOUSE in the making References

5Accor Hotelpark Berlin

REFERENCES

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219

SENKON

—References—


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Agriculture sengreenhouse® concept SENKON™ employee houses concept A SENKON-HOUSE in the making References

REFERENCES

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221

SENKON

—References—


MANAGEMENT BOARD

KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

Agriculture sengreenhouse® concept SENKON™ employee houses concept A SENKON-HOUSE in the making References

5 SENKON

A SEN Group Technology Testing of the first element prototypes in 1980 by Uni Karlsruhe. 1984 a patent for the newly developed sandwich birding system is applyed for at the Deutschen Patentamt München. EPS concrete is registered offi cially by the Institut für Bautechnik IFBT Berlin in 1986. Since 1986 the system has been checked for fire protection and heat and sound insulation by the Uni Braunschweig and the Fraunhofer Institut, Stuttgart.

SEN Group Waldstr. 24 c D-45661 Recklinghausen email: info@sengroup.eu

REFERENCES

222


223

Selected References


MANAGEMENT BOARD

KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

—REFERENCES—

224


225

Business expansion, project execution — Typical services for the renewable energies and PV market

— Business development

business development — project feasibility studies & reviews — risk assessment — detailed business plan — market analysis — going-to-market — technology assessment — sourcing & purchasing — contracting (technology, equipments, facility, 3rd parties) — funding — investors search & selection technology services — technology adviser for banks/investors — technology and equipment selection — supplier selection — technology transfer — technology process qualification operations architecture — business data, -processes, organizationl design, information technology infrastructure

operations management — project management for implementation — establish organization/staffinh, hiring & training — production ramp-up support — bring up capacity — lead venture to maturity — interim management


MANAGEMENT BOARD

KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

—REFERENCES—

Selected references renewable energies and PV

226

Client

Country

Services

BASF, Ludwigshafen

Germany

Strategy, development of a new manufacturing technology, market study for Si production

Pakistan government

Pakistan

Rural electrification concept based of PV solutions

Concentrix/FhG ISE Freiburg

Germany

GaAs concentrator power plant technology: business development, IPO support, operation architecture

ERG, Ankara

Turkey

Business initiation works, operations architecture, technology services

ERSOL, Erfurt

Germany

SG Silicon production: business modelling, technology services, IPO Support

RWE/Schott Solar, Alzenau

Germany

Solar grade silicon production plant: business development

Undisclosed solar silicon manufacturer (4)

Europa, South America

SG/EG silicon production: market study, product/process roadmap, perspectives

Undisclosed solar cell manufacturer

Germany

GaAs technology for concentrating PV: business development, operations architecture

Undisclosed PV thin film module manufacturer

Business development and contracting, technology services, Spain, Greece operational design, operations management, yield learning (in progress)

Undisclosed PV manufacturer

Germany

Market analysis and business strategy

Undisclosed PV manufacturer

Germany

Due diligence support (M&A situation)

Undisclosed PV equipment manufacturer

Switzerland

Technology road map, business plan validation

Undisclosed Investor corsortium

India

Vertical integration of thin film PV technology: business development, technology services, equipment purchasing, operations architecture, operations management

EPC, London

Great Britain

Photovoltaic electricity proposition for a country in Western Asia (in progress)

Undisclosed Investor group

Germany

Due dilligence for a Biomass thermal power plant

Bank of Piraeus

Greece

Technical advisor for renewable energy investments

Skysails

Germany

Market analysis, business strategy & plan, start-up support

Undisclosed

Germany, Turkey

Business plan and project finance for a new technology of a thermal power plant

Undisclosed PV wafer manufacturer

Turkey

Business plan validation

Brazil

Technology park site assessment, reference project evaluation (in progress)

King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)

Saudi Arabia

Solar Lab: technologies (organic & inorganic materials), toolset & layout definition; tool recommendation, purchasing preparation, hook-up, training; general coordination for tool activities

Undisclosed Business Development Group

Italy, Germany, Spain

Several solar farm projects: technology evaluation, planning, permitting, sourcing, EPC identification

