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AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design TU Delft 11-04-2013

AN ARCHITECTÊS GUIDE TO

SUSTAINABLE ENERGY GENERATION Derk Wijtsma 1182056


TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction

4

How to use this guide

5

CLASSIFICATION TABLES:

6

System potential

6

Size & efficiency

7

Investment return time

8

Energy payback time

9

Expected lifespan

10

Stage of development

11

ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

12

Short note on biomass

48

The research method

49

Literature

50

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ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEMS SOLAR: Crystalline photovoltaics

12

Thin film photovoltaics

14

Third generation photovoltaics

16

Concentrated solar power

18

Solar hot water

20

Solar hot air

22

Algae photobioreactor

24

WIND: Horizontal axis wind turbine

26

Vertical axis wind turbine

28

Vibro-wind technology

30

BIOMASS: Biomass combustion

32

Biomass gasifier

34

Biomass digester

36

ALTERNATIVE:

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Cogeneration

38

Ground source heating and cooling

40

Energy floor

42

Energy generating door

44

Sound energy

46

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INTRODUCTION Regardless of the discussion as to whether or not humans actually cause climate change and if there is anything we can do to stop it, fossil fuels are a finite resource and they are running out. It is unclear how long it will take before we will have burnt through the entire supply, but most estimates suggest that towards 2050 everyone will feel the effects. Even though the energy matter is a serious problem, it also provides opportunities. These opportunities can be in an ecological, a social, and even in an economical sense. Architects play a major role in shaping the built environment and can be pivotal in the decision to build in a „sustainable‰ fashion. Many books and thousands of pages have already been written about sustainable design. Architects are however a special kind of people that donÊt seem to like to read and during a design process they look for exactly that piece of information they need to proceed. Information targeting architects should therefore be presented in a visual manner with just enough text to convey the message. By limiting the amount of information to what is relevant to a designer it is also much easier to find the proverbial needle in a haystack of information! „Would it be best to plop some solar panels on the roof or should I stick a windmill in the garden of my little suburban house?‰ A short and concise overview of the different types of systems that provide a renewable source of energy for a building seems to be missing. This guide attempts to fill the gap and to provide answers to such questions. A comparison of the energy generating systems makes it easy to select a „best‰ option. Key information like expected investment return time is provided together with salient advantages and disadvantages.

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HOW TO USE THIS GUIDE This guide has been written with the architectÊs needs in mind and aims to provide a quick and accessible way to compare different energy production systems. The information is structured to facilitate this goal. The CLASSIFICATION TABLES compare several of the most important aspects of the energy production systems and are located in the front of the guide right after the introduction and „how to‰ for easy acces. When a promising system is found, it can be looked up further on in the guide to see the main advantages and disadvantages. For more in-depth information, further reading suggestions are provided for each system. Colours are used to visualize positive and negative qualities. Bars like the one below range from deep green through yellow to deep red. Green points towards good and red indicates a poor performance.

The length of the bar represents the variation in the data. Shorter bars mean that study results lay closer together while longer bars mean that very different results have been found. The exception to this rule is the system potential table where the bars span the entire width to show the potential over time. Below is an example page to show where different types of information can be found.

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ADVANTAGES

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Table with information on: ‥ Size expressed in kWh produced per square meter per year. ‥ The expected lifespan in years. ‥ The investment return time in years. ‥ The energy payback time in years. ‥ The stage of development.

DISADVANTAGES

‥ Proven technology

‥ High upfront cost

‥ Reliable ‥ Cost effective

‥ Panels need to be oriented towards the sun to be effective

‥ Very long lifespan ‥ Very low maintenance

‥ Efficiency of a whole panel drops when only partly shaded

‥ Can be visually integrated into a building ‥ Comprised of non-toxic materials

‥ Efficiency drops at higher temperatures ‥ Bulky and fixed panel sizes

‥ Abundance of raw materials (silicon)

‥ Do not generate power at night ‥ Lower power output in winter

The most important advantages and disadvantages of the system are indicated point-wise.

‥ Limited to silver-grey, bright blue and deep black GENERAL DESCRIPTION

FURTHER READING

Sunlight can be used to generate electricity by converting solar radiation directly into an electric current using photovoltaic cells (PV). This power can be used locally and stored in batteries in an autonomous system, but it can also feed power directly into the grid.

- Ecohouse. Roaf, S., Fuentes, M., Thomas-Rees, S. (2013) pages 171-202

The most common are the first generation blueblack crystalline silicon cells, either as a single crystal (c-Si) or multicrystalline (mc-Si). Of these the monocrystalline has the highest efficiency and durability, but also the highest production cost. The cells are formed into rigid panels. Investment return time can be reduced by having solar panels replacing other building materials.

- Solar Electricity Handbook. A simple, practical guide to solar energy - designing and installing photovoltaic electric systems. Boxwell, M. (2012)

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- Renewable Energies and CO2. Cost Analysis, Environmental Impacts and Technological Trends. Guerrero-Lemus, R., MartĂ—nez-Duart, J.M. (2012) pages 115-134

- Sustainable Energy - without the hot air. MacKay, D.J.C. (2009) pages 38-49 and 283-288

The general description gives some information about system characteristics, how it works or extra details.

