Special : Africanthe Perspectives - CallSeptember for Papers -2010 2011 Lagos;Edition Discovering Mega CityConference - Newsletter Photo by_ Rachel Stella Jenkins
This special edition of the ArchiAfrika newsletter brings to you the Call for Papers of the African Perspectives 2011 conference, taking place in Casablanca (Morocco) between 3 - 5 November this year. The focus of the 5th African Perspectives conference is the ‘African Metropolis’. The conference is divided into 3 relevant subthemes. We hope that you will be triggered and able to send in your proposals within these themes. This is a great opportunity to be staged among many other important players in the field of architecture and urbanism in Africa. The conference will provide a great opportunity for debates on the African city with architects, scholars, urbanists, city planners, developers, artists and many others playing an important role in making cities work. Casablanca served as the laboratory of modern architecture and is an important place to visit for all involved in city planning. The city has its challenges, but also is successful in accommodating the extreme growth from 12.000 to over 5 million inhabitants over the last century. It’s extraordinary success, the fact that its inhabitants love it & that it’s an engaging and dynamic city, is due to its design, intended from the beginning to progressively absorb the cities growth and densification’ as Jean Louis Cohen states in the documentary ‘Casablanca Ville moderne’ by the BRT (Belgium Television). In 2008, Marion van Osten, Serhat Karakayali and Tom Avermaete curated the exhibition ‘In the Desert of Modernity: Colonial Planning and After’ for the Haus der Kulturen der Welt (House of World Cultures) in Berlin. This exhibition, with an important focus on the Modern Project in Casablanca and also exhibited in the magnificent Abattoirs in Casa by Casamemoire, is now followed by the book ‘Colonial Modern’, edited by the curators of the above-mentioned exhibition. This book is presented to you in this newsletter. Looking to the extraodinary city, two reports by students from the Delft University of Technology - as part of an ongoing project lead by Tom Avermaete - provide an important insight into the factors at play within Casablancan public space. The first focuses on the public space around the Hassan II mosque, the 3 rd largest mosque in the world and the second on gender and public space. These contributions form part of a set of surveys executed by the student groups as an introduction to site specific conditions, these surveys are later developed in design proposals. We look forward to your abstracts for African Perspectives 2011 and hope to see you there!
AFRICAN PERSPECTIVES 2011 CONFERENCE The African Metropolis CALL FOR ABSTRACTS We are pleased to invite you to submit an abstract or brief project proposal for the forthcoming 5thAfrican Perspectives Conference “The African Metropolis”, taking place in Casablanca, from 3 – 5 November 2011. Hosted by L’Ecole Supérieure d’Architecture de Casablanca (EAC), the 5th African Perspectives Conference comprises three days of interdisciplinary lectures, debates, presentations, tours, exhibitions, shows and workshops on the heart of the African city. It will involve scholars, students, artists, policy makers, architects, city planners and others with related interests, from the African continent and beyond. We expect a large cross disciplinary audience from across Africa. For the opening session Keynote speakers will include Rem Koolhaas,* Jean-Louis Cohen and Saskia Sassen.*
* To be confirmed
AFRICAN PERSPECTIVES CASABLANCA 2011: THE BACKGROUND African Perspectives Casablanca 2011, comes after earlier African Perspectives Conferences in Pretoria; South Africa (2009), Kumasi; Ghana, and Delft, the Netherlands, (both in 2007), and Dar Es Salaam; Tanzania, (2005). The four preceding conferences have been seminal to the decision by collaborating institutions to transform this initiative into a series of biennial convergences, hosted on the African continent under the umbrella of African Perspectives, and centred upon an encompassing discourse on the African Urbanism and Architecture. It is against this background that the fifth coming dialogue be hosted on the African continent, is scheduled to take place in Casablanca, Morocco. It will also be historically signifi-
cant as it will be the first African Perspectives in African francophone nation. THE APC11 KEY THEME: THE AFRICAN METROPOLIS African Perspectives 2011 invites works relevant to the operative theme, «The African Metropolis». The quest is to define the nature and the process of development of African big cities: does it refers to that of a town, an agglomeration, or a metropolis? Furthermore, we want to examine and identify the urban model/s that should be adopted for these cities and how should they be connected to the world metropolis in the context of globalization. In recent decades, many cities on the African continent have experienced unprecedented urban growth. They are described as booming cities or mega-cities. Most of them make concerted efforts to pluralize their relationships with the larger world and with each other and to play an effective role within the network of leading metropolises. As such, they no longer function primarily only as political coordinators of national space or as the fulcrum of national economic productivity but exceed this role. This ‘metropolisation’ trend of the African city encompasses a two-fold process. It refers to changing positions and leveling up to enter a global urban system competition. This essentially relates to local processes of urbanization and urban experience, including the definition of new territorial boundaries and the emergence of new urban identities and centralities. From Casablanca to Johannesburg, from Dar el Salaam to Lagos, African cities have been for a long time engaging with accelerated processes of urban growth. Urban planners, architects and policy makers have devised specific approaches, projects and forms to face an explosive social, spatial and economic situation. However, the
