He W'akaputanga Mai o te Rangatiratanga - A Proclamation

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Published by Depot Artspace in collaboration with black_space gallery and The Vernacularist Journal.

www.issuu.com/depotartspace www. nzculturalgenealogymapping.wordpress.com First printed in house at Depot Artspace, April, 2014.

Print ISBN: 978-0-473-28295-0 Online: ISBN: 978-0-473-28296-7 Depot Artspace 28 Clarence St Devonport Auckland 0624 New Zealand Phone: (09) 963-2331 black_space gallery 1364 Kohukohu Rd Kohukohu Hokianga Northland 0491 Phone: Heiwari Johnson 0210520535 Dawn Harris 02102418795 Š 2014, Depot Artspace and the acknowledged contributors as listed and assigned to each article and image. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted by any electronic or physical means without the written permission of the publisher and the relevant contibutor (s). Cover image: The United Tribes Flag, see pages 9 - 11 for more information. Art direction/introduction: Erin Forsyth


He W’akaputanga Mai o te Rangatiratanga - A Proclamation Educational information alongside works and thoughts of Hokianga MÄ ori artists:

Maureen Lander Toi Te Rito Maihi Heiwari Johnson Claire Kaahu White Michelle Morunga Bev Wilson Urikore Ngakuru Heather Randerson Henare Rawiri Emere Te Paea Robson John Morunga Stacey Noel Maki Herbert


Table of Contents Exhibiting artists

2

Introduction/acknowledgements

4

Exihibition overview Background information: W'akaputanga - Heiwari Johnson Flags of Aotearoa, New Zealand - History and meaning. History of the United Tribes Flag

5-6 (7 - 13) 7-8 (9 - 13) 9 - 10

United tribes Flag

11

New Zealand Flag

12

Tino Rangatiratanga Flag

13

Artists' Statements and Works from the Exhibition:

(14 - 42)

Maureen Lander

15 - 16

Claire Kaahu White

17 - 18

Michelle Morunga

19 - 20

Heather Randerson

21 - 24

Bev Wilson

25 - 26

John Morunga

27 - 28

Henare Rawiri

29 - 30

Urikore Ngakuru

31 - 32

Heiwari Johnson

33 - 34

Stacey Noel

35

Emere Te Paea Robson

36 - 38

Maki Herbert

39 - 40

Toi Te Rito Maihi

41 - 42


Introduction This publication represents a culmination of material made available, or created for the Hokianga Māori Artists group exhibition: He W’akaputanga Mai o te Rangatiratanga - A Proclamation. The exhibition was organised and first presented by black_space gallery in Kohukohu, February 1-28, 2014. A relationship between black-space gallery co-ordinators and Depot Artspace co-ordinators and a growing relationship between the communities of the Hokianga and Devonport, led to the exhibition travelling to the Depot’s Vernacular Lounge gallery and being exhibited from March 4-31, 2014. While the exhibition was on display at Depot Artspace it became apparent that many are unaware of its meaning, its relationship to the flag or even of the existence of the declaration. It is not a compulsory subject taught in schools and accessing information is difficult for those interested in the subject. Assembling the various texts and documenting images of the exhibition itself in publication form/increasing accessibility to information about W'akaputanga and making available personal insights of Māori artists living in the Hokianga today (- the area where the document was orginally signed) through publication seemed essential. This journal is intended to assist those seeking furthur information about He W'akaputanga (Mai o te Rangatiratanga), or deeper insight into its meaning to those living in Aotearoa, New Zealand today. He W’akaputanga (or Te Whakaputanga) is the Māori name of what is referred to in English as The New Zealand (or Māori) Declaration of Independence. Information about the declaration included here is provided in the form of artists statements. The compilation of personal responses documented here, also reflects upon the wide-spread cultural practice of sharing and (more recently) documention of, oral histories. The exhibition has been hugely significant for both communities and all gallery visitors who took the time to engage with the works and their meanings. The artists’ statements and all other written material, with the exception of this introduction, has been reproduced without editing, with regard and respect, for the artists’ original intentions. Further reading and discussion is encouraged to accompany this text.

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Exhibition overview E nga rangatira o Ngāpuhi. Whakarongo mai. Kaua e uhia te Tiriti O Waitangi ki te kara o Ingarangi. Engari me uhi ano ki tou kara Māori, te kahu o tenei motu. A. Taonui Compelling artworks by twelve Hokianga artists have been created in response to Te W’akaputanga Mai O Te Rangatiratanga (Māori declaration of independence), signed by Ngāpuhi chiefs in 1835 and its context in Aotearoa today. “The show is resplendent in ingenuity and innovative vision, with a distinctive focus on materialities, ethics and cultural practices”, says curator Heiwari Johnson. “Te W’akaputanga Mai O Te Rangatiratanga is a consummate proclamation of sovereignty where collective voices are unified enunciating some high-tensile moments in our country’s recent history”. Toi Te Rito Maihi’s profound, elegant korowai (cloak), titled A Tissue Of Lies is comprised of individual neckline tags with a photocopy of treaty signatures of Patuone and Tamati Waka Nene. The tags are constructed from paper made in a town factory in Yorkshire for heirs. This was where the paper used by James Busby, in his initial drafts of the Treaty of Waitangi, was made. Artist Michelle Morunga excels in transforming 3-D art pieces into a two dimensional painting. Her work titled Rau Rangtira forms an assemblage of 179 individually painted, stitched and resined pōhutukawa leaves signifying 179 years since the proclamation by the Confederated Tribes of New Zealand asserting their collective sovereignty. Maureen Lander’s Kara Kahu highlight the symbolic parallels for Maori between cloaks and flags. In 1830 a cloak was flown from the mast of the ship Sir George Murray for trading purposes. The cloak-flag was not recognised by authorities and the ship was seized. However, in 1834 Te Whakaminenga confederation chose Te Kara to represent their collective sovereignty, which was approved by the British government and King granting world recognition of Maori as a trading nation. Photographer Heather Randerson presents images of whenua overwritten by early maps of the Hokianga as a reflection of the collision of differing cultural perspectives towards land, foreshore and seabed and the impact of this on the rangatiratanga of tangata whenua. The exhibition from black_space gallery (Kohukohu, Hokianga) travelled to Depot Artspace (Devonport, Auckland), in March, 2014. Interest in the exhibition (and subject matter) continues to grow. Carving, ceramics, photography, painting, weaving and installation works were also on display daily.