Federal State governments (2)

© SEN Group 2012 All rights reserved *not to be duplicated in any form without permission -


227

Selected references: Renewable energies / PV

— b. —

— 1.— BASF

— a. —

Ludwigshafen, Germany

corporate business strategy for the electronic industry development of a new manufacturing technology — process, equipment and materials for a segment in the electronic industry

market study silicon production (solar-/electronic grade) — growth, investments — prices, costs, competiveness — critical success factors — players, competition

technologies/products — process roadmaps and perspectives — emerging processes, their capabilities, risks and opportunities — patents — product roadmaps and perspectives

— 2.— Solar,

Pakistan

business development/concept for rural electrification — maket analysis — technology requirements — business plan — realization & financing approach — economical perspective — industry affordability — investors perspective — patents — project feasibility

— a. — Renewable energy concept based on photovoltaic — b. — Solar Photovoltaic Fabrication


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—REFERENCES—

228

— 3.— Fraunhofer Institut Solare Energiesysteme

Freiburg, Germany

GaAs concentrator power plant technology — project feasibility — market analysis — technology requirements — site selection — business plan operations architecture — business plan — data, process, org., systems structure design & implementation — hiring training

— 4.— ERG,

Ankara, Turkey

business initiation — market analysis — project feasibility — business plan — technology requirements — site selection — competiveness — strategic positioning — cooperation partners — funding technology services — technology selection — patent licence & technology licensing negotiations & agreements — equipment definition operations architecture — business data, — processes, organizational design, — information technology — infrastructure


229

Selected references: Renewable energies / PV

Solar grade silicon production plant

— 5.— ERSOL BOSCH Erfurt, Germany Bosch (former ErSol), (Photovoltaic)

Solar grade silicon production plant assessment. — market analysis — technology / site selection — business plan / business modeling & risk assessment — project feasibility — investor’s perspective IPO services technology services — technology selection — patent licence & technology licensing agreements — equipment purchasing & installation — technology transfer & qualification

— 5.— RWE SCHOTT Solar

Alzenau, Germany

new production foundry — maket feasibility — project feasibility — site selection — business plan/business modelling & risk assessment — investors perspective solar business development — special projects/solution — solutions marketing — market development — going-to-market/sales channels


MANAGEMENT BOARD

KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

—REFERENCES—

Other solar activities Europe, Germany

230

— unnamed clients — Undisclosed photovoltaic manufacturer business strategy — market analysis — strategic expansion of technology and product portfolio — site selection — business plan Undisclosed photovoltaic manufacturer operational management — financial manager for due dilligence support in an M&A situation Undisclosed photovoltaic equipment manufacturer technology roadmap/business strategy — technology evaluation — business plan validation —, India Undisclosed photovoltaic mass production business development — project feasibility — market analysis — technology requirements — sourcing — contracting (technology, equipment) technology services — technology evaluation — equipment supplier selection operations architecture — business plan — organizational design — IT architecture

Solar Photovoltaic Fabrication


231

Selected references: Renewable energies / PV

Solar Photovoltaic Fabrication

GENESIS ENERGY Investment Plc. — Spain, Hungary, Singapore

business development — market analysis / project feasibility — technology selection — facility / utilities, materials sourcing / contracting — business planning — funding / investors search & selection — operations design / organization, business processes, — roles & responsibilities, staffing — dynamic manufacturing line capacity simulation / — optimize operations technology services — technology access — equipment purchasing & installation — technology transfer — technology process qualification operations architecture — business plan — business data, -processes, organizational design, information technology infrastructure operations management — establish venture on the market — yield learning — lead venture to maturity — establish organization/staffing, hiring & training — bring up capacity


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KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

Building construction & Civil Engineering

— c.

—REFERENCES—

232

Reinforced Concrete Gas Storage Tanks, Abu Dhabi, U.A.E. — d. — „Dancing House“ Bank Building in

Prague, Czech. Rep. — e. — Combined Head and Power Generation Plant, Cottbus, Germany

— EFFICIENCY IN EVERY PHASE SEN Group´s Building Construction and Civil Engineering Division not only builds residential and commercial buildings, but also is active in the construction of power generation plants, industrial facilities, bridges and hydraulic systems.

