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The Type of Time A documentation of infamous Typographers through time.

Edited by Derek Green

Toast at Twelve Press


Š 2013 Toast At Twelve press

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Acknowledgments To my parents and brothers for their encouragement along the way, my friends for keeping my spirits high and to my teachers for their guidance and knowledge. I am a stronger designer and a better person because of all of you. For that I thank you and I love you.

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Table of Contents Acknowledgments Introduction Craig Jobson

V IX

By Birth

1300s Johann Gutenberg

Erica Camaren

1400s 02

William Caxton 04 Austin Michaud

Nicolas Jenson

06

Joe Flores

Aldus Manutius

Amanda Lancy

08

Henri and Robert Estienne

10

Geoffory Tory

12

Claude Garamond

14

Derek Green

Kristina Kelliher

Myrene Gallardo

1700s John Baskerville

16

Pierre Simon Fournier

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Ashia Sabbath

Shelby Norman

Giambattista Bodoni

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Vincent Figgins

22

Paulina Partyka Sarah Swenson

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1900s

1800s Darius Wells

24

William Thorowgood

26

Alice Werley

Max Miedinger

44

Herb Lubalin

46

Austin Michaud Paulina Partyka

Cory Turek

Ottmar Mergenthaler

Erica Camaren

Frederic Goudy

Derek Green

28

Adrian Frutiger

48

30

Matthew Carter

50

Shelby Norman

Donald Wu

32

Zuzana Licko

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Morris Benton

34

T-26

54

Paul Renner

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Eric Gill

38

Stanley Morison

40

Robert Middleton

42

Bruce Rogers

Madeline Hannelly Joe Flores

Amanda Lancey

Kelly O’Keefe

Kimberly Ann Sula

Myrene Gallardo Ashia Sabbath Alice Werley

Appendix Typefaces

56

Biographies

63

Bibliography 67 VII


VIII


Introduction Man is an innovator. There is a part of human nature which compels us to better ourselves and improve our way of life. A life which once was a constant struggle to survive has evolved to one rich in emotional and material comforts. This progression has been possible through the transference of knowledge. We have learned from our mistakes and have been able to benefit from our forefather’s wisdom. Perhaps man’s greatest innovation has been that of written language, the tool that has allowed us to record what we have learned for our posterity’s benefit. Started as a method of identifying goods in Mesopotamia, written language consisted primarily of single symbols stamped to the sides of barrels a nd pottery. These stamps eventually evolved into pictographs, where in Egypt when used in sequence told tales on the great columns of Egyptian temples. The invention of papyrus met the need for a more efficient way of recording information. Hieroglyphs were replaced by hieratics. This laborious method of communicating was further modified by the Phoenicians who developed the alphabet. The Greeks borrowing from the merchant Phoenicians, improved the alphabet, passed it on to the Etruscans who gave it to the Romans, who made it a thing of beauty although with three less letters (J,U,and W) than what we currently use. Their eloquent buildings were ornamented with the characters we still use today. With the passing of the Roman Empire culture, education, governance, philosophy became the providence of the church.

During much of what is now referred to as Medieval Ages, much education and bookmaking was relegated to monks and the other individuals in religious life. Books were painstakingly copied by hand and illustrated in full color by a select few who had the skills to make a book. Books were rare and expensive items. Scholasticism and later the Renaissance created a need for broader and more efficient communications first on behalf of the church and then later as a means of advancing humanist interests. The invention in the West of movable typography, papermaking and printing met that need. Books could be made by the thousands and their information available to an ever increasing audience. With this increase of knowledge came a renewed interest in the classics, the glory of Rome and the beauty of the Roman characters. Classical letterforms were studied and analyzed. That research, in the 15th century, resulted in the letterforms we use today, their shape having been fixed in hot-metal in the later half of the Renaissance. The developments in communications from then to now have been great though the alphabet has remained largely the same. This work honors the designers who have made those changes and in doing so, changed the way we read and learn.

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Time For Typographers

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Johann Gutenberg Erica Camaren

B

orn into a wealthy family in Mainz, Germany, Johann Gutenberg was a privileged boy who wassurrounded by numerous books throughout his upbringing. He always said that it was a pity that the poor didn’t have access to knowledge like the rich did. It was because of this that Guten wanted to create a method that made the process of printing much faster and inexpensive; because even though block printing shortened the development time of book making, each block was only one page and took a great amount of time to produce. When Guten’s family moved to Strasburg, he discovered a ruined building in which he was admitted to restore and use as his personal workshop. It was here that he worked on the development of his printing method, but eventually his funds ran dry and he had to put his studies on hold. However, in1450 a lawyer named Fust took interest in Guten’s idea and loaned him some money to continue his experiments. Within two years they became business partners and began developing a 42-line Bible (duplicate of Latin original) that would be the first book printed using metal movable type.

1398-1468

It was was ready for printing in 1455, but during this process, Fust realized that Guten was more concerned with spending the money he had lent him to improve his design as opposed to the development of their Bible and soon Fust demanded his money back and sued Guten for everything he had, including the tools that he worked with. Regardless of losing his portfolio of work, the Gutenberg Bible was clear, sharp, and created with movable types of metal. This allowed a quick development process of book making and because so, the second information communications revolution began. Before Guten’s invention, knowledge was only in reach of the wealthy, but now that the printing process was fast, inexpensive, and reusable, everyone could obtain the knowledge captured within books. Also, this allowed information to circulate beyond the city it was actualized in, so no longer did scholars have to travel to become educated on certain issues. Guten generated a printing press that not only played an important component of technological and scientific advancement, but also was a crucial element for the rise of modern government. Just before his death in 1468, Guten’s invention was printing books all over the continent.

Letter blocks used for Gutenberg’s metal movable type method.

A section of the 42-line Gutenberg Bible which was created using his version of movable type.

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The Type of Time: Johann Gutenberg


William Caxton Austin Michaud

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here are many gaps in William Caxton’s life that biographers can’t fill in due to the limited recorded history of the 15th century. However, it is clear to them that Caxton’s life was clearly split into two halves; Caxton the merchant and Caxton the scholar-printer. Caxton’s life as a merchant first dates back to 1438 where he was recorded as being the apprentice to Robert Large, a London based merchant who dealt mostly with luxury goods. Large died in 1441, however, Caxton continued to work for Mercer’s Company, an elite trade association (Mercer being derived from the latin “merx” meaning “merchandise”). In 1453 he left Mercer’s Company and settled in Bruges where he became the governor of the Company of Merchant Adventurers of London. His new trade brought him in contact with Burgundy, a kingdom located on the border of todays France and Spain. He later became a member of the household of Margaret, Duchess of Burgundy, wife of Charles the Bold and sister of two Kings of England. This shift in positions marks the beginning of the second half of Caxton’s life, according to biographers. His new employment with the Duchess of Burgundy is unclear due to vague documentation but it is believed that he was either a secretary, librarian, or both. Regardless, this new position allowed him to travel much more than he did before but most importantly it brought him to Cologne, Germany. Cologne was a major European city due to it’s location along European trade routes.

1415-1492

It was here that Caxton was first exposed to the printing press. Caxton was so impressed with this new technology that he soon built his own press back in Bruges with the help of a local mason. It was here where he printed his first book in English, “Recuyell” a translation of the French text “Recueil des histoires de Troies”. The translation was so successful that Caxton brought his skills back to England. In 1476 he set up a press in Westminster, the first book to be produced here was an edition of Chaucer’s “Canterbury Tales”. Caxton printed an edition of “Canterbury Tales” as a way to help Chaucer promote some of his less popular poems and texts. “Canterbury Tales” served as the main poem of the publications produced in 1477 and in 1483. The difference between these two were simply the other texts written by Chaucer during that time. The biggest change between the original “Canterbury Tales” and Caxton’s edition is the addition of woodcuts. Caxton continued to print various other texts including “Golden Legends” in 1483 and “The Book of the Knight in the Tower” in 1484. A majority of Caxton’s publications were popular among the English upper classes, which provided him with lots of support from nobility and gentry. Just like the rest of Caxton’s life his death is also fairly uncertain. Due to records of his burial at St. Margaret’s in Westminster his death can be referenced to March of 1492.

A passage from a publication of Chaucer’s writting printed by Caxton

An image and text from a copy of Caxton’s edition of Chaucer’s “Canterbury Tales”

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The Type of Time: William Caxton


Nicolas Jenson Joe Flores

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orn in France in 1420, Nicholas Jenson was known as an engraver as well as being a type designer who was accredited for creating the first Roman type. In 1458, Jenson worked as an engraver at one of France’s mints. Charles VII would send him to Mainz to study the art of moveable type which Johannes Gutenberg had perfected. He spent close to three years in Mainz, possibly studying under Schoffer and Fust, principle workman of Johannes Gutenberg. He would return back only to find that the monarch was replaced with someone who wasn’t as fond as printmaking as the previous one. This would lead Jenson to relocate to Venice where he apparently worked at the press of Johannas de Spira. Jenson’s distaste for Guttenberg’s Gothic Textura inspired him to work with styling his own lettering that would later be known as Roman type. The Roman type made its debut in Preparatio Evangelica for Eusebius. This new style showed little contrast between thick stem and thin hairline strokes because of the primitive carving methods of the times. His serifs were blunt and heavily bracketed; and his caps were shorter in height than the ascenders so that more lines could fit on a page.