underlying rationales for the processes of urbanization are changing. While the first wave of African ‘metropolisation’ was often linked to the development of heavy industry, nowadays the trend seems to be increasingly driven by others factors including service and technological industries, international and national tourism. The contemporary process of ‘metropolisation’ is also the locus in which urban economies appropriate and convert materials from various commodity chains and trade circuits, as well the site of increasingly speculative insertions of finance and infrastructure originating from so-called “emerging economies”, as well as from the North. The progressive experimental nature of various financial interventions and entrepreneurial partnerships in the African metropolis in formation seems to coincide with an accelerating inventiveness of local resource mobilization. African Perspectives regards this new urban condition as a narrative context from which to debate upon the forms and figures of the African Metropolis. It will tackle questions on the urban and architectural strategies that have been devised, on the new approaches that architects and urban planners try to implement, on the leading principles for the development of the African metropolis, as well as on the qualities and requirements for architecture and urbanism in order to play a role in a new vision of the African metropolis. SUB-THEME 1 – AFRICAN URBANITY: FORMAL AND INFORMAL The African metropolis functions as a prime site for the embedment of goods and practices derived from the global economy into local contexts. The swift introduction and everyday success of mobile communication technologies within many cities, illustrates how the African metropolis functions as an acculturating site for new developments and change. Appropriations, adaptations, alterations…, seem to be guiding and perennial principles of African urbanity. Throughout African cities, examples can be found of architectural and urban environments that have been drastically altered to respond to the
requirements and aspirations of everyday African life. Out of this viewpoint, African Perspectives wants to pose questions as: Could the processes of informal appropriation be made operational in new urban and architectural projects? Can architects and urban planners take into account these guiding principles of acculturation in African urbanity and thereby offer sustainability to the metropolis? Is the fusion of formal and informal principles one of the main guiding recipes for a sustainable Afropolis? SUB THEME 2 – FROM LANDSCAPE OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION TO PRODUCTIVE CULTURAL CITYSCAPE? The urbanization of the African metropolis is an unprecedented phenomenon in the history of mankind, as urban growth is no longer directly linked to industrial or economic growth. The African metropolis seems to increasingly leave its status as a landscape of industrial production and transportation, while the influx of new inhabitants continues. One of the biggest challenges is therefore to find solutions to accommodate the ever-growing number of urbanites who live in these rapidly growing cities, and devise ways in which new forms of post-industrial production can take place. This requires not only an in-depth reflection on the underlying rationales of the African metropolis, but also on its architectural figures and forms. African Perspectives wants to open new architectural and urban viewpoints on the cultural, social and ecological aspects of the African metropolis. It invites contributions that reflect upon new perspectives and approaches for the African metropolis in these different fields. In addition, it wants to reflect upon the metropolis’ role as a cultural cityscape that considers professionals as well as communities, asking questions as: How do the substantial constraints on affordability of land, food, services, housing in the African metropolis relate to the surge in cultural ideas and activities about urban living--primarily coming from popular culture? SUB THEME 3 – THE PERIPHERY OF THE AFRICAN METROPOLIS The periphery of African cities has always