CUSTOM SOLUTIONS SEN Group sets up a suitable team of experts for each task on every project: — Costing — Work preparation — Construction development optimization — Purchasing — Construction management — Quality assurance

— d. —

— e. —

— c. —


233

Building construction & Civil Engineering

— f. — — g. —

Synthesis of Functionality and Aesthetics — Alongside conceptual and technical abilities, our Building Construction and Engineering Division must also satisfy high aesthetic requirements, particularly in the development of residential and commercial buildings. Both the developer and the construction companies assume the responsibility to achieve this important facet of construction. Our Primary Mission: Client Satisfaction Our primary mission is to meet or exceed the requirements of our clients by responding to their wishes through close cooperation, achieving cost-efficiency in all project phases, completing the work on time and delivering comprehensive coordination service. The Most Important Assets of the SEN Group Building Construction and Civil Engineering Division — cost-effective construction that fulfils environmental requirements — know-how and a high degree of innovation — strict adherence to cost and time conditions — state-of-the-art construction services — guarantee of quality for all work carried out — highly qualified teamwork


MANAGEMENT BOARD

KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

—REFERENCES—

Building construction & Civil Engineering

— f.

234

GRANDSTANDS, HOCKENHEIM, GERMANY — g. — Railway Overpass, Schifferstadt, Germany

— h. — Riad East-Sub, Saudi Arabia

— h. — Orientation Towards the Client as the Key to Success Our responsibility as turnkey general contractor is to ensure cost stability, timely completion, quality and smooth coordination of the work from pre-planning until handover. Your Satisfaction is Asssured Satisfied clients are our most important asset and our clients can depend on gaining: a knowledgeable partner who will be available throughout the project a team specially assembled for the client’s project, that will work effectively and cleanly the advantages of our state-of-the-art machinery to optimize the work materially and financially.

Residential Buildings - The Desire for Security Creating a modern residential and living area is something we regard as an essential part of our social responsibility as a construction firm and we transform this demand into an economic and environmental reality.

Public Facilities Aesthetics and Style SEN Group constructs such turnkey public facilities as: — Office buildings and commercial centres — Shopping centres — Administrative buildings — Above-ground and underground garages

Industrial Facilities — Planning for the Future Take the future development of your firm into consideration when planning your turnkey industrial facility. By applying a flexible framework, production and use changes can be implemented easily. — SEN Group builds production and storage facilities, complete with office and administra tive buildings. — Economic efficiency plays a decisive role in all our projects from a small warehouse to a large production facility.


235

Pre-Engineered & industrial facility construction services

— i. —

Creating solutions together! SEN Group considers your requirements throughout the project life cycle, from conception to design development to construction. Together with you, we analyse your concept of use, your plans and your requirements to produce practical and economical solutions for the immediate and long-term use of the facility. Our pre-engineered building systems in concrete or steel are produced at our own factory. This results in lower costs and, above all, ensures a consistently high standard of quality. Having the complete process of prefabricated construction in the hands of one contractor has further advantages for you: — A fixed schedule for all phases of construction — More rapid construction — Earlier occupancy of facility Economical Solutions

Pre-engineered and industrial facility construction” at SEN Group comprises the following areas of application: — Shopping centres with customer-friendly, attractive interiors and exteriors — Production buildings and warehouses with bright, open wor king environments — Administrative buildings, office and business premises with well-lit staircases and bright working areas set up according to ergonomic principles — Garages in reinforced concrete or steel, transparent – optically light — Logistics centres for the efficient handling and storage of the most varied types of goods — Freezer warehouses and production premises for the proces sing of foodstuffs according to EU norms SEN Group Pre-Engineered and Industrial Facility Construction Services is an — established specialty firm with decades of experience — designs and builds your project with the flexibility you expect — produces prefabricated components of the best quality — offers a multitude of possibilities for economical and high quality buildings — employs state-of-the-art technology to design and build your project — works closely together with you at every stage of the project — ensures that the schedule is met

— i. — Car Center, Germany


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KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

—REFERENCES—

Precast concrete element production

236

Convincing Solutions Using Precast Elements Nearly all construction problems in building and industrial construction can be surmounted extremely well using prefabricated individual elements and segments. The systems have been technically perfected and are particularly attractive in terms of price and performance – your construction budget will be noticeably relieved.

