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MISI-ZIIBI Living with the Great Rivers climate adaptation strategies in the midwest river basins

College & Graduate School of Architecture & Urban Design Sam Fox School of Design and Visual Arts Washington University in St. Louis & Royal Netherlands Embassy, Washington D.C.

John Hoal, Derek Hoeferlin, Dale Morris


“MISI-ZIIBI” Ojibwe native-american name for the mississippi river, meaning

“Great River”

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2011 flood 2012 drought


2013 flood FLOOD 2014 ???

Wyatt, Missouri May 2011

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MISI-ZIIBI Living with the Great Rivers Climate Adaptation Strategies in the Midwest River Basins

In the United States Midwest, the 2011 floods and tornados, followed by the 2012 drought, and once again followed by the 2013 floods and tornados, demonstrate that increased climate variability and weather extremes across the Mississippi/Missouri river basins are a fact for which we need to plan. Such diverse weather events have direct impact on natural resources, economies and communities. MISI-ZIIBI: Living with the Great Rivers was the first in a series of multi-disciplinary workshops that investigated spatial design strategies through the studying of innovative, integrated approaches for climate adaptation along the Mississippi, Missouri and Illinois rivers in the Midwest.

Mississippi River low water levels December 2012

Initially focusing on the St. Louis Bi-state region, the first workshop outcomes were a broad-based set of proto-typological, multi-scaled planning scenarios worthy of more detailed study and intended to be transferable to other Midwest city regions. The Royal Netherlands Embassy, Washington D.C. co-sponsored the workshop with the Sam Fox School of Design & Visual Arts at Washington University in St. Louis.


Workshop Convenors: -Royal Netherlands Embassy Washington D.C. -College & Graduate School of Architectue & Urban Design, Sam Fox School of Design & Visual Arts, Washington University in St. Louis Workshop Leaders: John Hoal Derek Hoeferlin Dale Morris Research Assistants: Christian Clerc Jonathan Stitelman Partners: -American Rivers -Southern Illinois University in Carbondale -Washington University Gephardt Institute for Public Service Clinton Global Initiative University (CGI U) Programming Fund -Washington University International Center for Advanced Renewable Energy and Sustainability (I-CARES) Workshop report compiled by: Derek Hoeferlin Emily Chen misi-ziibi.com Š Washington University in St. Louis Royal Netherlands Embassy, Washington D.C. 2013

Mississippi River high water levels June 2013

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multi-disciplinary, local, national, international + design-based MISI-ZIIBI: Living with the Great Rivers is a continuation of existing interactions between communities in the United States in partnership with the Royal Netherlands Embassy in Washington D.C. to reconsider issues around river environments. The recent Midwest floods, tornadoes and droughts are a demonstration that the increased climate variablity across the Mississippi and Missouri River basins have ramifications that require a change in how we live with and alongside our great rivers.

MISI-ZIIBI: Living with the Great Rivers built on the significant work that has been and is occuring in the St. Louis region an adding an additional factor. But is not a comprehensive approach and could not have been fully researched since the workshop took place over the course of only a weekend.

MISI-ZIIBI: Living with the Great Rivers is meant to illuminate the wealth and challenges of water, and to serve as a tool to aid communities, stakeholders, and government officials as they develop ways to respond to the climate challenges of the Midwest.


a dutch-american collaboration MISI ZIIBI: Living with the Great Rivers follows numerous highly successful designbased workshops iniated by communities in the United States in partnership with The Royal Netherlands Embassy, Washington DC. This workshop brought Dutch engineers, landscape architects, planners and their respective American counterparts to the Midwest and Upper Mississippi/Missouri river basins. These were experts from the Netherlands’ “Room for the River” program - a national program that addresses climate change, flood protection, drought tolerance, integrated land use, city planning, and the improvement of environmental conditions along rivers to ensure the continued sustainable development of The Netherlands’ river region. In the past, the Royal Netherlands Embassy has partnered with the city of New Orleans for a program called Dutch Dialogues, and continues to provide on-going workshops in Los Angeles and post-Sandy New York. The Royal Netherlands Embassy also consults throughout the world – in Thailand, Vietnam, Italy, and Indonesia. The workshop interaction is a great way to facilitate dialogue and discussion with the local community and stakeholders. Most important to the success of the workshop is this interaction to receive critical local input.

Noordwaard Room for the River Project Robbert de Koning Landscape Architects

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workshop agenda

Day 1: understanding the rivers field trips stakeholder + community input keynote lecture day 2: international, regional & local examples contextualizing the workshop design workgroups community input day 3: design workgroups report sessions final results day 4: public presentation to community + stakeholders

Presentations Friday, March 22, 2013 Welcome + Introduction Bruce Lindsey, Dean, College & Graduate School of

Architecture & Urban Design, Washington University in St. Louis

Dale Morris, Senior Economist, Royal Netherlands Embassy, Washington D.C.