Further reading provides suggestions to find more in-depth information

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SYSTEM POTENTIAL DOJDHSKRWRELRUHDFWRU WKLUGJHQSKRWRYROWDLFV FRQFHQWUDWHGVRODUSRZHU VRODUKRWZDWHU FRJHQHUDWLRQ KRUL]RQWDODZLQGWXUELQH ELRPDVVJDVLILHU JURXQGVRXUFHK F YHUWLFDOD[LVZLQGWXUELQH WKLQILOPSKRWRYROWDLFV ELRPDVVGLJHVWHU FU\VWDOOLQHSKRWRYROWDLFV ELRPDVVFRPEXVWLRQ YLEURZLQGWHFKQRORJ\ HQHUJ\IORRU VRODUKRWDLU HQHUJ\JHQHUDWLQJGRRU VRXQGHQHUJ\ 12:

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* please read the short note on biomass NOTES ‡ The system potential graph gives an idea of how usefull or important the different energy production technologies are in the current time and how important they may become in the future. ‡ System potential is indicated by colour ranging from deep green showing very high-, to deep red showing very low potential. ‡ A dotted grey line indicates when the technology is expected to reach maturity and is not likely to be improved upon any further. ‡ The potential of some systems may eventually decline as similar but better systems become available. 6

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SIZE & EFFICIENCY VRODUKRWZDWHU FRJHQHUDWLRQ WKLUGJHQSKRWRYROWDLFV FU\VWDOOLQHSKRWRYROWDLFV ELRPDVVFRPEXVWLRQ FRQFHQWUDWHGVRODUSRZHU ELRPDVVJDVLILHU WKLQILOPSKRWRYROWDLFV KRUL]RQWDODZLQGWXUELQH YHUWLFDOD[LVZLQGWXUELQH HQHUJ\JHQHUDWLQJGRRU VRODUKRWDLU DOJDHSKRWRELRUHDFWRU YLEURZLQGWHFKQRORJ\ JURXQGVRXUFHK F HQHUJ\IORRU VRXQGHQHUJ\ ELRPDVVGLJHVWHU N:KP2\HDU 

















* please read the short note on biomass NOTES ‡ The graph gives an indication of the size or effciency of a system expressed in kWh produced per square meter per year. No distinction is made between energy output types. ‡ The graph scales in a non-linear fasion due to large differences in system performance. ‡ The bars of systems indicated with a star represent energy conversion efficiency instead of kWh/m2/year.

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INVESTMENT RETURN TIME WKLQILOPSKRWRYROWDLFV ELRPDVVJDVLILHU HQHUJ\JHQHUDWLQJGRRU FRJHQHUDWLRQ VRODUKRWZDWHU KRUL]RQWDODZLQGWXUELQH FU\VWDOOLQHSKRWRYROWDLFV ELRPDVVFRPEXVWLRQ JURXQGVRXUFHK F FRQFHQWUDWHGVRODUSRZHU YHUWLFDOD[LVZLQGWXUELQH VRODUKRWDLU ELRPDVVGLJHVWHU YLEURZLQGWHFKQRORJ\ WKLUGJHQSKRWRYROWDLFV HQHUJ\IORRU DOJDHSKRWRELRUHDFWRU VRXQGHQHUJ\ \HDUV 

















* please read the short note on biomass NOTES ‡ The investment return time is the amount of years a system needs to provide savings equal to the initial investment cost compared to a fossil fuel alternative. After that the system generates a net profit. ‡ Higher rated systems are either very cheap to install or generate a large amount of energy. Note that electrical energy and fuel are worth much more than thermal energy. ‡ The ratings are based on current fuel prices and will almost certainly improve as fossil fuels become more scarce and expensive.

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ENERGY PAYBACK TIME KRUL]RQWDODZLQGWXUELQH VRODUKRWZDWHU WKLQILOPSKRWRYROWDLFV JURXQGVRXUFHK F YHUWLFDOD[LVZLQGWXUELQH ELRPDVVFRPEXVWLRQ FRQFHQWUDWHGVRODUSRZHU FRJHQHUDWLRQ WKLUGJHQSKRWRYROWDLFV ELRPDVVJDVLILHU FU\VWDOOLQHSKRWRYROWDLFV HQHUJ\JHQHUDWLQJGRRU VRODUKRWDLU ELRPDVVGLJHVWHU YLEURZLQGWHFKQRORJ\ DOJDHSKRWRELRUHDFWRU HQHUJ\IORRU VRXQGHQHUJ\ \HDUV 

















* please read the short note on biomass NOTES ‡ The energy payback time is the amount of years required to generate the same amount of energy needed to produce and maintain the system compared to a fossil fuel alternative. ‡ Higher rated systems either require a low amount of energy to produce, or generate a large amount of energy on a yearly basis.

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EXPECTED LIFESPAN FU\VWDOOLQHSKRWRYROWDLFV VRODUKRWZDWHU JURXQGVRXUFHK F WKLQILOPSKRWRYROWDLFV FRQFHQWUDWHGVRODUSRZHU WKLUGJHQSKRWRYROWDLFV HQHUJ\IORRU HQHUJ\JHQHUDWLQJGRRU ELRPDVVFRPEXVWLRQ KRUL]RQWDODZLQGWXUELQH YHUWLFDOD[LVZLQGWXUELQH FRJHQHUDWLRQ VRODUKRWDLU ELRPDVVGLJHVWHU ELRPDVVJDVLILHU DOJDHSKRWRELRUHDFWRU YLEURZLQGWHFKQRORJ\ VRXQGHQHUJ\ \HDUV

















* please read the short note on biomass NOTES ‡ The expected lifespan of a system gives an indication of how long a system is likely to function with regular maintenance before it needs to be replaced entirely. ‡ Systems with a possible lifespan of over 30 years reach to the left edge of the graph. Some of these systems could theoretically stay in working order for 50 years or more. ‡ A system with a longer lifespan can compensate for higher intial financial or energy investments or lower output because it has more time to generate a return. ‡ Moving parts generally decrease life expectancy. 10

