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°“√»÷°…“°“√·æ√à°√–®“¬¢Õß “√æ‘…™π‘¥‚æ≈’‰´§≈‘° Õ–‚√¡“µ‘° ‰Œ‚¥√§“√å∫Õπ (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHs) „π·À≈àßπÈ”¢Õ߇¢µ‡¡◊ÕߢÕߪ√–‡∑»‰∑¬ Study on the Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Water Resources of Urban Areas of Thailand. Vanvimol Patarasiriwong*, Chuanpit Boonyoy*

High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)


Water sample filtration

°“√»÷ ° …“°“√·æ√à ° √–®“¬¢Õß “√‚æ≈’ ‰´§≈‘ ° Õ–‚√¡“µ‘ ° ‰Œ‚¥√§“√å ∫ Õπ (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHs) 3 ™π‘¥ ‰¥â·°à Benzo (a) pyrene (BaP) Benzo (k) fluoranthene (BkF) ·≈– Benzo (g,h,i) perlyrene (BghiP) „π ·À≈àßπÈ”¢Õß°√ÿ߇∑æœ ·≈–ª√‘¡≥±≈ 3 ®—ßÀ«—¥ §◊Õ ®—ßÀ«—¥ππ∑∫ÿ√’ ª∑ÿ¡∏“π’ ·≈– ¡ÿ∑√ª√“°“√ ‚¥¬ ∑”°“√‡°Á∫µ—«Õ¬à“ßπÈ”·≈–¥‘πµ–°Õπ√–À«à“߇¥◊Õπ °ÿ¡¿“æ—π∏å - ¡’π“§¡ 2538 ®“°§≈Õßµà“ßÊ ·≈– ·¡àπÈ”‡®â“æ√–¬“ ®”π«π 29 5 4 ·≈– 6 ®ÿ¥‡°Á∫ µ—«Õ¬à“ßµ“¡≈”¥—∫ º≈°“√«‘‡§√“–Àå™π‘¥·≈–ª√‘¡“≥  “√‚æ≈’‰´§≈‘°Õ–‚√¡“µ‘°‰Œ‚¥√§“√å∫Õπ ∑—Èß 3 ™π‘¥ ™’È „Àâ‡ÀÁπ«à“°“√ªπ‡ªóôÕπ¢Õß “√‡À≈à“π’È „π·À≈àßπÈ”

*»Ÿπ¬å«‘®—¬·≈–Ωñ°Õ∫√¡¥â“π ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡ °√¡ à߇ √‘¡§ÿ≥¿“æ ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡ ‡∑§‚π∏“π’ µ.§≈ÕßÀâ“ Õ.§≈ÕßÀ≈«ß ®.ª∑ÿ¡∏“π’ 12120 ‚∑√. 0-2577-1136 ‚∑√ “√. 0-2577-1138 Environmental Research and Training Center, Department of Environmental Quality Promotion. Technopolis. Klong 5 Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 e-mail:

