Apartment Design Volume Two of State Planning Policy No. 7.3 Residential Design Codes Guidance for multiple-dwelling and mixed-use developments Draft for public comment October 2016
This document adopts the structure and some content of the NSW Apartment Design Guide as a well-established and tested exemplar of contemporary planning and design policy for apartment development.
This document has been published by the Western Australian Planning Commission. Any representation, statement, opinion or advice expressed or implied in this publication is made in good faith and on the basis that the government, its employees and agents are not liable for any damage or loss whatsoever which may occur as a result of action taken or not taken, as the case may be, in respect of any representation, statement, opinion or advice referred to herein. Professional advice should be obtained before applying the information contained in this document to particular circumstances.
Extensive consultation with local practitioners and experts has informed a comprehensive review of the NSW policy, to determine whether to adopt, modify or augment equivalent provisions. Over time this consistency may lead to broader national alignment of apartment design policy and process, which would have significant benefits for the planning, design and development industries. The Government of Western Australia, Department of Planning and the Western Australian Planning Commission gratefully acknowledge the support and assistance of the NSW Government Department of Planning and Environment in the development of this draft.
ÂŠ State of Western Australia Published by the Western Australian Planning Commission Gordon Stephenson House 140 William Street Perth WA 6000 Locked Bag 2506 Perth WA 6001 Published October 2016 website: www.planning.wa.gov.au email: firstname.lastname@example.org tel: 08 6551 9000 fax: 08 6551 9001 TTY: 08 6551 9007 infoline: 1800 626 477 Western Australian Planning Commission owns all photography in this document unless marked (PC) in caption and listed in photography credits on page 162. This document is available in alternative formats on application to Communication Services.
Apartment Design Volume Two of State Planning Policy No. 7.3 Residential Design Codes Guidance for multiple-dwelling and mixed-use developments Draft for public comment October 2016
Contents About this document
About this document Planning reform
Who is this document for?
In 2014 the Western Australian Planning Commission and Department of Planning published Planning makes it happen – Phase 2 Blueprint for Planning Reform with recommended initiatives and actions to improve design and development, now being delivered as Design WA. Stage one will deliver elements with a direct planning reform mandate, including:
This policy provides planning and design standards for residential apartments (defined as all ‘multiple-dwelling development’) that can be applied with consistency across Western Australia. It has been prepared to:
—— State Planning Policy for Design of the Built Environment
—— guide developers, planners, urban designers, architects, landscape architects, builders and other professionals when designing apartments and preparing a development application.
—— Apartment Design policy (this policy) —— Design Review Guide —— Design Skills discussion paper —— Implementation and training program.
About good design Good design is not a subjective idea; it can be defined and measured. Notions of design quality extend beyond taste, style and appearance to encompass functionality, sustainability, response to context, structural integrity, flexibility in use, and cost efficiency, both during construction and over the life of the building. Most importantly, good design results in an environment that performs well for all users and the broader community. 1
—— assist planning professionals in local and state government with strategic planning and in the preparation of local controls, design guidelines and the assessment of development proposals. —— inform the communityabout good design and planning practice for residential apartments.
Good design endeavours to reconcile multiple concurrent and often competing objectives, and outcomes vary according to the circumstances of each site and project. The logic and rigour of the design process of a project may be more important than whether it meets predefined outcomes. This needs to be acknowledged in the conventions and methods for guidance, discussion and evaluation of design in the planning system.
Planning for design Planning is often focussed on compliance with specific standards and metrics, but there are limits to how these prescriptive controls can be formulated and applied, especially for complex and site-specific developments. Performancebased controls offer greater flexibility and promote positive development outcomes, rather than simply defending against negative impacts. Flexible controls need to be applied with rigour and consistency to determine where standards could be appropriately varied or should be enforced. Well-managed design review processes can facilitate this evaluation to inform statutory planning. This policy utilises a performance-based structure throughout (Objectives with Design Guidance), complemented by specific, measurable standards where appropriate for some elements (Design Criteria). 4
1. Better Places and Spaces, a policy for the built environment in Western Australia, Office of the Government Architect, 2013
1 2 3 4 A
Introduction Provides preliminary statutory text to confirm the purpose and application of this policy. The 10 design principles from State Planning Policy 7 - Design of the Built Environment are included for consideration when applying this policy, and are crossreferenced throughout parts 3 and 4.
Primary controls Includes default primary controls that relate to R-Codings. Explains the application of primary controls including building height, plot ratio, building depth, separation and setbacks. It guides local governments to make appropriate modifications to these controls to suit local contexts.
Siting the building Addresses the concept design of apartment projects, including analysing and responding to the site context, interface with neighbours and the public domain, measures to achieve quality open spaces and maximise residential amenity. It is to be used by all parties designing, submitting or assessing development proposals. Designing the building Informs the design development of apartment projects, including building form, layout, functionality, landscape design, environmental performance and residential amenity. It is to be used by all parties designing, submitting or assessing development proposals.
Appendices Includes checklists for information required at different stages in the planning process.
Contents About this document
Achieving the Objectives in Parts 3 and 4 Parts 3 and 4 of this policy provide Objectives, Design Criteria and Design Guidance for the siting, design and amenity of apartment development. Each element is structured to provide the user with: —— Intent of the element and an explanation of its role and importance —— Objectives that describe the desired design outcomes —— Design Criteria, where applicable, provide specific, measurable requirements for how an Objective can be achieved. —— Design Guidance with advice on how the Objectives and Design Criteria can be achieved through appropriate design responses, or in cases where Design Criteria cannot be met.
The key to working with Parts 3 and 4 is that a development must demonstrate how it meets the Objective. The Design Criteria provides a specific measurable benchmark that will be considered to meet the Objective. If the proposal does not meet the Design Criteria, applications must demonstrate alternative design solutions that will achieve the Objective, with reference to Design Guidance. Some elements of Parts 3 and 4 do not specify Design Criteria. In these instances the Design Guidance should be referred to when demonstrating how an Objective is to be achieved.
Objectives, criteria and guidance are always contained in the coloured boxes
Parts 3 and 4
Planning Criteria where applicable
Design Criteria where applicable
Part 2 helps local governments set built-form envelopes through their local planning framework. Default primary controls apply where no local settings are in place.
Parts 3 and 4 provide Objectives, Design Criteria and Design Guidance for the siting, design and amenity of apartment development. These settings assist proponents, design reviewers and decision makers.
Applying an example
Apartment size and layout
OBJECTIVE 4.4.1 The layout of rooms within an apartment is functional, well-organised and provides a high standard of amenity.
DESIGN CRITERIA DC1 – Apartments meet the minimum internal areas of the following table:
Step 1 – The proponent should first look at the Objectives that apply to each element. Each Objective must be addressed either through demonstration of the Design Criteria OR use of Design Guidance. For Apartment size and layout, Objective 4.4.1 states the expectation for the apartment layout to support functionality and amenity, but does not presuppose a particular solution.
Step 2 – In this example the Design Criteria shows one way to meet this Objective; by adopting standard sizes in apartment layouts. The Design Criteria pathway offers clarity and certainty, but using Design Criteria is not the only way to meet the Objective.
Step 3 – Design Guidance can be used to consider alternative solutions that also satisfy the Objective. In the case of Apartment size and layout the Design Guidance provides some considerations for ensuring that smaller apartments are functional and offer high amenity for residents. The onus is on the proponent to demonstrate appropriate design measures to assure decision-makers that the apartments will have adequate amenity despite the smaller size.
Minimum internal Areas
Table 4.4.1 Minimum internal areas
Notes: The minimum internal areas include only one bathroom. Additional bathrooms increase the minimum internal area by 5m2 each. A fourth bedroom and further additional bedrooms increase the minimum internal area by 12m2 each. Areas are measured according to the plot ratio area of each apartment.
Where DC1 minimum areas or room dimensions are not achieved, applicants need to demonstrate that the apartment design ensures usable and functional space despite the smaller area. Realistically-scaled furniture layouts and circulation areas should be shown. These circumstances would be assessed on their merits. Development proposals with apartment sizes significantly smaller than DC1 areas should provide appropriate detail of non-standard fitout design needed to achieve spaceefficiency.
Contents PART 1 ABOUT THIS DOCUMENT
1.1 Preliminary....................................................... 14
2.1 Primary control tables................................22
1.2 Approval process..................................... 16
2.2 Modifying primary controls.....................24
1.3 Design principles.......................................... 18
2.3 Streetscape character types..................26 2.4 Building envelope........................................ 30 2.5 Plot ratio............................................................32 2.6 Building height.............................................. 34 2.7 Building depth............................................... 36 2.8 Building separation......................................38 2.9 Street setbacks............................................ 40 2.10 Side and rear setbacks...............................42 2.11 Incentive-based development standards......................................................... 44 2.12 Coordinating local policies.................... 46
PART 3 SITING THE DEVELOPMENT
PART 4 48
DESIGNING THE BUILDING
3.1 Site analysis and design response....... 50
4.1 Solar and daylight access........................ 86
3.2 Orientation..................................................... 54
4.2 Natural ventilation....................................... 90
A2 List of potential incentive-based
3.3 Existing tree retention............................... 56
4.3 Ceiling heights...............................................92
3.4 Deep soil areas............................................. 60
4.4 Apartment size and layout...................... 94
A3 Site analysis checklist.............................. 147
3.5 Communal and public open space..... 64
4.5 Private open space and balconies...... 98
A4 Site design response checklist............148
3.6 Visual privacy................................................ 68
4.6 Circulation and common spaces........102
A5 Pre-DA checklist.........................................149
3.7 Public domain interface............................72
4.7 Storage........................................................... 106
A6 DA checklist..................................................150
3.8 Pedestrian access and entries................76
4.8 Acoustic privacy.........................................108
A7 Objectives checklist.................................152
3.9 Vehicle access...............................................78
4.9 Noise and pollution................................... 110
A8 Sustainability checklist...........................155
3.10 Car and bicycle parking............................ 80
4.10 Apartment mix..............................................112 4.11 Ground floor apartments ........................114 4.12 Facades............................................................116 4.13 Roof design.....................................................118
Precinct planning context......................144
4.14 Landscape design......................................120 4.15 Planting on structures............................... 122 4.16 Universal design..........................................124 4.17 Adaptive reuse............................................126 4.18 Mixed use.......................................................128 4.19 Awnings and signage.................................130 4.20 Energy efficiency........................................132 4.21 Water management
4.22 Waste management ..................................138 4.23 Building maintenance...............................140
Introduction The introduction provides an overview of the statutory purpose and application of this policy, and includes design principles.
Contents 1 Introduction 1.1 Preliminary
This State Planning Policy is made under section 26 of the Planning and Development Act 2005. This policy is cited as Volume Two of State Planning Policy 7.3 Residential Design Codes – Apartment Design.
Policy objectives for apartment and mixed-use development:
Purpose The purpose of the Residential Design Codes is to provide a comprehensive basis for the control of residential development throughout Western Australia. The purpose of this Volume Two is to provide comprehensive guidance and controls for multiple-dwelling (apartment) development and mixed-use development.
—— To provide residential development of an appropriate design for the intended residential purpose, density, context of place and scheme objectives. —— To encourage design consideration of the social, environmental and economic opportunities possible from new housing and an appropriate response to local context. —— To encourage design which considers and respects heritage and local culture. —— To facilitate residential development which offers future residents the opportunities for better living choices and affordability when seeking a home, as well as reduced operational costs and security of investment in the long term. Policy objectives for the planning, governance and development process: —— To encourage design which is responsive to site, size and geometry of the development site. —— To allow variety and diversity of housing choices where it can be demonstrated this better reflects context or scheme objectives. —— To ensure clear scope for scheme objectives to influence the assessment of proposals. —— To ensure certainty in timely assessment and determination of proposals applied consistently across State and local government.
Application of policy objectives In assessing and determining proposals for apartment development and residential components of mixed use development, the decision-maker shall have regard to the above policy objectives, and any objectives provided in this policy and the applicable Local Planning Scheme.
Application of Volumes of the Residential Design Codes The Residential Design Codes apply throughout Western Australia. Volume One – House Design applies to: —— all single houses; and —— all grouped dwellings Volume Two – Apartment Design applies to: —— multiple dwellings (apartments); and —— mixed use development and activity centres.
Varitations to Volume Two of the Residential Design Codes
Where amendments or replacements to primary controls and planning criteria are consistent with the relevant planning objectives, local planning policies, local development plans, structure plans and activity centre plans may contain provisions that: —— with the approval of the WAPC, amend or replace the primary controls and planning criteria contained in the following sections of this policy: -- Streetscape character types -- Plot ratio -- Building height -- Building depth -- Building separation -- Street setbacks -- Side and rear setbacks -- Incentive-based development standards. —— amend any other Design Criteria within this Apartment Design policy by means of a local planning policy, local structure plan or local development plan where it can be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the WAPC that the proposed amendment: -- is warranted due to a specific need related to that particular locality or region;
Local governments should:
-- is consistent with the objectives of this policy; and
—— Maximise consistency of Local Planning Schemes with this Apartment Design policy.
-- can be properly implemented and audited by the decision-maker as part of the ongoing building approval process.
—— Enable appropriate local modifications consistent with guidance in this Apartment Design policy. —— Review pre-existing local policies where inconsistent with this Apartment Design policy. Primary controls amended or formulated according to Part 2 of this policy should be applied to developments in the form of Objectives, Design Criteria and Design Guidance, consistent with controls in Part 3 and Part 4 of this Apartment Design policy.
-- augments this policy with local objectives relating to other aspect of apartment development that is not provided for, under this policy. If a properly adopted local planning policy which came into effect prior to the gazettal of this policy is inconsistent with this policy, this policy prevails over the pre-existing local policy to the extent of the inconsistency.
Contents 1 Introduction 1.2 Approval process
Approval process Apartments are complex developments that require early and systematic design consideration with expert design review processes at each step: Concept design is where proponents start to work on a concept for their development. Plans are usually unresolved sketches, basic drawings and plot ratio calculations. At this stage proponents should use A3 Site Analysis Checklist, A4 Site Design Response as guidance for presentation requirements. Design development is where proponents take early feedback from concept design and work it into a more detailed proposal. At this stage proponents should be familiar with A5 Pre-development application checklist, but may not have resolved all elements. Development application materials are recommended in A6 Development application checklist. This includes a report from the proponent that addressess relevant Objectives in A7 Objectives checklist and A8 Sustainability checklist.
Site analysis checklist
Site design response checklist
Pre-devl. application checklist
Development application checklist
Figure 1.2a Checklists in Part 5 are available to assist your design process with local government design review
Design review Design review is the process of evaluating the design quality of a proposal, usually before the application is lodged. It is carried out by a panel of appropriately-trained, multi-disciplinary built environment experts, who are experienced in offering objective and constructive design advice. This policy is performance based, so Objectives can be met with flexibility where developers and designers provide innovative solutions to meet them. Some Objectives include Performance Criteria, which are a good normal benchmark to meet that Objective (they are not minimum acceptable standards). The approach helps to reconcile design requirements against the complexities of site and context, protecting against poor design outcomes whilst encouraging proponents who meet Objectives with creativity and innovation. More information about design review can be found in State Planning Policy 7 â€“ Design of the Built Environment, Design Review Guide or by talking to your local government planning authority.
1.2 DESIGN PROCESS
Due diligence and concept design The proponent engages an appropriately skilled designer and undertakes due diligence through understanding site conditions, the relevant Local Planning Framework and requirements of this policy.
Design materials should start from basic sketches and are refined through an early design review process. Pre-DA design reviews
The proponent and designer commence discussions with the relevant authority through pre-lodgement design review. This process reduces cost/time impacts to any changes before designs are resolved. Three design reviews are usually recommended, but this may vary based on the complexity of the project and the outcomes of discussions.
Early engagement in design review reduces the likelihood of design changes after development application lodgement. DEVELOPMENT APPLICATION LODGEMENT
Prepare development application and design statement The proponent prepares a design statement demonstrating how the design meets or exceeds the SPP7 Design Principles (see 1.3) with the application of Objectives, Design Criteria and Design Guidance.
Application assessment Proponent and designer work with local government and design reviewers to modify and finalise any outstanding matters. This may be an administrative check and deliberation over conditions that apply to an approval.