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STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT KRUL]RQWDODZLQGWXUELQH VRODUKRWZDWHU VRODUKRWDLU ELRPDVVFRPEXVWLRQ JURXQGVRXUFHK F FU\VWDOOLQHSKRWRYROWDLFV WKLQILOPSKRWRYROWDLFV FRQFHQWUDWHGVRODUSRZHU FRJHQHUDWLRQ HQHUJ\JHQHUDWLQJGRRU ELRPDVVJDVLILHU YHUWLFDOD[LVZLQGWXUELQH ELRPDVVGLJHVWHU HQHUJ\IORRU YLEURZLQGWHFKQRORJ\ DOJDHSKRWRELRUHDFWRU VRXQGHQHUJ\ WKLUGJHQSKRWRYROWDLFV VWDJH

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* please read the short note on biomass NOTES ‡ The stage of development shows how far along the research on a given system is. ‡ The performance of higher rated systems is generally easier to predict and more reliable, but fewer improvements can be expected in the future. ‡ It can be very hard to find producers for lower rated system

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ADVANTAGES ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥

Proven technology Reliable Cost effective Very long lifespan Very low maintenance Can be visually integrated into a building Comprised of non-toxic materials Abundance of raw materials (silicon)

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

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DISADVANTAGES ‥ High upfront cost ‥ Panels need to be oriented towards the sun to be effective ‥ Efficiency of a whole panel drops when only partly shaded ‥ Efficiency drops at higher temperatures ‥ Bulky and fixed panel sizes ‥ Do not generate power at night ‥ Lower power output in winter ‥ Limited to silver-grey, bright blue and deep black FURTHER READING

Sunlight can be used to generate electricity by converting solar radiation directly into an electric current using photovoltaic cells (PV). This power can be used locally and stored in batteries in an autonomous system, but it can also feed power directly into the grid.

‥ Ecohouse. Roaf, S., Fuentes, M.,Thomas-Rees, S. (2013)

The most common are the first generation blueblack crystalline silicon cells, either as a single crystal (c-Si) or multicrystalline (mc-Si). Of these the monocrystalline has the highest efficiency and durability, but also the highest production cost. The cells are formed into rigid panels. Investment return time can be reduced by having solar panels replacing other building materials.

‥ Solar Electricity Handbook. A simple, practical guide to solar energy - designing and installing photovoltaic electric systems. Boxwell, M. (2012)

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‥ Renewable Energies and CO2. Cost Analysis, Environmental Impacts and Technological Trends. GuerreroLemus, R., MartĹnez-Duart, J.M. (2012)

‥ Sustainable Energy - without the hot air. MacKay, D.J.C. (2009)

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THIN FILM PHOTOVOLTAICS

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ADVANTAGES ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥

Cost effective Very low maintenance Good performance in indirect light Good performance in high heat High flexibility of module size and shape Versatile, can be applied to almost any material Flexible Low weight Can be produced in a variety of dark colours Homogenous appearance

GENERAL DESCRIPTION Sunlight can be used to generate electricity by converting solar radiation directly into an electric current using photovoltaic cells (PV). This power can be used locally and stored in batteries in an autonomous system, but it can also feed power directly into the grid. Thin film PV forms the second generation solar cells. Although the efficiency of these cells is lower than crystalline cells, there is a significant saving of semiconductor material which translates into lower production costs. Amorphous silicon solar cells (a-Si) are the cheapest but can have stability issues after prolonged use. CdTe and CIGS cells have higher efficiencies but problems arise due to the environmental impact and general scarcity of the raw materials. Investment return time can be reduced by having solar panels replacing other building materials. 14

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DISADVANTAGES ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥

Lower efficiency than crystalline cells Relatively high upfront cost Do not generate power at night Lower power output in winter Scarcity of raw Tellurium (not for Si-panels) Toxicity of Cadmium (not for Si-panels) Less developed technology than crystalline cells

FURTHER READING ‥ Renewable Energies and CO2. Cost Analysis, Environmental Impacts and Technological Trends. GuerreroLemus, R., MartĹnez-Duart, J.M. (2012) ‥ Solar Electricity Handbook. A simple, practical guide to solar energy - designing and installing photovoltaic electric systems. Boxwell, M. (2012) ‥ Solar generation 6. Solar photovoltaic electricity empowering the world.Teske, S., & Masson, G. (2011)

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THIRD GENERATION PHOTOVOLTAICS

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ADVANTAGES ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥

Holds great promise for the future Multi-junction cells are very efficient Multi-junction cells are durable Organic cells will have very low production costs ‥ Organic cells can be transparent or produced in wide array of colours

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

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DISADVANTAGES ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥

Not yet commercially available Novel and unproven technology Multi-junction cells are very expensive Organic cells have durability issues Organic cells are not very efficient yet

FURTHER READING

Sunlight can be used to generate electricity by converting solar radiation directly into an electric current using photovoltaic cells (PV). This power can be used locally and stored in batteries in an autonomous system, but it can also feed power directly into the grid.

‥ Renewable Energies and CO2. Cost Analysis, Environmental Impacts and Technological Trends. GuerreroLemus, R., MartĹnez-Duart, J.M. (2012)

Third generation cells are based on different and sometimes novel optoelectronic concepts. Multijunction cells hold the current world record of 43,5% sunlight conversion efficiency but are still very expensive. Organic or dye-sensitised systems currently have low efficiency and durability issues, but they are very interesting due to their low production costs. Investment return time can be reduced by having solar panels replacing other building materials.