1420-1480

The lowercase “e” had a distinctive slanted cross stroke Jenson’s Cloister Old-style became the first Old Style type face. Jenson would create the 100 year shift away from Gothic to humanistic also known as the Roman, typeface use across Europe. Jenson would be the first to present this form and font in 1471, which led to everyone following his style. Apart from creating the first Roman set type, Jenson was able to expand financially. By this, he could run as many as twelve presses simultaneously. He as well was responsible for launching two book publishing companies as well. Jenson’s type has been used continuously since its design in 1470: it has proven its worthiness through many interpretations. Some of Jenson’s offspring include Golden (Morris, 1890), Kennerly (Goudy, 1911), Cloister Old Style (Benton, 1913), Centaur (Rogers, 1915), and Berkley Oldstyle (Goudy, 1938). Jenson’s work was resurrected by the early 20th century arts and crafts designers, most notably being William Morris’ Golden type.

Nicholas Jenson’s sample of roman typeface, printed in 1475 in Venice

Page out of The Manual of Linotype Typography

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The Type of Time: Nicolas Jenson


Aldus Manutius Amanda Lancy

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ldus Manutius is widely known for establishing the common paperback when he first designed inexpensive, compact books in volume for the public. Though he is recognized as revolutionizing modern type with his exploration and usage of the comma and semicolon, Manutius is particularly praised for his development of italicized font—otherwise known as Aldine Italic. Originally named Teobaldo Manucci, Manutius was born in Bassiano, Italy to a wealthy family in 1449. He went on to study Latin in Rome, and Greek in Ferrara before settling in Florence working as a tutor. After collecting enough funds to pioneer his own printing press, Manutius assembled himself a team of Greek scholars and compositors in Venice, Italy. In 1495 he began printing volumes of classic writings by legends such as Aristotle, Plato, and Aristophanes. In fact, Manutius is recognized as generating the first printed editions of many Greek and Latin classics. His printing office became known as the Aldine Press, and is well-known to this day.

1450-1515

Manatuis developed a clear strategy regarding the design of his books which involved an efficient use of space and materials, simultaneously resulting in a pocket-sized product for the public’s convenience. Due to his specifications of conserving space, Manatius arranged for his type-cutter, Francesco Griffo, to produce a narrow and compressed typeface—today known as italic. His goal to produce classic writings as inexpensively as possible proved difficult as he was met with many challenges including staff strikes, and rival thievery. His application of italic type, though, allowed for him to print 1000 copies, rather than 200 copies of literature. These innovations led the Aldine Press to success and world-wide acknowledgment. Although italic is no longer applied as a solution for compressing type but, rather, is used in expressing emphasis, it is still a wildly popular choice of type in modern writings. Manutius enjoyed a patent for his creation for many years, and italic type we use today is very much influenced by his original Aldine Italic. The Aldine Press went on to create and succeed following Manutius’ death in 1515.

Manutius’ Publishing device is shown above; a symbol linking his press to the published book.

A sample of Aldine Italic. The use of a narrow, slanted font allowed more space avaiable for content.

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The Type of Time: Aldus Manutius


Henri & Robert Estienne Derek Green

1470-1520

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he Estienne family was a family of printers during the 15th and16th century. Henri Estienne the first was born in Paris in 1470, but he didn’t start printing until the1500s. Henri’s son Robert who was born in 1503 followed in his father’s foot steps and became a printer in Paris as well. Robert’s son Henri II carried on the tradition as well. Henri I set up the Estienne family Parisian Dynasty for his following generations. The first work known that Henri I had printed was Abrege de I’Arithmetique of Boethius in 1505. Henri known to have collaborated with Wolfgang Hopyl printed some 150 from 1505 till his death. Henri’s son following in his fathers footsteps continued printing in Paris. Robert took control of his fathers printing shop in 1526 from his fathers partner who was also his new step father. An overabundance of attention to Robert, in 1550, caused him to pack up and move his printing house to Geneva. Estienne was able to make his new printing studio famous in Paris because of the quantity and quality of books he was producing. He was producing many editions of grammatical works as well as other school-books, and of classical and Patristic authors. Many of these prints were famous for their typographical elegance, especially the Greek editions. In 1532 Robert published the Thesaurus Linguae Latina and as well as the entire Hebrew Bible, twice. Robert was a remarkable printer and typesetter.

Not only producing mass quantities of scholarly, religious and educational books, but also did them in elegant and beautiful ways. Robert unfortunately died at the age of 57 in 1559 leaving the Parisian Dynasty to his three sons Henri, Robert, and Francois who became popular as printers themselves. Of those three the most popular one was certainly Henri Estienne II. Being born in 1528 he showed early in life an interest in his fathers work and in education itself. In 1554, Henri published his first independent work The Anacreon, this was printed in Paris as well. In 1557, Henri started his own printing house and began to call himself the Parisian printer, continuing on his family’s Parisian Dynasty. A few years later he took control of his fathers presses and in doing so he improved many old translations and made new Latin translations. Henri’s most popular work was the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae also known as the Greek thesaurus which was used up to the 19th century. Henri II died at the age of 60 in 1598 in Lyon. He did have children who assumed control of his presses and became printers themselves. The Estienne family ran the publishing and printing in Paris during the 15th and 16th century. Typographical giants who are still known and cited to this day.

Henri Estienne’s The Modern Bibliomaniac

Stephanus Platonis opera quae

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The Type of Time: Henri and Robert Estienne


Geoffory Tory Kristina Kelliher

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eoffory Tory was a sixteenth century artist in the French Renaissance. Highly influenced by Humanism, he developed letterforms. Tory was born in Bourges in 1480 where he studied. He then moved to Paris in 1505 where he became a philosophy professor for the University of Paris. He then found interest in editing and publication. During this time, he attempted to make French text even though writing was primarily Latin. In order to make the French text legible, he utilized apostrophes, cedilla, and accents. Tory began to steer his research toward printing in the French language. While working on his book in 1525 called Book of Hours, he designed text and stylized pictures for it. He developed the idea of graphic design before it was even defined. In 1529 his book titled Champfleury, launched new ideas of letterforms. In French, the book is translated to “flower field” or “paradise.” It took on that name because of the calming nature of his Roman based letterforms that were precise and legible. He used a technique he had produced while using the concepts of geometry with grids and accurate measurements as tools. Although there were consequences to his book Champfleury. He had great passion for the Roman typeface and perfecting French writing.

1480-1533

Most of the letterforms in France at that time were Gothic. In his book, Tory explained how the Roman typeface and French language was superior when it came to legibility in type. He created diagrams and grids to demonstrate his assertions. The grids mapped out how the letterforms should be perceived. He also used the geometric forms of circles to indicate perfections of the serifs.Tory also used the Humanist ideals to compare letterforms to the human body. With this he wanted to show how type corresponded to the anatomy of humans in relation to their body parts. For example, in one of the images of his book Champfleury he mapped out the letterform of a K and compared the leg of the K to an outstretched leg of a human. The leg of the K was congruent with the leg of the human. The Humanist views of Roman letterforms were conserved in France. In 1530 he was the printer for King Francis. Around 1553, he died and the new printer was Claude Garamond. Garamond was a typographer who found the Roman letterforms just as intriguing as Geoffory Tory, and took over where the first royal printer had left off.

An example of how Geoffory Tory used the human anatomy to compare to Roman letterforms from Champfluery, 1529

A page from Geoffory Tory’s Book of Hours, 1525.

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The Type of Time: Geoffory Tory


Claude Garamond Myrene Gallardo

C

laude Garamond was born in Paris, France in 1480. Garamond was an engraver, typeface designer, and publisher. He studied under France’s master typographer Geofroy Tory. At some point, Garamond got to cut his own punches and matrixes. Garamond’s work showed a development and refinement of form in type under the influence of Tory. The attitude and philosophy that Garamond took from Tory helped him improve on the systematic approach to the basic elements of the typeface. He established himself as the most significant French type cutter of his era. Garamond displayed his type was a strong development from the Aldine letter; it was tense bracketing and higher contracts of stroke weights. Garamond has been regarded as one of the best type designers followed by Gutenberg’s invention of movable type. Having Aldus Manutius’s roman type as inspiration, Garamond created and cut his first letters for an edition of Erasmus. He was commissioned by King Francis I of France to create a new cast of type, which is known as Grecs du Roi. Garamond’s italic and roman types were innovated as metal types not as imitations of handwriting.

1480-1561

The Roman letter became standard and was generally accepted in France, and it took in place of the black letter and Gothic. He was dedicated was to ensure the eligibility of the typeface, but to also reflect on its structure, tone, and cultural context. “Garamond is credited with developing the sloped capital forms of the italic letter, a genre previously limited to lowercase, and thus creating the conditions for the concept of the companion italic, which is widely attributed to his younger colleague, Robert Granjon.” “For some time Garamond was thought to have been responsible for the letters known as the Caracteres de l’Universite in the Imprimerie Royale in Paris, which formed the basis for revivals such as Morris Fuller Benton’s ATF Garamond, issued in 1918, Monotype Garamond, and Frederic Goudy’s 1921 Garamont.” “Types designed by Garamond were used in the printeries of the Estienne family, Colines, Plantin, and Bodoni, and types used by the Elzevir family were based on his designs.”

W. Pincus Jaspert, W. Turner Berry, A.F. Johnson. The Encyclopaedia of Type Faces, 4th Ed. London: Bland- ford, 1991, p. 100.