Te W’akaputanga Mai O Te Rangatiratanga exhibition has proven to be a significant experience for the artists involved, both galleries and gallery visitors from all around the country alike. Notes from the Depot's guestbook underline the impact of the exhibition: "It should be shown around the country" - Anne Wells of Wellington. "Powerful, beautiful, mahi Tino ataahua" - Sharon Fernee of Waitakere

"Great to see such evocative artworks from Hokianga here in TÄ maki Makarau" - Kevin McBride of Waiheke Island

Images, clockwise from top left: Supporters of the exhibition waving flags to celebrate the exhibition opening in Kohukohu. Flags flying proudly outside black_ space gallery. Exhibition opening attendees got a real treat - Hokianga smoked mullett! Outside the opening at black_space. Attentive guests during the powhiri at Depot Artspace. Curator Heiwari Johnson and Kaumatua Pio Jacobs at Depot Artspace.


W’akaputanga The final sentence of Sir Roger Casement’s speech before the British hanged him for treason could – if Māori were the subject of his words instead of Irish – equally apply to Aotearoa. “Where all your rights have become only an accumulated wrong, where men must beg with bated breath for leave to subsist in their own land, to think their own thoughts, to sing their own songs, to garner the fruits of their own labours, and even while they beg, to see things inexorably drawn from them – then, surely, it is a braver, a saner and a truer thing to be a rebel in act and deed against such circumstances than tamely to accept them as the natural lot of men.” There were many ‘if only’ opportunities in the history of this land. If only early European had obeyed/conformed to the law/tikanga of Māori, how different this nation should have been, could yet be. A time line of events since contact and trouble began may be an aid towards understanding why relationships between Māori and non-Māori are not today as successful as they could have been. 1772 Marion Du Fresne insisted upon fishing in a bay where a rāhui (a restriction on access or use of an area) had been established consequent upon a drowning there. When he refused to obey the warning, he and his 26 man fishing crew were killed. The remaining crew then set fire to the village killing 250 Māori. Many similar incidents based on misunderstandings followed. 1805 Te Pahi visited Governor King in Sydney. He questioned King intensively regarding the European justice system (spoke later of his shock at its cruelties) and was promised there would be control over lawless Pākehā. When this did not eventuate, Te Pahi conferred with various hapū in the traditional manner. 1806 Mahanga visited King George III establishing Māori rangatiratanga as the equivalent of English sovereignty. 1807-08 Te Wakaminenga (a long established conduit for inter-tribal negotiation) continued to discuss both the positive and negative issues arising from the newcomers.


1816 Tuai and Titre were sent to England to gain knowledge of technology. They observed steelworks and crockery making. Both were part of a conscious strategy of information gathering about the international world and were but two of many chosen because of their ability to observe and report back, opening Māori eyes to possibilities in worldwide trade. 1820 Hongi Hika visited King George IV (again an equal) discussing technology and trade, challenging any restrictions imposed in the king’s name. The king promised to assist Māori trade and impose no restrictions but Hongi was not successful in returning with the miners and engineers he’d hoped for. 1831 Te Wakaminenga wrote to King William outlining the perceived threats of invasion and land alienation, as well as the trouble created by settlers. The 13 chiefs asked the Crown to be a friend to our islands and to discipline the subjects living here when necessary. 1834 Te Wakaminenga chose a flag to protect Maori trade thus formalising Aotearoa as a recognised nation with an internationally recognised flag (Te Kara). 1835 Te Wakaminenga established Te Wakaputanga - The Proclamation of Maori Sovereignty - from the strategic intent to optimise the new opportunities in trade and technology and the determination to maintain authority. 1836 Britain recognised the Declaration (Britain’s interpretation) of Independence. France acknowledged that the British had formally recognised the independent state of New Zealand under its native chiefs. The U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign relations noted a Confederation of the North Island by chieftains who declared their independence as the United Tribes of New Zealand. 1840 An estimated 1,000 Ngāpuhi had travelled overseas to 69 countries. Ngāpuhi ships had circumnavigated the world and were sailing to San Francisco, Boston and China and feeding the prisoners and their overseers in Sydney. Trade was intensive between Māori and Tahiti, Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States. These facts are only known to a very small percentage within our population, they have not been taught in our schools in any consistency, if at all. Writers such as Anne Salmond, Kennedy Wane, and Michael King have produced publications which do much to bridge the misunderstandings of the past. - Heiwari Johnson (black_space gallery) Toi Te Rito Maihi, Te W’akaputanga Mai O Te Rangatiratanga 2014. black_space gallery, Kohukohu, NZ