‥ Fundamentals of Materials for Energy and Environmental Sustainability. Ginley, D.S., & Cahen, D. (2011)

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‥ Solar generation 6. Solar photovoltaic electricity empowering the world.Teske, S., & Masson, G. (2011)

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CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER

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ADVANTAGES ‥ Can produce energy on demand (except dish systems) ‥ Very well suited to hot inhospitable locations ‥ Dish systems are very efficient

GENERAL DESCRIPTION Concentrated solar power systems generate electricty by using mirrors to focus solar energy onto a single point. The concentrated energy heats a fluid and produces steam. Conventional turbines then generate the electricity. The sunlight can be focused using different techniques. The most mature are the parabolic trough systems which use linear cyclindrical mirrors with a parabolic section. Next in line are the tower systems which use a large amount of flat mirrors to focus the sun onto the top of the tower. Linear fresnel systems function much like a parabolic trough, but the lenses focus the light instead of the curved mirrors. Dish designs vary by the fact that the energy is directly converted to electricity at the focal point. All concentrated solar power systems require high solar intensity to function properly. A big advantage of these systems is that the heated fluids can be stored so the power can be provided on demand. 18

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DISADVANTAGES ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥

Require high amount of solar radiation Unsuitable for northern countries High initial investment cost Most systems require large amounts of water Tower, trough and linear fresnel systems require a lot of space ‥ Only economical on large scale

FURTHER READING ‥ Concentrated Solar Power NOW. Exploiting the heat from the sun to combat climate change. Aringhoff, R., Brakmann, G., Geyer, M., & Teske, S. (2005) ‥ Renewable Energies and CO2. Cost Analysis, Environmental Impacts and Technological Trends. GuerreroLemus, R., MartĹnez-Duart, J.M. (2012) ‥ Solar generation 6. Solar photovoltaic electricity empowering the world.Teske, S., & Masson, G. (2011) ‥ Fundamentals of Materials for Energy and Environmental Sustainability. Ginley, D.S., & Cahen, D. (2011)

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SOLAR HOT WATER

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ADVANTAGES ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥

Efficient, reliable and proven technology Relatively low investment cost Can provide considerable energy savings Can be integrated and replace roof or facade covering materials ‥ Can feed highly efficient adsorption cooling systems

GENERAL DESCRIPTION Thermal energy from sunlight can be harvested in a solar collector to provide hot tapwater or water for heating. It is an efficient, reliable and proven technology that can provide considerable energy savings. The output is directly related to the amount of solar radiation the system recieves, so without seasonal storage it is not very effective for heating because the output is lower in winter. Simple systems without moving parts are cheap but generally have poor frost or overheating protection. More advanced systems with pumps solve these issues but require some electricity. When there is a high temperature difference between the heated water and outside insulated systems are more effective even though double glazing does reduce overal efficiency. Evacuated tube collectors are the most advanced type that produce high temperature water and work well with diffuse light. 20

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DISADVANTAGES ‥ Requires space for hot water storage tank ‥ Investment return time quite long because natural gas is very cheap ‥ Reduced output in winter or cloudy days ‥ Can not provide 100% annual hot water in countries like Holland without backup system

FURTHER READING ‥ Ecohouse. Roaf, S., Fuentes, M.,Thomas-Rees, S. (2013) ‥

Energy Payback Time. A Key Number for the Assesment of Thermal Solar Systems. Streicher, E., Heidemann,W., & Muller-Steinhagen, H. (2004)

‥ Solar Hot Water & Heat Pump Study. Day, G., Sachs, M., Beshara, D., Place, L., Bolzon, R. (2011) ‥ Heating, Cooling, Lighting: Sustainable Design Methods for Architects. Norbert, L. (2009)

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SOLAR HOT AIR

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DISADVANTAGES

‥ With smart design a hot air collector can be

‥ Low energy content of heated air

integrated for only a small increase in cost ‥ Can help to prevent overheating in summer ‥ Can be used to assist natural ventilation

‥ Only functions when in direct sunlight ‥ High losses when ambient temperature is low ‥ Reduced output during winter when heating is actually required ‥ Requires an energy storage system ‥ Requires large ducts to distribute heated air ‥ Requires a large dark surface to be efficient

GENERAL DESCRIPTION Thermal energy from sunlight can be harvested on a collector surface.The energy can be used to pre-heat ventilation air, or heat a building component which can provide delayed radiative heating. The output is directly related to the amount of solar radiation the system recieves and can absorb. This means that energy is only collected when the sun is shining and the darker and less reflective the surface is, the more heat can be absorbed. An energy storage system is required to provide heating over a longer period of time. This can simply be a high mass construction or a dedicated thermal storage device. The biggest downside of solar hot air systems is the low energy content and value of heated air. This means that implementation can only be justified when few modifications to a building are required.