Post-DA design review and design modifications (if required)
60/90 days Statutory timeframes without/with advertising requirements
Refusal should only occur where a proposal does not meet the Objectives, and where the applicant is not able or willing to modify the design through design review and/or liaison. DECISION
Figure 1.2b Design and approval process diagram
Contents 1 Introduction 1.3 Design principles
Design principles State Planning Policy No.7 â€“ Design of the Built Environment (SPP 7) establishes 10 Design Principles that should be considered by designers when formulating and articulating design proposals, and by design-reviewers and decision-makers when evaluating designs. The SPP 7 Design Principles are included here for reference in apartment and mixed-use development projects:
1. Context and character Good design responds to and enhances the distinctive characteristics of a local area, contributing to a sense of place. The distinctive characteristics of a local area include its prominent natural and built features, the overall qualities of its built environment, significant heritage elements, as well as social, economic and environmental conditions. Good design responds intelligently and sensitively to these factors, interpreting rather than replicating existing features and enhancing the identity of the area, including the adjacent sites, streetscape and neighbourhood. Good design also responds positively to the intended future character of an area. It delivers appropriate densities that are consistent with projected population growth, and are able to be sustained by existing or proposed transport, green networks and social infrastructure. Consideration of local context is particularly important for sites in established areas that are undergoing change or identified for change.
2. Landscape quality Good design recognises that together landscape and buildings operate as an integrated and sustainable system, within a broader ecological context.
Good design achieves an appropriate built form by responding to its site, as well as surrounding built fabric, in a considered manner, mitigating negative impacts on the amenity of neighbouring properties and public realm.
Good landscape design protects existing environmental features and ecosystems, enhances the local environmental context and regenerates lost or damaged ecosystem functionality, where possible. It balances consideration of environmental factors such as water and soil management, ground conditions, solar access, microclimate, tree canopy, habitat creation and preservation of green infrastructure with social, cultural and economic conditions.
Good design considers the orientation, proportion, composition, and articulation of built form elements, to deliver an outcome that is suited to the buildingâ€™s purpose, defines the public domain, respects important views, contributes to the character of adjacent streetscapes and parks, and provides a good pedestrian environment at ground level.
Good landscape design employs hard and soft landscape and urban design elements to create external environments that interact in a considered manner with built form, resulting in well-integrated, engaging places that contribute to local identity and streetscape character.
Good design meets the needs of users efficiently and effectively, balancing functional requirements to deliver optimum benefit and performing well over the full life-cycle.
Good landscape design provides optimal levels of external amenity, functionality and weather protection while ensuring social inclusion, equitable access and respect for the public and neighbours. Well-designed landscape environments ensure effective establishment and facilitate ease of long term management and maintenance.
3. Built form and scale Good design provides development with massing and height that is appropriate to its setting and successfully negotiates between existing built form and the intended future character of the local area.
4. Functionality and buildÂ quality
Designing functional environments involves ensuring that spaces are suited to their intended purpose and arranged to facilitate ease of use and good relationships to other spaces. Good design provides flexible and adaptable spaces, to maximise utilisation and accommodate appropriate future requirements without the need for major modifications. Good build quality is achieved by using good quality and robust materials, finishes, elements and systems. Projects should be well-detailed, resilient to the wear and tear expected from its intended use, and easy to upgrade and maintain. Good design accommodates required services in an integrated manner, without detriment to the overall design outcome.
1.3 5. Sustainability
Good design optimises the sustainability of the built environment, delivering positive environmental, social and economic outcomes.
Good design results in buildings and places that are legible, with clear connections and memorable elements to help people find their way around.
Sustainable buildings utilise passive environmental design measures that respond to local climate and site conditions by providing optimal orientation, shading, thermal performance and natural ventilation. Reducing reliance on technology for heating and cooling minimises energy use, resource consumption and operating costs over the whole life-cycle of the project.
Good urban design makes places easy to navigate, with recognisable routes, intersections and landmarks while being well-connected to existing movement networks. Sightlines are well-considered, with built form responding to important vantage points.
Good design responds to local community needs as well as the wider social context, providing buildings and spaces that support a diverse range of people and facilitate social interaction.
Other sustainable design measures include the use of sustainable construction materials, recycling, material re-use, harnessing of renewable energy sources, appropriate water management. Good design considers the ease with which sustainability initiatives can be maintained and managed. Sustainable landscape and urban design adheres to established principles of water-sensitive urban design, and minimises negative impacts on existing natural features and ecological processes, as well as facilitating green infrastructure at all project scales.
6. Amenity Good design optimises internal and external amenity for occupants, visitors and neighbours, contributing to living and working environments that are comfortable and productive. Good design provides internal rooms and spaces that are adequately sized, comfortable and easy to use and furnish, with good levels of daylight, natural ventilation and outlook. Delivering good levels of internal amenity also includes the provision of appropriate levels of acoustic protection and visual privacy, adequate storage space, and ease of access for all.
Within buildings, legibility is served by a clear hierarchy of spaces with identifiable entries and clear wayfinding. Externally, buildings and spaces should allow their purpose to be easily understood, and provide clear distinction between public and private spaces. Good design provides environments that are logical and intuitive, at the scale of building, site and precinct.
8. Safety Good design optimises safety and security, minimising the risk of personal harm and supporting safe behaviour and use. Safety and security is promoted by maximising opportunities for passive surveillance of public and communal areas and providing clearly defined, well-lit, secure access points that are easily maintained and appropriate to the purpose of the development. Good design provides a positive, clearly defined relationship between public and private spaces and addresses the need to provide optimal safety and security both within a development and to adjacent public realm.
Good design encourages social engagement and physical activity in an inclusive manner, enabling stronger communities and improved public health outcomes. In residential developments, good design achieves a mix of dwelling types, providing housing choice for different demographics, living needs and household budgets, and facilitating ageing-in-place.
10. Aesthetics Good design is the product of a skilled, judicious design process that results in attractive and inviting buildings and places that engage the senses. Good design resolves the many competing challenges of a project into an elegant and coherent outcome. A well-conceived design concept informs all scales, from the articulation of building form through to materiality and detail, enabling sophisticated, integrated responses to the complexities of local built form and landscape character. In assessing design quality, consideration of aesthetics should not be limited to style and appearance; it should also account for design integrity, creativity, conceptual coherence and cultural relevance in a proposal.
Designing for safety also involves mitigating any potential occupational safety and health hazards that might result from a development during its construction, maintenance and operation.
Well-designed external spaces provide welcoming, comfortable environments that are universally accessible, with effective shade as well as protection from unwanted wind, rain, traffic and noise. Good design mitigates negative impacts on surrounding buildings and places, including overshadowing, overlooking, glare, reflection and noise.
Primary controls Establishes the basis for primary controls for apartment development in Western Australia. It provides the default controls corresponding to allocated R-Codings, and guides local governments to make appropriate modifications to these controls to suit local contexts.
PRIMARY CONTROL TABLES
MODIFYING PRIMARY CONTROLS
STREETSCAPE CHARACTER TYPES
2.10 SIDE AND REAR SETBACKS
INCENTIVE-BASED DEVELOPMENT STANDARDS
2.12 COORDINATING LOCAL POLICIES
Contents 2 Primary controls 2.1 Primary control tables
Primary control tables Primary controls manage the form and scale of new development according to the context and intended future character of an area, while moderating impacts on neighbouring properties. The primary controls in this policy are organised in two groups. Building envelope controls establish a three-dimensional boundary within which development may occur, defined through combination of: —— Building height (see 2.6) —— Street setbacks (see 2.9) —— Side and rear setbacks (see 2.10). Building massing controls apply to the quantity and arrangement of built form within the envelope, governed by: —— Plot ratio (see 2.5) —— Building depth (see 2.7) —— Building separation (see 2.8). The building envelope and building massing controls work in concert, and need to be carefully coordinated and tested with applied examples to ensure they promote the desired outcomes. Primary controls should be coordinated with the detailed guidance in Parts 3 and 4 of this policy, including orientation and overshadowing, solar access, natural ventilation, visual and acoustic privacy, ceiling heights, communal open space, deep soil areas, noise and pollution, and public domain interface. The rationale for primary controls needs to be articulated to the community, landowners, designers and planners, to establish common expectations for future development.
≤4 storeys (up to 12m)
5-8 storeys (up to 25m)
≥9 storeys (over 25m)
between habitable rooms/balconies
between habitable and nonhabitable rooms
between non-habitable rooms
—— Residential zones (R40 to R160) will default to the detached types (D1/ D2/D3) applicable to respective density (see 2.3). —— The attached categories are applicable in land zoned R-AC and commercial/mixed-use zones, as well as any locations specifically designated by local governments through Local Planning Scheme amendments. —— The stated development controls can be exceeded, in some cases, based on local incentives to encourage beneficial outcomes. Refer to 2.13 Incentive-based development standards. —— Local governments are encouraged to undertake detailed precinct planning, particularly for higher-density areas, to refine these base controls to suit local conditions and intentions. —— Additional building setback requirements may exist depending on proposed building configurations to achieve acceptable building separation and maintain appropriate visual privacy distances. Refer to 2.10, 3.6 and Table 2 and Table 3 below.
Table 3 – Building Depth Table
Table 2 – Building Separation Table
How the primary control tables apply
Buildings with single-aspect apartments from double-loaded accessway
2.1 Table 1 – Primary Controls Table
Streetscape character types (see 2.3)
Detached streetscape pattern
Attached streetscape pattern
(Applicable by default, according to site R-Coding)
(*Applicable where designated by Local Government in Scheme or precinct plan)
Medium Density Detached
Higher Density Detached
Medium Density Attached
Higher Density Attached
R40*, R50*, R60*
R80*, R100*, R-AC3
R160*, R-AC2, R-AC1
Plot ratio limit
Plot ratio limit with bonuses applicable**
Building height limit (storeys)
Building height limit where bonuses applicable**
Boundary wall height limit (storeys)
Minimum street setbacks
4m or Nil ◊
2m or Nil ◊
2m or Nil ◊
Minimum side setbacks ~
Minimum rear setback ~
Local character and context
Predominantly residential neighbourhood with good local amenity
Higher density precinct with landscape character
Planned compact neighbourhood, local centre, neighbourhood centre
Town Centre, Urban Corridor, District Centre, Mixed Business or similar
Higher-density precinct with urban character
Precinct planned areas
Refer to Local Planning Scheme, local development plan and/or precinct controls as applicable.
* Attached types applicable where designated by local government. ** Suggested range for for height and plot ratio bonus provisions that can be formalised by local government. Higher or lower values may be appropriate depending on local context, subject to thorough analysis and testing of settings. Refer to 2.11 Incentive-Based Development Standards for further guidance. ~ Additional building setback provisions apply for all streetscape character types (see 2.6, 3.6). ◊ Nil setback applicable for commercial use at ground floor. † Nil setback may be considered at ground floor level only, subject to open space requirements and local streetscape considerations (see 2.10). ^ Setback applies for 18m zone behind front setback line, beyond which setbacks are controlled by provisions for building separation, rear setback and visual privacy (see 2.8, 2.10, 3.8).
Contents 2 Primary controls 2.2 Modifying primary controls
Modifying primary controls Planning settings must balance two opposing requirements â€“ the need for certainty and the need for flexibility. Communities have a reasonable expectation for a degree of certainty regarding the planned future characteristics of their neighbourhoods. Developers also require certainty to determine the development potential of a site prior to purchase. Local governments and other decision-makers rely on the certainty of measurable standards to make efficient and objective decisions. Certainty in planning is often sought by establishing measurable parameters for development, against which proposals are evaluated according to their compliance with these criteria. This approach can be broadly described as setting prescriptive controls. Although this offers relative simplicity and certainty, it also has some inherent limitations. Where standards are to be uniformly applied across a broad jurisdiction, the provisions have to be more generic and less detailed, which proves inadequate where conditions vary or specific outcomes are sought. When rigidly applied, prescriptive controls can obstruct site-specific or innovative design solutions and in some cases support proposals that, despite meeting the compliance criteria, may be poor design outcomes. To be responsive to unique site constraints and opportunities, or to enable innovative solutions, planning controls need a degree of flexibility. Flexibility in planning controls is achieved by outlining the desired outcomes or objectives to be met without defining the specific parameters by which these may be achieved. This approach can be broadly described as performance-based controls. It allows flexibility for designers to develop proposals to address specific project circumstances and site conditions. Planning approvals then need to evaluate whether the proposal is consistent with the objectives and, on the balance of all factors, is a satisfactory outcome.
Application of performance-based design policy necessitates a process of evaluation that involves discussion, analysis, consideration and judgement. To facilitate this, a design review process needs to be implemented, that provides independent, multi-disciplinary, expert advice on the design quality of proposals to inform planners and decisionmakers. The WAPC Design Review Guide provides detailed guidance for establishing and operating design review processes. There is a role for measurable development standards in a performance-based planning framework. They establish a baseline of what can generally be expected on a given lot. However, it is important to recognise that they are not absolutely rigid and can be amended where a better design outcome can be demonstrated in the review process. Part 2 of this policy assists local governments, precinct authorities, and private developers undertaking precinct planning of brownfield areas or larger greenfield sites. It suggests appropriate tools and controls, as well as the rationale behind their usage. It includes development standards, organised into simple categories relating to context and intended development intensity (refer to 2.3 Streetscape character types). These provisions apply by default, according to the density coding used in Local Planning Schemes throughout Western Australia. Local governments may adjust these controls via Local Planning Schemes or on a precinct-specific basis, to suit the local context and intended development outcome.
2.2 Residential Design Codes including Volume 2 Apartment Design
Local Planning Scheme
Attached streetscape character types A1 / A2 / A3 / local var.
Local Development Plan or other precinct-based controls
Figure 2.2a Applicability of state and local planning policy.
APARTMENT DESIGN (This policy)
PART 2 Primary controls
AMEND THE LOCAL PLANNING SCHEME Local governments are encouraged to set sitespecific primary controls in areas zoned for apartments to improve design outcomes and certainty for proponents and neighbours. This can form part of a scheme amendment. Part 2 of this policy provides objectives, planning criteria and guidance to assist with this process.
PART 3 Siting the building
PART 4 Designing the building
FORMULATE A LOCAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN Depending on the site a Local Development Plan may be an appropriate place to set site specific primary controls or detailed controls.
APPLICABLE CONTROLS FOR THE SITE Figure 2.2b Modification of default controls in this policy.
Contents 2 Primary controls 2.3 Streetscape character types
Streetscape character types Intent People collectively experience the built environment largely through streetscapes, so establishing desired streetscape patterns is an appropriate focus for development controls. This policy provides six categories relating to the intended development intensity, built form, and broad character of the streetscape. Categories are grouped as detached or attached streetscapes – relating to whether the built form is predominantly separated or connected. Detached development –Designed to emphasise landscaping between buildings and have a more informal relationship with the street alignment. Side setbacks are consistently enforced, to create frequent building breaks along the street. Privacy and overshadowing need to be carefully managed to avoid impact on adjacent properties. Attached development – Designed to create a distinct ‘street- wall’ of contiguous building frontages. Side walls are built directly to the lot boundary and windows are oriented to face the street or to the rear, which helps to avoid overlooking adjacent properties. Allowing boundary wall development to the sides is offset by larger rear setbacks, assisting retention of existing vegetation. Although it offers some benefits, the attached development approach has direct impact on neighbouring sites, so it should be only applied through precinct planning, and not adopted by a single development site without coordination with neighbouring properties.
Each category includes a general description of the intended development character as well as metrics for setting intended building envelopes. This can be the benchmark for assessing whether a design is appropriate to its location (in the absence of precinct planning), and also a basis for varying provisions as required for the intended land use/site context/design solution. Table 1 (see 2.1) includes default primary controls for each streetscape character type, but local governments should evaluate the need for modified settings as part of detailed local planning. Design principles (see 1.2) that should be given particular consideration when modifying or formulating new streetscape character types include Context and character, Built form and scale and Aesthetics.
2.3 R-Codes below R40
Detached streetscape character types
Attached streetscape character types
Local Development Plan or other precinct-based controls
Figure 2.3a Indicative application of detached and attached streetscape types.
R40 ELEVATION DARK
Figure 2.3b Detached and attached streetscape types are overlaid on existing R-Codings in Local Planning Schemes. Detached types apply by default and attached types can be applied by the local government.
Contents 2 Primary controls 2.3 Streetscape character types
D1 â€“ Neighbourhood detached
Figure 2.3c Indicative D1 streetscape pattern
Location context: D1 types are appropriate within detached neighbourhoods, which make up a large portion of the Perth metropolitan area. Single houses tend to be the predominant development type, so apartment projects should make a wellconsidered response to this established urban pattern.