History of the United Tribes Flag The idea of a flag to represent New Zealand was first broached in 1830, when the Hokianga-built trading ship Sir George Murray was seized in Sydney by Customs officials for sailing without a flag or register. Australia, New Zealand’s major trading market, was subject to British navigation laws which ruled that every ship must carry an official certificate detailing construction, ownership and nationality of the ship. At that time, New Zealand was not yet a British colony and New Zealand-built ships could not sail under a British flag or register. Without a flag to represent the new nation, trading ships and their valuable cargoes were liable to be seized. Upon arriving in the Bay of Islands in 1833 to take up the position of British Resident (a consular representative), James Busby almost immediately wrote to the Colonial Secretary in New South Wales suggesting that a New Zealand flag be adopted. Aside from solving the problems with trans-Tasman trade, Busby also saw the flag as a way of encouraging Māori chiefs to work together, paving the way for some form of collective government. The Australian authorities agreed wholeheartedly with his proposal for a flag, and some months later forwarded a possible design, consisting of a white background with four blue horizontal bands across it and the Union Jack in the top left-hand corner. This design was, however, deemed unsuitable by Busby as it contained no red, ‘a colour to which the New Zealanders are particularly partial, and which they are accustomed to consider as indicative of rank’. The senior missionary of the Church Missionary Society, Rev. Henry Williams, was enlisted to design an alternative flag, drawing on his experience as a lieutenant in the Royal Navy. The three flag designs he produced were then sent to Governor Bourke in New South Wales, who had the designs sewn up and forwarded to Busby by way of a ship - the HMS Alligator.


On 20 March 1834, 25 chiefs from the Far North and their followers gathered at Waitangi to choose a flag to represent New Zealand. A number of missionaries, settlers and the commanders of 10 British and 3 American ships were also in attendance at the occasion. Following Busby’s address, each chief was called forward in turn to select a flag, while the son of one of the chiefs recorded the votes. The preferred design, a flag already used by the Church Missionary Society, received 12 out of the 25 votes, with the other two designs receiving 10 and 3 votes respectively. Busby declared the chosen flag the national flag of New Zealand and had it hoisted on a central flagpole, accompanied by a 21 gun salute from HMS Alligator. The new flag was then sent back to New South Wales for passage to King William IV. The King approved the flag and a drawing of it was circulated through the Admiralty with instructions to recognise it as New Zealand’s flag. It came to be known as the Flag of the United Tribes of New Zealand in recognition of the title used by the same chiefs when they met again. Busby’s hope that the flag would provide a means for encouraging Māori to act collectively was partially fulfilled when many of the chiefs involved went on to sign the Declaration of Independence in 1835. To Māori, the United Tribes flag was significant in that Britain had recognised New Zealand as an independent nation with its own flag and in doing so, had acknowledged the mana of the Māori chiefs. As only northern chiefs were involved in choosing the flag, it became particularly significant to northern Māori. By way of oral history and tradition, the flag remains important to successive generations of northern Māori today. The flag could be sighted flying in various locations around the Bay of Islands, as well as on ships plying their trade to Sydney. Ships calling at other ports in New Zealand led to the flag’s use in other parts of the country as well. - ‘United Tribes flag’, URL: http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/politics/flags-of-new-zealand/united-tribes-flag, (Ministry for Culture and Heritage), updated 7-Feb-2013


United Tribes Flag

Image: A version of the United Tribes’ ensign copied from a plate in a Book of flags, 1845.

New Zealand’s first official flag was the flag of the United Tribes. It was selected on 20 March 1834 by 25 chiefs from the Far North who, with their followers, had gathered at Waitangi in the Bay of Islands. Missionaries, settlers and the commanders of 13 ships were also present. The official British Resident, James Busby, made a speech and then asked each chief to come forward in turn and select a flag from three possibilities. The son of one of the chiefs recorded the votes. A flag based on the St George’s cross that was already used by the Church Missionary Society is said to have received 12 votes, the other designs 10 and 3. Busby declared the chosen flag the national flag of New Zealand and had it hoisted on a flagpole to a 21-gun salute from HMS Alligator.