— j. —

SEN Group pre-engineered construction services can point to a number of reference construction projects underlining a further aspect: reinforced and prestressed, precast concrete component construction is quite comparable to „classically“ constructed buildings and offers the same variety of forms and architectural aesthetics. We produce nearly every kind of construction element for building construction, civil engineering and industrial facility construction. With such a broad spectrum of services together with our strong reputation in this sector, we are able to offer tailor-made solu-tions for every application. Efficient, Fast, Economical Our system components are produced in enclosed buildings, allowing us to remain unaffected by either the seasons or the weather. Our highly-motivated staff ensures a consistently high level of finishing quality that is continuously checked and monitored. THE ADVANTAGES SPEAK FOR THEMSELVES There are many good reasons to employ modular construction techniques using prefabricated components. Here are the most important: — Fixed schedules for all phases of construction — Short construction times – more favourable financing and quicker use of the premises — Assured and consistent quality of the components at a fixed price — Assured high-quality materials – the profile of the construction components can thus be dimensioned in as economical a way as possible — All technical and physical requirements for construc tion are met, such as fire and noise protection and insulation — Quality control and monitoring at the place of produc tion in accordance with DIN ISO 9001

— k. —

— j. — Office Centre, Germany—— k. — Precast concrete element production


237

Civil engineering and construction

Extensive Experience Pays Off The demands of civil engineering continue to increase. Safety requirements, economics, environmental protection and tight deadlines for construction are just some of the challenges facing construction companies today.

— Gas supply — Centralized heating supply — Cable-laying — Earth-moving and road-construction — Landfill construction

Expertise in Construction SEN Group and his partners can call upon many years’ experience in civil engineering work, the best requisite for meeting today’s challenges. Technical know-how, operations scheduling, estimating, project management, modern equipment and quality assurance – at every phase of work you can ex-pect professional performance and economical results.

Sewage, gas, water, district heating, cable laying, earth-moving and road building projects form the basis of modern life, and the long-term performance of these structures is particularly important for that reason.

Qualified Teams and Specialized Equipment

SEN Group fulfils this obligation. You can trust that SEN Group and his partners will

In subsurface construction, the various work flows must mesh and function like gears. SEN Group employs highly qualified teams for the most demanding of jobs, and pos-sesses the latest specialized equipment needed to carry out the most complex of projects.

— continually apply the latest construction technology and methods — uphold high standards of quality, often higher than the industry — have a strong service-oriented way of thinking

Taking On Challenges All work in the area of public utility infrastructure construction is subject to the strictest internal monitoring and by independent parties. Our numerous certifications demonstrate our commitment to high standards of quality con-struction work: — DIN EN ISO 9001 — RAL Seal of Quality for Drainage Piping — DVGW Certifications Systematic Know-How in All Types of Services The range of services performed by SEN Group covers all aspects of public utility and sanitation infrastructure. With our systematic know-how, we apply the same dedication to the construction of the gas supply for a new housing estate as we would a large earth-moving project.