Garamond type punches late 16th century Plantin-Moretus Museum, Antwerp

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The Type of Time: Claude Garamond


John Baskerville Ashia Sabbath

J

ohn Baskerville was born in 1706 in a small village and was a printer in Birmingham, England. Baskerville was a master for compelling innovations in printing and ink production. During his teenage years he use to engrave tombstones, and was discovered while he was working as a house servant. As he got older he was teaching writing and bookkeeping and running an engraved business. By the age of thirty he became interested in the then-popular lacquering process now called japanning which made him wealthy. Japanning is a method of varnishing a surface, such as wood, metal, or glass, to obtain a durable, lustrous finish, which was first brought to Birmingham by John Taylor. He soon later died after that, so John Baskerville picked up what used to be John Taylor’s business and started his own, so to speak. In 1749 Baskerville made elegant work and great trade in the japan art. In the japan business Baskerville and John Taylor competed with each other, in way that Baskerville wasn’t making the same things Taylor was making. Baskerville wanted to make sure that if he was going to make these japan pieces, he was going to make them better and more unique. John Baskerville was a person of much consequence in Birmingham when he took up the matter of type founding and printing.

1706-1775

John Baskerville was a bit of a perfectionist which demanded complete control over his entire printing process. Baskerville was also responsible for developing a technique which produced a smoother whiter paper which featured the strength of his black type. Baskerville also launched a completely original style of typography which involved wide margins and leading between each line. Baskerville designed and created type and layouts, he improved the presses and inks and also developed new paper making techniques enabling the creation of smooth bright papers. William Carlson who was an English contemporary and has work from the Italian renaissance printers was one of Baskerville’s influences. Although he had people who influenced him, when he did different pieces of work he was made sure to keep to his own style. Baskerville would refine his work to create type with more extreme contrast of thick and thin strokes, which ultimately gave a great lightness and color. John Baskerville had such strong typography that his letterforms were able to stand on their own. His letterforms had a wider look to them, than most. Baskerville died at the age of sixty-nine in January 1775.

Baskerville is a transitional serif typeface designed in 1757 by John Baskerville. The Baskerville typeface is the result of John Baskerville’s intent to improve upon the types of William Caslon.

Hand-Press such as was used by Baskerville From Luckombe’s History and Art of Printing

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The Type of Time: John Baskerville


Pierre Simon Fournier Shelby Norman

P

ierre Simon Fournier was a French punch cutter and type founder. Fournier was the youngest son of a printing family and it is only natural that he would follow in their footsteps. Fournier was also known as Fournier le Jeune. He is known for creating typographical ornaments that reflect excessive curving, elegance, and natural form. His ornaments reflect the Rococo style of the eighteenth century. Fournier is known for his many contributions to the world of typography, including the measurement of type by the point system. In 1729, he went to work alongside his brother in the Le Be Foundry in Paris. Fournier began his career by cutting woodblock book-ornaments. Soon after, he abandoned woodblock cutting and started cutting steel block plates. He derived a skill set that would later allow him to create a table of dimensions and relationships of type-bodies, which is recognized as the point system today. Fournier later built his own type foundry in 1736, which was located in Paris, France. The Manuel Typographique, in which Fournier wrote about the art of punch cutting and type founding, shows the range of his exotic alphabets, ornaments, and his distinctive italic faces.

1712-1768

The Manuel Typographique was a two-volume work published in 1764. Fournier is also known for his work in deriving the Table Generale de la Proportion, which forms the basis of the point system. Although Fournier’s point system has been revised over the years, his inclination to create a system of measurement by the use of the point remains his own. His point system solved the problem that numerous printers could not during his time period. There was no standard measuring system, which made printing rather difficult at this time. Numerous printers had measurement systems independent to themselves. Fournier decided to create his punches to a scale of 72 points to the Paris inch. It wasn’t until 1785 that Francois Ambrose refined Fournier’s point system, and the pica originated. The pica contains 12-point units of measurement. Fournier’s establishment of the point system influenced the creation of the pica, and the revised point system that is recognized today. His work influenced other important typographers such as Didot, Bodoni, and Walbaum. Typographers and designers throughout the world recognize the point system and pica. His work is continually contributing to the world of typography today.

Printing materials used for typesetting

Manuel Typographique by Adrian Frutiger

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The Type of Time: Pierre Simon Fournier


Giambattista Bodoni Paulina Partyka

G

iambattista Bodoni was born on February 16th, 1740 in Turin, Italy. His father and grandfather were both in the printmaking trade, where Bodoni learned most of these skills. He was always eager to learn and anxious to master his skills. His first job was in Rome, where he was an apprentice at the Propoganda Fide printing house. This was where he published his first books, the Coptic Misaal and his version of the Tibetan Alphabet. Later in his life, he was hired by Duke Ferdinando of Bourban-Parma to organize a printing house in Parma. It later became one of the greatesthouses in Italy, La Stamperia Reale or The Royal Printing House. He then published a few more of his books and eventually ended up opening one of his own printing houses called Officina Bodoni. He was one of the first to cut a modern typeface. A modern typeface has hairline serifs at right angles to the uprights, vertical stress, and abrupt contrast between thick and thin strokes. It was a brand new typeface that refrained from decorative padding and was based on symmetry and proportionality. At this time, he became one of the most well-known typographers in Europe. He had designed almost 300 typefaces and produced about 1,200 editions in the various print houses.

1740-1813

His style became so popular that Bodoni actually was reffered to a style of font, rather than just a typeface. Even to this day, most designers use Bodoni’s type style throughout their works. After his death on November 29th, 1813, his wife published the Manuale Tipografico, which means, The Inventory of Types. It was published in 1818, five years after his death. The book set out the priciples of ypography. It was a collection of 291 Roman and Italic typefaces, along with samples of Greek, Russian and other types. It also included a collection of ornamentals and geometric patterns. The book features very large type, which was what Bodoni’s type style was actually designed for. He designed it to be read better larger than smaller. This was also made to show high contrast in layouts and to better balance the positive and negative spaces throughout his manual. In his lifetime, Bodoni had accomplished a great deal. He had revolutionized the way people saw type, and had even created a design manual to help guide typographers to come up with outstanding work like his. He was one of the first to do so and for this he is remembered.

Title page of Bodoni’s Manuale Tipografico

Page from Bononi’s Manuale Tipografico

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The Type of Time: Giambattista Bodoni


Vincent Figgins Sarah Swenson

V

incent Figgins was born in Peckham, England in 1766. Vincent began his career as a typographer as an appren- tice to Joseph Jackson. He is best known for his introduc- tion of egyptian style typeface. After Jackson died, Figgins was unabe to keep the business due to financial problems. However Figgins eventually had his own business, in which he produced many significant commissions. Figgins played an important role in the rising industrial age because his designs were bold and powerful, which was ideal for advertisements. His types reflected the age of industrialism with bold slab serifs and even weight. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the public lost interest in elegant traditional roman fonts and instead became more attracted to bold contemporary typefaces. Initially, Figgins was popular for his beautiful renditions of classical type in bible commisions. As the turn of the century brought a new age of industrialism, and the need for more commercial typefaces grew. Figgins began developing type designs that were bold and commercial. Earlier, he used a combination of thin and thick srtokes.

Eventually, his designs used the same weight throughout each letter. One design that Figgins had a reputation for was the use of bold slab serifs. In his designs, the seriffs would often be as thick as the strokes. In Figgins’ specimen book of 1817, his bold type (Egyptian) would be labelled as “antique roman”, which was compared to a fat face style at the time. Figgins recieved some criticism for his designs, but then was acclaimed for creating one of the best typefaces of the 19th century. Figgins designs would be widely used in early forms of advertisments, like handbills and posters, because of it’s commercial appearance. Vincent Figgins was important in the gowing industrial age because his typefaces allowed a commercial appeal, ideal for advertisements. The “fat face” letters would be used from then on in newspapers and advertisements in the 19th century.

Egyptian Typeface in 19th century newspaper

Example of Fat Face Type

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The Type of Time: Vincent Figgins

1766-1844


Darius Wells Alice Werley

D

arius Wells was born in the year 1800 in Johnstown, New York. He began his career in printing in his youth as an apprentice to William Childs. After six years of apprenticeship, Wells and Childs moved to Amsterdam, New York, and established the town’s first newspaper. Wells and Childs continued to work as partners in their printing business, which they later moved to New York City. It was around this time that Wells began experimenting with using wood to create letterforms. Before Wells, letterforms used in commercial printing were made of metal. They were also expensive and did not come in large sizes. By simply substituting the metal with wood, Wells created a less costly way to manufacture letterforms in a wider variety of sizes. Wood type also eliminated the occasional distortion that metal letterforms would cause due to uneven cooling when the metal was forged. Wood type also guaranteed smooth and even printing of larger type. Wells introduced his wood type in 1827, and created the first ever wood type catalog that following year. The catalog contained seven styles of type in twenty-­‐one sizes.

1800-1875

In an effort to improve upon his invention, he subsequently designed a tool to increase the efficiency and precision with which a letterform would be cut. The device he invented is known as the lateral, or Wells, router. After discovering his passion in letter-­‐cutting, Wells created his own company called “D. Wells and Co.” which later became “Wells and Webb,” after Wells partnered with one of his employees, Ebenezer Russell Webb. This new company was based in New York City, but later expanded with the establishment of a factory in Paterson, New Jersey in 1840. The Paterson factory manufactured Wells’ wood type, and later expanded to offering a few other printing materials. Wells worked until 1856 when he retired in Paterson, and died in 1875.

Large wood type letters.

Poster created with wood type, printed in 1819.