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FURTHER READING ‥ Ecohouse. Roaf, S., Fuentes, M.,Thomas-Rees, S. (2013) ‥ Heating, Cooling, Lighting: Sustainable Design Methods for Architects. Norbert, L. (2009) ‥ The Passive Solar Design and Construction Handbook. Crosbie, M. J.,Winter, S. (1998)

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ALGAE PHOTOBIOREACTOR

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ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

‥ Can produce biofuel, food, pharmaceuticals or hydrogen gas which can be efficiently stored ‥ Can provide warm water ‥ Much more efficient and productive than other fuel crops ‥ Provides many new architectural options ‥ Can be mounted on facade or roof ‥ Potential for sewage and wastewater treatment and carbon sequestration (CO2) ‥ Biofuel source that does not compete for agricultural land or freshwater supplies

‥ Very high cost ‥ Limited efficiency ‥ Hard to control quality for food or pharmaceutical purposes ‥ May need to be heated in winter ‥ Risk of overheating ‥ Algae need to be harvested and processed before they can be used as food or fuel ‥ Regular maintenance

GENERAL DESCRIPTION Algae comprise a large and evolutionary diverse group of generally autotrophic organisms of which most are photosynthetic like plants. Under the right circumstances algae grow very rapidly and can have yields up to 20 times higher per unit of area than conventional crops. Green plants however, have a yearly average photosynthetic efficiency of less than 0.3%. Bioreactors may reach up to 6%, but conversion to biodiesel uses an energy intensive chemical process. The maximum reached efficiency for hydrogen energy is 0.075%. For optimum production rates enough light must reach all the algae which constrains reactor dimensions. There must be a steady supply of CO2 and nutrients. The reactors also need a cleaning system and an efficient way of harvesting the algae. 24

FURTHER READING ‥ Algae Energy. Algae as a New Source of Biodiesel. Demirbas, A., & Demirbas, M. F. (2010) ‥ Renewable Energies and CO2. Cost Analysis, Environmental Impacts and Technological Trends. GuerreroLemus, R., & MartĹnez-Duart, J.M. (2012) ‥ Reaping the Harvest.Wurm, J. (2011) ‥ Microalgae for biodiesel production and other applications: A review. Mata,T. M., Martins, A. A., & Caetano, N. S. (2010) ‥ Maximizing the solar to H2 energy conversion efficiency of outdoor photobioreactors using mixed cultures. Berberoglu, H., & Pilon, L. (2010)

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HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE

(HAWT)

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ADVANTAGES ‥ Currently most economical of all renewable power options ‥ Short energy payback time ‥ Relatively low initial investment costs ‥ Can generate power day and night ‥ Mature and proven technology ‥ Area below windmill can be used for other purposes

GENERAL DESCRIPTION Wind energy can be converted to electricity using turbines. Small systems essentially work like an electric motor running backwards. Large systems include a gearbox which increases performance, but also significantly increases noise production. All turbines are designed for specific maximum and minimum wind speeds. Wind speeds and related energy production increase with altitude. Power generation is related to the area swept by the blades, so double diameter quadruples output. In general more blades marginally increase efficiency but also increase cost. The most economical choice is 2 or 3 blades but that can be decided based on aesthetic preference. Furthermore, turbulence can completely mitigate turbine energy production and reduces lifespan. 26

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DISADVANTAGES ‥ Obstacles preventing free flow of wind severely hamper performance (including other mills) ‥ Building mounted and urban turbines nearly always perform VERY poorly and require a very solid existing structure ‥ Require regular maintenance ‥ Highly irregular power output ‥ Large turbines generate noise ‥ Potentially hazardous to migrating birds ‥ Many people find windmills unsightly structures that disfigure the landscape FURTHER READING ‥ Ecohouse. Roaf, S., Fuentes, M.,Thomas-Rees, S. (2013) ‥ Renewable Energies and CO2. Cost Analysis, Environmental Impacts and Technological Trends. GuerreroLemus, R., MartĹnez-Duart, J.M. (2012) ‥ Sustainable Energy - without the hot air. MacKay, D.J.C. (2009) ‥ Energy and exergy efficiency comparison of horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines. Pope, K., Dincer, I., & Naterer, G. F. (2010)

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VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE

(VAWT)

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ADVANTAGES ‥ Visually appealing designs ‥ Less affected by turbulence than HAWTÊs ‥ Can generate power day and night ‥ Some designs allow area below the turbine to be used for other purposes ‥ Can be placed closer together than HAWTÊs

Wind energy can be converted to electricity using turbines. Small systems essentially work like an electric motor running backwards. Large systems include a gearbox which increases performance, but also significantly increases noise production. All turbines are designed for specific maximum and minimum wind speeds. Wind speeds and related energy production increase with altitude. The main types of vertical axis turbines are Savonius and Darrieus engines. Many different and visually interesting designs can be made based on these systems.VAWTĂŠs are omnidirectional so they donĂŠt need to turn into the wind and are less affected by turbulence. They do tend to stall in gusty winds. The area swept is an area perpendicular to the wind.

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DISADVANTAGES ‥ Obstacles preventing free flow of wind severely ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

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hamper performance (including other mills) Building mounted and urban turbines nearly always perform VERY poorly Less efficient than HAWTĂŠs Require regular and more expensive maintenance than HAWTĂŠs Increased wear on blades Highly irregular power output Large turbines generate noise Potentially hazardous to migrating birds

FURTHER READING ‥ Ecohouse. Roaf, S., Fuentes, M.,Thomas-Rees, S. (2013) ‥ Renewable Energies and CO2. Cost Analysis, Environmental Impacts and Technological Trends. GuerreroLemus, R., MartĹnez-Duart, J.M. (2012) ‥ Power coefficient measurement on a 12 kW straight bladed vertical axis wind turbine. Kjellin, J., Bulow, F., Eriksson, S., Deglaire, P., Leijon, M., & Bernhoff, H. (2011) ‥ Energy and exergy efficiency comparison of horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines. Pope, K., Dincer, I., & Naterer, G. F. (2010)

SBCD Energy Systems


VIBRO-WIND TECHNOLOGY

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ADVANTAGES ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥

Provides many new architectural options Can generate power day and night Can function with low wind speeds Does not require sunlight

GENERAL DESCRIPTION Vibro-wind technology is proposed as an alternative to conventional rotary wind turbines. Wind flowing around a building can cause vibration in the structure which is harvested by means of piezo elecetric elements. It has potential in urban areas because even low or turbulential wind can induce vibrations. Prototypes have been made where lightweight elements such as thin aluminum leafs were placed on stalks. Even though it produces no electricity, the Technorama facade in Switserland designed by artist Ned Kahn is covered in small alumium leafs that are animated by the wind and gives a good approximation of what architectural application of vibro-wind technology might look like.