Character statement: Apartment buildings in the D1 type should be designed to reflect the finer-grained proportions and lower street- scale of free-standing houses in order to integrate with the streetscape. They should reflect the prevailing patterns of front and side setbacks along their street, and allow for generous on-site landscaping, especially between buildings.
Typical apartment buildings: Maisonettes, Walk-up Garden Apartments.
Character statement: Apartment buildings typically align to locations and aspects, capturing key views. They should reflect the prevailing patterns of side setbacks along their street, and allow for on-site landscaping. In areas of transitioning density, it may be appropriate to reduce front setbacks to promote the intended streetscape.
Typical apartment buildings: Garden apartments, courtyard apartments.
Character statement: Apartment buildings in the D3 type should be designed to take advantage of their locations and aspects, capturing key views. They should reflect the prevailing patterns of side setbacks along their street.
Typical apartment buildings: Towers with underground or separated parking.
Design priorities: Retention of existing trees on site is a priority, as well as protection of the amenity and privacy of back gardens of adjacent.
D2 â€“ Medium-density detached
Figure 2.3d Indicative D2 streetscape pattern
Location context: D2 types are appropriate within areas of high-amenity where retaining a landscape character is desirable. May relate to views of the ocean, river, parkland or city. D2 precincts will often be within walking distance of local amenities and transit.
Design priorities: Ensuring good solar orientation, as well as protecting the amenity and privacy of adjacent development.
D3 â€“ Higher-density detached
Figure 2.3e Indicative D3 streetscape pattern
Location context: D3 types are appropriate for significant opportunity sites with potential for high density development within a landscape and neighbourhood context.
Design priorities: Mediating built form and outlook to protect the privacy of adjacent development and limited overshadowing impacts. Use setbacks for landscape amenity and as buffer.
2.3 A1 â€“ Neighbourhood attached
Figure 2.3f Indicative A1 streetscape pattern
Location context: A1 types can be appropriately designated within planned compact neighbourhoods with a cohesively urban character and good access to nearby amenities. Often in hinterland of urban centre or corridor.
Character statement: Apartment buildings in the A1 type should be designed to relate to the streetscape. Apartment outlooks are oriented towards street and rear, with little or no sideways aspect.
Typical apartment buildings: Walkup attached apartments, Shoptop apartments, Courtyard apartments, Live/ work apartments.
Character statement: Apartment buildings in the A2 type contribute to strong and consistent urban frontages. Contiguous street frontage often relates to lower 3-5 storeys with setbacks to higher levels, or tower element.
Typical apartment buildings: Attached Apartments, Courtyard Apartments, Podium and Tower Apartments.
Character statement: Significant development scale relating to urban block. May be a mix of built form scales within a large development site. Contiguous street frontage often relates to lower 3-5 storeys with setbacks to higher levels, or tower elements.
Typical apartment buildings: podium and tower Apartments.
Design priorities: Using the efficiency of nil-setbacks to side boundaries to allow more generous rear setbacks. Moderating overlooking and overshadowing.
A2 â€“ Medium-density attached
Figure 2.3g Indicative A2 streetscape pattern
Location context: A2 types can be appropriately designated within or near town centres or urban corridors with a mix of activity.
Design priorities: Support active and high quality streetscapes.
A3 â€“ Higher-density attached
Figure 2.3h Indicative A3 streetscape pattern
Location context: A3 types can be appropriate in CBD or surrounding urban blocks. High levels of transport and amenities.
Design priorities: Integrating mixeduse components and resident amenity. Moderating visual bulk, overlooking and overshadowing impacts on surroundings.
Contents 2 Primary controls 2.4 Building envelope
Building envelope 2B.1/2B.2 - BUILDING ENVELOPES
2B.1/2B.2 - BUILDING ENVELOPES
The building envelope is an important benchmark for landowners and the community to understand the scope of future development of existing neighbourhoods; however, the final built form does not directly correlate to the envelope. The extent of building within the envelope is constrained by plot ratio (or equivalent measure in local provisions) as well as articulation of built form for daylight and ventilation, and provision of communal open space and deep soil areas.
Local governments may refine these parameters in equivalent tables in Local Planning Schemes, to suit their jurisdiction and adapt to localities within. Precinct-based planning may define more detailed building envelopes to promote particular streetscapes or respond to site-specific conditions. Design principles (see 1.2) that should be given particular consideration when modifying building height settings include Context and character and Built form and scale.
The simplest expression of the intended limits for a development for a location is the building envelope. This establishes the maximum extent of development allocated to site as a three-dimensional volume – notionally the ‘container’ within which development may occur.
Building envelopes set the appropriate scale of future development relative to the streetscape, public and private open spaces, and lot sizes in a particular location. Building envelopes are defined by a combination of: —— Building height (see 2.6) —— Street setbacks (see 2.9) They may also be informed by adjacent built form, natural features or significant views. Building envelopes are commonly defined with base parameters available ‘as-of-right’ and additional extents that may be available where proposals can satisfy the conditions of incentive-based development standards (see 2.11). Generic building envelopes applicable in multi-dwelling R-Codings throughout Western Australia are defined by the primary controls in Table 1 (see 2.1). This includes values for building height limit and building height limit with bonuses applicable. 30
—— Side and rear setbacks (see 2.10).
Figure 2.4a Building envelopes define the ‘container’ within which a building is designed. They are used to understand the future urban form and scale of an area, but should be understood not to equate to the built outcome.
2.4 CONSIDERATIONS FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENTS WHEN MODIFYING PRIMARY CONTROLS PLANNING OBJECTIVES —— Define the three-dimensional extent of development and future neighbourhoods. —— Inform decisions about appropriate density for a site and its context. —— Demonstrate the intended mass, scale and location of new development. —— Establish limits of encroachment of new development to streetscape and neighbouring properties. —— Define open spaces and landscape areas. —— Test the other primary controls to ensure they are coordinated and achieve the desired outcome.
PLANNING GUIDANCE Building envelopes should be at least 25% greater than the allowable plot ratio area (see 2.5) to allow for voids and building components that do not count as plot ratio area but contribute to building design and articulation such as balconies, lifts, stairs and open circulation space.
Figure 2.4b The final built form will usually differ significantly from the building envelope, due to plot ratio constraint as well as necessary articulation of building for light, ventilation, open spaces and circulation.
Often the building envelope will be substantially larger than the allowable plot ratio area. This enables flexibility of built form configurations within the building envelope. There may be instances where the allowable plot ratio can not be accommodated within a building envelope.
Building height limit with bonus Upper level setbacks if applicable
Building height limit
Figure 2.4c The ‘building envelope’ is defined by primary controls for front, side and rear boundary setbacks, and building height limits.
Contents 2 Primary controls 2.5 Plot ratio
Plot ratio Intent Plot ratio is the method of establishing an allowable volume of development within the â€˜containerâ€™ of the building envelope. It is a measure of floor area expressed relative to the site area, that in effect constrains the building massing for a development site. This allowable volume of built form can be deployed with flexibility within the building envelope to respond to context and orientation factors (see 3.1, 3.2). Plot ratio is a technical calculation that requires some process to translate between a numeric plot ratio and a building design. The area that is subject to control is called plot ratio area which is the gross floor area of the building excluding circulation and other service areas (see definitions for full explanation). It therefore needs to be applied with some expertise, but when used correctly is an appropriate means for regulating bulk and scale while retaining design flexibility within the constraints of the building envelope.
Plot Ratio 2.0 5 Storeys Approx 50% site coverage
Generic plot ratio limits applicable in multi-dwelling R-Codings throughout Western Australia are defined by the primary controls in Table 1 (see 2.1). This includes values for plot ratio limit and plot ratio limit with bonuses applicable. Local governments may refine these parameters in equivalent tables in Local Planning Schemes, to suit their jurisdiction and adapt to localities within. Precinct-based planning may define more detailed building envelopes to promote particular streetscapes or respond to site-specific conditions. Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration when modifying plot ratio settings include Context and character and Built form and scale.
Plot Ratio 2.0 7 Storeys Approx 40% site coverage
Plot Ratio 3.0 9 storeys Approx 60% site coverage Nil-setback to front boundary and part of side boundary
Figure 2.5a Indicative built form massing for apartment buildings with different plot ratio factors.
2.5 CONSIDERATIONS FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENTS WHEN MODIFYING PRIMARY CONTROLS 2D.2/2D.3 - FLOOR SPACE RATIO PLANNING OBJECTIVES —— Ensure that development aligns with the optimum capacity of the site and the desired development intensity of the local area. —— Set appropriate limits of plot ratio relative to the building envelope to accommodate flexibility of built form within site constraints.
PLANNING GUIDANCE Test the desired built form outcome against the proposed plot ratio to ensure it is coordinated with the building envelope, height, depth, setbacks and other site requirements. The allowable plot ratio area should fit comfortably within the building envelope (see 2.4), as the envelope needs to also account for building elements and service areas that are not included in plot ratio area, and to allow for building articulation.
On precinct plan sites, plot ratio controls should be set to apply to the created parcels once roads and public open spaces are removed (rather than the gross land area). Where both residential and non-residential uses such as retail or commercial offices are permitted, develop plot ratio controls for each use. Allow for services, circulation, car park and loading requirements. Note that residential plot ratio tends to be lower compared with commercial or retail ratios. This is because residential buildings are typically less deep than commercial buildings to provide higher levels of internal amenity and to incorporate more non-GFA elements such as balconies. Consider opportunities to achieve public benefits such as community facilities and public domain improvements, such as new streets, through-site links and open spaces.
Consider how plot ratio is implemented across larger sites. A single plot ratio may result in under or over development. For example, in an area with a consistent height control: —— corner, mid-block or wide shallow sites tend to have different floor space capacities. —— small sites with a single building may have greater floor space capacity than larger sites with multiple buildings. —— large sites with multiple buildings require greater space between buildings and may have less floor space capacity.
Additional building height and plot ratio may be considered where an incentive policy applies and criteria are satisfied.
Whole site: Plot Ratio 2.0 (Gross) Site A: Plot Ratio 2.5 (Net)
proposed road reserve
Site B: Plot Ratio 2.3 (Net)
Figure 2.5b When determining plot ratio controls, maximum building envelopes can be used to test the plot ratio, including any potential incentives and bonuses.
public open space
Figure 2.5c On sites with subdivision and public domain dedication (e.g. a new street), the overall gross plot ratio is lower than the net plot ratio for each individual development parcel.
Contents 2 Primary controls 2.6 Building height
Building height Intent Generic building height limits applicable in multi-dwelling The height of new development often R-Codings throughout Western Australia are defined by the dominates discussions about planning; 2C.1/2C.2 - BUILDING HEIGHT primary controls in Table 1 (see 2.1). This includes values for however, it is not always the main factor building height limit and building height limit with bonuses impacting on neighbourhoods. Wellapplicable. There is also a provision for boundary wall designed taller buildings with good siting, height limit to moderate the most direct effect of height on setbacks, open space and articulation of neighbours. Local governments may refine these parameters built form can be significantly better for in equivalent tables in Local Planning Schemes, to suit their neighbourhoods than poorly-designed jurisdiction and adapt to localities within. Precinct-based low-rise buildings with very high site coverage and no consideration of context. planning may define specific building height provisions to promote particular streetscapes or respond to site-specific Building height is one of the factors that conditions. These local modifications may propose heights define building envelopes (see 2.4). It is exceeding those in Table 1, provided that there has been an expressed in storeys, relative to natural appropriate consideration of local implications. ground level. Building height limits guide Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular the intended scale of streetscapes and 2C.1/2C.2 - BUILDING consideration when modifying building height settings include mediate between developmentHEIGHT and neighbours in terms of solar access, wind, Context and character and Built form and scale. views and visual privacy.
Photo 2.6a The height of this building responds to the topography of the site. (PC)
Photo 2.6b The staggered building height of this building acknowledges the lower-height residential adjacent to the development.
Maximum building height
Building height limit in Scheme Building height refined in local development plan
Maximum height in metres
Number of storeys above ground
Figure 2.6a The total height of a building informs the number of storeys possible in a development. Floor to ceiling heights vary depending on the use. Shops and offices are typically higher than residential apartments.
Figure 2.6b Building height should reflect the existing or desired future character of an area. The diagram shows how height controls can be locally modified to respond to the desired characteristics of respective streetscapes.
2.6 CONSIDERATIONS FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENTS WHEN MODIFYING PRIMARY CONTROLS PLANNING OBJECTIVES —— Building height controls ensure development responds to the desired future scale and character of the street and local area, including existing buildings that are unlikely to change. —— Facilitate adequate daylight and solar access to apartments, common open space, adjoining properties and the public domain. —— Respond to changes in land-form. —— Building height controls promote articulated roof design and roof top communal open spaces, where appropriate.
PLANNING GUIDANCE Local governments should articulate their values and approach to building height settings to support discretionary decision-making. Set building heights by adding together the floor to ceiling heights for the desired number of storeys. Add 0.4m per floor for structure, services, set downs and finishes. Add 2m to the total to allow for rooftop articulation. Add 2m to the total to allow for topographic changes where required. Provide additional height in flood prone areas. Develop site-specific building envelopes and heights within a Local Development Plan for large or complex sites such as those on steep slopes and those with changing topography. These specific heights need to be achievable within the building height set in the Local Development Plan. Ensure that building height controls respond to the desired number of storeys, the minimum floor to floor heights required for future building uses and include generous ground floor heights. Ensure the maximum building height allows for articulated roof planes and building services or that architectural roof features are enabled by the Local Development Plan. Where rooftop communal open space is desired, ensure adequate maximum height is provided and consider secondary height controls for lift/stair access and shade structures.
Where a plot ratio control is defined, test height controls against the Plot Ratio to ensure a good fit. It may be appropriate to determine heights by relating them to site-specific features such as topography or heritage items. This may include: —— defining an overall height or street wall heights to key datum lines, such as eaves, parapets, cornices or spires; —— aligning floor to floor heights of new development with existing built form. Consider secondary height controls to transition built form, for example: —— a street wall height to define the scale and enclosure of the street; —— a step down in building height at the boundary between two height zones. The National Construction Code (NCC) has certain requirements based on the effective height of a building. When setting height controls, consider these thresholds as it can have an impact on the feasibility of a development. Applicants should be able to design a building to the maximum height while achieving an economically viable development. Notes on Table 1 settings for building height: —— Building height limits for type D1: Allowing 3 storeys by default in combination with increased setbacks and deep soil areas is proposed as a preferable model to lower-rise developments with very high site coverage. —— Boundary wall height limits for detached types: In general, building single-storey walls to side boundaries (nilsetback) cause minor impact on neighbouring sites and can allow significant flexibility for ground floor planning. Requirements for deep soil areas and open space will also apply. Where it is desired to reinforce detached appearance in streetscapes, local authorities may consider additional constraints on nil-setback walls. —— Building height limits for types D3 and A3: These default heights are provided as a conservative baseline applicable in higher-density areas. Detailed local planning should be undertaken to determine where higher building height limits should apply.
Contents 2 Primary controls 2.7 Building depth
Building depth Intent Building depth is significant to the visual bulk of apartment buildings, and equally affects building performance and amenity. Reduced building depths generally deliver better outcomes with regard to these factors, however development considerations regarding site yield and construction efficiency often lean towards deeper floorplans.
2E.1 2E.1 - BUILDING - BUILDING DEPTH DEPTH Together with plot ratio and building
separation (see 2.5, 2.8), building depth is one of the factors that govern building massing within a building envelope. In siting the development (see 3.1, 3.2) there is the opportunity to limit the visual bulk through orientation, and further mitigate perceptions of mass through the articulation of building volume and balconies.
Limiting building depth generally facilitates meeting desirable standards for solar access and natural ventilation, which support sustainability and internal amenity. Depths of mixed use buildings typically transition from being deeper at lower levels, where commercial and retail uses are accommodated, to narrower at upper levels, where residential use warrants higher levels of internal amenity. Apartment building depth limits are provided in the primary controls in Table 3 (see 2.1) which should apply in most circumstances. Precinct-based planning may define more specific building depth provisions to promote particular built form patterns. Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration in relation to building depth settings include Context and character, Built form and scale, Sustainability, Amenity and Aesthetics.
Overall building depth Residential building depth
Figure 2.7a A mixed use building showing the transition of building depth: deeper floors on lower levels dedicated to retail/commercial uses and narrower residential apartments on upper levels.