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The Type of Time: Darius Wells


William Thorowgood Cory Turek

T

he Fann Street Foundry was founded by Thomas Cottrell in 1757 London. Cottrell used to work for William Caslon before they got into a dispute over wages. In 1794 Robert Thorne ended up buying the foundry. At the time there was a demand for letters with heavier forms that were more useful for short and bold text; these became known as slab serifs. Thorne designed fonts that met these needs, but was never able to release them. When he died in 1820, the foundry ended up in Thorowgood’s hands. Thorowgood bought the Fann Street Foundry in an auction with the money he had won in a lottery. He had never been involved in type foundries before this, but he was able to make it successful in the begininning by releasing Thorne’s type faces to the public. To this day, most of the fonts that are under Thorowgood were actually created by Thorne. In Thorowgood’s book “A New Specimen of Printing Types,” he named Thorne’s slab serif faces “Egyptians.” Later on Thorowgood designed and added more type faces such as black letters, Greek, and some foreign faces. He was able to obtain the Russian type faces from the Breitkopt & Hartell foundry in Leipzig, Germany.

1820-1877

The style of black letter is sometimes called “fraktur,” which is what it is known as in Germany. The Greek font was made using the simple one-cut strokes found in classical type from Greece. This produced what is known as a sans serif font face today. Thorowgood also named this face Egyptian because the faces had a simple style that he found similar to ancient Egyptian artifacts. There is a lot of confusion between Thorowgood’s and one of Caslon’s type faces because it is called “Two Lines Egyptian.” The strange thing is that there is no known example of the face being used, and the client that it was made for is also unknown. Thorowgood might have been trying something new with serif faces without knowing the importance of what he had created. Either way he created England’s first sans serif type face. In 1828 Thorowgood bought the Edmund Fry foundry which supplied his foundry with more foreign fonts, and Some time after that Robert Besly started working with Thorowgood. Thorowgood retired in 1849, the foundry being taken over Besly.

Fry’s Baskerville; one of the type faces aquired by Thorowgood in 1828

Elion Regular; an example of a slab serif type face

26

The Type of Time: William Thorowgood


Ottmar Mergenthaler Erica Camaren

B

orn into a family of teachers in Hachtel, Germany, Ottmar Mergenthaler chose a different career path than his father would have preferred. He enjoyed making mathematical instruments and working with machinery, and so for a number of years Ottmar worked as a watchmaker’s apprentice. It was in 1872 that he moved to America where he would work for the watchmaker’s son and soon begin his fascination of mechanizing the typesetting method. After two years in America, Ottmar moved from Washington DC to Baltimore in hopes of better business prospects for their shop. One of his first major projects dealing with type was creating a machine that would decrease the number of steps it took for court stenographers to transfer shorthand to type. It was then that Ottmar realized he wanted to focus his work on designing and constructing typesetting machines, so in 1883 he opened his own shop where he would soon create a device that would make history. The first device of Ottmar’s that was marketed to the public was known as “The Blower”, and in 1886 it was featured in the New York Tribune’s composing room. There the famous name Linotype was coined by publisher Whitelaw Reid stating ‘Ottmar, you’ve done it!

1854-1899

A line o’ type!’ Ottmar’s invention allowed an entire line of type to be set at once, and both typesetting and casting were performed at a single keyboard. During the next four years, the Tribune had accumulated over a dozen Linotype machines all in which helped publish a 500-page book called The Tribune Book of Open Air Sports. It was in this book a note of dedication to Mergenthaler and his machine, which entirely over rid the use of movable type. The device that Ottmar created was a huge progression in the world of typesetting, now newspapers could increase in page count, and reading materials became more affordable. However, this sort of advancement put thousands of journeyman typesetters out of work because typers who would work for much lower prices could now complete their job at an extremely fast pace. Ottmar wasn’t able to enjoy the success of his invention too much longer, he passed at an early age of 44 due to tuberculosis that he was diagnosed with five years prior. At that time, over 7,000 of his Linotype machines were being used worldwide, Thomas Edison later calling it “the eighth wonder of the world”.

Mergenthaler’s Linotype machine which set type as a full line and allowed both typesetting and casting to be performed at a single keyboard.

The 500-page book that had been printed using Ottmar’s Linotype machine. In the book is a dedication to Mergenthaler and his invention.

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The Type of Time: Ottmar Mergenthaler


Frederic Goudy Derek Green

F

rederic Goudy was born March 8, 1865 and died May 11, 1947. He was born in Bloomington, Illinois with two siblings to his father, John Goudy. His father’s family came from Ohio as farmers, being the son of a Scottish immigrant. Growing up, Frederic never showed any signs of greatness or unique typographical abilities. His classmates quoted that he was a strange and likable individual but never extraordinary. Frederic’s first drawn alphabet was foundry bought and cast into type at the age of 30. He didn’t become a professional type designer until the age of 46. During his early career, he designed display typefaces mostly for advertising. In 1903, Frederic and one of his students, Will H. Ransom, founded the Village Press in Park Ridge, Illinois. The first book that the Village press printed was titled Printing by William Morris and Emery Walker. Shortly after, Goudy bought his partner out of the Village press business. In 1915, Goudy invented one of his most popular types known as Goudy Old Style for the American Type Founders Company which was released that same year. As his career went on Frederic became more interested in design and traditional Roman typefaces. He would draw many of his typefaces by hand and sometimes let companies produce matrices for his typefaces.

From 1920 to 1947, Goudy was art director for Lanston Monotype. In 1927 Goudy became vicepresident of the Continental Type Founders Association, which helped Goudy to expand himself and his typefaces. The same year he had also set up in his home in New York, so that he could produce how he wanted to and be as creative as he would like. During this time he had also begun to stop letting companies produce his matrices but started doing it himself. Unfortunately in 1939 a fire occurred and destroyed Goudy’s work, this was the second fire in his life that had set his typographical work behind. The last 25 years of his life Frederic Goudy was a famous man. He traveled between schools, businesses and clubs as a popular speaker teaching anyone who was willing to listen. Frederic Goudy influenced many typesetters to follow such as William A. Dwiggins, Oswald Cooper, and R. Hunter Middleton. He spoke on the importance of typography and the art of type setting. By the time Goudy died he had designed 122 typefaces and published 59 literary works. Frederic Goudy was an unexpected and welcomed addition to the history of typography. Though living a hectic and chaotic life, he was able to greatly influence to future of type.

Printers Mark of Village Press, 1912

Goudy Italian Old

30

The Type of Time: Frederic Goudy

1865-1947


Bruce Rogers Madeline Hannelly

K

nown for his page layouts, book-making and exquisite, traditional typography, Bruce Rogers is one of the great American typographers of all time. Bruce Rogers was born in Linnwood, Indiana on May 14, 1870. He began attending school at the age of six and in his twelfth year of schooling, a cousin of his gave him a book by John Ruskin named, “Elements of Drawing.” The book helped him realize that letters were more than just symbols used to construct words. The inspiration of typography slipped his mind until after college, while living in Boston. After attending an exhibition of books at the Boston Public Library, he viewed Nicolas Jenson’s “Eusebius” for the first time. He became infat- uated with the beauty of its pages. More specifically, the typeface used throughout the book inspired him to create what he refferred to as “the perfect font.” After a few years of designing this “perfect font,” Rogers met the American scholars Henry Watson Kent and John Cotton Dana. Both the men had many interests but a common one between them was printing.

1870-1957

It was not until meeting both of them that Rogers became interested in the trade himself and began to pursue it. About ten years after meeting the two printers, Rogers began working on the “perfect font” once again. Rogers sent a draft of it to a man named Robert Weibking to edit and make revisions. After passing the font back and forth- between them and making multiple revisions on it, the font was sent to the American Type Founders Company. This font eventually became known as Centaur. It is consid- ered by most to be his most successfully executed typeface and it is definitely one of his most revered works. Centaur has since been used in many works; one of them being in the Oxford Lectern Bible. Later on, Harvard Univer- sity Press acquired the font. Bruce Rogers passed away on May 18, 1957 in Newfair- field, Connecticut. Athough his life has ended, his legacy and his work, still lives on and influences typography, print- ing, and book design today.

Centaur Typeface: Alphabet by Bruce Rogers

Centaur Typeface: Numbers by Bruce Rogers

32

The Type of Time: Bruce Rogers


Morris Benton Joe Flores

B

orn on 1844 in Little Falls, New Jersey, American Engineer Linn Boyd Benton “founded ATF (the American Typefounders Company) which was a business trust. Linn Boyd Benton’s son Morris Fuller Benton was also employed by ATF. “The Bentons and ATF are largely responsible for the bringing of sans serif type into mainstream design usage.” “Sans serif typefaces today are used all over the world to set text as well as headlines. The breadth of the sans serif medium has grown to rival serif typography in overall usage.” Noted for the invention of the Pantographic punch-cutting machine, it separated the designing of type from their original production as fonts for the first time. This invention “simplified the process of matrix production, and paved the way for future technologies, such as Ottmar Mergenthaler’s Linotype Machine (1886). This invention came in the nick of time for Mergenthaler Linotype, which at that particular moment in its history faced failure unless it could find an adequate method of providing matrices for its new typesetting machine. “Indeed, it is said that without Benton’s punch-cutter, Linotype setting would

1872-1948

not have been possible. Benton’s skill as an inventor and businessman changed the American typographic landscape forever.” Linn’s son, Morris is “accredited with being the most prolific type designer in American history, with an output twice as great as that of Frederic Goudy. Between 1900 and 1928, Morris designed 18 variations on Century, including the popular Century Schoolbook. “Century was the first major American typeface, which was designed in 1894 by Linn Boyd Benton for Theodor Lowe De Vinne, the printer of the Century Magainze.” The two as individuals were nowhere nearly as accomplished as they were as a duo by taking design and type into a whole new direction creating advancements that would inspire many designers in the future. Despite Linn being overshadowed by his son Morris. “Morris had been credited with inventing the concept of the type family and although this is not the case he did do his best work expanding faces into families and adapting existing type styles for ATF. Linn would later pass away in 1932 in Plainfield, New Jersey, followed by Morris on June 30, 1948.