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DISADVANTAGES ‥ High cost ‥ Low efficiency ‥ Maintenance and wear

FURTHER READING ‥ Vibro-wind energy technology for architectural applications. An alternative to rotary wind systems. Moon, F.C. (2010) ‥ Ambient wind energy harvesting using crossflow fluttering. Li, S.,Yuan, J., & Lipson, H. (2011) ‥ Vertical-stalk flapping-leaf generator for wind energy harvesting. Lipson, H., & Li, S. (2011)

SBCD Energy Systems


BIOMASS COMBUSTION

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ADVANTAGES ‥ Systems range from very simple and cheap to high tech and efficient ‥ Biomass is often available as byproduct, residue or wasteproduct ‥ Relatively low investment

GENERAL DESCRIPTION Biomass combustion is the oldest technique used for energy recovery. It ranges from the humble open fire to high tech cogeneration systems. The efficiency for electricity production ranges from 10% for small systems up to 40% for large powerplants. Due to municipal waste being heterogenous and often polluted, strict emission controls are required and the efficiency drops to 22%. Automated home scale boilers can be found on the market and offer an interesting alternative to electric or gas powered systems when biomass is locally available. These systems do however require regular refilling with wood- chips or pellets.

32

DISADVANTAGES ‥ Exhaust gases can be polluting and are hard to clean ‥ Purpose grown fuel biomass is very inefficient and can compete with food production ‥ Requires more space than regular boiler ‥ Biomass requires various degrees of pre-processing ‥ Investment return time because gas is cheap ‥ Requires regular cleaning and refilling ‥ Not possible to generate enough biomass for everyone to use a biomass boiler FURTHER READING ‥ Ecohouse. Roaf, S., Fuentes, M.,Thomas-Rees, S. (2013) ‥ Renewable Energies and CO2. Cost Analysis, Environmental Impacts and Technological Trends. GuerreroLemus, R., MartĹnez-Duart, J.M. (2012) ‥ Overview on Technologies for Biomass Combustion and Emission Levels of Particulate Matter. Nussbaumer,T. (2010) ‥ LCA of domestic and centralized biomass combustion:The case of Lombardy (Italy). Caserini, S. Livio, S., Giugliano, M., Grosso, M., & Rigamonti, L. (2004)

SBCD Energy Systems


BIOMASS GASIFIER

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ADVANTAGES ‥ Cleaner than combustion ‥ Easier and more economical to clean syngas than exhaust gases from combustion ‥ Works very well with CHP ‥ Biomass is often available as byproduct, residue or wasteproduct ‥ Generates electricity or syngas which can processed into synfuel

DISADVANTAGES ‥ Purpose grown fuel biomass is very inefficient and can compete with food production ‥ Biomass needs to be dry and requires storage ‥ Total energy content of gasification products lower than initial biomass ‥ Smaller systems are less efficient and may require processed biomass such as wood pellets ‥ Some systems require regular cleaning and removal of ash and slag ‥ Not possible to generate enough biomass for everyone to use a biomass gasifier

GENERAL DESCRIPTION In the (thermochemical) gasification technique, biomass is converted into syngas at high temperatures (800-1000Ă€C) and pressure. This gas can be used directly for heating or electricity generation but also for secondary purposes. Gasification systems have been around since the 1800s but still under development for small scale systems and to handle more types of biomass. The total energy content of the gasification product is lower than that of the initial biomass, but the syngas is more versatile and less polluting. It is also much easier and more economic to clean syngas than it is to clean combustion exhaust gases. Systems exist ranging from small 1m2 to large industrial power plants.

34

FURTHER READING ‥ Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis. Practical Design. Basu, P. (2010) ‥ Renewable Energies and CO2. Cost Analysis, Environmental Impacts and Technological Trends. GuerreroLemus, R., MartĹnez-Duart, J.M. (2012) ‥ Biomass gasification: Still promising? A 30-year global overview. Kirkels, A. F., & Verbong, G. P. J. (2011)

SBCD Energy Systems


BIOMASS DIGESTER

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ADVANTAGES ‥ Biomass is often available as byproduct, residue ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥

or wasteproduct Potential for municipal waste disposal Effective for high moisture content biomass like sewage Operates with any type of biomass that can be digested by animals Generates biogas Uncontaminated digestate can be used as fertiliser

GENERAL DESCRIPTION Anaerobic digestion is a proces where microorganisms break down biodegradable material in an oxygen free environment to produce biogas or manage waste.To run efficiently the biomass should be shredded or chopped into small particulates. Dependant on the type of digester a temperature of 50-70 ÀC or 25-40 ÀC needs to be maintained in the tank. The process is slow and chemical contaminants can kill the microorganisms. Plastics and other indigestible materials can clog the system and contaminate the digestate which is high in nutrients and could be used as fertilizer. Low tech and low capital investment applications are possible in developing countries.