John Hoal, Associate Professor, Chair, Master of Urban Design program, Washington University in St. Louis Derek Hoeferlin, Assistant Professor, Washington University in St. Louis

The Upper Mississippi + Missouri Watersheds: PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE PAST: The Evolution of the Rivers Richard “Rip� Sparks, Director (retired), Illinois Water Resources Center

PRESENT: Operations & Management of the Rivers Joseph Kellett, Deputy District Engineer, US Army Corps of Engineers St. Louis District

FUTURE: A Vision for a Land, Water and Economic Ethic Brad Walker, Missouri Coalition for the Environment

Stakeholder + Community Input Regional Planning Perspective

David Wilson, East-West Gateway Council of Governments

History: Environmental and Urban Andrew Hurley, University of Missouri St. Louis

River Transportation & Ports

Frank Miles, Tri City Regional Port

Otis Williams, St. Louis Development Corporation

Recreation

Laura Cohen, Confluence Partnership Ryan McClure, City-Arch-River

Levee Districts

Les Sterman, SW Illinois Flood Prevention District Council

Climate Change John Posey, East-West Gateway Council of Governments


Keynote Lecture “The Room for the River Program in The Netherlands�

Monday, March 25, 2013 Public Presentation of Workshop Results

Robbert de Koning, Robbert de Koning Landscape Architects

Introduction and Workshop Premise

D.C.

Steven Slabbers, Bosch-Slabbers Landscape

D.C.

John Hoal, Washington University in St. Louis

Dale Morris, Royal Netherlands Embassy, Washington

Dale Morris, Royal Netherlands Embassy, Washington

Architects

Derek Hoeferlin, Washington University in St. Louis

Saturday, March 23, 2013 International, Regional, Local Examples / Contextualizing the Workshop Room for the River in the Netherlands: Policy Goals, Projects Overview, Technical Applications, Scenarios, Design Outcomes Ralph Schielen, Rijkswaterstaat Frans Klijn, Deltares

Marten Hillen, Royal HaskoningDHV Pim Nijssen, Twynstra Gudde

Beneficial Functions of Floodplains Eileen Fretz, American Rivers

Realistic Floodplain Assessment Bob Criss, Washington University in St. Louis

Modeling the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers Fredrik Huthoff and Jon Remo, Southern Illinois

Estimates

Frans Klijn, Deltares

The Region

Steven Slabbers, Bosch-Slabbers Landscape Architects

Fluvial Zones Emily Chen, Washington University in St. Louis Marten Hillen, Royal HaskoningDHV

Robbert de Koning, Robbert de Koning Landscape Architects

Stijn Koole, Bosch-Slabbers Landscape Architects Kees Lokman, Washington University in St. Louis Jesse Vogler, Washington University in St. Louis

Reflections

Rachel Jacobson, Acting Assistant Director for US Fish + Wildlife + Parks Services, US Department of Interior

Discussion and Community Feedback

University Carbondale

Agricultural Considerations and Economic Trade-Offs Chuck Theiling, Great River Integrated Water Resources Management

Silvia Secchi, Southern Illinois University Carbondale

Summary of Applicable US Army Corps of Engineers Studies

Eddie Brauer and Donald Duncan, US Army Corps of Engineers, St. Louis District

Regional and Local Floodplain Projects Dennis Knobloch, former mayor of Valmeyer, Illinois Craig Anz and Beth Ellison, Southern Illinois University Carbondale

Todd Strole, The Nature Conservancy

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A BALANCED APPROACH WE... looked, listened to local experts WITH MULTIPLE VIEWPOINTS, looked again, listened to more local experts, were inpired by local, national and international case studies, drew, calculated, discussed, drew, worked out what are critical questions and unknowns at this stage and discussed, AND drew some more... to work out a proposed research agenda and open questions relevant to MULTIPLE INTEREST GROUPS OF our own community and communities along other great rivers

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opportunities

we have no answers but propose a research agenda and a continuing of the conversation...


over the longterm... It is anticipated that there will be continued change to weather patterns in the Midwest which will alter how we live with & alongside our Great Rivers...

a new design condition...

Challenges our current assumptions about flood risk, drought and water supply Requires us to rethink how we use the river and adjacent lands Requires us to adapt

Applies to both the entire river system as well as to our region Impacts the economies, ecologies and communities along the river

a proactive longterm integrative water-based approach... Needs to simultaneously improve the economy, ecology and quality of our cities and towns

Has been developed, studied and implemented by the Dutch throughout the world Chain of Rocks water intake tower Mississippi river during record low water levels December 2012

Becomes applicable to other mid-western cities and towns along the Great Rivers

Needs to build upon the previous work and commitment of the community

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workshop premise

The Great Rivers are our local determinacy our history...