2.7 CONSIDERATIONS FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENTS WHEN MODIFYING PRIMARY CONTROLS PLANNING OBJECTIVES
Coordinate building height and building depth:
2E.2 - BUILDING DEPTH —— buildings that have smaller depths over a greater height
—— Ensure that the bulk of the development relates to the scale of the desired future context. —— Ensure building depths support apartment layouts that meet the Objectives, Design Criteria and Design Guidance within this policy. —— Ensure that apartments receive sufficient natural light and ventilation.
PLANNING GUIDANCE Test building depths against indicative floor plate and apartment layouts to ensure they can meet natural ventilation and daylighting requirements. Site constraints may require varied building depths to achieve good levels of residential amenity for residents and neighbours. Consider varying building depth relative to orientation. For example, buildings facing east-west capture sun from both aspects and may have apartments of up to 18m wide (if dual aspect), while buildings facing north-south should be 2E.2 - BUILDING DEPTH narrower to reduce the number of south facing apartments that have limited or no direct sunlight access (see 4.1).
deliver better residential amenity than those with greater depth and a lower height.
—— greater building depths may be possible where higher ceiling heights are provided, for example adaptive reuse of an existing building (see 4.4, 4.17) or apartments with an internal mezzanine floor where a portion has a doubleheight ceiling. For mixed use buildings, align building depth to the likely future uses. For example, transition deeper commercial or retail podium levels to a narrower residential tower above. For precinct planning, if the intended building use changes, the building depth needs to change accordingly. Set the depth control in metres. The building depth includes the internal floor plate, external walls, balconies, external circulation and articulation such as recesses and steps in plan and section.
Where greater depths are proposed, demonstrate that indicative layouts can achieve acceptable amenity with room and apartment depths. This may require significant building articulation and increased perimeter wall length.
Figure 2.7b Measuring building depth for different apartment building shapes.
2F.2 - BUILDING SEPARATION Contents 2 Primary controls 2.8 Building separation
2F.1 - BUILDING SEPARATION
Building separation Intent The spacing between buildings influences the urban character of a location, the relationship between neighbours and the physical conditions of the built environment. Building separation is one of the factors that govern building massing within a building envelope. It is expressed as a minimum separation in metres between the outermost extents of buildings. The separation distances are applied in-full between buildings within a development site, or halved in relation a side or rear site boundary. Generic building separation factors applicable in multi-dwelling R-Codings throughout Western Australia are defined by the primary controls in Table 2 (see 2.1). While local governments may refine these parameters to suit local conditions (via local planning schemes or precinct-based planning strategies), it may be simpler to allow the design review process to determine where it is acceptable for a particular proposal to vary these requirements without compromising amenity. Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration when modifying building height settings include Context and character and Built form and scale.
Figure 2.8a Building separation is measured from the outer face of building envelopes which includes balconies.
Halve required separation distance relative to side and rear boundaries
Required separation (in future)
Building separation within site
Halve required separation distance relative to side and rear boundaries
Required separation (in future)
Figure 2.8b Building separation distances are measured between building elements within a development site and at the boundary.
2.8 CONSIDERATIONS FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENTS WHEN MODIFYING PRIMARY CONTROLS PLANNING OBJECTIVES —— Ensure that new development is scaled to support the desired future character with appropriate massing and spaces between buildings. —— Assist in providing residential amenity including visual and acoustic privacy, natural ventilation, sunlight and daylight access and outlook. —— Provide suitable areas for communal open spaces, deep soil areas and landscaping.
PLANNING GUIDANCE Design and test building separation controls in plan and section. Consider building separation controls for solar and daylight access to buildings and open spaces. Building separation may need to be increased to achieve adequate sunlight access and enough open space on the site, for example on slopes.
At the border between a higher-density zone to a lower density zone, building setbacks from neighbouring property boundaries should be increased, typically by 3m. No building separation is necessary where building types incorporate blank party walls. Typically this occurs along a main street or at podium levels within centres or where designated as streetscape character types A1/A2/A3 (see 2.4). Required setbacks may be greater than required building separations to achieve better amenity outcomes. When measuring building separation: —— When measuring the building separation between commercial and residential uses, consider office windows and balconies as habitable space and service and plant areas as non-habitable. —— Where applying separation to buildings on adjoining sites, apply half the minimum separation distance measured to the boundary. This distributes the building separation equally between sites (see 3.6).
Increase building separation proportionally to the building height to achieve amenity and privacy for building occupants and a desirable urban form. Avoid multiple steps in building form inadvertently leading to a ‘ziggurat’ appearance.
Photo 2.8a The separation of these adjacent buildings enables a sufficient amount of solar access to the lower apartments as well as the communal open space.
Photo 2.8b Ensure that new development is scaled to support the desired future character with appropriate massing and spaces between buildings.
Contents 2 Primary controls 2.9 Street setbacks
2G.4 - STREET SETBACKS 2G.4 - STREET SETBACKS 2G.4 - STREET SETBACKS 2G.4 - STREET SETBACKS
Street setbacks Intent Setting street setbacks for buildings should begin with consideration of the desired streetscape character. The â€˜proportionsâ€™ of a street are established by the width between building frontages in combination with the height of buildings, which facilitate the delivery of a particular streetscape character, directly affecting how the street will be perceived and used. The street setback is one of the factors that define building envelopes (see 2.4). It is expressed as a minimum distance in metres between the building and the cadastral street boundary. Depending on the intended streetscape, setbacks may include public pavement, hard or soft landscape treatment (including deep soil areas) or private gardens. Refer to 3.7 Public domain interface, 3.8 Pedestrian access and entries and 4.11 Ground floor apartments. Generic street setbacks applicable in multi-dwelling R-Codings throughout Western Australia are defined by the primary controls in Table 1 (see 2.1). Local governments may refine these parameters in equivalent tables in local planning schemes, to suit local conditions. Precinct-based planning may define specific street setback provisions to promote a particular streetscape character or respond to site-specific conditions.
Variation for angled subdivision
Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration when modifying street setbacks include Context and character and Built form and scale. Building line
Figure 2.9a Streets setbacks should be consistent with existing setback patterns in the street or setbacks that achieve the desired future character of the area.
2.9 CONSIDERATIONS FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENTS WHEN MODIFYING PRIMARY CONTROLS PLANNING OBJECTIVES —— Establish the desired spatial proportions of the street and define the street edge. —— Provide space that can contribute to the landscape character of the street where desired. —— Create a threshold by providing a clear transition between the public and private realms. —— Assist in achieving visual privacy to apartments from the street.
Align street setbacks with building use. For example in buildings with commercial uses at ground floor, a zero street setback is appropriate. Consider nominating a maximum percentage of development that may be built to the front build-to line, where one is set, to ensure modulated frontages along the length of buildings. Identify the quality, type and use of open spaces and landscaped areas facing the street so setbacks can accommodate landscaping and private open space.
—— Create good quality entries to lobbies, foyers or dwellings.
In conjunction with height controls, consider secondary upper level setbacks to:
—— Promote passive surveillance and outlook to the street.
—— reinforce the desired scale of buildings at the street frontage; —— minimise overshadowing of the street and other buildings.
PLANNING GUIDANCE Determine street setback controls relative to the desired streetscape and building forms, for example: —— define a future streetscape with the front building line; —— match existing development; —— step back from special buildings; —— retain significant trees; —— in centres the street setback may need to be consistent to reinforce the street edge;
To improve passive surveillance, promote setbacks which ensure a person on a balcony or at a window can easily see the street. For apartments at ground floor close to the street, raising the floor height by 0.5m to 1.0m can be an effective way to maintain an appropriate balance passive surveillance and privacy for the occupant. Consider increased setbacks where street or footpath widening is desired.
—— consider parameters for articulation of building frontage through balconies, landscaping, porticos, awnings etc. including elements within the street setback where approporiate; —— use a setback range where the desired character is for variation within overall consistency, or where subdivision is at an angle to the street; —— manage corner sites and secondary road frontages.
Private 2.9b Streetscapes are defined Public by a combination of public Private Figure elements (roadway, kerbs, verges and footpaths) and private elements (street setbacks, fences and building facades).
Contents 2 Primary controls 2.10 Side and rear setbacks
Side and rear setbacks
2H.3 - SIDE AND REAR SETBACKS
The setback areas are important for moderating the extent of built form so that useable land can be provided for common open space, courtyards, driveways, stormwater runoff management, tree planting and landscaping.
Walls with windows
The side and rear setbacks are factors that define building envelopes (see 2.4). expressed as a minimum distance in metres between the building and the cadastral site boundary. This policy differentiates side and rear setbacks according to Detached and Attached streetscape character types (see 2.3). Building separation (see 2.8) provisions also apply at boundaries.
Respecting the shared boundary is fundamental to being a â€˜good neighbourâ€™. The relationship of built form to the property boundary must be carefully considered to balance the needs of the new development with maintaining the amenity of adjacent sites.
Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration when modifying setbacks settings include Context and character and Built form and scale.
Photo 2.10a Orienting balconies and living spaces towards side boundaries requires increased setbacks.
Walls with windows
Generic setbacks applicable in multi-dwelling R-Codings throughout Western Australia are defined by the primary controls in Table 1 (see 2.1). Local governments may refine these parameters in equivalent tables in Local Planning Schemes, to suit their jurisdiction and adapt to localities within. Precinctbased planning may define specific setback provisions to promote particular streetscapes or respond to site-specific conditions. Street
Figure 2.10a On narrow infill sites select a building type that orientates habitable rooms to the street and rear, minimising required side setbacks.
Photo 2.10b Attached streetscapes without side boundary setbacks can accommodate larger rear setbacks for deep soil areas and communal open space.
2.10 CONSIDERATIONS FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENTS WHEN MODIFYING PRIMARY CONTROLS Consider nil-setback where the desired character is for a PLANNING OBJECTIVES continuous street wall, such as in dense urban areas, main streets or for podiums within centres.
—— Provide access to light, air and outlook for neighbouring properties and future buildings.
—— Provide for adequate privacy between neighbours. —— Retain or create a rhythm or pattern of spaces between buildings that define and add character to the streetscape. —— Achieve setbacks that maximise deep soil areas, retain existing landscaping, support mature vegetation and provide areas for management of stormwater runoff. —— Manage a transition between sites or areas with different development controls such as height and land use. —— Retain or create a rhythm or pattern of spaces between buildings that define and add character to the streetscape.
Even in detached streetscapes, single storey portions of nilsetback at ground level can often be incorporated without detrimental effects on neighbours or streetscape. This can be beneficial to the efficiency and flexibility of ground floor layout. Table 1 notes that discretion may be applicable. Local planners should consider the appropriate constraints for their streetscapes or neighbourhoods. Where attached streetscape types are applied (see 2.1, 2.3) consider whether constraints for nil-setback boundary walls are appropriate. Table 1 includes boundary wall height limits, and for type A1 notes that nil-setback applies within 22m of the front setback line, allowing a typical building depth oriented to the street. On sloping sites, consider increasing side and rear setbacks where new development is uphill to minimise overshadowing and assist with visual privacy.
Test side and rear setbacks with height controls for overshadowing of the site, adjoining properties and open spaces. Test side and rear setbacks with the requirements for: —— building separation and visual privacy —— communal and private open space
Walls with windows
—— deep soil area requirements.
Figure 2.10b On infill sites follow the existing open space patterns, limit side setbacks and locate habitable rooms to face the street and rear boundary to optimise amenity and privacy for all.
Figure 2.10c In attached streetscapes, all windows are oriented towards street or to the rear, minimising overlooking across side boundaries.
Contents 2 Primary controls 2.11 Incentive-based development standards
Incentive-based development standards Intent
Incentive-based development standards establish the terms by which flexibility can be applied to primary controls in exchange for an exemplary design outcome that delivers significant community benefit. This approach can facilitate negotiation of development outcomes with higher standards than can be realistically mandated.
As a primary measure, the WAPC supports plot ratio variations in exchange for one or more of the measures listed in Planning Guidance overleaf. In some circumstances however, it is appropriate to offer incentives for additional building height. This may include the following circumstances:
Local planning schemes may allow discretion to vary site and development standards, but it is important that this discretion is applied in a responsible and accountable manner. The right approach to incentive-based development standards will vary for each local government and their urban context, but this guidance provides best-practice considerations for establishing a new policy or reviewing a policy that is already in-effect. Formulating effective incentive-based development standards involves carefully balancing community needs and expectations with the commercial realities of development. The planning framework sets primary controls to give landowners certainty regarding what they can develop ‘as-of-right’, and neighbours an indication of expected future development. To be generically applicable, these primary controls must be relatively conservative, however there is scope for development beyond these parameters that can still be consistent with planning objectives. If it can be demonstrated that the overall outcome will be positive, then offering this extra development capacity is a means of leveraging public benefits. Local governments need to give careful consideration to setting an appropriate range for this discretion. Expert advice from Design Review Panels or an equivalent process is essential for evaluating whether the design quality, amenity standards, environmental offering or public benefits of a proposal are commensurate with the degree of discretion being sought. Refer to the design principles (see 1.2) for guidance when setting incentive-based development standards. The design principles should be used for development bonuses contingent on design quality requirements.
—— Where there are no plot ratio standards under the relevant Scheme or policy. —— Where plot ratio standards are intended to be more flexibly applied, such as activity centres. —— Where taller, narrower built form outcomes are desired, such as areas where visual permeability is desirable, eg. for view-sharing.
Planned precincts Where detailed development standards are set through precinct-based planning, it is recommended to establish ‘standard’ building envelope/plot ratio controls that can be considered to apply ‘as-ofright’, and ‘bonus’ building envelope/plot ratio controls that can be awarded with discretion according to defined criteria, on the basis that other design quality criteria have been met.
2.11 CONSIDERATIONS FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENTS WHEN SETTING INCENTIVE BASED DEVELOPMENT STANDARDS —— Heritage: where proposal delivers an exeptional outcome PLANNING OBJECTIVES with regard to preserving and/or enhancing a heritage
—— Incentives should be compatible with the objectives of this policy, the Local Planning Scheme, applicable Structure Plans, Local Development Plans and Local Planning Policies. —— Incentives should be chosen and weighted appropriately so as to respond to local priorities. —— Incentive-based provisions should provide clarity about design measures required to satisfy criteria.
—— Incentives should be weighted so that the outcomes are balanced with the benefit the developer achieves from varying the relevant development standard. —— Application of incentives should not result in adverse impacts on the local urban context.
place listed on the State or municipal register.
—— Retention of vegetation: where significant mature or native vegetation is retained within a development site, including the provision of larger deep soil areas. —— Short-term accommodation: where serviced apartments (or equivalent) are provided within a development. —— Communal facilities: where providing facilities for residents exceeding those required by this policy which improve the amenity and quality of the design. —— Public facilities: where development includes one or more of the following public facilities or amenities: -- Public open space -- Public car parking
-- Public pedestrian access ways
The following prerequisites should be met prior to a development being offered any bonus:
-- Provision of public facilities on private land (eg. public toilets, change rooms, end of trip facilities)
—— Exemplary design outcome: that the development demonstrates an exemplary level of achievement when assessed against the design principles of this policy (see 1.3), as advised by the Design Review Panel or equivalent process. —— Amenity: that any increase in height or plot ratio (or other development standard) would not significantly affect the amenity of occupants, neighbours or public realm.
PLANNING GUIDANCE Some or all of the following factors may be considered for incorporation into incentive-based development standards in a Local Planning Scheme, Local Development Plan or Local Planning Policy. The rationale and relationship to planning objectives should be given careful consideration for each incentive provision. —— Affordable housing: where development commits to deliver affordable dwellings in partnership with an approved housing provider or not-for-profit organisation recognised by the Housing Authority. —— Lot amalgamation or lot width: where existing or amalgamated lots are of a sufficient size or frontage width to accommodate a preferred development form. —— Vehicle access: removing existing vehicular access from a major road. —— Non-conforming use: where a proposal effects the discontinuance of a non-conforming use. —— Dwelling diversity: where providing a dwelling type identified as a priority by the local authority, such as aged and dependent dwellings, universal-access dwellings, one-bedroom apartments or key-worker dwellings.
-- Land uses beneficial to the local community. —— Public art: where development incorporates significant public art in accordance with the local policy. —— Energy efficient design: where the proposal significantly exceeds sustainability requirements of this policy, assessed by a reputable rating tool. —— Water sensitive design: where the development proposes elements of water sensitive urban design significantly exceeding those required by this policy. These provisions are replicated in Appendix A2 – List of potential incentive-based development standards with further detail regarding application. When preparing planning provisions with more than one incentive option, local governments should consider the weight to be applied to individual elements. Weighting should be applied according to the local governments’ desired outcomes, having regard to local planning strategies and other strategic planning documents. Where there are a number of different incentive options, these may be applied cumulatively. It is appropriate to consider an ‘upper cap’ for variations. Table 1 of this policy provides a default upper range of plot ratio and building height that can be applied with incentives. Local governments should seek feedback from the development and building industry to balance the trade-off between development bonuses and incentive provisions. If a local government does not have a policy to guide discretion, this shall not be used as a reason to withhold approval or support for a development application. In this situation, variations should be considered on their merits.