36

DISADVANTAGES ‥ Negative return on investment without profit ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥

from selling digestate or disposal of waste Purpose grown fuel biomass is very inefficient and can compete with food production Cannot convert wood or other biomass with high lignin content Slow process Contaminants such as plastics or chemicals reduce efficiency or completely block the system Wastewater needs further treatment Requires a large and steady flow of biomass

FURTHER READING ‥ Renewable Energies and CO2. Cost Analysis, Environmental Impacts and Technological Trends. GuerreroLemus, R., MartĹnez-Duart, J.M. (2012) ‥ The Economics and Feasibility of Electricity Generation using Manure Digesters on Small and Mid-size Dairy Farms. Mehta, A. (2002) ‥ Anaerobic fermentation technology increases biomass energy use efficiency in crop residue utilization and biogas production. Zhen,Y. H.,Wei, J. G., Li, J., Feng, S. F., Li, Z. F., Jiang, G. M., Lucas, M.,Wu, G. L., & Ning,T.Y. (2012)

SBCD Energy Systems


COGENERATION

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ADVANTAGES ‥ Greatly increases energy recovery efficiency ‥ Decentralised electricity production reduces transmission losses ‥ Work very well in combination with biomass gasification and combustion

GENERAL DESCRIPTION Cogeneration is also known as Combined Heat and Power (CHP). It is a way to optimise energy recovery by harvesting both electrical and thermal energy, though each at a somewhat lower rate than single purpose generators. Cogeneration has be used in power plants for some time now but small scale micro-CHP systems are less developed. Micro-CHP is also less efficient because of the use of the Stirling engine instead of a turbine which is used on a larger scale. Micro-CHP systems start operation when there is a heat demand and generate electricity as a side product. This means that they generate very little electricity when the heat demand is low like during summertime.

38

DISADVANTAGES ‥ ‥ ‥ ‥

Higher initial investment Requires high heat demand to be worthwhile Heat and energy generation are linked Small scale systems use stirling engines which are less efficient than gas turbines ‥ Efficient gas turbines can be noisy ‥ Small systems often only work on fossil fuel

FURTHER READING ‥ Exploring domestic micro-cogeneration in the Netherlands: An agent-based demand model for technology diffusion. Faber, A.,Valente, M., & Janssen, P. (2010) ‥ Renewable Energies and CO2. Cost Analysis, Environmental Impacts and Technological Trends. GuerreroLemus, R., MartĹnez-Duart, J.M. (2012) ‥ Climate Design. Solutions for buildings that can do more with less technology. Hausladen, G., de Saldanha, M., Liedl, P., & Sager, C. (2005)

SBCD Energy Systems


GROUND SOURCE HEATING AND COOLING

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ADVANTAGES ‥ In many cases quite effective ‥ Can provide both heating and cooling energy ‥ Can provide all water- and spaceheating or cooling requirements in some cases ‥ Very low maintenance ‥ Reliable and safe

GENERAL DESCRIPTION Ground source heating and cooling is a system that harvests heating and/or cooling energy from the ground or from a large body of water. The simplest system pre-conditions ventilation air to about 11 ÀC by passing it through underground tubes into the building. More advanced systems use liquids to transfer energy and employ a heat pump to bring the temperature to desired levels. The tube length and required space depends energy requirement and the thermal conductivity of the soil. Water has a high thermal capacity and conductivity, so collectors that reach ground water levels, aquifers, or surface water are very efficient. When drilling to aquifers, heating and cooling energy can be stored seasonally. To avoid environmental problems and to keep the system working properly it is very important that the energy in the soil is either replenished by the sun or by reversed operation of the system. 40

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DISADVANTAGES ‥ Requires electricity to operate a heat pump ‥ GS systems cannot be placed in close proximity to each other ‥ Generally high installation cost ‥ Some systems require large open space ‥ Poorly designed systems can cause environmental damage or greatly decreased efficiency ‥ Can be hard to install in tight urban locations

FURTHER READING ‥ Comprehensive exergy analysis of a ground-source heat pump system for both building heating and cooling modes. Bi,Y.,Wang, X., Liu,Y., Zhang, H., & Chen, L. (2009) ‥ Ecohouse. Roaf, S., Fuentes, M.,Thomas-Rees, S. (2013) ‥ Renewable Energies and CO2. Cost Analysis, Environmental Impacts and Technological Trends. GuerreroLemus, R., MartĹnez-Duart, J.M. (2012) ‥ Climate Design. Solutions for buildings that can do more with less technology. Hausladen, G., de Saldanha, M., Liedl, P., & Sager, C. (2005)

SBCD Energy Systems


ENERGY FLOOR

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ADVANTAGES

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DISADVANTAGES

‥ Nice way to involve people with sustainable

‥ Energy production is very low

energy generation ‥ Interesting architectural applications ‥ Can be used both indoors and outdoors ‥ Can promote human physical activity

‥ Does not return energy and capital investment within itÊs lifespan

GENERAL DESCRIPTION Probably the most well known energy floor can be found in club Watt in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The „sustainable‰ dance floor generates power „parasitically‰ from human activity. It is comprised of seperate tiles with preloaded springs that convert human kinetic energy into electrical energy. The system can also be integrated into walkways or other high traffic areas as the power output is directly related to the amount of people passing over it. Furthermore it can promote human physical activity and increase public awareness to sustainability by reacting to a personÊs moves and visually showing the generated power.