-‘United Tribes flag’, URL: http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/culture/taming-the-frontier/united-tribes-flag, (Ministry for Culture and Heritage), updated 15-Jul-2013 11


New Zealand Flag

The New Zealand Flag is the symbol of the realm, government and people of New Zealand. Its royal blue background represents the blue sea and clear sky surrounding us. The stars of the Southern Cross emphasise this country’s location in the South Pacific Ocean. The Union Jack in the first quarter recognises New Zealand’s historical origins as a British colony and dominion. The New Zealand Flag hasn’t always been our official flag. It was adopted in 1902 amidst the pomp and patriotism of the South African War. For six decades before that, the Union Jack fluttered from New Zealand’s flagpoles. But even that wasn’t our first flag. Between 1834 and 1840, the Flag of the United Tribes of New Zealand was recognised as the first ‘national’ flag of these islands. New Zealand has a number of other official flags, including the maritime red and white ensigns and flags symbolising the Queen and Governor-General. Waitangi Day 2010 also marked the first official recognition of the national Māori flag, which flew alongside the New Zealand Flag on the Auckland Harbour Bridge, Parliament, the Beehive, and government buildings. -‘Flags of New Zealand’, URL: http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/politics/flags-of-new-zealand, (Ministry for Culture and Heritage), updated 11-Mar-2014 12


Tino Rangatiratanga Flag

In 1989 a competition was run by a group named Te Kawariki to design a national Māori flag. Most of the entries however, were considered inappropriate because they were designed around a bi-racial rather than a specific Māori theme. The only flag that met the criteria of recognising Māori history, expressing a Māori purpose and using a Māori design, was one designed by - Hiraina Marsden, Jan Dobson and Linda Munn. Another member of Te Kawariki, Walter Erstich, gave the explanation to the design. After some revision by other members of Te Kawariki, the final version was eventually approved as the winner of the competition and unveiled as the national Māori flag, at Waitangi, on Waitangi Day 1990. It has since become known as the ‘Tino Rangatiratanga’ flag. Explanation of design: Black represents Te Korekore, the realm of potential, the heavens, the long darkness from which the world emerged. Black also represents the male element - formless, floating and passive. White represents Te Ao Mārama the realm of being, the world of light, the physical world. White also symbolises purity, harmony enlightenment, and balance. Red represents Te Whei Ao, the realm of coming into being. Red also represents active, lashing, southern, falling, emergence, forest, land, and gestation. Red is the female element, Papatuanuku, the earth mother, the sustainer of all living things. Red is also the colour of earth from which the first human was made. The Koru (the curling frond shape) represents the unfolding of new life, rebirth, continuity, renewal and hope for the future. Tino Rangatiratanga Flag http://www.tpk.govt.nz/en/consultation/maoriflag/tinorangatiratanga/ cited April-3-2014 13


Artist Statements and Works from the Exhibition


Maureen Lander Artwork exhibited in W’akaputanga Mai o te Rangatiratanga: Te Kahu Kara, Te Kahu Rangatiratanga, Te Kahu Haki.

Above: Te Kahu Kara (detail), cloth flag with undied muka (flax fibre) tags (huka huka).

Artist statement: These three pieces highlight the symbolic parallels for Māori between cloaks and flags. Māori ships were known to sometimes display woven flax cloaks in place of flags. In 1830 a cloak was flown from the mast of the Sir George Murray when it first entered Port Jackson for trading purposes. This ‘cloak-flag’ was not recognized by the Sydney authorities and the NZ built ship, part owned by Ngāpuhi chiefs Taonui and Patuone was seized, leading to the need for a Māori flag that could be registered and recognized internationally. In 1834 the Wakaminenga confederation chose a flag (Te Kara) to represent their collective sovereignty (Kotahitanga). Te Kara was approved by the British government and king, thereby granting world recognition to Māori as a trading nation. Later a chief of the Kotahitanga confederation, Aperahama Taonui, made a prophecy concerning the Treaty of Waitangi, and the error he felt had occurred in 1840 when (according to northern oral tradition) the document was placed for signing on the Union Jack (Te Haki) and not a Māori cloak. He considered this an ill omen and he is recorded as making the following prophecy in 1863: “Chiefs of Ngāpuhi listen to me. Do not drape the Treaty of Waitangi with the 15


Above from left: Te Kahu Kara (detail), cloth flag with undyed muka (flax fibre) tags (huka huka). Te Kahu Rangatiratanga (detail), cloth flag with dyed muka (flax fibre) tags. Te Kahu Haki (detail), cloth flag with red wool pom-poms (ngore)

Union Jack of England, but rather with your Māori cloak, which is of this land.” When Ngāpuhi did not listen to him, once more the elder spoke: “Ngāpuhi, since you refuse to listen, the only man that will inhabit this house will be a spider. The day will come when you will see a man bearing in his hands two books, the Bible and the Treaty of Waitangi. Listen to him. It is also said that when the Māori monument commemorating the Treaty was erected on the Waitangi marae in 1881, Aperahama advocated that a Māori mat, not the Union Jack, should be used in the unveiling ceremony, prophesying that if the treaty (that is, the monument) were placed under the British flag the Māori people would lose rangatiratanga (or sovereignty) which had been guaranteed to them by the Queen. About the artist: Maureen Lander (Te Hikutu, Ngāpuhi) is a multi-media installation artist who has exhibited locally, nationally and internationally since 1986. From the early 1990’s until 2007 Maureen taught Māori Material Culture courses at Auckland University. She has a fine arts doctorate (DFA) from Elam School of Fine Arts and her contemporary artwork draws inspiration from the beautiful woven toanga in museums and collections. Since her retirement from university teaching Maureen has continued to make and exhibit her artwork and has been on several artist’s residencies in New Zealand and Australia over recent years. Maureen was born in Rawene and loves to come home to her bach in Omapere. She enjoys participating in weaving hui and exhibitions with local weavers and artists in the communities around Hokianga. For more information about Aperahama Taonui please read: Judith Binney. ‘Taonui, Aperahama’, from the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 30-Oct2012 URL: http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/biographies/2t7/taonui-aperahama 16


Claire Kaahu White Artwork exhibited in W’akaputanga Mai o te Rangatiratanga: W'akaputanga, Tino Rangatiratanga, Union Jack.