Contents 2 Primary controls 2.12 Coordinating local policies
Coordinating local policies Intent To enable optimal design outcomes, there should be alignment between this policy and the many operational local government policies that affect apartment and mixed-use developments. Designing an apartment building, obtaining approvals and steering the project through to construction is a complex process. There are frequent challenges and obstacles to negotiate, all of which need to be managed and coordinated in such a way as to minimise any dilution of the original design intent. While skilled designers are often well-equipped to manage such challenges, planning authorities can also play a significant role in helping to ensure that good quality design outcomes are delivered. Coordinating local policies and aligning them with this policy will ensure that local governments remain an effective partner in facilitating the delivery of a welldesigned built environment. Refer to the design principles (see 1.3) for guidance when coordinating local policies.
2.12 CONSIDERATIONS FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENTS WHEN COORDINATING LOCAL POLICIES —— Utility services: local governments can assist with PLANNING OBJECTIVES establishing best-practice for building servicing with
—— Ensure alignment between the planning framework and other local policies, and cooperation between those administering the policies. —— Endeavour to resolve recurring issues strategically rather than case-by-case, to reduce obstacles for individual projects.
—— Facilitate synergies between apartment and mixeduse developments and long-term strategic projects. —— Apply a collaborative approach to support design quality from concept to completion.
PLANNING GUIDANCE Local government planning departments should address the following matters to support the delivery of good design quality in apartment developments. Cross-referencing is provided to elements of this Apartment Design policy that would benefit from a considered local planning policy or consistent advice. —— Local character: for neighbourhoods where identified character traits are intended to be reinforced or protected, produce clear guidance to set expectations of future development. These policies should be established by local governments with community consultation rather than by development proposals. Refer to 3.1 Site analysis. —— Streetscape: urban design treatments can be coordinated with apartment developments, especially mixed-use projects with active frontage. Refer to 3.7 Public domain interface and 3.8 Pedestrian access and entries. —— CPTED: Crime prevention through environmental design principles can be applied at a neighbourhood scale. Work with designers of new developments to follow a consistent approach and monitor efficacy of measures in-place. Refer to 3.7 Public domain interface and 3.8 Pedestrian access and entries.
utility providers. Elements such as fire services, electrical substations, metering, communications can benefit from a consistent approach with continuous improvement. Refer to 3.7 Public domain interface and 4.23 Building maintenance.
—— Parking: there are often mixed views regarding parking standards. Constraining parking provision supports density and alternative modes of transport. Inadequate provision can lead to negative streetscape impacts. Planning staff should work with operational colleagues to ensure that short-term considerations do not unduly dominate strategic intent. Refer to 3.10 Car and bicycle parking. —— Public art: artworks associated with an apartment development can help to create a sense of identity for residents and the neighbourhood. Local governments should consider a contribution policy for artwork, either integrated with the building project or contributing to a local public art fund. Department of Culture and the Arts Percent for art policy can inform the establishment of a new local policy. —— Urban Forest: to mitigate reduction of urban tree canopy associated with development of increasing density, many local governments are formulating policies for urban forest, including a target percentage of urban tree canopy and measures to reach it. This policy seeks to assist, with provisions promoting trees as a standard component of apartment development. Refer to 3.3 Existing tree retention and 3.4 Deep soil areas. —— Community consultation: apartment developments can be controversial when there is a lack of agreement over the intended future context for a neighbourhood. Local governments should lead the process of engaging communities to establish desired future vision independently of individual development proposals. Refer to 3.1 Site analysis.
—— Waste management: storage and handling of waste is an important design factor for apartments, due to the substantial requirements for space and access. Local government practices for waste collection should adapt to increased density, with consideration of large format bins. Large multiples of domestic bins should be avoided, due to inefficient handling and streetscape impacts. Coordinate with Design Guidance in 4.22 Waste management.
Siting the development Siting the development provides guidance on the design and configuration of apartment development at a site scale. Objectives, Design Criteria and Design Guidance outline how to relate to the immediate context, consider the interface to neighbours and the public domain, achieve quality open spaces and maximise residential amenity.
EXISTING TREE RETENTION
DEEP SOIL AREAS
COMMUNAL AND PUBLIC OPEN SPACE
PUBLIC DOMAIN INTERFACE
PEDESTRIAN ACCESS AND ENTRIES
3.10 CAR AND BICYCLE PARKING
Contents 3 Siting the development 3.1 Site analysis and design response
Site analysis and design response Intent How new development relates to its surroundings is fundamental to planning, and thorough understanding of the context of a site is essential to achieve good design outcomes. Through systematic site analysis, designers can 1B.4 formulate positive responses to the opportunities and constraints of the specific conditions. FOR 1B.5 / 1B.6 / 1B.7 REFER TOsite 3A.1 / 3A.2 / 3A.3
Local government planning identifies the intended future character for an area to guide development. In some instances, local governments will have defined aspects of neighbourhood character to be maintained, while in others it will be necessary for designers to make their own reasoned assessment as part of the site design response (see Objective 3.1.2).
By describing the physical and cultural elements of the locality and the conditions affecting the site, opportunities and constraints for future apartment development can be identified and addressed in the design. It may be beneficial to undertake a site analysis in collaboration with technical and cultural consultants, depending on the nature of the site and scale of development.
3A.1 - WIDER CONTEXT PLAN
Refer to Appendix A1 â€“ Local Character and Context for additional commentary. Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration for site analysis include Context and character, Landscape quality, Built form and scale and Community.
Proposed development site Local shops Education facility Health campus Public open space Public transport Railway line
Main street Local shops
Park and stadium
Figure 3.1a Wider context plan
Figure 3.1b Local context plan
Includes the urban structure, landscape setting and broader land use patterns of the wider context and identifies the development siteâ€™s proximity to centres, transport and major public open spaces. It should also illustrate the future density and proposed change of the area (if known or applicable) and highlight important infrastructure such as major hospitals, schools and education facilities. Addressing this scale is important for larger precincts and redevelopment sites in particular. As a guide, a radius of 1 to 5 kilometres around the development site should be considered.
Outlines the urban structure including streets and open spaces. It should also include topography contours, drainage and vegetation patterns, services and future infrastructure requirements (if known), land use zones, cadastre boundaries and identification of heritage items and other local landmarks. It is appropriate to address this scale when planning for individual or small groups of apartment building sites. A radius of 400 to 1000 metres should be considered.
3.1 OBJECTIVE 3.1.1 Thorough site analysis identifies opportunities and constraints of planning framework, local urban context and physical site conditions. Reliable and relevant information is available for designers, design-reviewers and decision-makers.
Site analysis legend Proposed development Proposed development site site Strategic centre Strategic centre Localcentres centres Local Urbanneighbourhood neighbourhood Urban
Suburbanneighbourhood neighbourhood Suburban
DC1 – A written and illustrated site analysis report is provided that addresses all items of Appendix A4 Site analysis checklist.
Corridor development Corridor development Local Localshops shops Education facility Education facility
Healthcampus campus Health
Development site boundary Proposed development boundary
All planning policies applying to the development site should be recognised and understood as part of the site analysis process. Applicable policies will include: —— Residential Design Codes, including 2.1 Primary controls tables of this policy. These are applicable to R-coded areas throughout Western Australia. —— Local Planning Scheme, which may include modified provisions which prevail over those in 2.1 Primary controls tables. —— Local Development Plan, if applicable to the site area, which prevail over those in the Local Planning Scheme.
Publicopen open space Public space
As further detailed in Appendix — Other local government policies 3A.3 - the SITEkey CONTEXT—PLAN A4 Site analysis checklist, relating to development control. elements of a site analysis include: Refer to 2.11 Coordinating local —— site location and wider context policy. plan
Heritage listed Heritage listed itembuilding
—— aerial photograph
Railwayline line Railway
—— local context plan
Trainstation station Train
—— site context and survey plan
Bus Busroute route
—— streetscape elevations and sections.
Futureplanned buildings Future built form PLAN 3A.2 - LOCAL CONTEXT Existingbuildings buildings Existing Existingbuildings building changes Existing to to change
Cycle Cyclelane lane
Proposed development site
Proposed development site
Future planned built form
Future planned built form
Existing buildings to change
Adjacent existing buildings
Public open space
Deep soil zone
Heritage listed item
Bus route Cycle lane
Figure 3.1c Site context plan
Figure 3.1d Site plan
Considers the character of the street(s) that the proposed development addresses, and shows its spatial enclosure by buildings or landscape elements. It should outline surrounding building uses and heights, front setbacks, pedestrian access, awnings, vehicle driveways and public domain elements including street trees, verges and footpaths. It is appropriate that all proposals for apartment buildings address this scale.
Detailed consideration of the individual development site relative to neighbouring properties, buildings across the street and the public domain. It addresses surrounding and proposed deep soil areas and open spaces, existing vegetation and trees, fences, retaining walls, overshadowing impacts and privacy considerations. This scale should also highlight any other site specific factors such as orientation, slope, geology, infrastructure or access easements and stormwater management.
Contents 3 Siting the development 3.1 Site analysis and design response
1. Retention of trees 1. Retention of trees
2. Minimum setbacks
2. Minimum setbacks
3A.4 Retention ofoftrees 1. 1.Retention trees 2. Minimum setbacks
3. Deep soil zones and basement levels Building separation andand depthdepth 4.4.Building separation
2. Minimum setbacks setbacks 2. Minimum
3. soil zones and basement levels levels 3. Deep Deep-soil areas and basement
3. Deep soil zones and basement levels
4. Building separation and depth
4. Building separation and depth
5. Building performance and orientation
5. Building performance and 5. Building performance andorientation orientation
6. building envelopeenvelope 6. Three-dimensional Three-dimensional building
Figure 3.1e Site design response sequence.
5. Building performance and orientation
6. Three-dimensional building envelope
6. Three-dimensional building envelope Morning sun Afternoon sun
Prevailing wind (summer)
Figure 3.1f Analysis of solar and wind access.
4. Building separation
OBJECTIVE 3.1.2 Design decisions are informed by the opportunities and constraints of the site conditions, and proposed development responds positively to the surrounding context.
DC1 â€“ A written and illustrated site design response is provided that demonstrates clear understanding of the site analysis and shows how the proposal would integrate into the local urban context. Refer to Appendix A4 Site design response checklist.
It is recommended that early presentations of site analysis and associated design responses are conducted with the Design Review Panel of the approving authority. This can often result in more timely and effective resolution of any major design issues identified that may ultimately influence the development approval. Refer to the Design Review Guide for more information.
Simple three-dimensional modelling is encouraged, to assist effective communication of the site design response to design reviewers.
Depending on site factors, the site design response may require consultant advice for cultural, heritage, landscape, contamination, geotechnical and arboricultural matters. Early discussions with approving authority planning staff and/or design reviewers will assist identifying the relevant factors and specific requirements.
AHD in m AHD in m
AHD in m
Future building separation in m AHD in m Residential Retail
AHD in m
AHD in m
AHD in m
Figure 3.1g Site cross section.
AHD in m
AHD in m AHD in m
AHD in m
AHD in m
Figure 3.1h Streetscape elevation.
Contents 3 Siting the development 3.2 Orientation
3B.2 3B.2 Intent Finding the best possible basic configuration of buildings on a site makes it easier to achieve the more-detailed objectives later in the design process. Drawing upon the outcomes of site analysis (see 3.1), orientation seeks an optimal arrangement of built form according to: —— addressing desired streetscape character —— responding to environmental conditions such as solar access and wind direction —— providing for the enjoyment of significant views —— retaining trees and locating open spaces —— responding to the topography and contextual constraints such as overshadowing and noise —— promoting amenity for both the proposed development and neighbouring properties.
These are often competing priorities, and evaluation of several alternative solutions will assist to determine the best overall outcome.
South facing slope
North facing slope
Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration for orientation include Context and character, Landscape quality, Built form and scale and Community.
Figure 3.2a Proposed buildings are sited to clearly address the street while maximising solar access to apartments.
Figure 3.2b Building orientation and height influences solar access to apartments and common open spaces. On south facing slopes, orient the rear wing of the building(s) east to west to maximise solar access, on north facing slopes, step building(s) with the slope.
3.2 OBJECTIVE 3.2.1
Building layouts respond to the streetscape and site while optimising solar access within the development.
Building form and orientation minimises overshadowing of neighbouring properties.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Buildings along the street frontage define the street by facing it and incorporating direct access from the street.
Minimise overshadowing of living rooms, private open spaces and communal open spaces of neighbouring properties.
Where the street frontage is to the east or west, rear buildings should be orientated to the north.
Evaluate the effect of proposed development on solar access for directly affected neighbouring properties according to Design Criteria provisions 3.5.1-DC2 (Communal and public open space) and 4.1.1-DC1 (Solar and daylight access). If the proposal will significantly reduce the solar access of neighbours, increased building separations should be considered. Overshadowing should be minimised to the south or downhill by increased upper level setbacks.
Where the street frontage is to the north or south, overshadowing to the south should be minimised.
Orientation of buildings at 90 degrees to neighbouring properties helps to minimise overshadowing and visual privacy impacts, particularly where minimum setbacks are used and where buildings are higher than the adjoining development. Protect solar access for existing solar collectors on neighbouring buildings where possible. In areas designated Streetscape Character Type D1 or local equivalent (refer to Table 1) a minimum of 4 hours solar access for neighbouring solar collectors should be retained.
Photo 3.2a This development is designed facing north, with blank walls facing west to avoid the afternoon heat, allowing for maximum daylight access.
Photo 3.2b The orientation of this building allows for plenty of direct sunlight to reach these apartments internally.
Photo 3.2c This development is on a corner block and has maximised the ability to have a north, east and south orientations. (PC)
Contents 3 Siting the development 3.3 Existing tree retention
Existing tree retention Intent Significant trees contribute to the local environment, while creating a varied, interesting and attractive landscape that builds on sense and character of place. Existing trees on private land represent a significant proportion of tree canopy within our urban areas. Significant loss of urban tree canopy, due to private development, is an increasing focus of community concern.
There are challenges associated with preserving existing trees on development sites. This element encourages retention of significant trees, but also assists developers and local authorities to work through alternatives and seek specialist assistance where required. Existing tree retention is closely related to 3.4 Deep Soil Areas. Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration in regard to existing tree retention include Landscape quality, Built form and scale, Sustainability, Amenity and Community.
Retaining existing trees is critical for urban ecology and maintaining a liveable environment, including: —— mitigating urban heat island effect through the provision of shade and cooling micro-climates —— providing amenity to residents and neighbours —— preserving neighbourhood character —— visual softening of building bulk and scale at both the site and neighbourhood level —— supporting biodiversity and habitat —— improving connections with deep soil to assist with stormwater management and soil ecology.
Photo 3.3a The retention of a large native tree is a focal element for the communal open space of this apartment development. (PC)
3.3 OBJECTIVE 3.3.1 Identify existing trees for retention prior to development and as part of early site planning.
DESIGN CRITERIA DC1 -Existing trees† are identified on site analysis report. Existing trees are considered appropriate for retention if they are: —— healthy specimens with ongoing viability; and —— species not included on an applicable weed register; and —— are 3m or more high; and/or —— have a trunk with a diameter of 100mm or more, 1m from the ground; and/or —— have two or more trunks and the sum of their individual diameter at 1m above ground is 200mm or more; and/or —— have a canopy 3m or more wide; and/or —— are recognised for individual importance/significance. Photo 3.3b This large fig tree has become a integral part of the design of these apartments. The tree is intended for all residents to enjoy the benefits, with the apartments located directly adjacent to the tree benefiting from the amenity of the outlook.
‘5 Year Tree Rule’ – In this usage, “existing trees” includes those physically on-site or those that have been removed but can be clearly identified on an aerial photo within the past five years. Removed trees will be assumed to have been healthy unless evidence is provided.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Co-locate deep soil areas with existing trees for retention. Refer to 3.4 Deep soil areas for guidance on maintaining areas of deep soil to support existing vegetation. Note the incentive reduction available where trees are identified for retention.