The Great Rivers are our ecological bank...

The Great Rivers are our cultural bank...


The Great Rivers have been redesigned over time and are under stress...

The Great Rivers are our source of continued wealth...

+ methodology

The Great Rivers are our financial bank...

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WAT


TER 17


mississippi

The Mississippi watershed drains 41% of the United States landmass, all or portions of 31 states and is the 4th largest watershed in the world...


watershed

Mississippi river basin, sub-bains, rivers and streams

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92%

320,000,000

292

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of nation’s agricultural exports are produced in the mississippi watershed

species of birds (1/2 of north american birds) many of which migrate through st. louis region

tons of suspended sediment historically made way to gulf of mexicio (prior to missouri river dams)

rail lines pass through st. louis


watershed systems

32,000,000 tons of freight handled by st. louis port

The Mississippi River is the longest river in the USA, 4th longest in the world, drains 31 states (41 % of the US landmass) and portions of 2 Canadian provinces. Together with the Missouri, Illinois, and Ohio Rivers, it has been a conduit for cultural and economic exchange throughout the North American continent. These rivers are ecological treasures, with the Mississippi River alone containing 241 species of fish, 292 species of birds, 57 mammals, 45 reptiles and untold numbers of invertebrates using the river. In particular, the Mississippi River remains a key economic resource: over 92% of US agricultural exports are produced in the Mississippi/Missouri River basin. The port system of South Louisiana - in the river’s delta - is one of the largest ports in the world and the inland port of metropolitan St. Louis is a large, multi-modal network at the heart of America’s commercial traffic, handling over 32 millions tons of freight each year, including grain, coal, petroleum products, scrap metals, aggregates, and chemicals. The St. Louis port is the northern-most lock and ice-free port on the Mississippi, the second largest inland port by trip-ton miles and the third largest by tonnage. In the Upper Mississippi river basin alone, the 78 counties that border the main waterways contain 5% of the nation’s population totaling 13.4 million.

300,000 miles of recreation trails

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MISSISSIPPI

MISSOURI

ILLINOIS


st. louis exists at the confluence of three great rivers ...but the three great rivers are different... MISSOURI MISSOURI

MISSISSIPPIMISSISSIPPIMISSISSIPPI

ILLINOIS

ILLINOIS

ILLINOIS

oot/mile slope

1 foot/mile slope

1 foot/mile

slope

0.45 foot/mile slope

0.45 foot/mile slope

0.45 foot/mile

slope

0.1 foot/mile slope

0.1 foot/mile slope

0.1 foot/m

341 miles length

2,341length miles

2,341 miles

length

2,320 miles length

2,320length miles

2,320 miles

length

273 miles length

273 miles length

273 miles

,500discharge cubic feet/second 87,500 discharge cubic feet/second 87,500 cubic feet/second discharge nnual avg. at St. Louis) (annual avg. at St. Louis) (annual avg. at St. Louis)

205,000 discharge cubic feet/second 205,000 discharge cubic feet/second 205,000 cubic feet/second discharge (annual avg. at St. Louis) (annual avg. at St. Louis) (annual avg. at St. Louis)

23,200discharge cubic feet/second 23,200 discharge cubic feet/second 23,200 cub (annual avg. at St. Louis) (annual avg. at St. Louis) (annual av

metric barges tons/year 5 metric barges tons/year 5 metric tons/year barges

80 metric barges tons/year 80 metric barges tons/year80 metric tons/yearbarges

30 metric barges tons/year 30 metric barges tons/year30 metric

M metric sediment tons/year 80 M sediment metric tons/year 80 M metric tons/year sediment nnual avg. at St. Louis) (annual avg. at St. Louis) (annual avg. at St. Louis)

20 M metric sediment tons/year 20 M sediment metric tons/year 20 M metric tons/year sediment (annual avg. at St. Louis) (annual avg. at St. Louis) (annual avg. at St. Louis)

5 M metric sediment tons/year5 M metric sediment tons/year 5 M metric (annual avg. at St. Louis) (annual avg. at St. Louis) (annual av

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climate extremes

why the midwest matters We typically think extreme weather is just coastal - tropical storms, sea level rise, sinking lands, and saltwater intrusion. We hear from cities like New Orleans, New York, San Francisco - disasters like Katrina and Sandy are well-known to all. Why is the Midwest relevant? The floods of 2011 that overtopped levees and the 2012 droughts that quickly followed demonstrated that extreme weather is not just a coastal issue. Changes in climate and future fluctuations to come will mean changes in flood protection levels and will have the capacity to disrupt shipping and commerce along the working rivers. Thus a large impact on local, regional and national economies.