Above left to right: W'akaputanga, Tino Rangatiratanga and Union Jack, framed digital colour prints, installation view from black_space gallery

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About the Artist: Ko Aoraki te mauka Ko Waitaki te awa Ko Kト( Tahu te iwi Ko Huirapa te hapu Ko Arowhenua raua ko Puketeraki ka kaika Ko Claire Kaahu White ahau I have been living in Hokianga for 11 years with my partner Paul (Ngai Tupoto ki Motukaraka) and our three children. I have whakapapa connections to Kai Tahu, England, Scotland, Ireland and Malay. I have a Bachelor of Arts (University of Canterbury) and a Diploma of Fine Arts (Northtec). My background is in journalism and writing as well as photography. I am currently tutoring art theory on the Applied Arts course in Rawene as well as being a trustee on The Hokianga Community Arts Trust.

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Michelle Morunga Artwork exhibited in W’akaputanga Mai o te Rangatiratanga: Rau Rangatira, mixed media on 179 individual pĹ?hutukawa leaves.

Image above: installation view at Depot Artspace. Image top right: Detail of work close up from the installation at black_space gallery. Both of Rau Rangatira. 19


Artist statement: “He Whakaputanga o Te Rangatira o Nu Tireni” 28th October 1835 179 years have passed since the proclamation to the world by the Confederated Tribes of New Zealand, stating our Declaration of Independence - a public and global announcement by the Rangatira of Nui Tireni, declaring absolute and self-determined collected sovereign status. 179 leaves form the Pōhutukawa tree, placed in a circle symbolising the connection to Te Ao Mārama. No beginning. No end. Protecting and containing the importance of this document.

About the artist: Michelle Morunga has Whakapapa connections to both Taiamai (Bay of Islands) and Hokianga. She lives and works from her home in Whirinaki with her family. Morunga’s creativity continues to evolve and stylistically develop. The importance between whānau and the significance of place continue to be major themes in her work. She shares her love of the arts with Rangitahi at Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o te Tonga o Hokianga where she runs the senior art programme. 20


Heather Randerson Artwork exhibited in W’akaputanga Mai o te Rangatiratanga: Te Wahapu, Te Wahapu 2, Te Wahapu 3: The Standard of New Zealand and signal flags used at Hokianga in 1834, Niwa 2, Niwa 2: 1834 Flag, Niwa 3: 1861 chart and Nga kara e rua, Niwa 4: Nga kara e rua, Whiria 1: 1861 chart, Map of New Zealand with additions by Rev. W. Yate 1835, Hokianga River (upper part )surveyed by Comr. Drury and the officers of the H.M.S Pandora 1851 (showing positions of Māori tribes, villages and Mission stations), Hokianga River surveyed by Comr. Drury and the officers of the H.M.S Pandora 1851 (a hydrographic chart of Hokianga harbour, also giving location of Māori tribes and villages as well as mission stations), He Wakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Nui tireni 1835: The Proclomation of Sovereignty 1835. All works (digital and photographic images) were printed on Hahnmühle 'photo-rag' paper in editions of ten.

Images clockwise from top left: Map of New Zealand with additions by Rev. W. Yate 1835, Niwa 2, Whiria 1: 1861 chart, Hokianga River surveyed by Commr. Drury and the officers of the H.M.S Pandora 1851 (A hydrographic chart of Hokianga harbour, also giving location of Maori tribes and villages as well as mission stations), 21


Artist statement: Having attended all the Waitangi tribunal hearings for he W’akaputanga and Te Tiriti in 2010 and many of the subsequent Stage 2 hearings, the urge to respond artistically somehow grew. These works recognise Hokianga Whakapau Karakia as the dwelling places of Kupe and Nukutawhiti and all those who have retained ahi kaa through the following generations. They are also a reflection of collision of differing cultural perspectives towards whenua/land, foreshore and seabed and the impact of that on our rangitiritanga of tangata whenua.

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Images this page from top: Niwa 3: 1861 chart and Nga kara e rua, Niwa 4: Nga kara e rua, 23


About the artist: Ko Te Ramaroa te maunga Ko Whirinaki te awa Ko Tuwhatero te rere Ko Te Hikutu te hapu Ko Pa te Aroha, Matai Aranui, Moria nga marae Ko NgÄ puhi te iwi Kia ora mai totou te whanau whanui, ko Heather Lindsay Randerson ahau. My return to the ukaipo of Hokianga began nearly thirty years ago from Wellington where I was born. After training as a teacher, marrying and having three gorgeous children, I returned to my other passion, the theatre. A career in film, TV, radio and theatre blossomed over the next thirty years and extended my love for and experience of the arts in general. Following an extremely stimulating few years teaching at the Steiner school in Auckland my desire to engage in some artistic practice increased. Moving to Omapere to live in 1997 provided the opportunity to explore my whanau roots more deeply and experience being part of a vital, vibrant and embracing community. Waking to Ninawa in his full glory daily and being witness to his unceasing transformations has inspired the development of my photography and painting. My interest in film as a means of telling our own stories, in our own way, primarily to share amongst ourselves, led to my involvement in Hokianga Film Festivals held at Moria Marae in Whirinaki in 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011. Exhibitions of some of the images as well as those from Te Wai Pounamu have been shown in Queenstown in Vespa gallery 2003; Nelson, Suter gallery 2004; Auckland, PPg Gallery 2005; Omapere, Mamuka gallery 2008; Village Arts and over the past couple of years with black_space in Kohukohu and Paihia. With six mokupuna now there are numerous visits to the whanau in Auckland with the pleasure of returning home to Omapere always uplifting at the end of the journey. No reira, tenei he mihi poto ki a koutou katoa, rau rangatira ma. Mauri ora, Heather Randerson