42

FURTHER READING ‥ Human-Powered Small-Scale Generation System for a Sustainable Dance Club. Paulides, J.J.H., Jansen, J.W., Encica, L., Lomonova, E.A. (2009) ‥ http://www.sustainabledanceclub.com/ ‥ Biomechanical energy harvesting: Generating electricity during walking with minimal user effort. Donelan, J., Li, Q., Naing,V., Hoffer, J.,Weber, D., & Kuo, A. (2008)

SBCD Energy Systems


ENERGY GENERATING DOOR

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ADVANTAGES ‥ Nice way to involve people with sustainable energy generation ‥ Small additional investment ‥ Incorporates advantages of a revolving door

GENERAL DESCRIPTION An energy generating door is basically a conventional revolving door equipped with a generator.Where human kinetic energy would normally be wasted on a built in resistance that smoothes the motion of a revolving door, an energy door converts this energy to electricity.As with any system that utilises humans for power, the output is directly related to the amount of traffic passing through it. The output is also affected by the size of the door and the allowed resistance. Calculations based on a prototype suggest that a door that has an average of 10,000 people passing through it each day could theoretically produce 223 kWh per year. The heat saving quality of revolving doors over standard sliding or swing doors is likely even an order magnitude greater.

44

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DISADVANTAGES ‥ Requires a very large amount of people to generate a notable amount of power ‥ Can cause difficulty for handicapped people because the doors need to be pushed

FURTHER READING ‥ Revolving Doors Producing Green Energy. Murthy, M. S., Patil,Y. S., Sharma, S.V. K., Polem, B., Kolte, S. S., & Doji, N. (2011) ‥ http://www.boonedaminternational.com/press/pressdetail.asp?PressId=613

SBCD Energy Systems


SOUND ENERGY

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DISADVANTAGES

‥ Novel way to tap an, as of yet, unused source of power ‥ Lokalised power generation when wiring is unpractical

‥ Extremely low power generation that will not improve much in the future ‥ Requires very loud sound to generate any useful power ‥ Does not return energy or capital investment within itÊs lifespan

GENERAL DESCRIPTION Sound energy harvesting devices function by the transformation of acoustic vibrations into electrical energy.These devices have an accumulator surface or resonance chamber to harvest the sound and emloy piezoelectic or biased electrostrictive transducer elements to convert it into electricity. The biggest problem with this technology is the low energy density of sound, which means that even incredibly efficient devices would only generate very little power. In a laboratory experiment about 30 mW of power was extracted by mimicking a jet engine (140dB). Many scientists are sceptical about the potential of sound energy harvesting devices, though there may be a niche application for some electronic devices that require very little power.

46

FURTHER READING ‥ The Physical Acoustics of Energy Harvesting. Sherrit, S. (2008) ‥ Acoustic energy harvesting using an electromechanical Helmholtz resonator. Liu, F., Phipps, A., Horowitz, S., Ngo, K., Cattafesta, L., Nishida,T., & Sheplak, M. (2007) ‥ http://spectrum.ieee.org/consumer-electronics/gadgets/acoustic-energy-harvesters-gaining-volume

SBCD Energy Systems


SHORT NOTE ON BIOMASS The graphs in this guide imply that biomass based systems are a very good and sustainable source of energy. This is only partly true. When the biomass is a byproduct, residue, or wasteproduct, does not need much processing nor needs to be transported over long distances, and cannot be used for anything else, then it can be a very good and renewable source of energy. Examples are sorted biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) and the smaller otherwise unusable parts provided by urban greenery or forest maintenance. If on the other hand it is a purpose grown fuel crop, the opposite effect is likely achieved. Sugarcane or maize, that needs processing into ethanol and is then shipped halfway across the world to fuel a „sustainable‰ car, and one might as well have driven an army Hummer. Modern agriculture and transport is based upon fossil fuels. To grow 1 joule of food, an average of 8 joules of fossil fuels are expended. More energy is then expended for processing the crops into fuel and then more still for the transportation. Besides these numbers it also should be taken into account that fuel crops compete with food crops for fertile land and fresh water supplies in a world where many people already go hungry each day. Water and food supplies will only come under more pressure as global population increases. The efficiency with which plants convert solar energy is also very low compared to solar panels. Commercially available solar panels already reach 18% efficiency. Green plants typically reach an efficiency of up to 0.03%, most will even perform much lower. This means that solar panels already generate at least 600 times more power per given area without even taking the aforementioned issues and the conversion efficiency of biomass systems into account!

48

SBCD Energy Systems


THE RESEARCH METHOD To make a proper assesment of the potential of the different energy generating systems a very large amount of data is necessary. This is because different studies often generate different results. The size of the variations in the data is represented in the precision of the data in the tables. Larger bars indicate larger variations. The primary sources are articles from peer reviewed journals as these provide the most reliable information. Where necessary other sources have been employed to complete the data. These sources range from other published scholarly articles to books and finally producer information. From this data values have been compiled based on the reliability of the sources. Peer reviewed articles carry the greatest weight and producer claims the lowest.To keep the guide and charts readable and clear, and to keep the focus on the provided information instead of the way it was obtained, the complete list of sources and references has not been included. Due to the limited methodological rigor and loose adherence to the scientific method the information presented in this guide should be seen as indicatory only.

SBCD Energy Systems

49


PICTURE REFERENCES cover page 13 page 15 page 17 page 19 page 21 page 23 page 25 page 27 page 29 page 31 page 33 page 35 page 37 page 39 page 41 page 43 page 45 page 47

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SBCD Energy Systems

An architect's guide to sustainable energy generation, wijtsma  

A short and concise overview of the different types of systems that provide a renewable source of energy for a building seems to be missing....

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