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°Study“√µ√«®«— ¥‡ ’¬ß„π ¿“«–·«¥≈âÕ¡„π‡¢µ°√ÿ߇∑æ¡À“π§√ on Environmental Noise in Bangkok π“¬∏π“æ—π∏å  ÿ° Õ“¥* π“¬≥—∞æß»å ®—π∑√å ¡∫—µ‘* π“ߺ°“  ÿ¢‡°…¡* 𓬫‘√—™ ‡Õ◊ÈÕ∑√ß∏√√¡* π“¬∏π“«ÿ∏ ‚π√“™* 𓬠ÿ√—µ‘ ∫—«‡≈‘»** 𓬂™§™—¬ ¬–™Ÿ»√’** 𓬇√«—µ «—≤π“πÿ°Ÿ≈°‘®**

 ¿“æ√∂µ‘¥∫√‘‡«≥Õπÿ “«√’¬å™—¬ ¡√¿Ÿ¡‘

∫∑§—¥¬àÕ

‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õµ√«®«—¥√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß

»Ÿπ¬å«‘®—¬·≈–Ωñ°Õ∫√¡¥â“π ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡ ‰¥â ∑”°“√µ√«®«—¥‡ ’¬ß„π ¿“«–·«¥≈âÕ¡„π‡¢µ°√ÿ߇∑æ¡À“π§√ „πªï æ.». 2539 ‡æ◊ËÕ®—¥∑”·ºπ∑’Ë· ¥ß§à“ √–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß‚¥¬„™â‡∑§π‘§«‘∏’°“√µ√«®«—¥„π™à«ß‡«≈“  —ÈπÊ ∑’Ë»Ÿπ¬å«‘®—¬œ ‰¥â‡§¬∑”°“√»÷°…“«‘®—¬¡“·≈â« ´÷Ëß°“√®—¥∑”·ºπ∑’Ë√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ßπ’È· ¥ß§«“¡·µ°µà“ß ¢Õß√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß µ“¡ —≠≈—°…≥å¢Õß ’ ¡’™à«ß°«â“ߢÕß √–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß 5 ‡¥´‘‡∫≈(‡Õ) º≈°“√µ√«®«—¥æ∫«à“ §à“ √–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß 227 ¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈ (27.3 ‡ªÕ√凴Áπµå) „π™à«ß ‡«≈“°≈“ß«—π ·≈– 74 ¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈ (19.2 ‡ªÕ√凴Áπµå) „π ™à«ß‡«≈“°≈“ߧ◊π¡’§à“‡°‘π¡“µ√∞“π 70 ‡¥´‘‡∫≈ (‡Õ) °“√∑”·ºπ∑’Ë· ¥ß§à“√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß‡©≈’ˬ 24 ™—Ë«‚¡ß (Leq 24 ™—Ë«‚¡ß) ‰¥â®“°°“√§”π«≥§à“‡©≈’ˬ¢Õß æ≈—ßß“π πÕ°®“°π’È ¬—ßæ∫«à“·À≈àß°”‡π‘¥‡ ’¬ßÀ≈—° ∑—Èß„π™à«ß‡«≈“°≈“ß«—π·≈–°≈“ߧ◊π‡ªìπ‡ ’¬ß∑’ˇ°‘¥

*»Ÿπ¬å«‘®—¬·≈–Ωñ°Õ∫√¡¥â“π ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡ °√¡ à߇ √‘¡§ÿ≥¿“æ ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡ ‡∑§‚π∏“π’ µ.§≈ÕßÀâ“ Õ.§≈ÕßÀ≈«ß ®.ª∑ÿ¡∏“π’ 12120 ‚∑√. 0-2577-1136 ‚∑√ “√. 0-2577-1138 Environmental Research and Training Center, Department of Environmental Quality Promotion. Technopolis. Klong 5 Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 e-mail: Thanapan@deqp.go.th **§≥–«‘∑¬“»“ µ√å ®ÿÓ≈ß°√≥å¡À“«‘∑¬“≈—¬