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Bev Wilson

Artwork exhibited in W’akaputanga Mai o te Rangatiratanga: Nga Waka Tuatahi te Tikanga Tuatahi, acrylic on canvas, 2013. Tuhoronukurangi, acrylic on canvas, 2013. Ko Matou, ka wakaputa..., acrylic and gesso on reclaimed timber, 2014.

Artist statement: Ko matou, ka wakaputa, 2014 mark made purity of form Unified voice of declaration. Valid in perpetuity. 25


Artist Statement: Nga Waka Tuatahi, Te Tikanga Tuatahi, (left) 2013: Indigenous migration indigenous Lore Colonial occupation British judiciary British law

Artist Statement: Ko Tuhoronuku, (left) 2013: Manu aute, historic flight. Father’s wisdom, brother’s strife. In search of boundary. Each a place to stand. Mana whenua, precious land.

About the artist: Ko Te Rarawa, Ko Ngāpuhi nga iwi Bev Wilson grew up and was educated in the small rural town of Kaikohe at a time when it was a thriving, agricultural community. Work and marriage took her away to many other places over a number of years. Wilson has now journeyed full circle and has once again found herself living in Kaikohe. It was a personal loss which led Wilson to embark on a journey of expression through art (2008, at North Tec, Rawene). These past years has seen Wilson primarily painting in acrylic on timber and on canvas. The artist draws inspiration for her artworks from the rich oral histories of her culture, the Hokianga and personal life experiences. She now continues that journey working from home in Kaikohe. 26


John Morunga Artwork exhibited in W’akaputanga Mai o te Rangatiratanga: The Money Tree, oil paint on Macrocarpa, tung oil (pictured right)

Artist statement: Definition of the work Māori Chief – proud with moko, wearing his muka tied taonga with feathers Axe and flagpole – the pole was cut down, a symbol of unrest Sun – a change in warfare and in power Tāne Mahuta – king of the forest - a testament of tim - a kauri snail Green leaves – represents people of the land Coins (bottom right) – a reminder of the fighting that has changed us as a people but united us as a commonwealth Coins (middle) – the people of this nation Coins (top right) – the change of our currency, the end of the barter system and a whole new way of life for Māori Coins (top left) – New Zealand coin set (1977) Waitangi Day Silver Jubilee dollar. The Treaty of Waitangi which was signed by 512 representatives of the Maori people About the artist: John Morunga Lives in Panguru Loves nature and the outdoors Studied Level 2 and 3 carving at Panguru Area School with Kit Warr "I designed the artwork but my wife and son helped to carve it with me" says John 27


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Henare Rawiri

Artist statement: Te Whakaputanga and “what does it mean to us today?" My conceptual statement Nga Tohungatanga Mahi Toi (Mixed-media Statecraft installation) Te Whakaputanga represents our Authority and self-determination, or Independent Sovereignty. Hence the Māori symbolic installations that dominate the collection. Metaphorically the installation represents the trade relationships Māori had with Pākehā since the early 1820’s or even earlier than that. I manipulated the materials in order to create a debate and a curiosity about the installation that would hopefully woo the captivator. The supporting prints are my own textile design concepts for duvet and pillow slips with repeat fabric pattern print ideas, for further on down the track. “What does Whakaputanga mean to me?” It means that I am Tangata whenua of these lands and no one can tell me otherwise. About the artist: I have always had a passion for art since I was a child, what person doesn’t? In 1984 I was employed by the Auckland institute and Museum as a Conservation technician working on the Hotunui Whare restoration programme, restoring the whare back to its original state. I learnt how to weave as well while I was down there with Dr. Rangimarie Hetet, who at that time was doing her Korowai exhibition and workshops. I was also mentored by Dante Bonica and Mick Pendergrast as well – both astute weavers of the Ao kohatu era whom I had the pleasure of knowing. In 1998 I did my Diploma in Applied Art and Design at the Kerkeri Polytechnic with Alison Ross, Marea Timoko, Herman Pi’ikea Clarke and others but I didn’t finish the course near the end, due to the passing of my father at that time. In 2001 I made a cloak for a friend’s daughter and was shown how to do that by two lovely local weavers of Kohukohu of whom I can never thank enough - Di Slade and Flo. Since then I’ve been doing odd jobs here and there until June 2005 when I landed a job with Silver Screen Films, making traditional costumes for the River Queen movie filmed in Wanganui. I’m back home after my spell in Australia and enjoying my freedom to pick up my passion for weaving again. I’ll be working on doing a rain cape exhibition in Kaitaia in November 2015 at the Taitokerau Weavers Conference to be held at Roma Marae Ahipara. Right now I’m working on a wide range and variety of artworks which include mixedmedia, collage, jewellery, clay, painting and wire just to name a few. Na Henare Rawiri 29