— Sewage pipe laying and sewage plants — Pipe ramming — Microtunneling — Municipal tunnel construction — Steel sheetpiling and shoring work — Dewatering — Sewage pumping stations and retention basins — Sewage line rehabilitation — Water line installation


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—REFERENCES—

238

Holistic Project Management An internationally competitive company is only as successful as its service to clients worldwide. SEN Group offers you comprehensive service and takes a holistic approach to project management: — Project development - from conception to finished construction — Quality technology - from research to the development of new materials and technologies — Intensive use of information technology - from CAD to Internetbased project control — Mechanical engineering

Civil Engineering / Public Utility Infrastructure Construction with SEN Group — is characterized by quality, safety and environmental protection — utilizes synergies for the best possible financial result — employs highly qualified teams of specialists to work for you — guarantees the quality and function of all work — combines economy and ecology in a harmonious unit — ensures cost and schedule stability — uses the best material and latest technologies — works closely with you and is accessible at any time


239

Project Development & Real Estate Services

Experience, Innovation … Real estate ownership is a natural part of investment strategy for experienced investors. Over time, real estate has demonstrated itself to be a stable investment. This is true both for investors in small residential developments as well as in large, specialized properties. The tenants for hotels, supermarkets and retirement homes are typically professional, solvent organizations and institutions that are able to enter long-term tenant agreements. As the developer of such large projects, SEN Group orients the conceptualization to embrace the end user’s requirements. Our years of experience in building construction form the foundation for long-term value creation that in turn contributes to the financial success of the investors. …Value Creation SEN Group works closely together with the end user to obtain the best locations and design. Market research and location analysis, transport con-nections and infrastructure, future development forecasts, etc. – with these fundamental considerations, the project development specialists at SEN Group deliver the necessary basic data well before the start of construction. Construction quality does not just refer to the exact execution of building, but also to architecture that is harmoniously integrated with its surround-ings and presents the best possible workspace and utilization concepts. Increased safety, more comfort, better living – we meet these demands with the entire fixtures for heating, sanitation, air conditioning and electrical fittings, through the design of baths and ceilings, room lighting and much more.

SEN Group develops projects for the needs of its clients and ...

— ensures high value stability and a high yield for real estate investments — unites functionality and aesthetics in a harmonious whole — combines creativity in design with a high technical standard of quality — builds economically while meeting demanding environmental requirements — integrates a highly qualified, specially chosen team for each project — cooperates closely with the client and tenants at every stage of development — offers financial and leasing services


MANAGEMENT BOARD

KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

—REFERENCES—

Bucharest Business Park

240

START OF WORK 07.2005 COMPLETION

07.2006

RANGE Administration and Commercial Buildings BUILDER

BBP Leasing s.r.l., Bucharest, Romania

CONCEPT

Chapman Taylor International Services s.r.o., Architects, Masterplanners,

Designers, Prague, Czech Republic ARCHITECT

WGA West Group Architecture, Bucharest, Romania

CONSULTANT Gardiner , International Project and Cost Management, Buchar-est, COUNTRY

Romania

CITY Bucharest — „Design & Build“ contract for an A-Class office building, overlapping pile wall, monolithic cast-in-situ structure, aluminium curtain wall, fully air conditioned, Electronic Building Manage-ment System