Photo 3.3c Existing trees should be identified early in the design process, prior to development. The street setback of this building allows for the retention of this significant existing tree.
EXISTING TREE RETENTION Canopy of 3m or more
Height of 3m or more
Consult the local authority during the initial project phases regarding protected trees and potential to retain. If a local council has a tree protection register (or similar), consider nomination of existing vegetation to aid in its protection and retention. Various mechanisms are available for protection of existing trees on private lots. Under Part 5 of the Planning and Development Act 2005 local authorities are allocated powers to identify and protect significant trees. Many local authorities have Tree Protection Registers/Lists or Tree Preservation Orders and these should be consulted as a part of due diligence. Heritage listed trees are also protected under the Heritage of Western Australian Act 1990.
Trunk greater than 100mm diameter at 1m above ground OR Multiple trunks combined diameters 200mm at 1m above ground
Figure 3.3a Size criteria used to identify existing trees for retention. See full criteria in 3.3.1 DC1.
Contents 3 Siting the development 3.3 Existing tree retention
Photo 3.3d This development has been built to retain this large fig tree, which has become a focal point for the development.
Photo 3.3e The presence of trees provides amenity and environmental benefits for apartment dwellers.
Figure 3.3b Urban forestry is an important aspect of making sustainable urban environment. Tree canopy mapping is part of monitoring the change to ecology that accompanies urban growth. Good tree cover can mitigate heat island effects to remain several degrees cooler in summer than treeless built environments.
3.3 EXISTING TREE RETENTION
OBJECTIVE 3.3.2 Healthy existing trees are retained where possible; or adequate measures are taken to mitigate reduction of tree canopy.
EXISTING TREE RETENTION
DESIGN CRITERIA DC1 – Existing trees identified for retention according to Objective 3.3.1-DC1 are:
EXISTING TREE RETENTION Existing trees for retention
Determine tree and root protection area
Fenced area to protect trees
Figure 3.3c Tree and root protection areas should be identified and maintained throughout construction period.
—— Retained; with appropriate landscape design measures to support trees’ ongoing health and viability within proposed development; OR —— Replaced; by equivalent planting as part of the deep soil area requirement. Refer to 3.4 Deep soil areas; OR —— Offset; with an offset cost is to be paid for the planting of four additional trees per tree not retained within the immediate project vicinity (but outside the development site). The cost per tree of supply, installation, irrigation and maintenance for two years of a 100-litre pot native tree is to be determined by and paid to the local authority.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Obtain an arboricultural report on health and structural condition of existing trees.
Existing trees on neighbouring lot lot boundaries Fenced area to protect trees
Determine tree and root protection area NEIGHBOURING LOT
Figure 3.3d Trees on neighbouring lots and their root systems may also require protection during construction period.
If trees are identified for retention seek specialist arboricultural advice on ‘rootable soil area’ and use of structural soils or structural cells under adjacent pavements as part of design development in order to maximise probability of successful retention. If trees are identified for retention seek specialist arboricultural advice on tree protection specifically to provide direction on ‘tree and root protection areas‘ and management during construction and during establishment following completion of the development. Refer Figure 3.3c. Post construction: establish a monitoring program of existing trees that have been retained to inform any future loss of health.
Existing or proposed trees
Potential ‘rootable’ soil area under adjoining pavement
Figure 3.3e With correct soil profile and pavement specification, additional areas can accommodate retained tree roots and maximise probability of tree survival.
Contents 3 Siting the development 3.4 Deep soil areas
Deep soil areas Intent Having significant trees in or around an apartment complex can make for a better living environment and contribute to a more sustainable urban environment. As well as providing shade and amenity to the streetscape and outdoor spaces, they improve the outlook from apartments and assist in creating visual privacy. The best way of supporting the growth of medium to large canopy trees is to ensure the provision of landscaped portions of the development site with no impeding building structure or feature above or below. These deep soil areas provide important environmental benefits, both within the lot and beyond. They are critical in providing infiltration of rain water to the water table and thereby reducing stormwater run-off. They also assist, via passive irrigation, in the growth of a healthy tree canopy which, in turn, mitigates against adverse impacts of urban heat and poor air quality. When located appropriately, deep soil areas support retention of existing trees and soil that can be critical to local biodiversity and habitat.
It is important to note that â€˜rootable soil areasâ€™ can extend beyond nominal deep soil areas under adjacent pavement and building structures. If constructed correctly, rootable soil areas can be used for water harvesting, seasonal stormwater storage, stormwater infiltration or protected rootable soil areas for trees. Deep soil areas are closely related to 3.3 Existing tree retention. Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration in regard to deep soil areas include Context and character, Landscape quality, Built form and scale, Sustainability, Amenity and Community.
Photo 3.4a An existing tree has been retained in this development and deep soil area created in adjacent landscaping.
3.4 3E.1 Permeable paving over deep planting area Avoid services greater than 300mm diameter within deep soil area
Minimum 6m wide deep soil area
Figure 3.4a Diagram showing the minimum dimension of deep soil areas for sites greater than 1,500m2.
Deep soil area
Deep soil area
Figure 3.4b Deep soil areas.
Large Trees > 12m
Medium Trees 8-12m
Small Trees 6-8m
2000 sqm lot (or greater)
1500sqm lot 0 12m
8x8 = 64sqm deep soil area
6x6 = 36sqm deep soil area
Figure 3.4c Tree size definitions for deep soil areas.
3.5x3.5 = 12sqm deep soil area
Deep soil area 12% of site area (8% if existing tree retained)
no minimum dimension
Figure 3.4d Minimum deep soil areas.
Contents 3 Siting the development 3.4 Deep soil areas
Deep soil area
Co-location with communal open space possible
Figure 3.4e Deep soil area â€“ co-location with communal open space.
Communal open space area Deep soil area
Recommend 10% of site to be permeable surface beyond deep soil area
Figure 3.4f Deep soil area and permeable paving.
Where structure under limits deep soil areas, a minimum total of 25% of site area is to be provided as soft landscape area on structure
Figure 3.4g Planting on structure alternative to deep soil area.
Minimum deep soil area Permeable paving over deep aoil area Communal garden
Figure 3.4h Deep soil area in the context of a building.
3.4 OBJECTIVE 3.4.1
Deep soil areas support healthy plant and tree growth. Healthy tree growth improves residential amenity and promotes management of water and air quality. Major trees assist in moderating bulk and scale of built form and provide a human scale to larger developments.
Provide deep soil areas larger than those specified in DC1 where possible.
Additional rootable soil area under adjacent hard pavement surfaces beyond the primary deep soil area can be engineered to assist root access. This should be considered in the landscape design, especially where existing trees are retained.
DC1 – Deep soil areas are identified in site layout and meet the following minimum requirements:
Deep soil areas are to be considered early in site planning, especially where existing trees are identified for retention. Refer to 3.3 Existing Tree Retention.
Minimum deep soil area (% site area)
Less than 650m2
650m2 – 1,500m2
Deep soil areas should be located to retain significant existing trees and to allow for the development of healthy root systems, providing anchorage and stability for mature trees both on-lot and neighbouring lots. Whole of lot design solutions may include:
Greater than 1,500m2
—— basement and sub-basement car park design that is consolidated beneath building footprints;
Table 3.4.1 Deep soil area requirement
* If existing tree(s) are retained and incorporated into the development, deep soil area requirement can be reduced to 8% of site area. Refer to 3.3 Existing Trees Retention.
DC2 – Deep soil areas provide a minimum number of trees (with shade producing canopies) as follows: —— Minimum 1 small tree for every 16sqm or —— Minimum 1 medium tree for every 36sqm or —— Minimum 1 large tree for every 64sqm or —— A combination of the above Refer to Figure 3.4c for tree size definitions.
—— use of increased front or side setbacks for detached building types OR increased rear setbacks for attached building types (see 2.3); —— provide adequate clearance around trees to ensure long term health, seeking expert advice; —— co-location with other deep soil areas on neighbouring sites to create larger contiguous areas of deep soil (especially in rear setbacks). Tree and shrub selection considers size at maturity and the potential for roots to compete. Achieving the deep soil area Design Criteria may not be possible in some locations that have limited or no space for deep soil at ground level including in CBD, high density areas or activity centres. In such conditions proposals should alternatively achieve planting on structure (see 4.15) to a minimum of 25% of site area. Soft landscape should be located to maximise resident and/or public amenity.
Contents 3 Siting the development 3.5 Communal and public open space
Communal and public open space Intent Communal open spaces provide residents with opportunities to recreate and socialise beyond a balcony or small courtyard, which is usually for exclusive use. Where appropriate, the provision of public open space can help foster connections between residents and their local community. These spaces also have an important environmental function, encouraging separation between building masses and opportunities for co-location of landscaping and deep soil areas.
Some amenity benefits of successful communal open spaces include opportunities for: —— recreational activities —— casual interaction between residents, visitors and, where they are public, the local community —— micro-climatic variations on the site —— better outlook from apartment balconies and windows —— activation through public connections to or through the site in certain circumstances.
The size, location and design of communal or public open space will vary depending on the site context and the scale of development. In designing these spaces, an emphasis should be placed on their quality and potential to deliver benefit to residents, visitors and, where appropriate, the public.
Communal and public open space considerations are closely related to 4.5 Private Open Space and Balconies. Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration in regard to deep soil areas include Context and character, Landscape quality, Built form and scale, Sustainability, Amenity, Legibility, Safety and Community.
Photo 3.5a Public open space, where provided, is responsive to the existing pattern and uses of the neighbourhood.
Photo 3.5b This communal area has plenty of access to natural light, with private balconies overlooking and providing passive surveillance making it a safe, enjoyable environment.
3.5 OBJECTIVE 3.5.1
An adequate area of quality communal open space is provided to enhance residential amenity and to provide opportunities for soft landscape areas.
DESIGN CRITERIA DC1 – Communal open space is provided at the following rates: —— Up to 10 dwellings – no requirement —— 11 to 20 dwellings – 10% of site area
Communal open space should be consolidated into a well-designed, easily identified and usable area. If this is not possible, smaller spaces can offer the balance of area required, provided they are well-integrated and offer complementary uses. Communal open space should have a minimum dimension of 3m, and larger developments should consider greater dimensions. Communal open space should be co-located with deep soil areas however where not possible can be located on structure.
—— 21 to 30 dwellings – 15% of site area —— 31+ dwellings – 20% of site area DC2 – Developments achieve a minimum of 50% direct sunlight to the principal usable part of the primary communal open space for a minimum of two hours between 9am and 3pm on 21 June (mid-winter).
COMMUNAL OPEN SPACE
Universal access should be provided at a minimum to the main (largest) communal open space. Where communal open space cannot be provided at ground level, it should be provided on a podium or roof. If indoor communal space is provided explore how connectivity with communal space outdoor can occur. Where developments are unable to achieve DC1 they should: —— Provide increased private open space at a ratio of 1:1, i.e. any reduction in communal open space should be reapportioned to private open space. —— Demonstrate good access to quality green open space within five minutes (500m) walking distance. —— Provide communal spaces elsewhere such as a landscaped roof top terrace or a common room.
Under 10 dwellings – No Under 10 dwellings - No communal open space Communal Open Space criteria
11-20 dwellings – 10%
11 - 20 dwellings open - 10%space communal Communal Open Space criteria Criteria
Under 10 dwellings - No Communal Open Space Requirement
11 - 20
11 - 20 dwellings - 10% Communal Open Space Requirement
21 - 30
21 - 30 dwellings - 15% Communal Open Space Requirement
Over 30 dwellings - 20% Communal Open Space Requirement
21-30 dwellings – 15%
21 - 30 dwellings 15% communal open -space Communal Open Space criteria Criteria
Over 30 dwellings – 20% Over 30 dwellings - 20% communal open space Communal Open Space criteria
Figure 3.5a Communal open space requirements.
Contents 3 Siting the development 3.5 Communal and public open space
COMMUNAL OPEN SPACE
Photo 3.5c Communal open space should be designed to be accessible, useable and attractive, allowing a range of activities for all residents.
Communal open space area Required deep soil area Communal garden
Photo 3.5d This wide landscaped footpath doubles as communal open space, creating a environment conducive to incidental encounters between residents. The separation of buildings surrounding this space also allows for direct sunlight access.
Figure 3.5b The principle usable part of communal open spaces should be consolidated.
Photo 3.5e These apartments face onto the public open space front of this building, increasing safety and outlook for residents as well as the public who might also use this space.
Figure 3.5c Example of open spaces distribution for development of 30 or more apartment units.
The main communal open space is to meet the solar requirements
Communal open space does not need to be consolidated into one space
3.5 OBJECTIVE 3.5.2 Communal open space is designed to allow for a range of activities, respond to site conditions and be attractive and inviting.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Communal open space facilities such as pools, barbecue areas, play spaces, sporting courts, seating areas, communal garden areas etc. should respond to immediate and anticipated future needs of residents. Needs are to be assessed against demographics and proximity to local amenity, with reference to local authority POS strategy. The location of facilities responds to microclimate and site conditions with access to sun in winter, shade in summer and shelter from strong winds and down drafts.
Communal open space is designed to maximise safety and comfort.
Publicly accessible open space, (e.g. a cross site link), where provided, is responsive to the existing pattern and uses of the neighbourhood.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Communal open space and the public domain should be readily visible from habitable rooms and private open space areas while maintaining visual privacy. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles to apply. Refer to 4.6 Common Circulation and Spaces. Where playgrounds are provided they are safe and contained. Where communal open space provides childrenâ€™s play areas, sporting function or BBQs, the noise, smell and other adverse impacts are to be considered in the design.
Visual and aural impacts of services should be minimised, including location of ventilation duct outlets from basement carparks, air conditioning units, fire services, electrical substations, detention tanks and the like.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Publicly accessible space on private lots (still classed as communal open space) should be well connected with public streets along at least one edge. Publicly accessible space on private lots is to provide a clear function and purpose. Publicly accessible spaces that are vague in use and function can potentially attract unwanted behaviour and are not desirable. Opportunities for a range of recreational activities should be provided for people of all ages. The public open space should be connected with nearby parks and/or streetscapes. Publicly accessible space should be linked through view lines, pedestrian desire paths, termination points and the wider street grid. Site planning should provide a high level of visual permeability and clear and legible wayfinding.
Drying racks and bike parking areas and their associated access cannot form part of the communal open space calculation and should not be visible from the primary communal open space.
Microclimate is to be considered in order to maximise comfort and use year round including; solar access, wind effects, noise and odours.
Communal open spaces should be designed to be robust and easily maintained.
Photo 3.5f This rooftop communal space provide a pool, BBQ, dining, as well as a shady, inviting environment for all users. (PC)
Photo 3.5g Communal open spaces are often located on the podium or rooftop and should offer gathering areas to provide opportunity for social interaction amongst residents. (PC)
Photo 3.5h Well landscaped communal open spaces can be a positive interface to public space, using planting, lighting and seating to create welcoming and safe environments.
Contents 3 Siting the development 3.6 Visual privacy
Visual privacy Intent For people to feel comfortable living in higher-density environments, the design of apartments should carefully balance the need for outlook with the need for privacy. AÂ room with generous glazing for views and daylight, if poorly orientated, might feel too exposed from views into the apartment from neighbouring dwellings or from public spaces. Resolving visual privacy issues involves consideration of views to and from an apartment, between apartments within a development, between a development and neighbours, and the potential for overlooking of communal or private outdoor spaces. Sensitively arranging built form and ensuring appropriate glazing locations will greatly assist 3F.2in achieving satisfactory visual privacy, as will providing appropriate building separation (see 2.8) and orientation (see 3.2). The Design Criteria provide readily applied metrics that generally avoid undesirable conditions. Different spaces have different needs for privacy, which is reflected in varying offsets for non-habitable and habitable spaces.
Alternative solutions may be justified by demonstration of how they achieve desired privacy outcomes. It is reasonable that expectations for visual privacy adapt to different urban contexts. Where apartment development is proposed in established neighbourhoods the design should give careful consideration to visual privacy. In intensely urban contexts it may be appropriate to reduce expectations to some degree, as long as clearly negative conditions are avoided. Design principles (see 1.3). that should be given particular consideration for visual privacy include Context and character, Built form and scale, Amenity and Community.
Photo 3.6a Solid walls with nonhabitable room windows are used for end elevations to manage privacy impacts between buildings.
H = Habitable NH = Non-habitable
Figure 3.6a Any one development will have a variety of visual privacy conditions to be accommodated. Section A (Figure 3.6f) shows separation distances between apartments within the same site.