¬—߉¡à Õ ¬Ÿà „π√–¥—∫«‘°ƒµ‘ ‚¥¬æ∫«à“„πµ—«Õ¬à“ßπÈ”π—Èπ æ∫ “√ BkF ‡æ’¬ß™π‘¥‡¥’¬« „π√–¥—∫§«“¡‡¢â¡¢âπ µ—Èß·µà πâÕ¬°«à“ 2 - 4.9 π“‚π°√—¡/≈‘µ√  à«π„π µ—«Õ¬à“ߥ‘πµ–°Õπ “¡“√∂µ√«®æ∫ “√‚æ≈’ ‰´§≈‘° Õ–‚√¡“µ‘°‰Œ‚¥√§“√å∫Õπ ∑—Èß 3 ™π‘¥ §◊Õ æ∫ BaP „π √–¥— ∫ µ—È ß ·µà πâ Õ ¬°«à “ 20 - 89.6 ‰¡‚§√°√— ¡ /≈‘µ√ æ∫ “√ BkF µ—ßÈ ·µàπÕâ ¬°«à“ 15 - 66.1 ‰¡‚§√°√—¡ /≈‘µ√ ·≈–æ∫ “√ BghiP µ—ßÈ ·µà πâÕ¬°«à“ 100 - 282.5 ‰¡‚§√°√—¡/≈‘µ√ º≈°“√µ√«®«‘‡§√“–Àå™’È „ Àâ ‡ ÀÁ π «à “  “‡Àµÿ°“√ªπ‡ªóôÕπ¢Õß “√‚æ≈’ ‰´§≈‘°Õ–‚√¡“µ‘° ‰Œ‚¥√§“√å∫Õπ „π·À≈àßπÈ”¢Õß°√ÿ߇∑æœ ·≈–®—ßÀ«—¥ „°≈⇧’¬ßπ—πÈ πà“®–¡“®“°°“√®√“®√‡ªìπÀ≈—° ·¡â«“à  “√ ‚æ≈’ ‰ ´§≈‘ ° Õ–‚√¡“µ‘ ° ‰Œ‚¥√§“√å ∫ Õπ„π·À≈à ß πÈ” ∑’Ë µ√«®æ∫π’Ȭ—߉¡àÕ¬Ÿà „π√–¥—∫«‘°ƒµ‘°Áµ“¡ ·µà‡π◊ËÕß®“° ª√–‡∑»‰∑¬¬—߉¡à¡’°“√°”Àπ¥§à“¡“µ√∞“π ”À√—∫  “√‡À≈à“π’È ®÷ߧ«√®–‰¥â¡’°“√µ‘¥µ“¡µ√«® Õ∫‡ªìπ √–¬–‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâ∑√“∫∂÷ß·π«‚πâ¡¢Õß√–¥—∫°“√ªπ‡ªóôÕπ ¢Õß “√ æ√âÕ¡°—ππ’ȧ«√®–‰¥â¡’°“√»÷°…“°“√®—¥°“√ °“√ªπ‡ªóôÕπÕ—π‡π◊ËÕß¡“®“°®“° “√¥—ß°≈à“«‡æ◊ËÕ¡‘„Àâ ¡’√–¥—∫°“√ªπ‡ªóôÕπ®π∂÷ߢ—Èπ«‘°ƒµ‘‰¥â

ABSTRACT Determination of 3 PAHs, Benzo (a) pyrene (BaP), Benzo (k) fluoranthene (BkF) and Benzo (g,h,i) perlyrene, (BghiP), in water resources of Bangkok and perimeters was conducted. 29, 5, 4 and 6 sampling sites were selected in Bangkok, Nonthaburi, Pathumthani and Samutprakan provinces, respectively. The sampling sites selected on the canals and major river of Thailand, the Chaopraya River, were situated along the road sides. The sample was collected in February-March 1995. The results showed non-critical level of PAHs contamination in water resources. Only BkF was found in water sample in the range of <2 to 4.9 ng/l. All the 3 PAHs were detected in the sediment sample in the range of <20 to 89.6, < 15 to 66.1 and <100 to 282.5 mg/kg for BaP, BkF and BghiP, respectively. The results can imply that water resources of Bangkok and perimeters were contributed mainly from traffic source. Although the research results showed quite low level of °-2

PAH detected, however, PAHs monitoring in water resources is necessary since the standard regulations for PAH in surface water of Thailand has not been established yet. Evaluation on trend of PAHs pollution and management strategy should be provided.