®“°°“√®√“®√¡“°°«à“ 70 ‡ªÕ√凴Áπµå ¢Õß·À≈àß °”‡π‘¥‡ ’¬ß∑—ÈßÀ¡¥ √Õß≈ß¡“§◊Õ‡ ’¬ß®“°™ÿ¡™π ´÷Ëß §à“√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß ‚¥¬‡©≈’ˬ∫√‘‡«≥√‘¡∂ππ¡’§à“ Ÿß°«à“ æ◊Èπ∑’Ë∑—Ë«‰ª∑’Ë ‰¡à„™à√‘¡∂ππª√–¡“≥ 10 ‡¥´‘‡∫≈(‡Õ)

ABSTRACT Environmental noise measurement in Bangkok Metropolitan Area was carried out in 1996 by Environmental Research and Training Center (ERTC). The purpose of the study was to produce the noise level map of the area. The measurement technique was to measure environmental noise level in a short period. The noise level map was shown in color scales which had a scale range of 5 dB(A). The results of study shows that there are 227 data (27.3%) of day time period and 74 data (19.2%) of night time period are exceed 70 dB(A). The map of 24 hours average of noise level (Leq 24 hours) was calculated from energy average. It is found that the major noise source of the study area was noise from traffic (more than 70% of total sources). The second major noise source was from resident. The average noise level at roadsides is 10 dB(A) higher than the other areas.

1. ∫∑π” ªí®®ÿ∫—π¡≈æ‘…∑“߇ ’¬ß„πª√–‡∑»‰∑¬°”≈—ß ‡ªìπªí≠À“ ”§—≠ ·≈–π—∫«à“∑«’§«“¡√ÿπ·√߇™àπ‡¥’¬« °—∫¡≈æ‘…Õ◊ËπÊ ‚¥¬‡©æ“–Õ¬à“߬‘Ëß„π°√ÿ߇∑æ¡À“π§√ ´÷Ë߇ªìπ»Ÿπ¬å°≈“ß„π°“√æ—≤𓇻√…∞°‘®·≈– —ߧ¡ ¡’°“√«“ß·ºπ‡æ◊ËÕ°àÕ √â“ß‚§√ß°“√¢π“¥„À≠àÀ≈“¬ ‚§√ß°“√ ‡™à𠂧√ß°“√∑“ߥà«π¬°√–¥—∫ ‚§√ß°“√ ∂ππ«ß·À«π√Õ∫πÕ° ‚§√ß°“√√–∫∫¢π àß¡«≈™π ·≈– π“¡∫‘ππ“π“™“µ‘°√ÿ߇∑æ·Ààß∑’Ë Õß ‡æ◊ËÕ∑’Ë®– √Õß√—∫°“√¢¬“¬µ—«¢Õ߇¡◊Õß„πÕ𓧵 »Ÿπ¬å«‘®—¬·≈– Ωñ°Õ∫√¡¥â“π ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡ °√¡ à߇ √‘¡§ÿ≥¿“æ ‘Ëß ·«¥≈âÕ¡ ®÷߉¥â¡’°“√»÷°…“ ‡æ◊ËÕ®—¥∑”·ºπ∑’Ë· ¥ß§à“ √–¥— ∫ ‡ ’ ¬ ߢ÷È π „πªï æ.». 2539 ‡æ◊Ë Õ „Àâ ∑ √“∫∂÷ ß  ∂“π°“√≥å·≈–§«“¡√ÿπ·√ߢÕߪí≠À“¢Õß¡≈æ‘… ∑“߇ ’¬ß„π‡¢µæ◊Èπ∑’Ë°√ÿ߇∑æ¡À“π§√