Side of rear bounda
OBJECTIVE 3.6.1 Adequate building separation distances are shared equitably between neighbouring sites, to achieve reasonable levels of external and internal visual privacy.
DESIGN CRITERIA DC1 – Separation between windows and balconies is provided for visual privacy, achieving the minimum required separation distances to the side and rear boundaries as follows:
View cone from
Bedroom, study or open access walkway
Habitable space or balcony
Figure 3.6b Building separation distance should be increased by 3m when adjacent to a lower density residential zone.
Table 3.6.1 Visual privacy separation distances
Separation distances between buildings on the same site should combine required building separations depending on the type of room DC2 – Balconies are unscreened for at least 25% of their perimeter (including edges abutting a building).
DESIGN GUIDANCE Photo 3.6b The site and building design elements increase the privacy of these ground floor apartments without compromising access to light and air and balance outlook and views from habitable rooms and open spaces.
For residential buildings next to commercial buildings, separation distances should be measured as follows: —— for retail, office spaces and commercial balconies use the habitable spaces distances;
New development should be located and oriented to maximise visual privacy between buildings on site and for neighbouring buildings. Design solutions include: —— site layout and building orientation to minimise privacy impacts (refer to 3.2 Orientation); —— on sloping sites, apartments on different levels have appropriate visual separation distances. Where a development site borders onto a zone of lower density coding, separation distances to those boundaries should be increased by 3m above to the requirements of DC1, to provide for a transition in scale and increased landscaping. This additional setback is not required in locations allowing ‘attached’ building configurations. Direct lines of sight should be avoided for windows and balconies across corners. No visual privacy separation is required between blank walls, although boundary setbacks may still apply. Retaining an open aspect from balconies and principal windows in interior rooms is critical to improving resident amenity. As such, screens, enclosures, highlight windows, or landscape elements should not be used to justify reduction in the visual privacy setbacks for the primary outlook from interior spaces. Secondary windows or secondary private open space may merit a reduction, when treated appropriately.
—— for service and plant areas use the non-habitable space distances.
Photo 3.6c Well-designed landscaping delivers good levels of privacy while providing an attractive streetscape.
3F.6 - OVERALL BUILDING VISUAL PRIVACY DIAGRAM 3F.6 - OVERALL BUILDING VISUAL PRIVACY DIAGRAM Contents 3 Siting the development 3.6 Visual privacy
3m 45 o
Privacy to apartments can be improved by locating circulation cores at the internal corners of a building
3F.6 - BLANK WALL CONDITIONS TO HABITABLE ROOMS Building layout and design features such as off set windows can contribute to increased privacy between apartments
3F.6 - CONDITIONS WITHIN DEVELOPMENT HABITABLE TO HABITABLE
3F.6 - BOUNDARY CONDITIONS HABITABLE HABITABLE Attached cone TO of vision
Detached cone of vision
Figure 3.6d Examples of solutions to increase privacy.
Figure 3.6c Overall building visual privacy diagram.
H 45 o
45 3F.6 - CONDITIONS WITHIN DEVELOPMENT NH HABITABLE TO NON-HABITABLE o
3F.6 - BOUNDARY CONDITIONS Future 6m HABITABLE HTO 6m NON-COMPLIANT EXISTING built form
3F.6 - BLANK WALL CONDITIONS TO NON-HABITABLE ROOMS
Conditions within development: Habitable to habitable rooms
Boundary conditions: Habitable to habitable
Blank wall conditions: To habitable rooms
H = Habitable NH = Non-habitable
45o 45 o
Future built form 3m
3m 45 o
45 o 6m
Conditions within development: Habitable to non-habitable rooms
Boundary conditions: Habitable to non-compliant existing
Blank wall conditions: To non-habitable rooms
Figure 3.6e How privacy can be ensured under different conditions. 70
3.6 OBJECTIVE 3.6.2 8 8
3F.3/3F.4/3F.5 9m 6
Figure 3.6f Within the same site, minimum separation should be shared equitably between buildings. On sloping sites, appropriate separation distances ensure visual privacy for apartments on different levels.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Communal open space, common areas and access paths should be separated from private open space and windows to apartments, particularly habitable room windows. Design solutions may include: —— setbacks —— solid or partially-solid balustrades to balconies at lower levels —— fencing and/or trees and vegetation to separate spaces —— screening devices
Site and building design elements increase privacy without compromising access to light and air and balance outlook and views from habitable rooms and private open space.
Figure 3.6g New development adjacent to existing buildings should provide adequate separation distances to the boundary in accordance with the Design Criteria.
—— bay windows or pop out windows to provide privacy in one direction and outlook in another —— raising apartments/private open space above the public domain or communal open space —— planter boxes incorporated into walls and balustrades to increase visual separation —— pergolas or shading devices to limit overlooking of lower apartments or private open space —— on constrained sites where it can be demonstrated that building layout opportunities are limited, fixed louvres or screen panels to windows and/or balconies. Bedrooms, living spaces and other habitable rooms should be separated from gallery access and other open circulation space by the apartment’s service areas or light wells. Balconies and private terraces should be located in front of living rooms to increase internal privacy. Windows should be offset from the windows of adjacent buildings.
Photo 3.6d The louvres combined with the tree canopy provide privacy for these streetfront apartments.
Recessed balconies and/or vertical fins should be used between adjacent balconies.
Photo 3.6e In situations where landscaping cannot be effectively incorporated in the apartment design, use of planter boxes can create an effective privacy screen.
Contents 3 Siting the development 3.7 Public domain interface
Public domain interface Intent Apartment developments have a significant impact on public areas and streetscapes, and help to set their character and qualities. The interface between the building, private or communal space at the street edge, and the public domain is particularly important for ensuring a successful mediation between private residential space and the public realm. The design of the interface also significantly contributes to the quality and character of the street. Well-considered arrangements of planting and fencing, that provide openness and facilitate engagement with the street, can create an attractive and active public domain with a pedestrian scale. Long, high blank walls or fences can detract from the appearance of the public domain and impact on the safety of pedestrians and residents. Direct access from the street to ground floor apartments and windows overlooking the street can improve safety and social interaction.
Building entrances and service areas (like fire utilities, rubbish collection areas and mailboxes) should be easy to locate, and carefully integrated into the overall design of the development. Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration for public domain interface include Context and character, Functionality and build quality, Amenity, Legibility, Safety and Community.
Key components to consider when designing the interface include entries, private terraces or balconies, fences and walls, changes in level, services locations and planting. The design of these elements can influence the real or perceived safety and security of residents, opportunities for social interaction and the identity of the development when viewed from the public domain.
Photo 3.7a Amenity of the public domain is retained and enhanced. The balconies and windows overlooking the street provide passive surveillance.
Photo 3.7b A level change between private terraces, front gardens and dwelling entries and the street provide surveillance and improve visual privacy for ground level dwellings.
3.7 OBJECTIVE 3.7.1 A
Transition between private and public domain is achieved without compromising safety and security.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Direct street entry to terraces, balconies and courtyard apartments is desirable where it can be achieved. 4.0m
Setback and elevated ground floor
Upper level balconies and windows should overlook the public domain. Changes in level between private terraces, front gardens and dwelling entries above the street level provide surveillance and improve visual privacy for ground level dwellings (refer to Fig 3.7a). The level change between terrace and street pavement should average less than 1m and not exceed 1.5m. Elevated terraces should use visually permeable balustrading. Front fences and walls along street frontages should use visually permeable materials and treatments. The height of solid fences or walls should average less than 1m and not exceed 1.5m. Length of solid walls should be limited along street frontages.
Where a development is unable to meet the recommended parameters for level change, fence height and permeability, planting (and set back if required) should be included to minimise adverse impacts to the streetscape. setback
Setback and elevated terrace with semi-basement parking
Nil-setback and elevated ground floor
Opportunities should be provided for casual interaction between residents and the public domain. Design solutions may include seating at building entries, near letter boxes and in private courtyards adjacent to streets. In developments with multiple buildings and/or entries, pedestrian entries and spaces associated with individual buildings/entries should be differentiated to improve legibility for residents and visitors, by varying architectural detailing, materials , colours and landscape treatments. Opportunities for people to be concealed should be minimised.
ACE AT GROUND TIAL ABOVE
3.3m 3.3 m
Ground floor shopfront
Figure 3.7a Diagrams illustrating various public domain interface scenarios.
Contents 3 Siting the development 3.7 Public domain interface
Photo 3.7c Transition between private and public domain is achieved without compromising safety and security. Thresholds between public and private areas are defined by courtyards and steps.
Photo 3.7e The landscaping in front of these buildings contribute to a positive streetscape character, with building frontages and entries onto the street. The multiple entrances also help to activate the street edge, whilst providing passive surveillance over the public street.
Photo 3.7d The retention of this existing pine tree along with the landscaping (both hard and soft) creates a pedestrian friendly environment with good streetscape activation and amenity. The use of solid and permeable balustrading along the ground floor apartments enables a degree of privacy for the residents, as well as interest from the street by activating the street frontages.
3.7 OBJECTIVE 3.7.2 Amenity of the public domain is retained and enhanced.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Planting softens the edges of any raised terraces to the street, for example above sub-basement car parking. Mail boxes should be located in lobbies, perpendicular to the street alignment or integrated into front fences where individual street entries are provided. The visual prominence of underground car park vents should be minimised and located at a low level where possible. Substations, pump rooms, garbage storage areas and other service requirements should be located in basement car parks or out of view. Ramping for accessibility should be minimised by building entry location and setting ground floor levels in relation to footpath levels. Durable, graffiti-resistant and easily-cleanable materials should be used. Where development adjoins public parks, open space or bushland, the design positively addresses this interface and uses a number of the following design solutions: —— street access, pedestrian paths and building entries which are clearly defined; Photo 3.7g Planting provides separation and adds to the attractiveness of an adjacent public walkway.
—— paths, low fences and planting that clearly delineate between communal/private open space and the adjoining public open space; —— minimal use of blank walls, fences and ground level parking. On sloping sites protrusion of car parking above ground level should be minimised by using split levels to step underground car parking. Parking should not be included in the front setback. Tree planting within the public domain interface on lot should be responsive to street tree planting within the streetscape. For example, streets with minimal verge width and/or tree canopy should consider how the development can positively contribute to tree canopy and shade provision of the public domain.
Photo 3.7h The raised planter and landscaping enhance the privacy of these ground floor apartments, improve the public domain interface and at the same time contribute to the greening of the streetscape.
Contents 3 Siting the development 3.8 Pedestrian access and entries
Pedestrian access and entries Intent When residents and visitors walk to and through an apartment complex, their experience should always be comfortable, safe, equitable and easy to navigate. Building entries provide a connection with the public space and an address for a building or group of buildings; their design should reflect this important role. They should be easy to find, and integrate into the overall design of the development and its landscape. Access to individual apartments from the street or through communal and circulation spaces should be intuitive, even for a first time visitor. Design principles that should be given particular consideration for pedestrian access and entries include Context and character, Functionality and build quality, Amenity, Legibility, Safety, Community and Aesthetics (see 1.3).
Photo 3.8a The significance of the entrance is highlighted through form, colour and materials. (PC)
Figure Building 3.8a entry Successful building entries delineate public and private spaces, are clearly identifiable and help to animate the street.
Photo 3.8b An entrance portico offers shelter, security and a recognisable point of address.
3.8 OBJECTIVE 3.8.1
Entries and pathways are accessible and easy to identify.
Building entries and pedestrian accessways connect-to and address the public domain.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Ensure each apartment building has a distinct and identifiable sense of address and arrival, as an important part of the resident and visitor experience. Building access areas including lift lobbies, stairwells and hallways should be clearly visible from the public domain and communal spaces. The design of ground floors and car parks minimises level changes along pathways and entries. Steps and ramps should be integrated into the overall building and landscape design. It is often preferable for the entrance to be at street level and the level transitions to occur within the building. Any pedestrian security gates should be set back from the front boundary to allow space for a pedestrian to stand while opening the gate without blocking the footpath. Pedestrian and vehicle paths should be separated where possible, or designed as shared space, with appropriate measures to constrain vehicle speed and increase mutual awareness between drivers and pedestrians. For large developments â€˜way findingâ€™ signage and maps should be provided to assist visitors and residents; with intercom controls to manage visitor access to private areas. Fire fighting and service access such as power and water meters require careful consideration in the design of the front facade. Consult early with relevant authorities to clearly understand their requirements to achieve the best integrated outcome. Bin stores should be located away from formal pedestrian entry/access lobbies. Entries should be well lit to allow for easy identification at night and enhance the perception of safety. Provide access and a location for delivery of large parcels and shopping deliveries.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Multiple entries (including communal building entries and individual ground floor entries) should be provided to activate the street edge. Entry locations relate to the surrounding streets, subdivision pattern and pedestrian network. Building entries should be easy to identify; with a clear visual hierarchy to distinguish communal entries from private entries, and residential from mixed-use. Provide awning structures to highlight the location of the entry while also providing weather protection. Where street frontage is limited and multiple buildings are located on the site, a primary street address should be provided with clear sight lines and pathways to secondary building entries. Pedestrian access and entries should be prioritised over vehicle access.
OBJECTIVE 3.8.3 Large sites provide pedestrian links for access to streets and connection to destinations.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Pedestrian links through sites facilitate direct connections to open space, main streets, centres and public transport. Consider integration of communal facilities and meeting spaces near the building entry such as bicycle parking and seating. Pedestrian links should be direct, have clear sight lines, be overlooked by habitable rooms or private open spaces of dwellings, be well lit and contain active uses, where appropriate.
Contents 3 Siting the development 3.9 Vehicle access
Vehicle access Intent Vehicle access points are important connections between the street and parking or delivery areas within the development, but can have negative impacts on residents and neighbours if not well considered. They should be located and designed to minimise impacts on pedestrians through a number of safety and aesthetic design responses. This can be assisted through pedestrian, traffic and urban design analysis. Design principles that should be given particular consideration for vehicle access include Context and character, Functionality and build quality, Legibility, Safety and Aesthetics (refer to 1.3).
Photo 3.9a This clear vehicular access has a low impact on the streetscape and integrated well into the facade design of the building.
3.9 OBJECTIVE 3.9.1 Vehicle access points are designed and located to minimise streetscape impacts and avoid conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles.
DESIGN GUIDANCE The width and number of vehicle access points should be limited to the minimum. Car park access should be integrated with the building’s overall facade. Design solutions may include: —— select materials and colours to minimise visibility from the street; —— security doors or gates at entries that minimise voids in the facade; —— where doors are not provided, the visible interior reflects the facade design and the building services, pipes and ducts are concealed. Car park entries should be located behind the building line. Where a security gate is provided, it should be sufficiently inset to allow space for a waiting car without blocking the footpath. Vehicle entries should be located to minimise ramp lengths, excavation and impacts on the building form and layout. Car park entry and access should be from the lowest order vehicle access way. In order of priority, access is preferred from: a laneway/ROW, a secondary street, or a primary street (if no other access is possible).
Photo 3.9b Vehicle access is discreet from the streetscape but uses material and decorative features to signify access.
Vehicle standing areas that increase driveway width and encroach into setbacks should be avoided. Vehicle circulation design should avoid headlights shining into habitable rooms in the development or neighbouring buildings. Adequate separation distances should be provided between vehicle entries and street intersections. Visual impact of long driveways should be minimised through changing alignments and screen planting (required between boundary fence/wall and drive and to the terminating view of the driveway). Minimise the need for large vehicles to enter and manoeuvre within the site, or when it is required ensure robust and wellplanned paths and clearances. Consideration of building service needs, including waste collection, is required at design stage (Refer to 4.22 Waste Management). Clear sight lines should be provided at pedestrian and vehicle crossings. Pedestrian and vehicle access should be separated and distinguishable. Design solutions may include: —— changes in surface materials —— level changes —— the use of landscaping for separation. Traffic calming devices such as changes in paving material or textures should be used where appropriate.
Photo 3.9c This building maximises opportunities for the active use of street frontages by prioritising ground level use over vehicle access and moving any access point to the rear of the site.
Photo 3.9d Vehicle access on a laneway or secondary street is preferable.
Contents 3 Siting the development 3.10 Car and bicycle parking
Car and bicycle parking Intent Integrating car parking within apartment buildings has a significant impact on site planning, landscape and building design and, as such, should be considered early in the design process. Care should be taken to ensure that car parking provided is delivered in a sensitive manner that aligns with the overall design intent of the proposal as well as the intended character of the streetscape. The location, form and organisation of parking is usually a balance of development feasibility, site constraints, local context, apartment types and regulatory car parking requirements. Deep soil areas, stormwater management and tree retention can also affect the size and shape of a car park footprint. The extent of impervious ground surfaces should be minimised, to mitigate associated environmental impacts regarding stormwater drainage.