1. Introduction Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) is one of major classes of organic pollutants that are released into the environment and dued mostly to human activities. PAHs in the environment are formed mainly during incomplete combustion of organic matter at high temperature by both domestic and industrial activities. Exhausted emission from vehicles is also one of the major sources of PAHs in urbanized areas. Major routes of entry of PAHs into aquatic environment are spillage and seepage of fossil fuels, discharge of domestic and industrial wastes, fallout or rainout from air, and runoff from land. Most of the PAH entering the aquatic environment are localized in water resources and are more persistent in water than in air. PAH can accumulated by aquatic biota, reaching levels higher than those in the ambient medium (Neff, 1985). PAHs in water resources may vary upon the environmental conditions of the areas. Water and sediment from heavily industrialized areas usually contain much more PAHs concentrations level than those in area remote from human activities (Bjorseth et al, 1979, Griest, 1980; Neff, 1979 and 1985). The importance of PAHs in the environment is discussed because of its carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and/or teratogenicity to human (IARC, 1973 and NAS, 1972). PAH can also cause adverse effect to aquatic animals, for instant, growth inhibiting or abnormal meiosis that causing cancer. Fishes in the high-polluted areas were also found the tumorsis (Neff, 1985). »Ÿπ¬å«‘®—¬·≈–Ωñ°Õ∫√¡¥â“π ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡ °√¡ à߇ √‘¡§ÿ≥¿“æ ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡

The objectives of the present study are to determine PAH concentration levels and define their possible sources in aquatic environment of capital city and the perimeters of Thailand, which have potential of being polluted by most toxic substances as their urbanization.

2. Methods and Materials 2.1 Sampling sites Water and sediment samples from the water resources of the capital city of Thailand, Bangkok, and the perimeters, i.e. Pathumthani, Nonthaburi and Samutprakan provinces, were collected. Bangkok is known as the center of all business and civilization of the country. It is much interesting so that the great number of people has migrated from upcountry. Consequently, the urbanization and industrialization have expanded to the adjacent areas, especially the 3 provinces, Pathumthani, Nonthaburi and Samutprakan. Thus, heavy traffic condition cannot be avoided. Therefore, the cities have high potential to be polluted by many toxic substances produced from various activities. Water resources, including rivers and canals, have become receiving water body for domestic discharges, industrial effluent and even fall out and runoff from the road. The sampling sites were selected on the Chaopraya river, one of the most important rivers of Thailand, and the canals (or klongs) which are affected by anthropogenic inputs directly and posing high risk of pollution. Table 1 and figure 1-4 show details of the selected sampling sites.

2.2 Sampling procedure Sample collection was done during February - March, 1995. Three liters of water sample were collected from each sampling site using water sampler and stored in narrow-mouth amber glass bottles. Grab sampler was used for sediment sampling. »Ÿπ¬å«‘®—¬·≈–Ωñ°Õ∫√¡¥â“π ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡ °√¡ à߇ √‘¡§ÿ≥¿“æ ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡

One kilogram of sediment sample was stored in wide-mouth amber glass bottle. All samples were kept cool until laboratory procedures were done.

2.3 Sample extractions PAHs were isolated from the water samples by solid phase extraction (SPE) on a C 18 column. Each of 1 liter of water samples was filtered with glass fiber filter before extraction to separate suspended solids. The C 18 column was rinse with methanol and acetonitrile consequently. Then the filtered water was taken over the column with under pressure applied. Sucking air through the column for 10 min was obtained for drying the column. PAHs in the column was eluted using 3 ml of dichloromethane twice. The combined extract was then gently nitrogen-dried and exactly 1 ml of acetronitrile was added and analyzed for the PAHs by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Ultrasonication method was applied both for the suspended solid and sediment extraction. Suspended solid precipitated on glass fiber filter was air-dried and weighted. All particulate samples of each sampling site were ultrasonicated with 2% dichloromethane in hexane 50 ml for 15 min twice. Ten ml of combined extraction was pipetted to silica column for cleaning up, and was eluted with 5 ml of 50% dichloromethane in hexane and 5 ml of acetronitrile, respectively. Nitrogen dried then was done and 1 ml of acetronitrile was added. The sediment samples were air-dried and crashed then sieved using a 150-mesh screen. A 5-g subsample was transferred to a flask and mixed with 5 g of anhydrous sodium sulfate. Fifty ml of 2% dichloromethane in hexane was used as solvent for ultrasonication for 30 min. After the precipitation, the dichloromethane/ hexane °-3