§-82

‡π◊ËÕß®“°ª√–‡∑»‰∑¬¬—߉¡à¡’¡“µ√∞“π¢Õß √–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß„π ¿“«–·«¥≈âÕ¡∑’ˇªìπ°ÆÀ¡“¬∫—ߧ—∫„™â ¥—ßπ—πÈ ¡“µ√∞“π√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß‡©≈’¬Ë „π™à«ß‡«≈“ 24 ™—«Ë ‚¡ß ¢ÕßÕß§å ° “√æ‘ ∑— ° …å  ‘Ë ß ·«¥≈â Õ ¡·Àà ß  À√— ∞ Õ‡¡√‘ ° “ (United State Environmental Protection Agency, U.S.EPA) ®÷ß∂Ÿ°π”¡“„™â‡ªìπ·π«∑“ß„π °“√ª√–‡¡‘π ∂“π°“√≥å¢Õß¡≈æ‘…∑“߇ ’¬ß„πÀ≈“¬ °√≥’ °√¡§«∫§ÿ¡¡≈æ‘…‰¥â∑”°“√µ√«®«—¥§à“√–¥—∫ ‡ ’¬ß‡©≈’ˬ„π™à«ß‡«≈“ 24 ™—Ë«‚¡ß „πÀ≈“¬æ◊Èπ∑’Ë ‚¥¬ ‡©æ“–æ◊È π ∑’Ë √‘ ¡ ∂ππ∑’Ë ¡’ ° “√®√“®√Àπ“·πà π „π‡¢µ °√ÿ߇∑æœ µ‘¥µàÕ°—π¡“∑ÿ°ªï ‚¥¬ªØ‘∫—µ‘µ“¡¢âÕ·π–π” „π¡“µ√∞“π¢ÕßÕß§å ° “√√–À«à “ ߪ√–‡∑»«à “ ¥â « ¬ ¡“µ√∞“π (International Organization for Standardization, ISO) ·µà‡ªìπ°“√¬“°∑’Ë®–∑”°“√ µ√«®«—¥√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ßµ≈Õ¥™à«ß‡«≈“ 24 ™—Ë«‚¡ß ‡æ◊ËÕ „Àâ ‰¥â§à“¥—ß°≈à“«∑’Ë·∑â®√‘ß„πæ◊Èπ∑’Ë∑—ÈßÀ¡¥¢Õß°√ÿ߇∑æ¡À“π§√ ¥—ßπ—πÈ »Ÿπ¬å«®‘ ¬— ·≈–Ωñ°Õ∫√¡¥â“π ‘ßË ·«¥≈âÕ¡ ®÷߉¥â∑”°“√»÷°…“«‘®—¬§«“¡‡ªìπ‰ª‰¥â¢Õß°“√µ√«® «—¥√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß„π™à«ß‡«≈“ —ÈπÊ °àÕπ∑’Ë®–¥”‡π‘π°“√ µ√«®«— ¥ „π§√—È ß π’È ´÷Ë ß ®“°º≈°“√»÷ ° …“«‘ ®— ¬ ¢—È π µâ π æ∫«à“√–¬–‡«≈“∑’ˇÀ¡“– ¡„π°“√µ√«®«—¥‡∑à“°—∫ 10 π“∑’ ·≈–°“√µ√«®«—¥°√–∑”„π™à«ß‡«≈“°≈“ß«—π √–À«à“ß 10:00-18:00 π. ·≈–™à«ß‡«≈“°≈“ߧ◊π√–À«à“ß 22:00-00:00 π.

2. «— ¥ÿÕÿª°√≥å·≈–«‘∏’°“√ „π°“√µ√«®«—¥„™â‡§√◊ËÕß«—¥√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß·∫∫ Integrating Sound Level Meter §à“¢Õß√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß ‡©≈’ˬ„π™à«ß‡«≈“ 10 π“∑’ (10 min equivalent sound level, Leq (10 min) ) ®–∂Ÿ°æ‘¡æå ÕÕ°∑“ß ‡§√◊Ë Õ ßæ‘ ¡ æå„π¢≥–∑’Ë√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ßµ≈Õ¥™à«ß‡«≈“¢Õß °“√µ√«®«— ¥ (10 π“∑’ ) ®–∂Ÿ ° ∫— π ∑÷ ° ‚¥¬ Level Recorder Õ¬à“ßµàÕ‡π◊ËÕß °“√®—¥Õÿª°√≥å∑’Ë „™â „π°“√ µ√«®«—¥· ¥ß¥—ß√Ÿª∑’Ë 1 (°) ·≈–·À≈àß°”‡π‘¥‡ ’¬ß À≈—°∂Ÿ°∫—π∑÷° ‚¥¬ºŸâ∑’Ë∑”°“√µ√«®«—¥„π¢≥–π—Èπ ∑”°“√µ√«®«—¥§à“ Leq 10 π“∑’ „π™à«ß‡«≈“ °≈“ß«—π√–À«à“ß 10:00-18:00 π. ·≈–™à«ß‡«≈“ °≈“ߧ◊π√–À«à“ß 22:00-00:00 π. æ◊Èπ∑’Ë „π°“√µ√«®«—¥·∫à߇ªìπ 2 ¢π“¥æ◊Èπ∑’Ë ¢π“¥ 4 µ“√“ß°‘‚≈‡¡µ√„™â°∫— æ◊πÈ ∑’∑Ë «—Ë ‰ª·≈– 1 µ“√“ß °‘ ‚ ≈‡¡µ√„™â „ πæ◊È π ∑’Ë ∑’Ë ¡’ °‘ ® °√√¡Àπ“·πà π ∑—Ë « ∑—È ß °√ÿ߇∑æ¡À“π§√ ®ÿ¥µ√«®«—¥®–Õ¬Ÿà∑’Ë®ÿ¥°≈“ß·≈–∑’Ë ¡ÿ¡∑—Èß ’Ë¢Õß·µà≈–æ◊Èπ∑’Ë ∑’Ë¡ÿ¡∑—Èß ’Ë¢Õßæ◊Èπ∑’˵√«®«—¥®–