—— l. — Office Centre, Bucharest Business Park


241

Selection: References Stand-by Power Plants

SELECTION: REFERENCES STAND-BY POWER PLANTS Year of order

1. Plant name 2. Project name 3. End user (operator) 4. Destination country

1. Plant category 2. Plant capacity 3. Project type

1. Systems supplied with an ABB DCS 2. Scope of supply (key items)

2006

1. Sohar 2. Sohar 3. Sohar Aluminium Company L.L.C. 4. Oman

1. Gas Turbine Power Plant 2. 4 - 500 MWe 3. New Base

1. Turbine Island 2. Control Systems Turbine Controls Human Machine Interfaces Plant Management Optimization

2006

1. Gissi 2. Gissi 3. Abruzzo Energia S.p.A. 4. Italy

1. Combined Cycle Power Plant 2. 2 - 760 MWe 3. New Base

1. Common Plant 2. Control Systems Turbine Controls Human Machine Interfaces

2006

1. Castejon 2 2. Castejon 2 3. Hidroelectrica del Cantabrico 4. Spain

1. Fossil Fired Power Plant 3. Installed Base

1. Turbine Island 2. Control Systems Turbine Controls Human Machine Interfaces

2006

1. KW Ingolstadt 2. Turbinenretrofit 3. E.ON 4. Germany

1. Fossil Fired Power Plant 3. Installed Base

1. Turbine Island 2. Control Systems Turbine Controls Human Machine Interfaces

2006

1. IWPP Al Hidd 2. Al Hidd Phase III 3. HPC Hidd Power Comp. 4. Bahrain

1. Desalination Plant 3. New Base

1. BOP - Balance of Plant 2. Electrical Balance of Plant

2006

1. Ras Abu Fontas 2. Ras Abu Fontas B II 3. KAHRAMAA 4. Qatar

1. Combined Cycle Power Plant, Desalination Plant 2. - 597 MWe 3. New Base

1. BOP - Balance of Plant Common Plant 2. Electrical Balance of Plant

2006

1. Maasvlakte EFM 1-2 2. Maasvlakte - Integration Control System 3. E.ON Benelux Generation 4. Netherlands

1. Fossil Fired Power Plant 2. 2 - 1000 MWe 3. Installed Base

1. Boiler Island BOP - Balance of Plant Common Plant Turbine Island 2. Control Systems Boiler Controls Turbine Controls Human Machine Interfaces

2006

1. CHP Öresundsverket 2. Öresundsverket CCPP 3. E.ON Sverige 4. Sweden

1. Combined Cycle Power Plant 2. 1 - 400 MWe 3. New Base

1. Boiler Island BOP - Balance of Plant Common Plant 2. Control Systems Human Machine Interfaces

2006

1. PP Esbjergværket 2. Esbjergværket DCS 3. Dong Energy A/S 4. Denmark

1. Fossil Fired Power Plant 2. 1 - 400 MWe 3. Installed Base

1. Boiler Island BOP - Balance of Plant Common Plant Turbine Island 2. Control Systems Boiler Controls Turbine Controls Human Machine Interfaces


MANAGEMENT BOARD

KEY BUSINESS AREAS & SUBSIDIARIES

—REFERENCES—

Selection: References for Stand-by Power Plants

242

SELECTION: REFERENCES FOR STAND-BY POWER PLANTS Year of order

1. Plant name 2. Project name 3. End user (operator) 4. Destination country

1. Plant category 2. Plant capacity 3. Project type

1. Systems supplied with an ABB DCS 2. Scope of supply (key items)

2006

1. PP Fynsværket 2. Fynsværket DCS 3. Vattenfall A/S 4. Denmark

1. Fossil Fired Power Plant 2. 1 - 640 MWe 3. New Base

1. Common Plant Turbine Island 2. Control Systems Boiler Controls Turbine Controls Human Machine Interfaces

2006

1. Meirama 2. Meirama Retrofit 3. Union Fenosa / Meirama 4. Spain

1. Fossil Fired Power Plant 2. 1 - 550 MWe 3. Installed Base

1. Boiler Island BOP - Balance of Plant Common Plant Turbine Island 2. Control Systems Boiler Controls Turbine Controls Human Machine Interfaces Field Equipment Electrical Balance of Plant Plant Management Optimization

2006

1. WTE Wijster 2. HSI Upgrade Wijster Linie 1..3 3. Essent Mileu 4. Netherlands

1. Waste to Energy Plant 3. Installed Base

1. Boiler Island BOP - Balance of Plant Common Plant 2. Control Systems Human Machine Interfaces

2006

1. CyCoFos 2. CyCoFos 3. Gaz de France 4. France

1. Combined Cycle Power Plant 2. 1 - 420 MWe 3. New Base

1. Common Plant 2. Control Systems Boiler Controls Turbine Controls Human Machine Interfaces Field Equipment Plant Management Optimization