These changes in weather will modify how we live with and alongside our rivers.

climate change is not just coastal...

The recent floods and droughts demonstrate that increased climate variability across the Midwest river basins cannot be overlooked over the long-term. Extreme weather has a direct, and often negative, impact on the river’s functioning and adjacent land uses, and thus also the Midwest’s ecology, economies and communities. Increased climate variability may mean more frequent extreme weather throughout the Midwest. More floods and droughts demand that stakeholders along the Illinois, Mississippi and Missouri rivers adapt at-risk communities, ecologies and economies to this uncertain future.

St. Louis is the third coast


why st. louis matters St. Louis’ location at the confluence of three great rivers makes the region extremely relevant to the discussion of how climatedriven changes in the rivers will affect communities. The fluvial zones in the St. Louis region are prototypical of Midwest zones protected urban areas, leveed agricultural, and leveed zones for future development. The study of these areas and strategies for the new design condition will be applicable and transferable to other communities.

extreme weather projections for the future include: Temperature rise

Accelerated evaporation

Increase in precipitation

what does this mean for the st. louis region? Larger variability in river discharges More floods / highs ?

Flooding of Choteau Island, Illinois June 2013

More droughts / lows ?

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Topography (yellow to orange), Floodplains (blue), Landcover (red) and Waterbodies (purple) Note significant portion of red within blue


The Confluence floodplain

st. louis metropolitan statistical area (MSA) 2.8 million residents (19th largest MSA in USA)

confluence flood plain (mississippi, missouri, illinois rivers)

The Missouri floodplain

2 states (Illinois, Missouri) 7,889 square miles

16 counties (Bond, Calhoun, Clinton, Franklin, Jefferson, Jersey, Lincoln, Macoupin, Madison, Monroe, St. Claire, St. Charles, St. Louis, St. Louis City, Warren, Washington) 3 major rivers (Illinois, Mississippi, Missouri) 2 major tributaries (Kaskaskia, Meramec)

2 Mississippi watershed sub-basins (Missouri, Upper-Mississippi) 2 US Army Corps of Engineers Districts (Kansas City, St. Louis) 5 Interstate highways 16 Rail lines

2nd largest inland port by trip-ton miles

Last set of Mississippi river locks and dams The American Bottom floodplain

Major agriculture, health care, bio-tech, industrial, institutional, suburban, urban, exurban and recreational land uses 9 Fortune 500 companies

2011 Gross Metropolitan Product (GMP) $133 billion USD (21st highest in USA -- or making it the 79th largest global economy if compared with countries)

Sources: E/W Gateway Council of Governments, Fortune 500, Port of St. Louis, US Census, Wall Street Journal,

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assets _Multiple rivers and natural resources _Not just a city, but a bi-state region _multi-modal node (rail, road, barge) _productive lands _innovative / bio-tech economy

the region

_World class universities, institutions, parks + recreation _Historical significance


potentials _region more aware of the strength of the watersystem (from working rivers...to rivers that work) _integrated ecological, economic, and urban development paired with improved river discharge (resilience to climate extremes) _connected bi-state region better linked to the rivers _jefferson national expansion memorial as the main regional public space _A Marked confluence _hydraulic relief and Ecological benefits with by-passes that can add new blue-green pearls to the natural chain (improve the quality of urban and river life)

Workshop participants field trip, view of Missisippi River, Gateway Arch and downtown St. Louis from East St. Louis, Illinois March 2013

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the estimates

SEE BELOW DIAGRAM


with extreme weather, flood levels will rise ...and drought levels will fall Estimates for year 2050:

Based on NOAA climate expectations (01/2013), the changes in extreme precipitation events (>1 inch/day) may be: (high scenario) +40% days (low scenario) +10% days River discharges will increase 10% or more during floods (low scenario)

Flood water levels at St. Louis will Rise 3-8 feet, low stage will drop -3-5 feet? double in 2100??? A 100 year flood now becomes a 40 year flood (A ‘100 year flood’ means a flood has a 1% chance of occurring in any year.) A 500 year flood now becomes a 200 year flood

THe bottleneck + the backwater effect

After the last sets of locks and dams of the upper Mississipi river, and just south of the confluence of the three great rivers, and just north of St. Louis city, a narrowing of the Mississippi channel causes a “bottleneck” and potentially disastrous “backwater” effect. This is exactly what occured in the Great Flood of 1993. Great flood of 1993

Contrary to intuition, modifications to the river system have a downstream as well as upstream effect. The backwater effect is an unexpected (often unanticipated) effect of narrowing of the river bed by flood protection measures (or urban areas).