»Ÿπ¬å«‘®—¬·≈–Ωñ°Õ∫√¡¥â“π ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡ °√¡ à߇ √‘¡§ÿ≥¿“æ ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡


√Ÿª∑’Ë 2 ·ºπ∑’Ë√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß°√ÿ߇∑æ¡À“π§√ (°≈“ß«—π)

∂Ÿ°µ√«®«—¥‚¥¬„™â«∏‘ ¢’ “â ßµâπ‡©æ“–„π™à«ß‡«≈“°≈“ß«—π (10:00-18:00 π.) „π¢≥–∑’Ë®ÿ¥µ√«®«—¥∑’ËÕ¬Ÿàµ√ß°≈“ß ®–∂Ÿ°µ√«®«—¥∑—Èß„π™à«ß‡«≈“°≈“ß«—π·≈–°≈“ߧ◊π (10:00-18:00, 22:00-00:00 π.) √Ÿª∑’Ë 1 (¢) · ¥ß®ÿ¥ µ√«®«—¥„πæ◊Èπ∑’˵√«®«—¥¬àÕ¬ √Ÿª∑’Ë 3 ·ºπ∑’Ë√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß°√ÿ߇∑æ¡À“π§√ (°≈“ߧ◊π)

3. º≈°“√»÷°…“·≈–°“√«‘®“√≥å §à“¢Õß√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß‡©æ“–®ÿ¥°≈“ߢÕßæ◊Èπ∑’Ë µ√«®«—¥∂Ÿ°π”¡“®—¥∑”‡ªìπ·ºπ∑’Ë√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß ‚¥¬  —≠≈—°…≥å¢Õß ’·µà≈– ’ ¡’™à«ß°«â“ߢÕß√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß 5 ‡¥´‘‡∫≈(‡Õ) ¥—ß· ¥ß„π√Ÿª∑’Ë 2 ·≈– 3  ”À√—∫™à«ß ‡«≈“°≈“ß«— π ·≈–°≈“ߧ◊ 𠵓¡≈”¥— ∫ ®“°º≈°“√ µ√«®«—¥æ∫«à“ §à“√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß®”π«π 227 ¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈ (27.3 ‡ªÕ√凴Áπµå) „π™à«ß‡«≈“°≈“ß«—π ·≈– 74 ¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈ (19.2 ‡ªÕ√凴Áπµå) „π™à«ß‡«≈“°≈“ߧ◊π ¡’§à“‡°‘π 70 ‡¥´‘‡∫≈ (‡Õ) ´÷Ë߇ªìπ§à“¡“µ√∞“π¢Õß U.S.EPA „π√Ÿª∑’Ë 4 ·≈– 5 · ¥ß —¥ à«π¢ÕߢâÕ¡Ÿ≈√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß„π™à«ßµà“ßÊ ®“° °“√µ√«®«—¥„π™à«ß‡«≈“°≈“ß«—π·≈–°≈“ߧ◊𠵓¡ ≈”¥—∫ º≈· ¥ß„Àâ‡ÀÁπ«à“„π™à«ß‡«≈“°≈“ß«—π√–¥—∫ ‡ ’¬ß∑’Ë Ÿß°«à“ 70 ‡¥´‘‡∫≈(‡Õ) ¡’‡ªÕ√凴Áπµå Ÿß ÿ¥ √Õß ≈ß¡“§◊Õ√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß∑’˵˔°«à“ 55 ‡¥´‘‡∫≈(‡Õ)  à«π„π ™à«ß‡«≈“°≈“ߧ◊π√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß∑’˵˔°«à“ 55 ‡¥´‘‡∫≈(‡Õ) ¡’‡ªÕ√凴πµå ßŸ  ÿ¥ √Õß≈ß¡“§◊Õ√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß∑’ Ë ߟ °«à“ 70 ‡¥´‘‡∫≈(‡Õ) √Ÿª∑’Ë 6 · ¥ß§à“√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß‡©≈’ˬ„π™à«ß‡«≈“ 24 ™—Ë«‚¡ß (Leq (24 hrs) est) ∑’˪√–¡“≥§à“‰¥â®“° °“√µ√«®«—¥„π·µà≈–æ◊Èπ∑’Ë ´÷Ëߧ”π«≥‚¥¬„™â§à“∑’Ë¡ÿ¡ ∑—Èß ’Ë·≈–µ√ß°≈“ߢÕßæ◊Èπ∑’Ë (√Ÿª∑’Ë 1(¢)) ¡’«‘∏’°“√ §”π«≥¥—ßπ’È »Ÿπ¬å«‘®—¬·≈–Ωñ°Õ∫√¡¥â“π ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡ °√¡ à߇ √‘¡§ÿ≥¿“æ ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡

Leq(24 hrs)est = 10 log10 [(1/24)*(15*10Ld/10 + 9*10C1(°≈“ߧ◊π)/10)] ‚¥¬

Ld = 10 log10[(1/5)*(10D1/10+10D2/10 + 10D3/10 + 10D4/10 + 10C1(°≈“ß«—π)/10)] §-83


√Ÿª∑’Ë 6 ·ºπ∑’Ë√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß°√ÿ߇∑æ¡À“π§√ (§à“‡©≈’ˬ 24 ™¡.,Leq(24hrs))

‡π◊Ë Õ ß®“°‡ªì π °“√ª√–¡“≥§à “ ‡©≈’Ë ¬ ‚¥¬ æ≈—ßß“π ∂â“¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈∑’Ë®ÿ¥¡ÿ¡¢Õßæ◊Èπ∑’˵√«®«—¥¡’§à“ Ÿß °«à“¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈µ√ß®ÿ¥°≈“ß §à“‡©≈’ˬ¢Õßæ◊Èπ∑’˵√«®«—¥π—ÈπÊ °Á®–¡’·π«‚πâ¡∑’Ë®– Ÿß°«à“¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈µ√ß°≈“ß ®“°√Ÿª∑’Ë 6 §à“ª√–¡“≥¢Õß√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß‡©≈’¬Ë „π™à«ß‡«≈“ 24 ™—«Ë ‚¡ß µ“√“ß∑’Ë 1 ®”π«π®ÿ¥µ√«®«—¥ ·≈–§à“√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß‚¥¬‡©≈’ˬ¢Õß®ÿ¥µ√«®«—¥√‘¡∂ππ·≈–‰¡à„™à√‘¡∂ππ ®ÿ¥µ√«®«—¥

®”π«π®ÿ¥µ√«®«—¥, ®ÿ¥ (‡ªÕ√凴Áπµå) °≈“ß«—π °≈“ߧ◊π

§à“‡©≈’ˬ¢Õß√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß, ‡¥´‘‡∫≈(‡Õ) °≈“ß«—π °≈“ߧ◊π

√‘¡∂ππ

232 (27.6)

112 (28.7)

71.1

68.5

‰¡à „™à√‘¡∂ππ

609 (72.4)

278. (71.3)