Artwork exhibited in W’akaputanga Mai o te Rangatiratanga: Corn Husk Maro (pictured above), corn husk, muka. Nga Tohungatanga Mahi Toi /State Craft (6 items), ceramic. 30


Urikore Ngakuru

Artwork exhibited in W’akaputanga Mai o te Rangatiratanga: Moemoea, (pictured above) gouache on canvas

Artist statement: He W’akaputanga Mai o te Rangatiratanga This artwork is my visual effort of what Māori could be living with on their own whenua had we been able to maintain our lands, our fisheries, our health and our language and our own justice systems. My own background had a totally English influence, education, a catholic by marriage, limited te reo Māori and yet I was raised on our own farm and clinging to ancestral land in Waiamuku. This is not for sale; this is my whanau development map that will take us into the future. 31


About the artist: Ko Maunganui te Maunga Ko Waipoua te Awa Ko Matatina te Marae Ko Tuoho te Whare Ko te Roroa te Iwi I was born in 1938 in Wekaweka Hokianga and apart from my education and working life I have spent more than half my life living in Hokianga. I began painting in 2011 as a student in North Tec Rawene completing a Certificate in Applied Arts (Visual) and now having completed another two years of study I am continuing to gain more skills with my painting. Most of my works are of scenes from around my hometown in Hokianga where I presently live in Waimamaku 32


Heiwari Johnson Artwork exhibited in W’akaputanga Mai o te Rangatiratanga: Mauri (pictured facing page), four panels, tanekaha (red-ochre), kokowai (black oil paint), acrylic. Haki o te Motu (pictured below), muka thread.

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Artist statement: 'Mauri' ‘Ko te mauri he mea huna kit e moana’ -‘The life principle is hidden under the sea’ Nukutawhiti, arriving in his canoe ‘Ngatokimatawhaaourua’, at the entrance to the Hokianga Harbour, cast his kura into the sea so calming the waters for a safe crossing. The treasure was never recovered but the proverb remains to record the event and to refer to the life-sustaining food sources from these waters. (P. Hohepa, 1981) ‘Haki O Te Motu’ ‘E ngaa rangatiratanga O Ngaapuhi, whakarongo mai. Kaua e uhia Te Tiriti O Waitangi kit e kara O Ingerangi, engari me uhi anoo ki toou kara Maaori, kit e kahu o teenei motu.’ ‘Ngaapuhi chiefs, listen to me. Don’t cover the Treaty of Waitnagi with the English flag, but cover it with your own flag, with the cloak of this island alone.’ Said by Aperahama Taonui, suggesting that Ngaapuhi should not adopt Pakeha customs and politics in favour of their own. (P. Hohepa, 1981) 34


Stacey Noel

Artwork exhibited in W’akaputanga Mai o te Rangatiratanga: Rangatiratanga (pictured left), copper, sterling silver and pounamu 35


Emere Te Paea Robson

Artwork exhibited in W'akaputanga Mai o te Rangatiratanga: Ka whawhai tonu matou (Never give up), woman's recycled wedding dress and veil (symbol of traditional colonial wedding), men's traditional army jacket with Maori flag (images below and following pages).

Artist statement/background to the work: He aha te kai o te Rangatiratanga He korero He korero What is the food of chiefs? It is talking, it is talking It’s important that we are present when our children, whanau members and friends are talking to us and that we listen. To their thoughts, feelings and opinions, for they are as important as our own. For a few hundred years before the signing of the Whakaputanga document Whakaminenga was in practice. Whanau and Hapu groups meeting yearly to make decisions about the year ahead. Nga Hapu – Sub-tribes Tutemohuta, Taki Moana, Te Ahuru, Tapuika, Tuhourangi, Te Whanau a Kai, Te Whanau a Hua rau Iwi – Tribes Tuwharetoa, Ngati Porou, Ngati Raukawa, Te Arawa, Muriwhenua, Kahungungu, Te Aitanga a Mahaaki, Te Aitanga a Houiti, Te Whanau Apanui, Ngai Tuhoe, Kati Mamoe. No reira he uri o Nga Hau a Wha Ko Emere Te Paea Robson ahau E nohoana matou ko aku tamariki kei Rawene Nga mihi ki nga whaea nga matua, nga tuakana, nga teina, nga tamariki, nga mokoupuna Since researching my whakapapa I have discovered links to every direction of the four winds, living in Hokianga for almost twenty years now, we have discovered our tupua Rore was very likely the same from here, which means we are at the final stages of finding which hapu is final pieces to the puzzle. 36