played an important role as a zone of absorption or reception for new developments. It has not only been a site of urban extension, the dwelling location of newcomers or the refuge for outcasts of the city centre. Moreover, it has functioned as an important locus of acculturation into city life and a vivid zone of transition between rural and urban ways of living. Within the contemporary African metropolis, the question of the periphery gains topicality as it is increasingly defined as the new living zones for those at the top (gated communities) and the bottom (shantytowns) of the economical spectrum. Within this session of African Perspectives the following questions will be addressed: Can the periphery be thought of as a full-fledged part of the city that reaches beyond a mono-functional zone for dwelling? How can the connections between city centre and periphery be conceived? Does the open character of the periphery offer the opportunity to thinks about a new combination of productive and consumptive landscapes? ABSTRACT INFORMATION Entries can be papers, films, documents, artwork, music or other proposals. You are invited to propose papers, short films or music, posters, artwork, or other forms of new media submissions, on subjects relating to metropolisation processes, specifically in African cities. Proposals relating to architectural or urban projects realized in Africa, or comparative work focusing on African urbanism in relation to other forms of urbanism, are also accepted. Generally, abstract proposals should respond to at least one of the following objectives: • Give more international visibility to the African architecture design and urbanism. • Establish a network in order to stimulate future cooperation on research & development initiatives in the fields of architecture and urbanism, on the African continent. • Define the nature and the process of development of African big cities; does it
refer to that of a town, an agglomeration, or a metropolis? • Identify the urban model that should be adopted for these cities and how should they be connected to the world metropolis in the context of globalisation. • Define new forms of design, of implementation and governance policies that should be adopted to reach a sustainable development of African cities. Papers may be in English or French. SUBMISSION CONDITIONS 01.04.2011 deadline submission of entries (abstracts) 29.04.2011 pre-acceptance or refusal of entries (abstracts), possible request for review 13.05.2011 deadline reviewing entries (you will be asked to submit a revised abstract) 13.06.2011 confirmation of full acceptance (papers) 01.10.2011 deadline submission of final entries (papers) •The abstracts must contain less than 500 words. • 29.04.2011 Register before this date for a reduced registration fee! SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE The scientific committee for the APC11 consists of following members: • Abdelmoumen Benabdeljalil (Ecole d’Architecture de Casablanca) • Tom Avermaete (TU Delft) • Karel Bakker (University of Pretoria) • Antoni Folkers (African Architecture Matters) • Ola Uduku (Edinburgh College of Art / ESALA Edinburgh University) The final list will be made available upon final confirmation of the selected members through http://www.african-perspectives.com
APC11 ACTIVITIES In parallel with the African Perspectives conference, a number of other activities will be taking place including the following: MOBILE WORKSHOPS AT CASABLANCA As part of the conference where cities from all over Africa will be viewed, studied and debated, there is the opportunity to organize Mobile Workshops about Casablanca as a particular case study. It will be interesting to compare Casablanca and the challenges faced within its development to other city cases in Africa.
• ArchiAfrika Foundation • National Order of Architects Regional Council Centre PARTNERS OF APC11 • Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture • Netherlands Architecture Institute (NAI) • City of Casablanca • Moroccan Ministry of Housing • Casa Mémoire
Besides, like other cities, Casablanca has its unique characteristics. Preservation and enhancement of the uniqueness of a city though, is again a shared challenge. Further information on the architectural and urban development of Casablanca will be made available via http://www.africanperspectives.com
• Holcim Foundation
• Students Competition
• Goethe Institute
As with the earlier AP conferences students are a key audience who we hope will both attend and participate in the APC gathering. To this effect as has become customary at Casablanca there will be a Student Competition. This will take place during African Perspectives 2011 between EAC “Ecole Supérieure d’Architecture de Casablanca” students and other universities from Africa and further afield.
• Edinburgh College of Art
• La Cambre University • Netherlands Architecture Funds (NAF) • The Netherlands Embassy • French Institute
The topics of this competition will be related to the themes of African Perspectives. • Photo exhibition A Photo exhibition will be organized during the conference on the theme «Space of Life». Students, architects, urban planners, professionals and other interested people from all over the world are warmly welcomed to participate. • Art exhibition As at African Perspectives 2009, Art will be central to the Event. At Casablanca we hope to attract multiple views from different African locations to help understand the heart of the African city. ORGANISERS OF APC11 • Ecole Supérieure d’Architecture de Casablanca (EAC)
CONTACTS Website: www.african-perspectives.com Emails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com T.L.P.Avermaete@tudelft.nl Tel: (212) 522 75 03 75 Fax: (212) 522 75 27 37
Photo exhibition Photo exhibition will take place during APC11 and will be followed by a competition for the best photo shots. The purpose of this exhibition is to discover African cities through a sensitive and subjective approach, contrasting or complementing the scientific approach adopted for the conference. The urban space will be apprehended through a look into spaces where our everyday life acts and events take place such as eating, sleeping, playing, praying, working, learning, etc, in ordinary or special occasions.