extract was transferred to another flask. Another 50 ml of 2% dichloromethane in hexane was added to the sediment and ultrasonicated for more 30 min. The second dichloromethane/hexane extract was transferred to combine with the first extract. One milliliter of the combined extract was pipetted to the silica column for cleaning up and was eluted with 5 ml of 50% dichloromethane in hexane and 5 ml of

acetronitrile, respectively. The final extract was dried with pure nitrogen gas then exactly 1 ml of acetronitrile was added and analyzed for PAH concentrations with HPLC. Three replicates of each combined extract were done for every single sediment sample.

2.4 Analysis of PAHs Three compounds of PAHs selected for analysis were benzo (a) pyrene, BaP; benzo (k) fluoranthene, BkF; and benzo (g,h,i)

Table 1 Details of the selected sampling sites. Sampling Describtions Sampling Describtions site site Bangkok BKK 1 Chaopraya river, Rama 6 Bridge BKK 16 Klong Prapa , Rama 5 Road BKK 2 Chaopraya river, Krung Thon Buri Bridge BKK 17 Klong Pra Kha Nong, Sukhumvit Road BKK 3 Chaopraya river, Pra Pin Klao Bridge BKK 18 Chaopraya river, Khlong Toey Seaport BKK 4 Klong Bangkok Noi, Arun Amarin Road BKK 19 Pond near the Tobacco plant BKK 5 Chaopraya river, Pra Putta Yot Fa Bridge BKK 20 Pond in the Lumpini Park BKK 6 Klong Bangkok Yai, Sang Kha Chai Temple BKK 21 Klong Prem Prachakorn, Rama 6 Road BKK 7 Klong Bang Sai Kai, Somdej Chaopraya Road BKK 22 Klong Bang Sue, Pracha Rat No. 1 Road BKK 8 Chaopraya river, Rama 9 Bridge BKK 23 Klong Sam-sen, Samsen Road BKK 9 Klong Bang Pa Kaew, Suksawad 13 Road BKK 24 Klong Padung, Krung Kasem Road BKK 10 Chaopraya river, Krung Thep Bridge BKK 25 Klong Rob Krung, Pra Su Meru Road BKK 11 Chaopraya river, Taksin Bridge BKK 26 Klong Ku Muang Derm, Rajchadamnern Road BKK 12 Klong Sathon, Sathon Road BKK 27 Klong Padung, Krung Kasem Road BKK 13 Klong Padung, Charoen Nakhon Road BKK 28 Klong Sam-sen, Paholyothin Road BKK 14 Klong Padung, Krung Kasem Road BKK 29 Makkasan reservoir BKK 15 Klong San-sab, Rama 6 Road Pathumthani province PTT 1 Klong Prapa, Road no. 3100 PTT 3 Chaopraya river, Pathumthani Bridge PTT 2 Klong Bang Po Tai, Road no. 307 PTT 4 Klong Rangsit Prayoonsak, Road no. 305 Samutprakan province SPK 1 Klong Samrong SPK 4 Chaopraya river, fresh market of the Paknam district SPK 2 Klong Bang Nang Kreng, Poo Chao Saming Prai SPK 5 The mouth of the Chaopraya river, next to Road (in front of the water gate) the Gulf of Thailand SPK 3 Klong Bang Nang Kreng, Poo Chao Saming Prai SPK 6 Klong Sappasamit Road (behind the water gate) Nonthaburi province NTB 1 Chaopraya river, Nonthaburi Bridge NTB 4 Chaopraya river, Nonthaburi Port NTB 2 Chaopraya river, Pak Kred Port NTB 5 Klong Bang-kruai NTB 3 Chaopraya river, Pra nung Klao Bridge °-4

»Ÿπ¬å«‘®—¬·≈–Ωñ°Õ∫√¡¥â“π ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡ °√¡ à߇ √‘¡§ÿ≥¿“æ ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡

Figure 1 Sampling sites in Bangkok (BKK).