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We need to stop calling floods “100 year” or “500 year” events ... because “100 year” events seem to happen much more frequently ... rather, what if we calculate probabilities based on something people can relate to ... like the chances a flood occuring during a 30 year mortgage ... or one’s lifetime ...


probabilities will change A ‘100 year flood’ means a flood has a 1% chance of occurring in any year. If we calculate the chance of a home in the 100 year flood zone flooding over the life of a 30 year mortgage it turns out there is 26% chance such a flood will occur. For a home in the 500 year floodplain there is a 6% chance of flooding.

When re-calculated based on climate change expectations of a 10% increase in river discharges a previously 100 year flood increases in frequency to a 40 year flood. There is now a 53% chance of a home in the 100 year (now 40 year) flood zone flooding, and a 26% chance of a home in the 500 year (now 100 year) flood zone flooding.

consequences of flooding

Taking the American Bottom (Metro East Sanitary District) in Illinois (“500 year” flood protection) as an example: Direct Damages: $7 billion USD

Loss of life and affected populations Indirect damages:

Loss of business profits (agriculture, navigation, small businesses, etc.)

Pollution (spreading of toxins and debris locally and downstream) Is the protection level economically optimal? and what about in 50 years?

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the fluvial zones


...the fluvial zones are prototypical of the upper midwest...agricultural, suburban, urban...free-flowing and pooled... Confluence of the Missouri (left) and Mississppi (right) rivers

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1

3 2


1

fluvial zones 1) Agricutlural Land Use + Pooled river Mississippi river: Melvin Price locks and dam / Alton to confluence of Illinois and Mississippi rivers

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2) levee-protected suburban development + free-flow river Missouri river: Howell Island State Wildlife Area to Interstate 70

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3) levee-protected existing urbanized area + Free-flow river Mississippi river: Mississippi / Missouri confluence to Interstate 270 / 255

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fluvial zone 1: challenges _agriculture (droughts, floods, nutrient loads, mono-cultures) _ecology (native + migratory species) Migratory flyway

_development (future other than agriculture?) _Flood protection (risk and levels)

Native Species

_local vs. global (export of crops) _navigation (future capacities of mississippi + missouri rivers)

Exporting of Crops

Drought Severity

Crop Water Usage


fluvial zone 1: potentials _utilize topograpy + levees The fluvial zone has areas of higher ground and varying levels of protection in the zone. Different uses are able to naturally align with these different levels - trends extrapolated from nearby development allow it to continue onto higher ground. Land that frequently floods can still be utilized efficiently for agriculture using innovative farming techniques.

_develop innovative agriculture + Nutrient Capture

PRESENT Low-value commodity crops such as corn and soybean make up the bulk of agriculture in the region - food must then be imported from California and elsewhere

POTENTIAL There is an opportunity to diversify crops, thereby increasing resliency to unexpected weather, and serve local markets. High-value food crops can be grown on fertile agricultural land.

At present low-value and water-thirsty commodity crops such as corn and soybean are grown in the region and then exported to other parts of the country or abroad. There is little access to fresh fruit and vegetable crops, and must be imported from California. There is an opportunity to diversify markets, increase resiliency of the crops, and perhaps even create new high-value exports through innovative agriculture. A gravity-fed system would take advantage of the flood-pulse, and use the opportunity to recapture run-off nutrients, thereby converting a former problem into a resource.

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SCENARIOS Opportunities

Challenges

Agricultural production Increased conservation area Developable Land Recreation

More frequent high water Subsidence Water pollution Agricultural security Protection of existing developed lands Missouri river water competing uses Comprehensive ecological health plan

Opportunities

Challenges

Local food source Diversified Agricultural Economy Recreation economy Ecological health and safety Flood Pulse Economic risk management

History of farming – crop shifts Economic – upfront costs

Opportunities

Challenges

Flood pulse Increased conservation area Recreation Agricultural diversity

Spatial quality Levee improvements if increased development

1) STATUS QUO...do nothing different

2) BUSINESS AS USUAL...BUT BETTER

3) PARADIGM change... climate is the driver

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fluvial zone 2: challenges _”Backwater Effect” (locally due to development creating bottlenecks and downstream at downtown st. louis due to reduced river profile crosssection for discharge )

Backwater Effect

_ missouri river sediment transport (“the big muddy” supplies 75% of the mississippi river basin’s sediment load -- or 100 million metric tons per year) _very little visual and literal connections to missouri river

Flood Risk

_ development pressures impacts risk profile (population increases, commercial + industrial “big-box” typology) _flood protection (risk and levels)