61.3

57.8

‚¥¬√«¡¡’§à“¡“°°«à“√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß„π™à«ß‡«≈“°≈“ß«—π (‡©æ“–®ÿ¥°≈“ß) „π√Ÿª∑’Ë 2 ·À≈àß°”‡π‘¥‡ ’¬ßÀ≈—°¢Õß∫√‘‡«≥®ÿ¥µ√«®«—¥ · ¥ß„π√Ÿª∑’Ë 7 ·≈– 8 ∑—Èß„π™à«ß‡«≈“°≈“ß«—π·≈– ‡«≈“°≈“ߧ◊π·À≈àß°”‡π‘¥‡ ’¬ß 燠’¬ß®“°°“√®√“®√é ¡’ ¡ “°°«à “ 70 ‡ªÕ√å ‡ ´Á π µå ¢ Õߢâ Õ ¡Ÿ ≈ „π™à « ߇«≈“ ·≈–√Õß≈ß¡“ 燠’ ¬ ß®“°™ÿ ¡ ™πé ¡’ ª √–¡“≥ 20 ‡ªÕ√凴Áπµå  à«π 燠’¬ß®“°Õÿµ “À°√√¡é ·≈– 燠’¬ß ®“°°“√°àÕ √â“ßé ¡’§à“ª√–¡“≥ 1 ‡ªÕ√凴Áπµå µ“√“ß∑’Ë 1 · ¥ß§à“‡©≈’ˬ¢Õߧà“√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß ®“°∫√‘‡«≥ ç√‘¡∂ππé ·≈– é‰¡à„™à√‘¡∂ππé „π°√≥’π’È ç√‘¡∂ππé ®–À¡“¬∂÷߇©æ“–√‘¡ ∂ππ  “¬À≈—° ‰¡à √«¡∂ππ ´Õ¬ ®”π«π®ÿ¥µ√«®«—¥√‘¡∂ππ¡’Õ¬Ÿà 232 ®ÿ¥À√◊Õ 27.6 ‡ªÕ√凴Áπµå ¢Õß®”π«π®ÿ¥µ√«®«—¥°≈“ß «—π ‚¥¬¡’§à“‡©≈’ˬ¢Õß√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß„π™à«ß‡«≈“°≈“ß«—π ‡∑à“°—∫ 71.1 ‡¥´‘‡∫≈(‡Õ) ·≈–¡’®”π«π®ÿ¥µ√«®«—¥ √‘¡∂ππ 112 ®ÿ¥À√◊Õ 28.7 ‡ªÕ√凴Áπµå¢Õß®”π«π ®ÿ¥µ√«®«—¥°≈“ߧ◊π ¡’§à“‡©≈’ˬ¢Õß√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß‡ªìπ 68.5 ‡¥´‘‡∫≈(‡Õ) §à“‡©≈’ˬ√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß¢Õß®ÿ¥√‘¡∂ππ §-84

∑—Èß„π™à«ß‡«≈“°≈“ß«—π·≈–°≈“ߧ◊π ®–¡’§à“ Ÿß°«à“®ÿ¥ ∑’Ë ‰¡à„™à√‘¡∂ππª√–¡“≥ 10 ‡¥´‘‡∫≈ √Ÿ ª ∑’Ë 9 · ¥ß§à “ ‡©≈’Ë ¬ ¢Õß√–¥— ∫ ‡ ’ ¬ ß„π ·µà≈–æ◊Èπ∑’Ë¢Õß°“√„™â∑’Ë¥‘π °“√®”·π°æ◊Èπ∑’Ë°“√„™â ∑’Ë¥‘π¢Õß®ÿ¥µ√«®«—¥∂Ÿ°°”À𥂥¬·ºπ∑’Ë°“√„™â∑’Ë¥‘π ¢Õß°√ÿ߇∑æ¡À“π§√ §à“√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß‚¥¬‡©≈’ˬ Ÿß ÿ¥ ¢Õß™à«ß‡«≈“°≈“ß«—π §◊Õ 73.0 ‡¥´‘‡∫≈(‡Õ) Õ¬Ÿà„π‡¢µ çæ◊πÈ ∑’Ë ‚≈à߇æ◊ÕË π—π∑π“°“√·≈–°“√Õπÿ√°— …å ß‘Ë ·«¥≈âÕ¡é ·≈–§à“µË” ÿ¥‡∑à“°—∫ 58.2 ‡¥´‘‡∫≈(‡Õ) Õ¬Ÿà„π‡¢µ çæ◊πÈ ∑’Ë Õπÿ √— ° …å ™ π∫∑·≈–‡°…µ√°√√¡é ‚¥¬‡¢µ çæ◊È π ∑’Ë æ“≥‘™¬°√√¡é çæ◊Èπ∑’ˇæ◊ËÕ°“√»÷°…“é ·≈– çæ◊Èπ∑’Ë  ∂“π∑’Ë∑”ß“πé ≈â«π¡’§à“√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß‚¥¬‡©≈’ˬ Ÿß°«à“ 70 ‡¥´‘‡∫≈(‡Õ) ∑—Èß ‘Èπ  ”À√—∫§à“ Ÿß ÿ¥¢Õß™à«ß‡«≈“ °≈“ߧ◊π§◊Õ 76.6 ‡¥´‘‡∫≈(‡Õ) Õ¬Ÿà„π‡¢µ çæ◊Èπ∑’ˇæ◊ËÕ °“√»÷°…“é §à“µË” ÿ¥§◊Õ 54.8 ‡¥´‘‡∫≈(‡Õ) Õ¬Ÿà„π‡¢µ çæ◊Èπ∑’Ë™π∫∑·≈–°“√‡°…µ√°√√¡é ·≈–‡¢µ çæ◊Èπ∑’Ë ‚≈à߇æ◊ËÕπ—π∑π“°“√·≈–°“√Õπÿ√—°…å ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡é ¡’§à“ √–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß‚¥¬‡©≈’ˬ Ÿß°«à“ 70 ‡¥´‘‡∫≈(‡Õ) ‡™àπ‡¥’¬« °—∫„π™à«ß‡«≈“°≈“ß«—π »Ÿπ¬å«‘®—¬·≈–Ωñ°Õ∫√¡¥â“π ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡ °√¡ à߇ √‘¡§ÿ≥¿“æ ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡


√Ÿª∑’Ë 9 · ¥ß§à“√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß‡©≈’ˬ„πæ◊Èπ∑’Ë·µà≈–ª√–‡¿∑ 1. ∑’ËÕ¬ŸàÕ“»—¬Àπ“·πàππâÕ¬ 2. ∑’ËÕ¬ŸàÕ“»—¬Àπ“·πàπª“π°≈“ß 3. ∑’ËÕ¬ŸàÕ“»—¬Àπ“·πàπ¡“° 4. æ“≥‘™¬°√√¡ 5. Õÿµ “À°√√¡·≈–§≈—ß ‘π§â“ 6. §≈—ß ‘π§â“ 7. Õÿµ “À°√√¡‡©æ“–°‘® 8. ™π∫∑·≈–‡°…µ√°√√¡ 9. ∑’Ë ‚≈à߇æ◊ËÕπ—π∑π“°“√·≈–°“√Õπÿ√—°…å ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡ 10.  ∂“∫—π°“√»÷°…“ 11. Õπÿ√—°…å™π∫∑·≈–‡°…µ√°√√¡ 12. Õπÿ√—°…å‡æ◊ËÕ à߇ √‘¡‡Õ°≈—°…≥廑≈ª«—≤π∏√√¡‰∑¬ 13.  ∂“∫—π»“ π“ 14.  ∂“∫—π√“™°“√ °“√ “∏“√≥Ÿª‚¿§·≈– “∏“√≥Ÿª°“√

4.  √ÿª ®“°º≈°“√µ√«®«—¥ æ∫«à“√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß„π‡¢µ æ◊Èπ∑’Ë´÷Ëߪ√–°Õ∫¥â«¬°‘®°√√¡À≈“°À≈“¬™π‘¥ À√◊Õ æ◊Èπ∑’Ë∑’Ë¡’√‘¡∂ππ´÷Ëß¡’ª√‘¡“≥°“√®√“®√¡“°µ—¥ºà“π ¡’ §à“ Ÿß°«à“ 70 ‡¥´‘‡∫≈(‡Õ) „π¢≥–∑’ˇ¢µæ◊Èπ∑’Ë√Õ∫πÕ° ¡’°‘®°√√¡∑’ˇ∫“∫“ß°«à“ ¡’§à“√–¥—∫‡ ’¬ßµË”°«à“ 50 ‡¥´‘‡∫≈(‡Õ)

¡“°°«à“ 70 ‡ªÕ√凴Áπµå¢Õß®ÿ¥µ√«®«—¥ ·À≈àß °”‡π‘¥‡ ’¬ßÀ≈—°¡“®“°‡ ’¬ß®“°°“√®√“®√ ´÷Ëß§à“ √–¥—∫‡ ’¬ß‚¥¬‡©≈’ˬ¢Õß∫√‘‡«≥√‘¡∂ππ¡’§à“ Ÿß°«à“ ∫√‘‡«≥∑’Ë ‰¡à„™à√‘¡∂ππª√–¡“≥ 10 ‡¥´‘‡∫≈

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