The American Type Founders Building located in Jersey City (1910)

One of Benton’s lesser known typefacs found in ATF’s Book of American Types.

34

The Type of Time: Morris Benton


Paul Renner Amanda Lancey

P

aul Renner was a graphic designer, typeface designer, writer, painter and teacher born in 1878. Raised in Wernigerode, Germany, Renner was subject to a very strict upbringing. He learned to value responsibility and order and subsequently was weary of abstract forms of expression, particularly in art. Though abstract art was gaining in popularity towards the end of the 19th century, Renner appreciated the concrete design of modernism. From 1908 to 1917 he designed books for the Munich publishing trade where he became aware of the Bauhaus movement. Bauhaus was an influential modernist school of the arts which stressed a sensible connection between art and function. Though Renner was not involved with the school, he appreciated its goals and let their ideals influence his designs. Renner became a member of the German Work Federation where he worked on books, most notably “Typography as Art” and “The Art of Typography”. Between 1924 and 1926, he began designing typefaces based on geometric shapes, linking the traditional style with the modern.

1878-1956

This exploration led to his invention of the Futura typeface. Futura was well received during its release in 1927, and due to its clear, yet commanding appearance it is among the most popular typefaces to this day. This well-designed, sans-serif font became a catalyst for “New Typography” coined as Geometrical Modernism. This movement emphasizes the principles of the Bauhaus aesthetic, as well as Renner’s because it shares the same commitment to marry function and design. Renner’s invention of Futura influenced the idea of clarity, efficiency, and cleanliness in typeface design. This is apparent in the subsequent creations of Kabel, Metro, Vogue, Gotham, Century Gothic typeface designs. Futura was released in many versions, including Light, Condensed, Medium, Bold and Extra Bold. While the font’s success continued to escalate, Paul Renner died in Hodingen, Germany in 1956. Futura is now among the most used typefaces of the 21st Century.

Samples of the family of Futura typeface, created by Paul Renner.

A sample of the style Renner appreciated-- distinct lines, angles, and geometric forms. This aesthetic is showcased in his typographical designs.

36

The Type of Time: Paul Renner


Eric Gill Myrene Gallardo

E

1882-1940

ric Gill was born in Brighton, England on February 22, 1882. He was a sculptor, graphic artist, and mostly known as a type designer. Gill had a knack for drawing at a young age, which led him to study further at Westminster Technical College as an apprentice draftsman for an architect, and later on calligraphy at the Central School of Arts and Crafts. By 1903, Gill left his apprenticeship and joined his influential calligraphy teacher, Edward Johnston. Together they created a business that created inscription and decorative letters that were meant for memorial inscriptions in stone and designed title pages for books. After marrying Ethel Hester Moore in 1904, he moved with his family to Ditchling. There Gill became very involved with the Arts and Crafts organizations. He continued to work on his letter-cutting business, and extended his work into wood engravings and sculptures such as the Stations of the Cross for Westminster Cathedral, London. Along with his many accomplishments, Johnston’s influential alphabet for the London Underground became Gill’s inspiration to creating what is today’s most commemorated Humanist Sans faces, Gill Sans.

Gill Sans was designed as a display face, but the lucidity ensued it to become more of a text face. It was a monoline form founded upon classic Roman proportions. Contrast to its distinctive commercial typeface, it lacked in some ways that it’s form of sans serif that had been in wide use within sign writing from the late 18th century. The “block” letter had not been expressed in the form of metal type. At the beginning, Gill Sans was designed in a regular and bold weight. Gill Sans has a unique italic font that displays cursive qualities. The heavier weight on the typeface can be used as a text setting showing its appeal and color on the page. Followed by the Gill Sans typeface in 1927-30, Gill created other types of designs. “In 1925, Gill designed the Perpetua typeface for Morison, who was working for the Monotype Corporation. Its uppercase was based upon monumental Roman inscriptions.” “In the period 193031, Gill designed the typeface Joanna which he used to handset his book An Essay on Typography.

Incised Alphabet (Hopton-Wood Stone) 1932

38

The Type of Time: Eric Gill

The Way of the Cross, 1939. Wood engraving on the cover of Gill’s tract Social Justice and the Stations of the Cross, 1939 (private collection). 168 x 108 mm. Gill used this image of the sec- ond Station of the Cross to attack formal religion by showing a bishop, helped by businessmen, placing the cross on Christ’s back.


Stanley Morison Ashia Sabbath

T

he infamous typographer designer Stanley Morrison was responsible for some of the most popular typefaces such as the classic Times New Roman, Gills Sans, Times, Poliphilus, and Blado Italic. He was born May 1889 in Wanstead, England. He started out with having no experience in printing or typography. Morison had, what some may call an underprivileged youth and left school at the young age of fourteen to work in an office. He at one point spent sometime in prison for being a conscientious objector to the first world war. After he got through with his imprisonment he decided to convert to Catholicism. Morison believed that his new faith influenced him with his printing strategies. Stanley Morison was self taught, and made himself an expert in the history of typography and laying down letters, words and spacing them to measuring them for the use of book design. In 1919 Morison worked for with the The Pelican Press and there he produced his first typographical study, but soon left three years after than in 1921. He stayed out of a job for the next two year. It was not until 1923 that Morison was rewarded Typographical Adviser to the Langston Monotype Corporation Ltd. in London.

1889-1967

The years past and during that period people saw that Morison had designed book covers for the Victor Gollancz publishing house and that was the beginning of the start of a long association with the Cambridge University Press. On October 3rd, 1932 The Times was Morison’s new typeface, and it was rolling off the presses. The end results were that Times New Roman was designed by Morison and drawn by Victor Lardent. The typeface, Times New Roman is the most successful in Britain and in Europe. More successful than all of those cut in recent years by any type-founding or composing machine company. Typesetting technology has evolved since then, but due to its enduring popularity, Times New Roman has always been one of the first fonts available in each new format. Until his Stanley Morison’s death on October 1967 he remained as the typography consultant to the Monotype corporation. Before his death he was the editor-in-chief of the Times Literary Supplement from 18945-1947, and was crowned Royal Designer Designer for Industry in 1960.

One of the twenty-three capitals engraved for Luca Horfei Alfabeto delle maiuscole antiche discussed on pp. 158-9).

Luca Paciolo, De Divina Proportione (Venice, 1509) Giovan Francesco Cresci, Il perfetto scrittore (Rome, 1570)

40

The Type of Time: Stanley Morison


Robert Middleton Alice Werley

R

obert “Bob” Hunter Middleton was born in Glasgow, Scotland in 1898. He emigrated to the United States at the age of ten, settling down in Chicago, Illinois. Middleton graduated from the School of the Art Institute in 1923 after studying under the tutelage of Ernst Detterer. Together, Middleton and Detterer created the Eusebius series, names for the famed Roman historian. Eusebius was based upon Detterer’s existing typeface called Nicolas Jenson. The Eusebius typeface was crucial in his hiring at Ludlow Typograph Company, where he would work for the next fifty years. After learning matrice cutting from Robert Wiebking, he was promoted to director of type design in 1933, and later as art director. For years at Ludlow, Middleton created countless typographic treatments for advertisments and newspapers all around Chicago. While working at Ludlow, Middleton created almost one hundred typefaces. One of these typefaces is Karnak, a slab-serif. The Karnak series was one of the first typefaces to be designed in medium and light weights. In addition to his professional work, Middleton is noted for his involvement in the creation of a few notable organizations in the world of typography.

1898-1985

Middleton, with his mentor Detterer and another typographer by the name of Oswald Cooper, founded the Society of the Typographic Arts. Middleton served as its first secretary. He also was a founding member of the 27 Chicago Designers, one of the first to participate in the Association Internationale Typographique and an active member of the Typocrafters, a group for midwestern typographic designers. In his free time, Middleton was an avid collector of wood engravings by the English designer Thomas Bewick. He also had his own private press called Cherryburn, with which he taught himself how to recreate printings of Bewick’s illustrations. After working at Ludlow Typograph, Middleton served on their board of directors. In his retirement, he taught at a variety of universities, including Yale, the University of Alabama, and UCLA. He was also the author of two books, “Chicago Letter Founding” and “Making Printers’ Typefaces.” He died an extremely accomplished typographer in 1985.

Original strip casting machine brass name plate made by the Ludlow Typograph Company.

Ludlow Karnak type specimen hand-cast and printed in various sizes with black ink on brown paper at the International Printing Museum.

42

The Type of Time: Robert Middleton


Max Miedinger Austin Michaud

M

ax Miedinger was trained as a typesetter in Zurich, Switzerland from 1926-1930. He then attended classes at Kunstgewerbeschule in Zurich. In 1936 he was hired by Globus as a typographer for the department store’s advertising studio in Zurich. In 1947 he left and began working as a customer councelor and typeface sales representative for Haas’sche Schriftgiegerei in Mtinchenstien. However, in 1956 he left that job and began his life as a freelance graphic designer. Later that year Eduard Hoffman, the director of the Haas type foundry, hired Miedinger to create a sans serif typeface. Miedinger finished his design in 1958 and introduced the roman version of Haas-Grotesk. This typeface was based on the Akzidenz Grotesk typeface from 1898. In 1961 D. Stemple AG foundry purchased the typeface, added some different weights, and renamed it Helvetica. They decided on the name Helvetica because the Latin word for Switzerland is “Helvetica”. Helvetica soon became the symbol of the Swiss school of typography causing the typeface to become an immediate success.