»Ÿπ¬å«‘®—¬·≈–Ωñ°Õ∫√¡¥â“π ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡ °√¡ à߇ √‘¡§ÿ≥¿“æ ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡


Figure 2 Sampling sites in Pathumthani (PTT).

Figure 3 Sampling sites in Samutprakan (SPK).


»Ÿπ¬å«‘®—¬·≈–Ωñ°Õ∫√¡¥â“π ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡ °√¡ à߇ √‘¡§ÿ≥¿“æ ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡

Figure 4 Sampling sites in Nonthaburi (NTB). perylene, BghiP. BaP was proven as carcinogens (IARC, 1973 and NAS, 1972). BkF and BghiP were reported as carcinogenic initiator and strengthener of BaPûs carcinogenicity, respectively (Environment Agency of Japan, 1991). The analysis of PAHs by HPLC has followed the method by Matsushita et al (1992). The recovery rate for standard spiked water and marine sediment (Standard

referent material 1941a, NIST) from five replicates are presented in table 2.

3. Results and discussion The 3-PAH concentrations in water and sediment samples of Bangkok, Nonthaburi, Pathumthani and Samutprakan provinces are shown in Table 3. The result of water samples, include total PAHs in water and suspended

Table 2 The recovery rate for water and sediment samples.

Compounds Benzo (k) fluoranthene Benzo (a) pyrene Benzo (g,h,i) perylene

Abbreviation N BkF BaP BghiP

5 5 5

»Ÿπ¬å«‘®—¬·≈–Ωñ°Õ∫√¡¥â“π ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡ °√¡ à߇ √‘¡§ÿ≥¿“æ ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡

Water Sediment Recovery, Detection Recovery, Detection mean Limit mean Limit (%) (ng/l) (%) (µg/kg) 98.9 2 98.8 15 88.4 3 97.6 20 89.5 10 100 100 °-7

solids, showed that carcinogenic PAH, BaP, and BghiP were not detected. Among 3 PAHs, only BkF is found in water sample and are detected in the samples of Bangkok, Pathumthani and Samutprakan provinces, but not detected in the samples of Nonthaburi province. PAHs in sediment are detected in the samples of Bangkok, Nontaburi and Samutprakan provinces, but not detected in the samples of Pathumthani province. PAHs concentrations varied from sampling site to anothers, even in the same water resources. From the samples of Bangkok, it was found that PAHs detected in water and sediment were markedly different. In water samples, BaP and BghiP were not detected (less than 3 and 10 ng/l, respectively). This is significant in that the compounds are concerning with carcinogenic risk (NAS, 1972). Only BkF was found non-specifically. Sorrell et al (1980) reported that PAH concentrations in surface waters are dependent on the organic loading of the aqueous system and on the amount of suspended particulate matters. And it was believed that PAH concentrations in water varied by the function of industrial contamination. BkF concentration detected in this study is in the range of less than 2 to 4.9 ng/l which is in the same magnitude of level as those reported for typical unpolluted water (Arashidani et al, 1985, Hanada et al, 1989, Mori and Naito, 1985, and Sorrell et al, 1980), may reflect non-serious contamination of PAHs in water resources of Bangkok. The standard values of maximum concentration of BaP in drinking water of U.S., Canada and WHO is 0.00001-0.002 mg/l (or 10-200 ng/l), but in this study BaP was not detected. Obana et al (1983) reported that aquatic organisms could accumulate PAHs °-8