Recreation

Water Treatment

_navigation (missouri river only 10% of mississippi river basin barge traffic) _recreation (hunting, fishing, ecology) _Stormwater management (large parking lots / impervious surfaces / limited stormwater storage) _Water treatment (3 plants in study area)


fluvial zone 2: potentials _missouri river as an urban, ecological and landscape development opportunity adaptable to high and low water levels _long-term demographic trends = continued increasing populations? _improved + multifunctional levees _bypasses and islands _innovative agriculture + aquaculture _Sustainable/controlled sediment mining to benefit river maintenance and minimize impact on river ecologies _hydro-power technologies _floodable / temporary programs _elevated developments

Urban, Ecological and Landscape Development Opportunities 43


SCENARIOS 1) urban flood plain Opportunities Investment Multi-Use Development Jobs / $ Generator New Functions / Destination Challenges

Impact of development on room for water Increased Risk / High levees, or improved flood protection needed Ecological Degredation Increased Back-water Effect

2) flood plain sponge Opportunities Resilient to weather extremes Reduction of Backwater Effect Expanded Habitat / Wildlife Outdoor Recreation / Hunting Challenges

Voluntary Buyouts of Property Relocation of Development Navigation Cutoff

3) multi-functional flood plain Opportunities Cultural Value Optimize Temporal Uses Room for the River Jobs Challenges

Living with Risk Costly Competing Jurisdictional Interests

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fluvial zone 3: challenges _regional bottleneck of mississippi river _large population protected by “all or nothing” single-line levee system _Historically important communities and site of Mississippian cultures and UNESCO Historic Site _Heavy industry: Steel, Chemical, and Petrochemical _spatial, social + economic fragmentation _drought + flooding _contamination _‘The big IF’ (Social, financial, industrial catastrophe?)


fluvial zone 3: potentials _increased safety from flooding and contamination _opportunities for new waterfront developments _hydraulic relief locally, regionally and nationally (mitigate bottleneck and backwater effect) _improvements to local ecology _connecting communities _enhancements to port operations along the river

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SCENARIOS 1) business as usual Opportunities Safety within total area is ensured Contamination is contained within reinforced levee Least expensive Challenges

The river remains constricted Still an ‘all-or-nothing’ approach Zero redundancy Developed with East St. Louis’s back to the river—does not add qualities to area

2) set back Opportunities Addresses bottleneck by expanding floodway Relieves larger system Contains majority of contaminants Increases protection to local levee district Opportunity for new waterfront/industry on Illinois side Challenges

Located in a historic area—must be sensitive to historic settlement patterns Industrial remediation along waterway Expensive


SCENARIOS 3) managed and staged flood Opportunities Significant hydraulic relief for the entire system to have impacts on the national scale Protection of industry and containment of contaminants Bulk of the population protected by new levee Horseshoe Lake Remediation (costly?) Challenges

Expensive to build and maintain levees Impacts majority of the agricultural community Some need for temporary inundation of agricultural lands

4) blue green bypass Opportunities Hydraulic relief that functions on the national scale Major improvements to the local ecology, which will have positive impacts on the local area as well as the regional area Strengthens navigation while limiting uncertain flood-stages New development (port) opportunities along river Challenges

Modifies land use from agricultural to ecological Infrastructural blockages Cost/time

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climate adaptation

FROM Working Rivers to...rivers that work

Based upon three days work with limited community, state and federal partners, there is a need to continue these discussions and research to assist in ensuring our collective long-term future is resilient and prosperous...


CONTINUING THE CONVERSATION _THE SCENARIOS SET FORTH ARE NOT MEANT TO BE PRESCRIPTIVE BUT THEY ARE THE BEGINNINGS OF A LONG-TERM APPROACH 1) Validate the discharge and water level data, flood and drought impacts and establish future hydrological design conditions based upon climate change / extreme weather scenarios

2) Evaluate options for risk management for flood and drought control, spatial planning, contaminants, and disaster management 3) Develop a more integrated vision for land-use and multi-layered and functional infrastructure

4) Create new (sustainable) economic generators 5) Continue building community capacity to foster dialogue around these issues

6) Build a multi-disciplinary international “think tank� dedicated to the research and practice of longterm integrative water-based planning

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Workshop Leaders

Fluvial Zone 1 Group

John Hoal, Washington University in St. Louis Derek Hoeferlin, Washington University in St. Louis Dale Morris, Royal Netherlands Embassy, Washington D.C.