1910-1980

Helvetica’s reinterpretation of earlier serifless typefaces makes it easier to read by relying on clear horizontal and vertical strokes. Helvetica is now owned by Linotype, however, other companies have their own knock off typeface such as Microsoft’s “Arial”. Since the change from Miedinger’s Haas Grotesk to D. Stemple AG’s Helvetica in 1961 the typeface has been very successful. Helvetica has since grown more popular and now can be seen in many different places. The typeface is so popular most people may not realize they’ve seen it. Helvetica occurs everywhere, from advertising, to currency, and the internet. The typeface clearly more popular than Miedinger himself but it’s important to know where the most common typeface in the world came from.

A poster exhibiting different weights styles of Helvetica.

Helvetica being used as a design.

44

The Type of Time: Max Miedinger


Herb Lubalin Paulina Partyka

H

erb Lubalin was born on March 17, 1918 in Brooklyn, New York. He was an art director, type designer, and typographer. After graduating from Cooper Union in 1939, were he began his love for typography. Soon after graduation, he joined the advertising agency of Sudler and Hennesey as an art director. He left Sudler and Hennessey to start his own firm where he expanded his design skills from typography to packaging, and from trademarks to posters. He began to experiment with typography. During this period, he came out with some of his most inspired works. In 1970, he joined with Edward Rondthaler and Aaron Burns to establish the International Typeface Corporation or ITC. One of the typefaces that he has been known to design is the Lubalin Graph typeface. He designed it in 1974 and it is based off of his ITC Avante Garde typeface. The two designs are almost identical, except in Lubalin graph he added the slab serifs. Both are Egyptian typefaces and have a high x-height in relation to the ascenders and descenders. The strokes are equally weighted optically and the typeface has nice curves. The slab serifs give the typeface a geometric edge. Lubalin’s typeface designs were made to display advertising rather than text setting.

1918-1981

Lubalin is also known for the typographic journal named U&lc, which stands for Upper and Lower case. He worked on this journal for the last ten years of his life. He started the journal to put out his typographic advertisements and to experiment with type. He not only designed it, but also edited it. The journal was read by type enthusiasts world wide. It also had a major impact on the publication design in the 1970s. During this same time, he became the creative director of another magazine called Avante Garde. He had also designed a typeface with the same name. He actually based the typeface off of the logo that he did for the Avante Garde magazine, and turned it into its own typeface. However, the only time the typeface was used correctly was the first time that Lubalin published it. From then on it became extremely popular and overused. And incorrectly. Lubalin took typography to an entirely new level in his time. He experimented with it, and even advertised it to make an even larger impact. He has made a huge impact in the type industry through his brilliant typefaces and his extraordinary publications.

Herb Lubalin’s typeface Lubalin Graph

Lubalin’s Avante Garde Publication

46

The Type of Time: Herb Lubalin


Adrian Frutiger Shelby Norman

A

drian Frutiger has had a passion for typography the majority of his life, and his craft grows stronger throughout the years. He has contributed to the world of typography from the early days of manual typesetting, and continues to lend the world his talents. Inspired by his love for sculpture and systematic methods, he created a collection of typefaces that are widely used today. During his earlier years, Frutiger was apprenticed as a compositor to the printers Otto Schaeffli, in the town of Interlaken, Switzerland. His father refused to allow him to pursue his first true interest of sculpting. Frutiger found a way to incorporate his love for sculpture into his typographic designs. Between 1948 and 1951 Frutiger studied at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Zurich. Charles Peignot later recruited Frutiger after he had seen his work which showed meticulous talent in the field of typography. While working for the Typsetters Deberny et Peignot in 1952, Frutiger gained the knowledge and momentum he needed to create the Univers Type family. The Univers type family was later finished in 1957. This typeface is a systematic family consisting of 21 different weights.

1928-Present

Frutiger wanted to extend this systematic family even further by adding five different widths. These widths could be applied to the different weights of the type. He created a numerical system for this typeface rather than using terms such as, “bold” or “light”. In 1969 Frutiger was commissioned to design the signage for the entire Charles De Gaulle International Airport in Paris. Many thought he would want to use his typeface, Univers, to complete the project. Frutiger thought the Univers typeface was too rounded and could not be read from all angles. He decided to design a new typeface specifically for this project that was legible, and would provide immediate recognition. He wanted to design a typeface that could be easily legible at various sizes. This new typeface would eventually become the font we know today as, Frutiger. Because it was such a success, the Frutiger typeface is used for motorway signs in both France and Switzerland today The legibility of the font has made it popular in transit systems throughout the world. Adrian Frutiger continues to modify his fonts and adapt them with the growing technology demands and styles. His developments of type have become standard for what is used today.

Univer typeface grid system

Charles De Gaulle International Airport

48

The Type of Time: Adrian Frutiger


Matthew Carter Donald Wu

M

atthew Carter is known for designing the typeface Bell Centennial for AT&T’s telephone directories in 1976. The predecessor of Bell Centennial was Bell Gothic, which was originally designed by Chauncey H. Griffith in 1937 for the Bell Company’s telephone directories. The company was using the Linotype machine as their printing method until the Cathode Ray Typesetting(CRT) was introduced to them as the more technological way of printing. Being that the Bell Gothic type was designed specially for the Linotype, the transition from metal to photo setting affected the legibility and quality of the prints. The light weight of the Bell Gothic broke apart because it was too thin and sometimes the letters eroded completely at the intersections of its straight and curved strokes. For a short period, the printers tried to compensate the illegibility of the letters by over inking the printing plates, but instead the strokes of each character ran into each other and distorted the looks of some letters. It was also costing printing time and production money. Carter noticed the flaws of the Bell Gothic typeface with the CRT and took the opportunity to design a more legible typeface to accommodate small print

1937-Present

on low quality paper. Ever since, The Bell Centennial has been used by AT&T in their telephone directories. Matthew Carter was also known for creating the Verdana typeface in 1996, specifically for on-screen use. Resolution of a computer screen became an important factor when transitioning type on paper into digital rendering. As a result, the letterforms looked blocky and the integrity of the type was affected. Carter was aware of the coarseness in the screen compared to print. During the late 70’s and the early 80’s, digital imaging techniques were on the rise. Around that time, Carter joined Bitstream, a company with the purpose of designing typefaces for on-screen use. After about 11 years, he decided to start his own type foundry, in which he partnered with Cherrie Cone to establish Carter & Cone in 1992. The Verdana project started because Carter an his partner had the altruistic idea to enhance the on-screen experience for the people. Unlike Truetype and Postscript typeface that were created using outlines, Carter started the creation of Verdana with bitmap. After much experimentation in figuring out the effectiveness of the typeface’s application, Carter finally outlined around the bitmaps.

Grotesque sans-serif font Bell Gothic.

A poster for the Verdana typeface.

50

The Type of Time: Matthew Carter


Zuzana Licko Kelly O’ Keefe

B

orn in Bratislava, Czechoslovakia, in 1961, Zuzana Licko moved to the United States at the age of seven. She was provided with access to computers at an early age, her father being a biomathematician. She went on to graduate from the University of California Berkeley with a degree in graphic communications in 1984, originally studying architecture but finding it to be too similar to what felt like a business degree. While studying at Berkely, Licko met fellow designer Rudy VanderLans, who was also studying graphic design. The two became close, and married in 1983. Upon graduation, they started up an independent type foundary, Emigre Graphics. Emigre is a digital type foundry, publisher and distributor of graphic design centered information based in Northern, California. Coincidentally, the company started up the same year that the Macintosh was introduced, and was one of the first foundries to establish itself centered on personal computer technology. Eventually, Emigre Magazine came to life as well, originally intendedto be a cultural publication to showcase artists, poets, photographers, and architects.

1961-Present

In designing Emigré, VanderLans rejected standardized formats in favor of organic grid structures that reflected his enthusiasm toward the contents, while neatly contrasting Licko’s thick, geometrically structured design. Computerized page composition gave him the flexibility to reinvent the look of the magazine with every issue. Licko began creating fonts for the magazine working with a Macintosh and a bitmap font tool. Emigre, Oakland, and Emporer were amnog the fonts designed as coarse bitmapped faces to accommodate the journal’s low-resolution printer output. Licko constructed fonts with bold, simple geometry such as Modula and Matrix, which Emigre hold the liscense to along with 300 other original typeface designs created by a roster of contemporary designers. With many years working in a primarily male-dominated profession, Licko’s success and her bypassing of traditional training have been inspirational to a generation of font designers with access to computer technology. Though Emigre has just released it’s 69th and last issue, Licko continues to expand upon and fine-tune her earlier typeface designs.

1984 Macintosh Computer

Poster for Licko’s Type Exhibition in London- ART 1

52

The Type of Time: Zuzana Licko


FEATURING SHARP CONTRAST

HEAVY STROKE WEIGHT

NEAR VERTICAL STRESS

Say

HELLO Mrs to

EAVES A DIGITAL TYPEFACE DESIGNED BY ZUZANA LICKO

.


T-26

Kimberly Ann Sula

T

1994-Present

-26, the Digital Type Foundry was established in Chicago by Carlos Segura. Born in 1957, Segura moved to the United States at age nine. Before working his way into design, he became part of a band, working his way up from a roadie to a drummer, eventually finding his way into production arts through his portfolio that he made out of his former band promotions. He worked for many advertising agencies, including Marsteller, Foote Cone & Belding, Young Republican, Ketchum, and DDB Needham, in Pittsburgh and Chicago. Though Segura had been successful, he was not happy with his place in the artistic world, and decided that he needed to search elsewhere to pursue his passions. Segura had a goal in mind when he decided to found his own company, Segura Inc. (1991); it was to incorporate as much fine art into the commercial art world as possible. He had the same idea in mind when he founded T-26 in 1994. Through the new digital type foundry, Segura and his partner, Scott Smith hoped to further explore and develop the typographical part of the art world to its full potential. Segura wanted to promote the distribution and development of independent typographic design.