from water rather than from sediment, thus, the results can ensure that aquatic PAHs will not lead adverse effects to the organisms living in these areas. Most of PAHs detected in sediment samples of Bangkok is specific to the heavy traffic areas and concentration of BghiP is ten times higher than BaP and BkF. The results seem subject to the previous report (Nielsen, 1996). The author revealed that main source of PAHs in large cities was the traffic and BghiP is one of the major PAHs emitted in relatively high amount from city traffic exhaust. It was approved that the most likely sources of PAH in sediment was PAHassociated airborne dust (Hase and Hites, 1976 and Shinohara et al, 1980). Roads in Bangkok were constructed parallel with the canals and high buildings located along the roads, this may has ceased the distribution of the atmospheric PAHs, and promoted falling and raining out into the canals next to the road. This is in agreement with the analysis by mathematical model of PCD (1994) which ascribed the large source of hydrocarbons in Bangkok Metropolitan Region to traffic. In the present study, PAHs detected in other provinces, i.e. Pathumthani, Nonthaburi and Samutprakan, cannot represent all over the cities since small numbers of sampling sites were conducted. However, from the same magnitude of concentration level as in Bangkok, it may reflect same major concerning of PAHs in aquatic environment of the cities, that is exhausted emission from the traffic.

4. Conclusions Determination of water resources of Bangkok and perimeters indicated noncritical level of PAHs contamination in surface water. PAHs detected in the sediment samples »Ÿπ¬å«‘®—¬·≈–Ωñ°Õ∫√¡¥â“π ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡ °√¡ à߇ √‘¡§ÿ≥¿“æ ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡

Table 4

PAHs found in water and sediment samples of Bangkok, Nonthaburi, Pathumthani and Samutprakan provinces, collected in February- March, 1995.

Sampling Sites

Suspended Solids (mg/l)


83.1 8.5 54.5 16.9 12.4 22.8 32.0 18.0 14.8 15.0 39.7 39.8 16.5 22.4 21.7 23.2 26.8 31.8 29.8 77.8 75.2 16.6 196.4 20.7 17.6 18.2 19.8 54.2 13.1 31.5 71.6 20.6 18.1 23.2 55.2 51.0 50.0 20.1 30.0 45.6 87.6 80.6 321.5 48.5 -

PAHs concentrations in water samples (ng/l) BaP BkF BghiP nd nd nd nd 2.7 nd nd 2.0 nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd 2.7 nd nd 2.6 nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd 3.7 nd nd 2.0 nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd 4.6 nd nd 2.0 nd nd 3.4 nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd 2.5 nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd 4.2 nd nd 4.9 nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd 4.2 nd nd 2.1 nd nd nd nd nd 2.9 nd nd nd nd nd 8.9 nd nd nd nd nd 3.8 nd nd nd nd 3.0 2.0 10

»Ÿπ¬å«‘®—¬·≈–Ωñ°Õ∫√¡¥â“π ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡ °√¡ à߇ √‘¡§ÿ≥¿“æ ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡

PAHs concentrations in sediment sample (µg/kg) BaP BkF BghiP nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd 28.4 47.4 nd 51.3 35.4 101.6 70.7 46.4 131.1 89.6 66.1 156.1 nd nd nd nd nd nd 22.9 19.1 nd 24.8 nd 106.8 25.7 17.2 nd nd 16.5 nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd 30.6 43.4 111.6 nd nd nd nd 20.1 186.1 nd 16.1 281.4 nd 41.7 126.4 43.7 55.5 282.5 33.3 18.4 274.9 43.9 36 102.7 nd 15 nd 24.3 22 nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd 27.3 17.1 nd 68.9 45.3 169.2 42.3 24.7 275.2 nd nd nd nd nd nd 21.1 15 nd 20 15 100


might reflect that water resources of Bangkok and perimeters were contributed mainly from traffic source. The standard regulations for PAH in surface water of Thailand has not been established yet and the research results showed quite low level of PAH detected. However, it should be noted that population number in Bangkok and perimeters has increased continually, meanwhile urbanization has not expanded or slowly expanded to upcountry. Thus, there is potential that Bangkok and perimeters will be affected by many kinds of pollutants, including PAHs. Then PAHs should be adopted as one of the substances in the monitoring survey, as suggestion by Obana et al (1983), to evaluate trend of pollution and management strategy should be studied, simultaneously.