Philip Burkhardt, Humdinger Studio Emily Chen, student, Washington University in St. Louis Courtney Cushard, H3 Studio, Inc. Bin Feng, student, Washington University in St. Louis Carolyn Gaidis, L.A.N.D., LLC. + H3 Studio, Inc. Robbert de Koning, Robbert de Koning Landscape Architects Daniel Tynes, student, Washington University in St. Louis Natalie Yates, Washington University in St. Louis Shiyun “Sherlock” Yu, student, Washington University in St. Louis Chris van der Zwet, VolkerWessels

Research Assistants Christian Clerc, Washington University in St. Louis Jonathan Stitelman, Washington University in St. Louis

Estimates Group Hermjan Barneveld, HKV Consultants Eddie Brauer, US Army Corps of Engineers, St. Louis Distrrict Don Duncan, US Army Corps of Engineers, St. Louis District Frans Klijn, Deltares Fredrik Huthoff, HKV Consultants / Southern Illinois University Carbondale Jon Remo, Southern Illinois University Carbondale Ralph Schielen, Rijkswaterstaat

Regional Group Eileen Fretz, American Rivers John Hoal, Washington University in St. Louis Derek Hoeferlin, Washington University in St. Louis John Kleinschmidt, Waggonner & Ball Architects Pim Nijssen, Twynstra Gudde Dale Morris, Royal Netherlands Embassy, Washington D.C. Steven Slabbers, Bosch-Slabbers Landscape Architects Richard “Rip” Sparks, Director (retired), Illinois Water Resources Center Todd Strole, The Nature Conservancy Chuck Theiling, Great River Integrated Water Resources Management David Waggonner, Waggonner & Ball Architects, Dutch Dialogues initiator Brad Walker, Missouri Coalition for the Environment Eric Zencey, Washington University in St. Louis

Fluvial Zone 2 Group Lilia Irene Compadre, [dtls] landscape studio Sara Delahoussaye, student, Washington University in St. Louis Peter Hermens, IAA Stedenbouw en Landschap and Landschap Overijssel Marten Hillen, Royal HaskoningDHV Kees Lokman, Washington University in St. Louis Shinan Qui, student, Washington University in St. Louis Bryan Robinson, H3 Studio, Inc. Deena Saeed, student, Washington University in St. Louis Brendan Wittstruck, GUMBULLY

Fluvial Zone 3 Group Craig Anz, Southern Illinois University Carbondale Golie Ebrahimian, student, Washington University in St. Louis Chad Fisk, student, Washington University in St. Louis Stijn Koole, Bosch-Slabbers Landscape Architects Laura Lyon, H3 Studio, Inc. Thuy-Tien “Alice” Mac, student, Washington University in St. Louis Allison Mendez, Cannon Design Mikey Naucus, SWT Design Tiffin Thompson, student, Washington University in St. Louis Anne-Sietske Verburg, Bosch-Slabbers Landscape Architects Jesse Vogler, Washington University in St. Louis


Speakers Craig Anz, Southern Illinois University Carbondale Eddie Brauer, US Army Corps of Engineers, St. Louis District Laura Cohen, Confluence Partnership Bob Criss, Washington University in St. Louis Don Duncan, US Army Corps of Engineers, St. Louis District Elizabeth Ellison, Southern Illinois University Carbondale Eileen Fretz, American Rivers Marten Hillen, Royal HaskoningDHV John Hoal, Washington University in St. Louis Derek Hoeferlin, Washington University in St. Louis Andrew Hurley, University of Missouri St. Louis Fredrik Huthoff, Southern Illinois University Carbondale Rachel Jacobson, Acting Assistant Director for US Fish + Wildlife + Parks Services, US Department of Interior Joseph Kellett, Deputy District Engineer, US Army Corps of Engineers, St. Louis District Frans Klijn, Deltares Dennis Knobloch, former mayor of Valmeyer, Illinois Robbert de Koning, Robbert de Koning Landscape Architects Ryan McClure, City-Arch-River Frank Miles, Tri City Regional Port Dale Morris, Senior Economist, Royal Netherlands Embassy, Washington D.C. Pim Nijssen, Twynstra Gudde John Posey, East-West Gateway Council of Governments Jon Remo, Southern Illinois University Carbondale Ralph Schielen, Rijkswaterstaat Silvia Secchi, Southern Illinois University Carbondale Steven Slabbers, Bosch-Slabbers Landscape Architects Richard “Rip” Sparks, Director (retired), Illinois Water Resources Center Les Sterman, SW Illinois Flood Prevention District Council Todd Strole, The Nature Conservancy Chuck Theiling, Great River Integrated Water Resources Management Brad Walker, Missouri Coalition for the Environment Otis Williams, St. Louis Development Corporation David Wilson, East-West Gateway Council of Governments

Site Visits Guides Laura Cohen, Confluence Partnership John Hoal, Washington University in St. Louis Derek Hoeferlin, Washington University in St. Louis Laura Lyon, H3 Studio, Inc. Katy Manar, US Army Corps of Engineers Benjamin McGuire, US Army Corps of Engineers Lane Richter, Audubon Center at Riverlands Richard Ward, Ward Development Counsel

thank you... MISI-ZIIBI would not have been possible without the incredible dedication and volunteer participation of the American and Dutch workshop experts and speakers, along with critical local community and stakeholder input. Special thanks goes out to the significant financial support provided by the Royal Netherlands Embassy, Washington D.C.; funding and facilities usage by Washington University in St. Louis’ Sam Fox School of Design & Visual Arts; and, funding from the Gephardt Institute for Public Service Clinton Global Initiative University (CGIU) Programming Fund.