This would help individual typographers and graphic designers to publish and distribute their work around the world. Containing approximately 600 families of well over 2000 individual fonts, T-26 has become one of the world’s most respected, independent sources for contemporary fonts. Together, both T-26 and Segura Inc. have both been awarded for their designs. Carlos Segura inspires those around him in saying, “I’m always amazed that the people who are most likely to complain about their life, are usually the ones that aren’t doing anything about it.” Segura created a new place for himself and many other designers in the art world. Though not all of his ventures had been successful, such as 5Inch.com, a company that specialized in new ways to create and personalize custom blank CDR’s and DVD’s (which was forced to close due to a lack of business in 2010), Segura still remains a truly inspirational typographer and graphic designer. And his T-26 has remained dedicated to the integration of typography with fine art, graphic design, and popular visual culture.

“5Inch” silk screened CDR/DVD labels (Segura)

“Crop” large format product catalog/portfolio, 2005 (Segura) Client: Corbis

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The Type of Time: T-26


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Appendix

55


HUMANIST In typographic terms, the label Humanist refers to the design of the strokes of the letterforms. They were created using the handwriting found in Italy in the late 15th century. Their relatively small body size, irregular outlines, and smaller counters; all of which Humanist typefaces less legible at smaller point sizes. Historically, Humanist typefaces enjoyed only a short run before falling away for nearly 500 years.

Characteristics of Humanist typefaces include: 1. Gradual contrasts between heavy and light strokes 2. Slanted crossbars, such as the lowercase ‘e’ 3. Ascenders that match capital letter heights 4. Small counters 5. Oblique serifs on lowercase and foot

b f A Ld a 1

4

2

3

5

Optima 160 pt

XxYyZz UuVvWw RrSsTt

AaBbCc DdEeFf GgHhIi

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The Type of Time: Appendix


GARALDE Typefaces were the next evolutionary step in the development of type during the 16th century. When analyzing Garalde typefaces, it is apparent that there is still a subtle influence from the penstrokes of the written word, however, the advancement in technology is clearly visible. Garlde typefaces have a considerable variation of form according to their point size. Garalde typefaces had a lifespan of about 200 years and are still used today because of their high legibility.

Characteristics of Garalde typefaces include: 1. Medium contrast between stokes 2. Horizontal crossbars 3. Tapered ear 4. Generous counters

A

1

T e O 2

3

4

Palatino 160 pt

AaBbCc DdEeFf GgHhIi

JjKkLlMmNnOoPpQq

XxYyZz UuVvWw RrSsTt

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TRANSITIONAL In typography the term Transitional refers to the transition from the Garalde typefaces to the Didone typefaces. Transitional typefaces primarily emerged during the 18th entury inFrance and England. They exude the refinement of form and greater detail that was made possible by the developments in printing techonology.

Characteristics of Transitional typefaces include: 1. Medium to high contrast between thick and thing letterstrokes 2. Horizontal bar on lowercase ‘e’ 3. The serifs of ascenders of lowercase letters are slightly slanted 4. Generous counters 5. Serifs are generally sharp and bracketed

A hO t e 1

3

4

5

2

Century Schoolbook 160 pt

XxYyZz UuVvWw RrSsTt

AaBbCc DdEeFf GgHhIi JjKkLlMmNnOoPpQq 60

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DIDONE Didone typefaces, also known as Modern, emerged during the late 18th and early 19th century primiarily in Italy and France. Increased precision in printing techonology allowed for the development of this new genre of typefaces. Didone typefaces exude qualities that relate to sophistication and exclusivity.

Characteristics of Didone typefaces include: 1. Stress is vertical 2. Abrupt contrast between thick and thing letterstrokes 3. Ascender and foot serifs of lowercase letters are horizontal 4. Horizontal serifs are fine (almost hairline) and usually bracketed 5. Narrow set width in most cases

1

O

t b k h 2

4

3

5

Bodoni 160 pt

XxYyZz UuVvWw RrSsTt

AaBbCc DdEeFf GgHhIi JjKkLlMmNnOoPpQq

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SLAB SERIF Slab Serif typefaces, which include the bracketed Claredon and unbracketed Egyptian styles, were first created by Robert Besley of London in 1845. Their typically heavier weights and hefty serifs made these faces ideal candidates for use in early 20th century engineering projects, as well as being used for many promotional items of that period. Their sturdiness when being used in reveral made them a popular choice in the 50’s and 60’s for poster,advertising, and publishing designs and projects. Characteristics of Slab Serif typefaces include: 1. Vertical stress 2. Short descenders and pronounced drop forms 3. Low contrast 4. Serifs of equal weight of letterform stroke

1

p k H z 2

4

3

Rockwell 160 pt

XxYyZz UuVvWw RrSsTt

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The Type of Time: Appendix


HUMANIST SANS The period of Humanist Sans faces are based on classical or early Humanist model, in which the proportions are based off of the Roman capital letter. These typefaces function well for the setting of extended lines of texts, even though they do not, as a rule, provide for very economical setting because most have a lower x-height than the Grotestques. Humanist Sans heavier weights make it quite effective for them to be used for smaller quantities of text, and benefit from generous leading. Characteristics of Humanist Sans typefaces include: 1. Minimal contrast 2. Medium x-heights 3. Wide lower bowl 4. Light weight

d x g 1

2

i

4

3 Gill Sans 160 pt

XxYyZz UuVvWw RrSsTt

AaBbCc DdEeFf GgHhIi JjKkLlMmNnOoPpQq

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GROTESQUE The early faces were developed in the 19th century and evolved from display type, signwriting, and architectual lettering. Although some features are modern, the main structuring of the letters go back to classical times. Grotesques combine great legibility with visual interest and are quite adapted to a variety of functions.Their origins as large-size display types mean that they work quite well at scale.

Characteristics of Grotesque typefaces include: 1. Little contrast 2. Some variation in stoke width at junctions 3. Sans serif

1

Pr

2

u

3

Franklin Gothic Book 160 pt

XxYyZz UuVvWw RrSsTt

AaBbCc DdEeFf GgHhIi JjKkLlMmNnOoPpQq 64

The Type of Time: Appendix


NEO-GROTESQUE This period highlights the second generation, designed in the 1950’s and included a key component of Swiss Typography and international modernist style. This period appears to be more mechanical than the earlier forms. Neo-grotesque typefaces function better at smaller sizes than most of the other forms of sans serif, and they’re amon the mostsuitable sans serif faces for long text settings. Their extended typeface families and range of weights suit them for particular display work. Characteristics of Neo-Grotesque typefaces include: 1. Little variation of stroke width 2. Slightly condensed form 3. High x-height 4. Well-defined counters

1

h Y 2

AaBbCc DdEeFf GgHhIi

x

3

JjKkLlMmNnOoPpQq

g

4

Helvetica 160 pt

XxYyZz UuVvWw RrSsTt

The Type of Time: Appendix

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GLYPHIC Glyphic typefaces are so named due to their resemblance to cut or chisled letterforms. Designers have been creating Glyphic typefaces since 1902 and continue to do so to this day. The letterforms graphically straddle between Roman and Blackletter vocabularies. They characteristically all-capital letters designs make the Glyphic category ideal for such things as posters, book covers and jacket, or other display type uses.

Characteristics of Glyphic typefaces include: 1. Half serif on base of diagonals 2. All-capital letterforms 3. Open bowl 4. Fine pointed serifs 5. Narrow set

t h b K o 2

4

3

5

1

Trajan Pro 160 pt

X xYy Zz UuVvWw RrSsTt

AaBbCc DdEeFf GgHhIi JjKkLlMmNnOoPpQq 66

The Type of Time: Appendix


SCRIPT Script typefaces echo the traditions of calligraphy, pen and brush lettering. However, script typefaces lack the vitality and spontaneity of handwritten letterforms. By virtue of digital typeface design, script typefaces make up for what they lack by having the ability to have extensive ranges of swashes, ligatures, alternates and letters. Script typefaces are primarily used as a decorative contrast and are not suitable for extended passages of text.

Characteristics of Script typefaces include: 1. Angled forms 2. Deep descenders and high ascenders 3. Contrasting stroke widths 4. Calligraphic inflection 5. Low x-height

V

y

1 2

3

k

t

3

Zapfino 100 pt

XxYyZz

AaBbCc

UuVvWw

DdEeFf

GgHhIi

x 4

JjKkLlMmNnOoPpQq

RrSsTt

The Type of Time: Appendix

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GRAPHIC Graphic typefaces emerged in the late 20th century and remain some of the most playful and unique typefaces today. They remain interesting and popular because they question traditional aesthetics of type design and provoke debate. Graphic typefaces are most commonly used for display faces because their legibility and reability is next to none when set in smaller point sizes.

Characteristics of Graphic typefaces include: 1. Contradictory features 2. Inconsistent forms 3. Abstracted profiles 4. Hybridized features

1

A

O z

AaBbCc DdEeFf GgHhIi 68

The Type of Time: Appendix

w

4

3

2

JjKkLlMmNnOoPpQq

Face You Fears 200 pt

XxYyZz UuVvWw RrSsTt


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70


Biographies

71


As a middle child of three, Erica Camaren always searched for ways to stand out and be noticed. Loud, energetic, but more than anything excited about life, she never lets a moment slip away. From a young age, Erica knew she would live a life of design. With both parents involved in the creative field, she always had her own personal critiques and could find inspiration in every direction of her home. What never goes unnoticed within Camaren’s designs is the flow of content provided and the color scheme used. Erica will always be young at heart, and it can easily be perceived in the design of her artwork.