5. Acknowledgements The authors like to thank Dr. Takashi Amagai, Mr. Hiroshi Hoshino, Mr. Yoshifumi Hanada and Prof. Dr. Hidetsuru Matsushita for their kind and generous help and advises in conducting this research. Thanks to the Kitakyushu Municipal Institute of Environmental health Sciences for giving the chance of training on PAHs analysis. Thanks to all staffs in the ERTC for supporting this research work.

6. References Arashidani, K., M. Yoshikawa and Y. Kodama. 1985. A simplified analysis of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons in soil and sediment by high performance liquid chromatography. EISEI KAGAKU, 31(1):24-31. Bjorseth, A., G. Lune and A. Lindskog. 1979. Long-range transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Atmos. Environ., 13: 45-53. °-10

Environment Agency of Japan. 1991. Chemicals in the Environment, Report on Environmental Survey and Wildlife Monitoring of Chemicals in F.Y.1988 and 1989. Griest, W. H. 1980. Multicomponent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon analysis of inland water and sediment. In B. K. Afghan and D. Mackay (eds.), Plenum Press, New York. Hanada, Y., S. Ichikawa, S. Sueta and K. Kido. 1989. The characteristics and distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydro-carbons in sea sediments in Kitakyushu Area. EISEI KAGAKU, 36(1): 8-14. Harrison, R. M., R. Perry and R. A. Wellings. 1975. Review paper: polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons raw potable and wastewaters. Wat. Res., 9: 331-346. Hase, A. and R. A. Hites. 1976. On the origin of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the aqueous environment, pp. 205-214. In L. H. Keit (ed.), Identification and analysis of Organic Pollutants in Water. Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor. IARC. 1973. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, IARC Monograph Vcolume 32 . Matsushita, H., Y. Takahashi, A. Azuma, H. Hiroi, and T. Amagai. 1992. Development of Highly Sensitive Automatic Analysis for Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Airborne particulates and Its Application to the Survey of Indoor pollution. Mori, Y. and S. Naito. 1985. Determination of low levels of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons in waters in Kanagawa Prefecture. Bull. Kanagawa P.H. Lab., 15: 13-17. »Ÿπ¬å«‘®—¬·≈–Ωñ°Õ∫√¡¥â“π ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡ °√¡ à߇ √‘¡§ÿ≥¿“æ ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡

National Academy of Science. 1972. Particulate Organic Matter. Washington, D.C. Neff, J. M. 1979. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Aquatic Environment. Source, Fates, and Biological Effects, Applied Science, London. Neff J. M. 1985. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, pp. 416-454. In G. M. Rand and S. R. Petrocelli (eds), Fundamental of Aquatic Toxicology. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, USA. Nielsen, T. 1996. Traffic Contribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Center of a Large City. Atmospheric Environment, 30(22): 34813490. Obana, H., S. Hori, A. Nakamura and T. Kashimoto. 1983. Uptake and

Release of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Short-Necked Clams (Tapes japonica). Water Res., 17(9): 11831187. Pollution Control Department. 1994. Air Emission Database of Vehicles and Industry in Bangkok Metropolitan Region 1992. Final Report, 71 pp. Shinohara, R., M. Koga, A. Kido, S. Eto, T. Tabata, T. Hori, and T. Akiyama. 1980. Presence and behavior of organic pollutants in an aqueous environment surrounded by an industrialized area, pp.163-174. Sorrell, R.K., H. J. Brass, R. Reding. 1980. A Review of Occurrences and Treatment of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water. Environment International, 4: 245-254.

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»Ÿπ¬å«‘®—¬·≈–Ωñ°Õ∫√¡¥â“π ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡ °√¡ à߇ √‘¡§ÿ≥¿“æ ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡



Vanvimol Patarasiriwong*, Chuanpit Boonyoy* ∫ ∑§— ¥ ¬à Õ High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Water sample filtration 1. Introducti...