Conditions for participation
People wishing to participate in this exhibition are invited to submit their photos. These will be reviewed and selected by a scientific and artistic committee. The photographs selected will be displayed at the APC 11 and the best photo shots will receive an award. A publication of the best photographs is also planned.
- Photos must not be retouched with image processing software (like Photoshop or other).
Deadlines 10.7.2011: Your photo shots must be received
in electronic format (jpg / jpeg preferred) to the Architecture School of Casablanca (EAC) before that date. Address: Angle bd :Abou Hnifa Al Noamane et Tarik Al Kheir, Sidi Bernoussi, Casablanca ; 20600 E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
29.08.2011: An answer will be communicated to you before that date to inform you of the selection of your photographs.
13.05.2011: The photographs must be received to the EAC in a digital format before this date.
- Each participant is allowed to present 6 shots. - Every photo shot must be accompanied by a title and a short text (50 words approx.) specifying its origin (City, Country) and the circumstances of the shooting. - The minimum resolution of images is 2560 x 1920 pixels, 5 megapixel.
- Photos will be printed on paper sizes ranging from 80 x 60 cm to 200 x 160 cm. - Proposals that do not respect these conditions will be excluded from the selection process.
Copyright By participating in the exhibition of photos APC11, participants seek to provide original photographs on which they have all the copyrights and intellectual property. In cases of plagiarism, only the participant concerned assume the consequences of his/her act, the responsibility of the ‘EAC’ is not engaged in any case. By participating in the exhibition of photos APC11, participants grant to the ‘EAC’ all their rights concerning the images they offer. Thus, the ‘EAC’ may use the pictures in the most appropriate way whether for intellectual or for any publication use without any authors oppose. However, ‘EAC’ will ensure that every photo shot will be always accompanied by its participant’s name. By participating in this exhibition, the participants hereby agrees to a tacit and irrevocable agreement of copyright conditions above. ‘E.A.C’ reserves the right to change these conditions at anytime. Any changes of these conditions can only be made by ‘EAC’ and will be published.
Figure 1_ Ground Plan showing empty space along the boulevard. 1 The Mosque; 2 The Void; 3 The Square
pile of rubble
Figure 2_ Table of defining elements within the three areas of focus
The Mosque, the Void & the Square: Understanding Public Space in Casablanca By Jiaxuan Huang, Joep Kuys & Sara Navrady
“Casablanca is a city of contrasts,” the guide from Casamémoire explained during our visit to Casablanca. This became quickly apparent when we observed the variation in outdoor public spaces in the city. Many major and minor buildings, old and new are flanked by a plaza, park, promenade or simply a void. They become a characterizing element to denote entrances to mosques, cinemas, stadiums, galleries and restaurants. The scope of our three-day research, part of the Public Realm Studio with TU Delft, focused on three distinct spaces undefined space of the Void, or the formal, uniform plane of the Mosque,
around the monumental Hassan II Mosque. The focus areas were the formal square flanking the Mosque (The Mosque), an informal, dilapidated void nearby (The Void), and a smaller bustling corner square (The Square). In observing qualities in scale, character and activity, the underlying hierarchies that defined these spaces were uncovered. The contrast between the Mosque and the Void is huge. The Mosque was built to show the grandeur of Morocco and its people, whereas the Void, resulting from the delayed construction on the proposed Avenue Royale, is framed by a dense perimeter of decaying dwellings. Contrary to the vast undefined space of the Void, or the formal, uniform plane of the Mosque, the smaller scaled Square also establishes itʼs own identity with regards to character and activity. The low scale space, framed by shops and cafes, is filled with a variety of activities and people at any given point. Through these observations, we remarked that the hierarchy of space is determined not only by the scale of the buildings, but also by the scale of the spaces betweenthe open corridors formed by squares, streets or alleyways
parked cars/ vendors
tent dwellings people
traffic paving sidewalk
mosque square fragment
neighbourhood square fragment
Figure 3_ The axonometries exemplify how these elements interact within similar sized spaces within these different zones & the overall composition that results.