Artist statement/Artworks: Ka whawhai tonu matou (Never give up) Over 200 Government Acts, traditions altered, imposter thoughts, beliefs, name calling, people of status, change champions or motivational thinkers have come and gone. Events, overall effects of colonisation and continuation of colonisation from the early 1800’s just before the signing of the Whakaputanga document up until now - The outcomes and continuing struggles of Māori women, Māori men, Māori children, what our tupuna survived, what we have survived and what our children have survived in every area of life itself. Disconnected, disassembled, disorientated, despair, disempowered and for many disowned, whanau violence, generational violence, has come in many shapes and forms. 'Where has it come from it was not a part of our Māori world?' - but today’s media machine now highlights that its is a Māori thing. We have become pin cushions, poked and prodded, blood-stained, run ragged. some used and abused as doormats, our gut feelings (which many have become disconnected from), cut off. Internal questions - 'Why is this happening to me? To my tamariki? To my mokupuna? When will it end? How can I change a whanau cycle which has now become the norm/normal?'. So let’s make it important to go back, take a look, address and acknowledge the past. This is just some of the many hours of research recorded I have sifted through. From the first observers, writers and researchers, to recent 37


books now published. Bold, in black and white, in your face, facts we need to face, providing an opportunity for all to maybe ponder on it, perhaps feel denial, digest it, the truth hurts, feel the pain, the anger, grieve with it, accept it; then let it all wash down the drain, out with the tide, then move on to being able to make clear informed decisions about where you see your whanau in the future, giving them the best opportunities in life, it could be your biggest challenge in this life, but you could be the 'Change Champion', famous in your own whanau, in your own four walls. What would be more important? Dispell the illusion, Mauri ora Whakawatea te noa I a motou, Whakawatea te hau ota ota I runga I a motou, Whakawatea te hau ota ota I a motou kia Maranga mai ai motou ki runga Free us from the state of disempowerment, Free us from the rubbish over us, Free us from the state of slavery, that we might rise up. (-Pre-European Karakia) References: Moon, Paul. The Tohunga Journal, Hohepa Kereopa, Auckland, David Ling Publishing, 2008. Print. Harris, Aroha. Hikoi. Wellington, Huia Publishers, 2004. Print. Ngāpuhi Speaks, Independent Report. Te Kahui Mana Ririki, Traditional Māori Parenting review Ukaipo, Māori Women and Childbirth. Selby, Rachael. Still Being Punished. Wellington, Huia Publishers, 1999. Print. Mikaere, Ani. Colonising Myths Maori Realities. Wellington, Huia Publishers, 2011. Print. Biggs, Bruce. Māori Marriage. 1960 (See The Journal of the Polynesian Society for further information). Duff, Alan. Māori Heroes. Auckland, Random House New Zealand Ltd, 2000. Print. Ramsden, Eric. MARSDEN AND THE MISSIONS: Prelude to the Waitangi. Dunedin, A.H and A.W Reed, 1938. Harawira, Hone. 21 Ways to Take Away Treaty Rights. He Papa Tikanga Study guides, open wananga. Barlow, Cleve. Tikanga Whakaaro. Australia and New Zealand, Oxford University Press, 1994. Print. Moko Mead, Hirini. Tikanga Maori. Wellington, Huia Publishers, 2003. Print. Walker, Ranganui. Ka whawhai tonu matou (Struggle Without End). Auckland, Penguin, 1990. Print. Mikaere, Ani. The Assault on Tikanga Maori by Pakeha Law. Wellington, Huia publishers, 2011. Print. New Zealand Legislation.

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Maki Herbert


Artwork exhibited in W’akaputanga Mai o te Rangatiratanga: Aroha Tupuna, mop string and mixed-media. Detail pictured in facing page, installation view above.

Artist statement: Traditional weaving done by our Tupuna. On the sides of the Korowai is traditional Taniko (complex traditional Māori 'twining' or weaving): The black and white Taniko represents ‘the travels of our Tupuna from one side of the world, to migrate to the land of Aotearoa’ Bringing with them the Wairua and Kaha of their Tupuna… The colour side has triangles within the triangle Each triangle represents a ‘Whanau’ The main part of the Korowai: The crosses represents the Mawhitiwhiti ‘stars’ that our Tupuna used to get to Aotearoa, the tassels represents the Nga Nguru ‘waves’ of the huge oceans they have endured to start new lives and the beginning of pioneering in Aotearoa. 40


Toi Te Rito Maihi

Artwork exhibited in W’akaputanga Mai o te Rangatiratanga: A Tissue of Lies, tissue, paper, wool. Pictured above and on the facing page. 41


Artist statement: Toi Te Rito Maihi Ngapuhi, Ngati Kahungunu, Bland and Town Families of Yorkshire. The techniques, patterns and possibilities of whatu (twining) and raranga (plaiting) have been an enduring fascination since, aged twelve, I learnt taniko (multiple thread twining). Making a tissue paper cloak seemed totally appropriate for this exhibition. It would be as much protection against weather, as the Maori stance and national understanding of the nationhood had, against the juggernaught of the British empire in their relentless acquisition of lands regardless of their indigenous occupants. The predominant white tags represent Māori expectations, the black notes the few who recognised the danger in putting their names to a treaty written by the English, despite the Māori version promises of continued rangatiratanga. The orange tags represent Ngāpuhi who over the decades shared their wisdom with me; Tarutaru Rankin, Sir James Henare, Māori Marsden and Riana Akinihi WiHongi. The neckline tags are photocopies of the treaty signatures of Patuone (a tipuna) and his brother Tamati Waka Nene. Others are of the paper still made in the Town factory in Yorkshire, for theirs was the paper used by Busby in his initial drafts of the Treaty of Waitangi.

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This publication is bought to you by Depot Artspace, black_space and The Vernacularist.


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