Thank you to Washington University’s International Center for Advanced Renewable Energy and Sustainability (I-CARES) for facilitating the participation of Rachel Jacobson from the US Department of the Interior. Additional thanks goes to our partners Eileen Fretz at American Rivers and Fredrik Huthoff at Southern Illionois University Carbondale for the countless conference calls helping frame and prepare the complex workshop.

We would also like to thank the respondents at the public workshop presentation, particularly Ed Weilbacher.

Data and mapping support thanks go out to David Wilson and the East-West Gateway Council of Governments; and, to Aaron Addison and Bill Winston at Washington University’s Data Services and GIS lab. Finally, we want to thank Sam Fox School Dean Carmon Colangelo, Graduate School of Architecture & Urban Design Dean Bruce Linsdey, the Sam Fox School administrative support of Heather Atkinson, Ellen Bailey, Melinda Compton-Carter, Daphne Ellis, Karen Swinney, Katherine Koss Welsch and Bobbe Winters; and, the students of Derek Hoeferlin’s spring ‘13 graduate architecture studio. Last but certainly not least -- the tireless hours of preparatory work put in by our research assistants Christian Clerc and Jonathan Stitelman. misi-ziibi.com

-John Hoal -Derek Hoeferlin -Dale Morris

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TO BE CONTINUED... MISIZIIBI.COM #MISIZIIBI @misiziibi


image credits All drawings and photographs, unless otherwise indicated, Š MISI-ZIIBI (Royal Netherlands Embassy, Washington D.C. & Washington University in St. Louis) Photographs by MISI-ZIIBI: Golie Ebrahimian: 10-11, 46 Derek Hoeferlin: 03, 04-13, 14 (middle, lower), 15-17, 24-25, 26, 28-29, 32-33, 37 (upper), 38-43, 46-55 Stijn Koole: 27 (middle), 37 (lower) Steven Slabbers: 27 (lower), 37 (middle) 4445 Photographs not by MISI-ZIIBI: Confluence Partnership: 34-35 Daniel Acker/Bloomberg: 02 (lower) Thomas M. Easterly, Missouri History Museum: 14 (upper) NASA: 30-31 Scott Olson/Getty: 02 (upper) Srenco: 22-23, 27 (upper) Frederick Stivers: 01 (lower right) Drawings not by MISI-ZIIBI: Harold N. Fisk, US Army Corps of Engineers: 01 (upper right) Bill Iseminger, Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site: 01 (lower left)

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MISI-ZIIBI

Living with the Great Rivers

Climate Adaptation Strategies in the Midwest River Basins

In the United States Midwest, the 2011 floods and tornados, followed by the 2012 drought, and once again followed by the 2013 floods and tornados, demonstrate that increased climate variability and weather extremes across the Mississippi/Missouri river basins are a fact for which we need to plan. Such diverse weather events have direct impact on natural resources, economies and communities. MISI-ZIIBI: Living with the Great Rivers was the first in a series of multi-disciplinary workshops that investigated spatial design strategies through the studying of innovative, integrated approaches for climate adaptation along the Mississippi, Missouri and Illinois rivers in the Midwest. Initially focusing on the St. Louis Bi-state region, the first workshop outcomes were a broad-based set of proto-typological, multi-scaled planning scenarios worthy of more detailed study and intended to be transferable to other Midwest city regions. The Royal Netherlands Embassy, Washington D.C. co-sponsored the workshop with the Sam Fox School of Design & Visual Arts at Washington University in St. Louis. It brought to the Midwest experts from The Netherlands’ current “Room for the River” program – a government design plan intended to address climate change, flood protection, drought tolerance, integrated land use and the improvement of environmental conditions of areas along rivers to ensure the continued sustainable development of The Netherlands’ river region. The workshop partnered with local and regional experts to build upon the wealth of existing efforts underway.

www.misi-ziibi.com © Washington University in St. Louis Royal Netherlands Embassy, Washington D.C. 2013

MISI-ZIIBI: Living with the Great Rivers  

Co-organized by the Sam Fox School of Design & Visual Arts at Washington University in St. Louis and the Royal Netherlands Embassy, Washingt...

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