within the urban fabric. When examining the context around our areas of focus, It became quickly apparent which streets were open for public occupancy, and which alleyways were clearly private. In observing the activity in larger spaces, occupants used the most open space as passageways across the zones (unless they stopped to photograph the Mosque), as though continuing along a delineated road. Alternately, they transitioned to more intimate or shaded spaces, such as the tent dwellings in the Void, or the covered arcades around the Mosque. Scale and shadow proved to only be the starting point in characterizing differences between the Void, the Mosque and the Square. The analysis of these distinct areas resulted in the extraction of their defining elements, a kit of parts. Within these elements, a distinction of two categories emerged: static and dynamic. The results were mapped according to the scale of their presence relative to the space observed. The table indicates an intensity of public life in Casablanca
that very much depends on informal, or dynamic elements like vendors, terraces, shadow and pedestrians. What is important to note is that public activity equally relies on more static elements to act as a framework, or backdrop for these events. These are not limited to arcades, steps and buildings, but also could include cars, or even ruins and rubble. These studies provided important insight into the factors at play within Casablancan public space. By comparing three distinctly different areas, a broader understanding of their components was achieved. Places where static and dynamic elements are constantly interacting become focal points of public activity. Without a static frame for public activity, only temporary events like festivals would remain. Without the dynamic elements, the city would become sterile. Both are necessary to engage the public realm. The variety in these elements, and the manner in which they interact is what contributes to a complex urban sphere in which public activity takes place in Casablanca.
Gender & Public Space in Casablanca
By Lisa Floor, Per Kaatman & Niels Krämer
Introduction Public space in Casablanca is populated in a different way than ours. This especially becomes clear on sidewalks. Teahouses with terraces are favourable places to stay, for men at least, as teahouses are traditionally reserved for them. The presence of men in public life and women in the private place of home is profoundly anchored in the Moroccan culture. Men feel entitled to colonize the terraces out of tradition, giving them status and countenance. By identifying the architectural tools of these teahouses, we are articulating how control - or even the opposite - can be achieved. To find out more about men on terraces, we decided to map this phenomenon in a representative and central area in Casablanca, between Avenue de l’Armée Royale and Boulevard Mohamed V. Observation Teahouses have a prominent place in the city, on central corners, and are spread all over the city. Canopies are a
common way of spatially marking the terrace. Lifting the terrace is a recurring element. Secondly, the place of the facade varies. In some cases the facade is placed in line with the floors above, but more often the facade is set back, creating a cantilever. The most common type of terrace is placed along the entire side of the facade. There are exceptions though, for example by having an arcade and widened sidewalk. The terrace is dispersed onto the sidewalk and the sidewalk route transits through the terrace. Striking is the fact that in these situations women are observed on the terrace. In almost all other cases women are only observed inside, in the back of the teahouse.
Problem zone The lines in the graphic above express the amount of control and how public or private the space is organized, related to the section of a teahouse. This graph results in three different kinds of zones. Zone 1 can be defined as ‘neutral’. The line of the public - private and the control line are near and parallel to each other. Zone 3 is the zone is the ‘relax zone’, the control line is below the public-private line. This zone is shown at both sides of the graph, in either open public space or private spaces. The last zone is zone 2, the ‘problem zone’. In this zone the publicprivate line is dominated by the control line. This is exactly the space where women are becoming uncomfortable.
Conclusion Control of the public space is made up by vision and borders. These layers distinguishing public, semi-public and private are made up by a set of recurring tools. The more and severe tools are being used, the more privatized a place becomes and the more women are there. Women feel less controlled in these spaces. This is being confirmed by the fact that the further inside a teahouse, the more women are there. Men are â€˜guardingâ€™ the women sitting inside as gatekeepers. On the other end, when a space has no layers at all and has a large scale, control disappears as well, and women come in.
The question raises how to design a space that is less controlled or dominated by one particular group. What strategy will a designer take up; will he feel the desire to emancipate Casablanca or is he accommodating the existing structures? Introducing a newly programmed type of space can take control away and bring equality because men are out of their comfort zone. A manual is laid out to show how to control a space. This diagram is transcending teahouses and accounts for controlling generic types of space, abstracted from the teahouse.
Imagine a space in the city where a group of people (group A) can move freely.
Limit this space in two directions with objects moving at lethal speed.
Group A is now highly limited. Moving is now just a matter of either passing [by] or [through] group B.