Myrene Gallardo was born and raised in the suburbs outside of Chicago. She is an only child of a former nurse and engineer, and attended private Catholic schools from pre-school up to high school. Now a senior in college, Myrene majors in Graphic Design at Columbia College Chicago. She is involved with AIGA’s chapter, Students In Design, at Columbia College and she enjoys learning about web design and fashion. On her spare time she enjoys blogging on tumblr, cooking, discovering new music, and going to the countryside to get away from the busy city life. Her inspirations varies from different fashion designers and musicians, to photography and color palettes.

Kelly O’Keefe is an art director and designer based out of Chicago, Illinois. At a young age, her interest in the arts paved the way for a successful beginning in the world of fine art, as she quickly became skilled in illustrating, painting and sculpt- ing. While still attending high school, Kelly began exhibiting work in galleries and participating in AP level art classes. Upon graduation, she received a full-ride scholarship to St. Louis Community College. After studying Fine Arts for two years, she relocated to Chicago to attend Columbia College Chicago. Here, she earned a BFA in Advertising Art Direction, and continues to work both freelance and contract accounts around the midwest.

Amanda Lancey was born in a modest town of 3000 people in Southern Illinois. She spent much of her childhood draw- ing, painting, playing the Sims, and building habitats for stray turtles in her backyard. Amanda is currently enrolled at Columbia College Chicago pursuing a BFA in Graphic Design. She is a virtual intern for the Sea Turtle Conser- vancy based in Costa Rica, and outside of designing loves to spend her free time cuddling with her Australian Shep- herd and travelling.

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Joe Flores is a Graphic Design student attending Columbia College. He currently is finishing up his BFA in Art + Design and plans to graduate in the fall of 2013. His love for Graphic Design was appar- ent his senior year of High School where he learned about such programs as Adobe Illustrator and Photoshop. Later on, Joe would attend College of Dupage, where he would learn more about Graphic Design through their Associate’s program they offer year round. After a couple of courses here, Joe would realize that this is what he would love to make a career in life. Following this realization, Joe would transfer to Columbia College where he currently is finishing up his degree. In his spare time, Joe enjoys exploring different mediums of art such as stencil art and block printing. When he’s not buried deep in his design work, Joe usually can be spotted skating around on his board in his spare time.

Typographer, drawer, dark-room photographer, graphic designer, visual communicator, book creator, all around artist and cool person Madeline Hennelly has been creatively inclined since she was four years-old. She knew the art world was for her when she drew all over her parents bathroom with nothing but a tube of lipstick. Since that enlightening and somewhat disturbing incident, Madeline has changed her medium from a tube of lipstick to the computer. She is currently in her third year of higher education at Columbia College Chicago and a loyal member of the AIGA chapter at her school, Students In Design. Although her heart lies in the computer she also enjoys the Chicago food scene, taking photographs around the city, and hanging out with anyone who has anything interesting to say about the current art and design world.

Kristina Kelliher is majoring in Graphic Design at Columbia College Chicago. She is a senior and is aiming to graduate Fall 2013. She has always had a deep passion for art ever since she was little. She enjoyed taking many art classes in Lincoln-Way high school and in Joliet Junior College before transferring to Columbia. She also very much loved the science courses she took and almost trans- ferred to Lewis University in Romeoville for Nursing, but decided against it. Her biggest inspirations are Tim Burton, Walt Disney, Dr. Seuss, and Craig McCracken. Her hobbies include: drawing, writing, reading comic books, playing videogames, and listening to music.

Austin Michaud grew up in Maine’s version of suburbia with his parents and amazing sister Anna. He began college as a biomedical engineering major with a studio art minor, now-a-days he studies advertising in Chicago. In high school Austin was a national level track athlete, earning himself a bronze and gold medal at USA Track & Field Nationals, two All-Americans titles, and a National Championship. However, after many sport related injuries he decided to retire from the national and international stage and focus on school and work. Austin has a passion for both graphic and fashion design. Whenever he has free time he can be found either sketching a new clothing collection or flipping through the pages of vogue. He dreams of one day stealing Anna Wintour’s job as editor in chief of Vogue but until then can be found styling women at the J. Crew flagship store.


Shelby Norman is an aspiring graphic designer from East Peoria, Illinois. In addition to her love for design, she also possesses a love for music. At the age of 13 she had her first guitar lesson, and has been playing and singing ever since. Her love for drawing was inspired by her late grandfather’s artistic talents. This love she had for art eventu- ally lead her to the world of design. After graduating high school, she attended Illinois Central College, where she received her Associates de- gree in Arts and Science. Currently she is attending Columbia College Chicago in pursuit of a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree of Graphic Design. After graduation in the spring of 2014, she hopes to remain local and work in the city of Chicago. As a Graphic Design student, Paulina Partyka has really evolved her skills from the first day that she walked into Columbia College Chicago. Being unsure at first, she has come a long way from starting off in Interior Design. Starting off at Harper College, Partyka wasn’t sure of what she wanted to do with the rest of her life. She began studying interior design, and realized that it wasn’t challenging enough. She then studied Pharmacology and Sonography for a couple of years, but could not fall in love with the medical field. Eventually, she decided to submit an application to Columbia College of Chicago, not for Graphic Design, but for Dance. She got accepted, but stumbled upon Graphic Design, and instantly fell in love with it. Now she is majoring in Graphic Design as well as minoring in Dance. This book shows us the design challenges that Partyka has fulfilled in her Intermediate Typography class. The designs have been put together throughout the class and into one book to preserve the ideas that this young lady has come up with.

Kimberly Ann Sula is a graphic design student at Columbia. Kimberly’s drive to bring new ideas to the design world is driven by her love of the fine arts mixed with contemporary mediums--which gives her a unique view on life and design. She lives in Oak Forest with her fiancé and her pet cat.

Ashia Sabbath was born and raised in sunny southern California. Spending the first twelve years of life there, thats all she knew. Her sudden move to Fishers, Indiana was struggle for her, because she knew that she always wanted to purse something in the arts, but know specifically. And living in the farm towns of Fishers, Indiana, she knew what she wanted to do, there was no way she could pursue dream by living and going to college in Indiana. Throughout her adoles- cence years she finally was able to come to conclusion about how to pursue he dreams in the art field. She decided she wanted to attend College College Chicago, and it was there where she studied Graphic Design, and graduated in 2014 with a Bachelors in Fine Arts. Now she is a successful publica- tion designer work back in her hometown of southern California.

Sarah Swenson is a student at Columbia College Chicago anticipating a bachelor’s degree in Advertising Art Direction in 2013. She grew up in a quiet suburb of Chicago, Crystal Lake, Illinois. Sarah had always dreamed of using her creativity to succeed. She persisted the arts her whole life and moved to Chicago to discover where her talents could take her. She finds inspiration in everything from food to fine art. Sarah enjoys spending time and haveing adventures with friends and family, and especially her dog. Sarah hopes to stay in Chicago for a while, and live and work among the things that inspire her the most. Cory Turek was born in Chicago, and raised there his entire life. Always interested in detail, he would often be found outside, where he used to collect insects and view them through a mag- nifying glass to examine their natural design. Throughout his younger years, he excelled at his studies, most specifically his art classes. His drawings and paintings exceeded all expecta- tions, going so far as to win a scholarship and a nation-wide art contest by the time he graduated high school. Seeing that he had the artistic spark and possessed exceptional computer literacy, he decided to pursue the rewarding career of Graph- ic Design, where his passion would be able to manifest itself. Some of his work is already fea- tured in public at City News Café, used by Rap- per Chet Haze, and currently doing design work at Indie Media. He hopes to keep doing his best, and showing the world what Graphic Designer are truly capable of.

Donald Wu is a Graphic Design major in Columbia College of Chicago. He is set to graduate around the Spring of 2014 with a Bachelor degree. His whole life, Donald has a passion for art and music. However, before deciding to pursue an art degree, he spent 3 years at University of Illinois at Chica- go, studying Kinesiology, until he decided to change his career study to Radiologic Technician. In the midst of pursuing his new path, he finally decided to leave the medical field and instead start a new focus in studying art, where he felt was what he always wanted to do.

Alice Werley is a senior Interactive Arts & Media student at Columbia College Chicago. She also works as the webmaster of Columbia’s newspaper, The Columbia Chronicle. After graduation in May 2013, she intends to get a job in user experience design. In her free time, she enjoys stand-up comedy and playing Minecraft.

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Bibliography

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org. N.p., 1998. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <http://www.aiga.org/ medalist-zuzanalickoandrudyvanderlans/>. Paul Renner Béjean, Pascal. “Emigre Fonts: Interview with Zuzana Licko.” Emigre. N.p., “Aldus Manutius the Elder (Italian Printer).” Encyclopedia Britannica On 2010. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://www.emigre.com/Licko6.php>. line. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2013.

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Stanley Morison Morison, Stanley. A Tally of Types. Cambridge [Eng.: University, 1973. Print. Morison, Stanley. Letter Forms, Typographic and Scriptorial: Two Essays on Their Classification, History, and Bibliography. London: Nattali & Maurice, 1968. Print. http://www.rodwell.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/morison.htm

Max Miedinger “Helvetica and Max Miedinger”, Frank J. Romero “From Gutenberg to opentype : an illustrated history of type from the earliest letterforms to the latest digital fonts”, Robin Dodd linotype.com/522/maxmiedinger

The Type of Time: Appendix

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