2006

1. Langage 2. Langage 3. Centrica Langage Ltd. 4. Great Britain

1. Combined Cycle Power Plant 2. 1 - 879 MWe 3. New Base

1. Turbine Island 2. Control Systems Turbine Controls Human Machine Interfaces Plant Management Optimization

2006

1. Soto de la Ribera 4 2. Soto de la Ribera 4 3. Hidroelectrica del Cantabrico 4. Spain

1. Combined Cycle Power Plant 2. 1 - 376 MWe 3. New Base

1. Common Plant 2. Control Systems Turbine Controls Human Machine Interfaces Plant Management Optimization

2006

1. Malaga 2. Malaga 3. Central Termica de Malaga 4. Spain

1. Combined Cycle Power Plant 2. 1 - 412 MWe 3. New Base

1. Boiler Island BOP - Balance of Plant Common Plant Turbine Island 2. Control Systems Turbine Controls Human Machine Interfaces Plant Management Optimization

2006

1. Modugno 2. Modugno 3. Energia SpA Italy 4. Italy

1. Combined Cycle Power Plant 2. 2 - 800 MWe 3. New Base

1. Common Plant 2. Control Systems Turbine Controls Human Machine Interfaces

2006

1. Qatalum Aluminium Smelter PP 2. Qatalum Aluminium Smelter PP 3. Qatar Petroleum 4. Qatar

1. Combined Cycle Power Plant 2. 1 - 1350 MWe 3. New Base

1. Common Plant 2. Electrical Balance of Plant


SELECTION OF REFERENCES IN EUROPE AND MIDDLE-EAST

Year of completion

Project Name

Description

08/2005

BUCHAREST BUSINESS PARK A-B-C

„Design & Build“ contract for an A-Class office building Monolithic cast-in-situ structure Aluminium curtain wall Fully air conditioned Electronic Building Management System

07/2006

BUCHAREST BUSINESS PARK D

Design & Build“ contract for an A-Class office building, overlapping pile wall, monolithic cast-in-situ structure, aluminium curtain wall, fully air conditioned, Electronic Building Management System.

04/2007

BANEASA AIRPORT TOWER

„Design & Build“ contract for an A-Class office building, Soldier pile wall, Monolithic cast-in-situ structure, Structural glazing, Fully air conditioned, Electronic Building Management System, Aluminium curtain wall.

07/2010

RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT PARCUL BANATULI

„Design & Build“ contract for modern residentials incl. Car park basements, landscaping and Infrastructure, monolithic cast-in-situ structure, Lifts, Balconies, 2400 m² Retail area. Kindergarten, Markethall 1400 m2.

12/2006

BUCHAREST WEST LOGISTIC PARK

Description: „Design & build“ for the entire infrastructure incl. bridges and culverts, approx. 30.000 sq.m. roads and walkways, the entire gas, water, fire hydrant, drainage & sewage, electrical distribution, rainwater retention lake, pumping station, water treatment plant, street lighting etc. plus „Design & Build“ contract for the construction of a warehouse, lenght approx. 345m, width approx. 100m. Cast-in-situ foundations, precast coloumns, steel roof structure with trapezoidal steel sheet roofing, wall cladding from steel cassettes, steel fibre concrete slab, loading docks, offices and landscaping.

11/2012

INDUSTRIAL FACILITY BUCHAREST WEST (MILITARI) Reinforced Concrete Gas Storage Tanks, Abu Dhabi, U.A.E.

Description: Design and build of 3 storey building incl. underground parking, a production shop floor, warehouse and offices. „Design & Build“ of gas storage tanks, infrastructure work

08/2011

CENTRO HOTEL - ABU DHABI

„Design & Build“

06/2010

GERMAN HOSPITAL - ABU DHABI

„Design & Build“

1996

„Dancing House“Bank Building in Prague, Czech. Rep.

Activity: Reinforced concrete elements

2006

Combined Head and Power Generation Plant, Cottbus, Germany

„Design & Build“

2005

Grandstands, Hockenheim, Germany

„Design & Build“

2002

Railway Overpass, Germany

„Design & Build“

2001

Kvaerner Shipyard Philadelphia (USA) 2001

„Design & Build“


This brochure contains only general, nonbinding information. Its contents are based on information available at the time of publication and can change at any time without prior notice. The contents of this brochure in no way represent an offer to conclude a contract.

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