Place a large obstacle in the middle of the open space, for example a building.
Populate this corner with another group of people (group B) by providing them with an excuse to stay there.
Movement of group A is now limited to a narrow lane in intimate relation with the corner of the obstacle.
* To reverse: go counter clockwize.
Tom Avermaete, Serhat Karakayali, Marion von Osten (eds.), Colonial Modern: Aesthetics of the Past, Rebellions for the Future, Blackdog Publishers, London, 2010. ISBN: 978 1 907317 11 8 Colonial Modern focuses on the relationship between the post-war aesthetic regime of modernism and the project of modernization in architecture and urban planning, as well as on the highly charged intertwining of both in the context of colonialism and decolonization. Colonial Modern is based on the exhibition “In the Desert of Modernity: Colonial Planning and After”, which traced these connected histories of modern architecture and urban planning in colonial northern Africa and Europe, and was first exhibited in 2008 at the House of World Cultures in Berlin (Germany) and in 2010 at the Abbatoirs in Casablanca (Morocco). The book reflects contemporary research into architectural modernism and colonialism, and utilizes the thesis of “negotiated modernism” to initiate new debates on conceptions of modernism, and inevitably, postmodernism in an interdisciplinary context.
Colonial Modern is split into four distinct chapters of discourse: “On Colonial Modernity”, “The Colonial Urban Laboratory”, “Travelling Notions, Approaches and Models”, and “Dialogues Souterrain”. Seminal and significant texts, such as Paul Rabinow’s “Fordism and Colonialism”, Marc Crinson’s “The Colonial Modern and the Smithsons”, and Sven Olov Wallenstein’s “Biopolitics, Architecture and Colonialism” are included, alongside essays by the book’s editors, and selected interviews with related researchers and artists in the field.
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‘Modern Architecture in Africa’ is one of the few Western studies of modern African architecture. The architect Antoni Folkers calls into question the moralistic, simplified Western Modernism that has become stranded in the African savannah. The critique of the one-sidedness of Western architecture is not only theoretical, but also assumes a practical form in the pluriform and multicoloured architecture of Africa Modern Architecture in Africa Antoni Folkers ISBN 978 90 8506 9641 English edition Hardcover Full Color Illustrated 256 pp
After studying at the TU Delft, Antoni Folkers went to Africa in 1984 to become acquainted with the critique of the practice of Western Modernism. His ‘Modern architecture in Africa’ shows both the clash and the blending of ‘original’ African architecture with Modernism. On the basis of his experiences, he sets the potential and limitations of Modernism in a cultural context and links them with the history and development of Africa. the clash and the blending of ‘original’ African architecture with Modernism On the basis of practical examples, Folkers documents and describes the hybrid architectural forms that have emerged from the confrontation and blending with (pre-)modern Western architecture and urbanism. He narrates in passing the history of African architecture. About the author Antoni Folkers is an architect and urbanist. He moved to Africa in the 1980s, where he set up the firm FBW architects with branches in Kampala (Uganda), Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and elsewhere. Since 2000 Folkers and his practice have been based in Utrecht. He is the founder and director of the ArchiAfrika platform. 5 euro discount Get 5 euro discount! Order at www.sunarchitecture.nl and pay € 37,50 instead of € 42,50. Direct link: http://www.sunarchitecture.nl/catalogue/categori/architecture/modern_architecture_in_africa_9789085069614.html This publication has been made possible through funding by the Stimuleringsfonds voor Architectuur.
Text Text Berend van der Lans Tom Avermaete Design Jiaxuan Huang, Joep Kuys & Sara Navrady Editing Lisa Floor, Per Kaatman & Niels Krämer Translation Art Director & Design Anne-Marie van den Nieuwenhof-Damishimiro Rachel Stella Jenkins
FONDATION SHIMIRO, Pointe-Noire, Congo
Editing Berend van der Lans Translation Célia Tchengang
Supported by ArchiAfrika receives support from the following institutes and organisations: Stichting Doen Delft University of Technology De Twee Snoeken Automatisering FBW Architecten bkvdl BKvdL Dioraphte Foundation
P.O. box 14174 3508 SG Utrecht Netherlands tel +31 (0)30 223 23 20 fax +31 (0)30 251 82 78 www.archiafrika.org
Published on Dec 18, 2013