Parking requirements should be determined in relation to the availability, frequency and convenience of public transport or proximity to a centre in regional areas. Reduced requirements promote a reduction in car dependency and encourage walking, cycling and use of public transport. Provision of parking for alternative forms of transport such as car share vehicles, motorcycles and bicycles should also be considered. Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration for car and bicycle parking include Context and character, Landscape quality, Built form and scale, Functionality and build quality, Sustainability, Amenity, Legibility and Safety.
Photo 3.10a Providing secure, well-integrated bicycle storage is recommended.
Photo 3.10b Tandem bays can provide increased spatial efficiency.
Photo 3.10c Car stackers can provide a space-efficient solution.
Photo 3.10d Single bays integrated into the landscape design can provide unobtrusive visitor parking.
3.10 OBJECTIVE 3.10.1 Car parking provision is appropriate to the development location, considering walkability, cycling network, public transport and local employment and services.
DC3 — Visitor car parking bays are: —— clearly marked for ‘visitor use’ —— provide an accessible path of travel for people with disabilities.
DESIGN CRITERIA DC1 – Development within Location A and Location B provides the following on-site resident and visitor parking: —— Minimum parking: in accordance with table below. —— Maximum parking: not to exceed double the minimums specified in the table below. Parking Types
1 bedroom dwellings
0.75 bay per dwelling
1 bay per dwelling
2+ bedroom dwellings
1 bay per dwelling
DC2 – Car parking bays and manoeuvring areas designed and provided in accordance with AS2890.1 (as amended).
1.25 bays per dwelling
1 bay per four dwellings up to 12 dwellings; 1 bay per eight dwellings for the 13th dwelling and above.
Table 3.10.1 Parking ratios
Note: Calculations of parking ratios for DC1 should be rounded to the nearest whole number (round half up). Definitions: —— Location A: within the defined boundaries of an activity centre and/or within 800m of a train station measured in a straight line from the pedestrian entry to the train station platform to any part of the lot; or 250m of a high frequency bus route, measured in a straight line from along any part of the route to any part of the lot
DESIGN GUIDANCE Car share facilities are strongly encouraged. Where a car share scheme operates locally, consider providing car share parking spaces within the development. Where less car parking is provided in a development, council should not provide on street resident parking permits. Mechanical means of stacking cars for more efficient storage can provide a space-efficient solution to site planning. Subject to local parking policies, the following considerations may be used to offset reduction of visitor parking by up to 25%: —— where visitor parking is shared with commercial parking and bays are allocated as common property on any future strata plan. —— Where there is adequate on-street parking or public parking in the near vicinity of the development. Tandem parking bays (catering for a maximum of two vehicles) may be provided where both bays are assigned to the same dwelling. Both tandem bays count towards minimum parking requirements. Visitor parking shall be allocated as common property on a strata plan. Residents’ parking may be designated on a strata plan at the discretion of the applicant.
—— Location B: not within Location A.
Photo 3.10e Open carport structures offer shade and shelter while maintaining good sightlines. (PC)
Contents 3 Siting the development 3.10 Car and bicycle parking
OBJECTIVE 3.10.2 Parking and facilities are provided for other modes of transport.
DC1 – Secure undercover bicycle parking spaces for residents are provided at a minimum rate of at least 0.5 bike space per dwelling. Bicycle parking spaces for visitors are provided at a rate of at least one bike space per 10 dwellings. DC2 – Developments exceeding 20 dwellings provide motorcycle/scooter parking at a rate of one motorcycle/scooter parking bay for every five car bays. For the purpose of calculating minimum parking rates, five motorcycle/scooter parking bays is equivalent to one car parking bay.
DC3 – Developments exceeding 20 dwellings provide one electric charging station per five visitor bays. Figure 3.10a Above-ground parking should be concealed behind the building facade and wrapped with other uses along the primary street frontage.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Secure undercover bicycle parking should be provided for residents and visitors that is easily accessible from both the public domain and common areas. Conveniently located and sufficient numbers of parking spaces should be provided for motorbikes and scooters.
Ground floor furnished as home-office
Consider providing charging stations for electric vehicles. When not installing charging stations as part of the development, electrical supply and car park distribution board should allow for future capacity to supply electric vehicle charging points at minimum 10% of total bays.
OBJECTIVE 3.10.3 Car park design and access is safe and secure. Ground floor furnished as living unit
DESIGN GUIDANCE Supporting facilities within car parks, including rubbish, plant and switch rooms, storage areas and car wash bays can be accessed without crossing car parking spaces. Direct, clearly visible and well lit access should be provided into common circulation areas. A clearly defined and visible lobby or waiting area should be provided to lifts and stairs. For larger car parks, safe pedestrian access should be clearly defined and circulation areas have good lighting, colour, line marking and/or bollards.
Figure 3.10b Ground floor uses of multi-storey dwelling types can be used to screen ground floor carparking. These plans show the ground floor of a Small Office Home Office (SOHO) unit, which can be furnished as an office or an independant living unit.
3.10 OBJECTIVE 3.10.4 Visual and environmental impacts of below ground car parking are minimised.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Excavation should be minimised through efficient car park layouts and ramp design. Car parking layout should be well organised, using a logical, efficient structural grid and double loaded aisles. Protrusion of below-ground car parks should not exceed 1m above ground level. Design solutions may include stepping car park levels, using split levels on sloping sites or design solutions applicable for at-grade parking. Natural ventilation should be provided to basement and subbasement car parking areas. Avoid underground car parking in locations with high water tables that would require de-watering. Ventilation grills or screening devices for car parking openings should be integrated into the facade and landscape design.
Ensure that at-grade car parks are safe, comfortable and landscaped environments. The following design solutions should be considered: —— provide safe and direct access to building entry points; —— parking can be incorporated into the landscape design of the site, by extending planting and materials into the car park space; —— to manage stormwater run-off from car park surfaces, consider incorporating tree pits, vegetated swales, biofilters, infiltration cells, permeable paving and/or onsite detention tanks as appropriate (refer to Figure 4.21a); —— light coloured paving materials or permeable paving systems are used and shade trees are planted between parking spaces to reduce increased surface temperatures from large areas of paving. Refer to 4.14 Landscape design; —— car parking areas adjacent to existing or future trees in deep soil areas should consider structural soils to maximise tree health. Refer to 4.14 Landscape design.
OBJECTIVE 3.10.6 Visual and environmental impacts of above ground car parking are minimised.
Visual and environmental impacts of at-grade car parking are minimised.
Above-ground parking should not be exposed on primary street frontages.
Screening, landscaping and other design elements including public art should be used to integrate the above ground car parking with the facade. Design solutions may include:
DC1 – One shade tree is provided for every four uncovered parking bays. DC2 – Landscaping strip of at least 1m is provided between otherwise unscreened parking bays and the street.
—— car parking that is concealed behind the facade, with windows integrated into the overall facade design; —— car parking that is ‘sleeved’ with active uses such as: single aspect apartments, retail, commercial or two storey ‘small office/home office’ units along the street frontage.;
Ensure that at-grade car parking does not result in poor street-interface along primary street frontages. The following design solutions may be considered:
—— reduce visual impacts on apartments looking down on open car parking decks by providing screening as shade structures or landscaping;
—— Locate parking on the side or rear of the lot away from the primary street locate entrances and habitable space such as narrow apartments or commercial development to screen parking areas from street frontage.
—— ground floors along the primary street should create an active and attractive pedestrian interface.
—— Cars are screened from view of habitable rooms, communal and private open space areas. —— Screening, landscaping and other design elements including public art may be used to integrate at-grade car parking with the building facade.
Designing the building Designing the building provides Objectives, Design Criteria and Design Guidance for building form, layout, functionality, landscape design, environmental performance and residential amenity.
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6
4 SOLAR AND DAYLIGHT ACCESS
APARTMENT SIZE AND LAYOUT
PRIVATE OPEN SPACE AND BALCONIES
CIRCULATION AND COMMON SPACES
NOISE AND POLLUTION
4.10 APARTMENT MIX
GROUND FLOOR APARTMENT
4.13 ROOF DESIGN
4.14 LANDSCAPE DESIGN
4.15 PLANTING ON STRUCTURES
4.16 UNIVERSAL DESIGN
4.18 MIXED USE
4.19 AWNINGS AND SIGNAGE
4.20 ENERGY EFFICIENCY
4.21 WATER MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION
4.22 WASTE MANAGEMENT
4.23 BUILDING MAINTENANCE
Contents 4 Designing the building 4.1 Solar and daylight access
Solar and daylight access Intent Getting the right levels of solar and daylight access in apartments contributes to better living conditions, in terms of health and well-being, as well as the performance of the building. Increasing density and building scale requires corresponding design attention to optimise solar factors for the development and the surroundings.
In terms of residential development, the three main aims of climate-sensitive design are to reduce energy consumption, optimise on-site solar access, and protect solar access for neighbouring properties. Solar and daylight access are important for apartment buildings, reducing the reliance on artificial lighting and heating, improving energy efficiency and residential amenity through pleasant conditions to live and work. However in the northern part of Western Australia (climate zones 1 and 3) solar access should be avoided year round.
Solar access is the capacity of a building to receive direct sunlight without the obstruction from other buildings or impediments (excluding trees). Sunlight is direct beam radiation from the sun. Daylight consists of sunlight and diffuse light from the sky. Daylight changes with the time of day, season and weather conditions. Access to sunlight for habitable rooms and private open space is measured at mid-winter (June 21), given that this is the time of year when passive heat is most beneficial. Design principles (see 1.3) that particularly relate to solar and daylight access include Built form and scale, Sustainability and Amenity.
OK 20 o
< 2 hours
< 2 hours
Figure 4.1a The hour of sunlight that can be expected in mid winter are directly related to the orientation of the facade. This diagram shows the optimal orientation for habitable rooms and balconies.
4.1 OBJECTIVE 4.1.1 (For climate zones 4,5,6 – see page 161) To optimise the number of apartments receiving sunlight to habitable rooms, primary window and private open space.
To optimise the direct sunlight to habitable rooms and balconies a number of the following design features are used: —— Dual aspect apartments
—— Shallow apartment layouts
(For climate zones 1,3 - see page 161). To minimise the number of apartments receiving direct sunlight to habitable rooms.
DESIGN CRITERIA DC1 – (For climate zones 4,5,6 ONLY) Living rooms and private open spaces of at least 70% of apartments in a building receive 2 hours of direct sunlight between 9:00am and 3pm at mid winter; OR (For climate zones 1,3 ONLY) Minimise direct sunshine on glazing and entering occupied spaces (all seasons). DC2 – (For climate zones 4,5,6 ONLY) A maximum of 15% of apartments in a building receive no direct sunlight between 9am and 3pm at mid winter.
—— Two storey and mezzanine level apartments —— Bay windows. Lightwells should not be used as the primary source of daylight to a habitable room and should only be considered as a secondary source. Well located, screened outdoor clothes drying areas should be provided to each dwelling, or adjacent to a central laundry. Achieving the Design Criteria may not be possible on some sites. Some typical instances include: —— where greater residential amenity can be achieved along a busy road or rail line by orientating the living rooms away from the noise source ; —— on south facing sloping sites;
DESIGN GUIDANCE (For climate zones 4,5,6 ONLY) The design maximises north aspect and the number of single aspect south facing apartments is minimised. (For climate zones 4,5,6 ONLY) Single aspect, single storey apartments should have a northerly, easterly or westerly aspect.
Photo 4.1a Courtyards can provide for daylight access to common areas. For habitable rooms of apartments, they should only be used as a secondary light source. (PC)
(For climate zones 4,5,6 ONLY) Living areas are best located to the north and services areas to the south, east and west of apartments. OR (For climate zones 1, 3 ONLY) consideration should be given to locating the living areas on the south.
—— where significant views are oriented away from the desired aspect for direct sunlight; —— Heritage considerations may impact optimum siting of proposal. In such instances, design drawings should be provided to demonstrate how site constraints and orientation preclude meeting the Design Criteria and how the development proposes to meet the objective.
Photo 4.1b Due to the orientation of this building, the use of shutters is needed to alleviate strong sunlight and heat. (PC)
4A.2 BROOME/ALBANY Contents 4 Designing the building 4.1 Solar and daylight access
Perth: Summer 81o
Broome: Summer -6o
Perth: Winter 34o
Broome: Winter 49o
Photo 4.1c Well sized and oriented glazing brings daylight into open plan spaces. (PC)
Albany: Summer 78o
Albany: Winter 31o
Figure 4.1b Shading devices on balconies should shade summer sun and allow winter sun access to living area. Solar angles vary for Perth, Broome and Albany.
Photo 4.1d Louvred balustrades and operable awnings allow residents to adapt the balcony for light or shade throughout the day, as well as controlling shelter and privacy. (PC) Perth: Summer 81o
Photo 4.1e Simple sun shading device can be effective in minimising heat and glare. (PC)
Perth: Winter 34o
Figure 4.1c Double height apartments and skylights on roofs increase daylight access. Solar angles will vary for different locations in WA.
4.1 OBJECTIVE 4.1.2
To optimise daylight access for habitable rooms.
To incorporate shading and glare control, particularly for warmer months.
DESIGN CRITERIA DC1 – Every habitable room has a window in an external wall with a total minimum glass area of not less than 10% of the floor area of the room. Daylight is not borrowed from other rooms.
DESIGN GUIDANCE High level windows (with sills of 1.6m or greater) used as a primary daylight source in habitable rooms should be of substantial size. Ensure they do not create undesirable visual privacy conditions. Consider using a larger window with obscure glass panes below 1.6m. A window should be visible from any point in a habitable room. Skylights should only be used as a secondary daylight source in habitable rooms.
DESIGN GUIDANCE A number of the following design features are used: —— balconies or sun shading that extend far enough to shade summer sun, but allow winter sun to penetrate living areas (Winter sun to be excluded in climate zones 1 and 3); —— shading devices such as eaves, awnings, balconies, pergolas, external louvres and planting; —— horizontal shading to north facing windows; —— vertical shading to east and west facing windows; —— operable shading to allow adjustment and choice; —— high performance glass that minimises external glare off windows, with consideration given to reduced tint glass or glass with a reflectance below 20% (reflective films are avoided).
Opportunities to optimise reflected light into apartments include: —— reflective exterior surfaces on buildings opposite south facing windows; —— positioning windows to face other buildings or surfaces (on neighbouring sites or within the site) that will reflect light; —— integrating light shelves into the design; —— light coloured internal finishes; —— Where using reflected light, take care to avoid unwanted glare effects.
Photo 4.1f Shading and glare-control measures help to moderate solar gain for west-facing windows and balconies, including operable roof louvres to optimise sunlight and shelter.
Photo 4.1g Different types of shading elements can adapt to the needs of different internal spaces and orientations. (PC)
Contents 4 Designing the building 4.2 Natural ventilation
Natural ventilation Intent Good indoor air-quality is essential for healthy and comfortable living environments. Achieving the best possible natural ventilation standards is a more robust and sustainable approach than over-reliance on mechanical ventilation and airâ€‘conditioning.
Natural cross ventilation is achieved by apartments having more than one aspect with direct exposure to the prevailing winds, or windows located in significantly different pressure regions, rather than relying on purely wind driven air. Apartment layout and building depth have a close relationship with the ability of an apartment to be naturally ventilated. Generally as the building gets deeper, effective airflow reduces.
Considerations in the early stages of a project can yield significant benefits, hence these provisions to be reviewed in development applications, complement the more technical requirements of the NCC 4B.8 applied at building permit stage. Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration for natural ventilation include Built form and scale, Functionality and build quality and Amenity.
Figure 4.2a Prevailing winds vary for different locations and depend on local conditions. For coastal areas in WA, cooling breezes in summer tend to come from a south-westerly direction.
Figure 4.2b Door and window sizes on opposite sides of an apartment influence cross ventilation performance.
Figure 4.2c The floor plan above demonstrates one approach for how five of a total of eight apartments achieve natural cross ventilation.
4.2 OBJECTIVE 4.2.1
All habitable rooms can be naturally ventilated.
The number of apartments with natural cross ventilation is maximised to create a comfortable indoor environment for residents.
The layout and design of single aspect apartments maximises natural ventilation and, where possible, cross ventilation.
DESIGN GUIDANCE The building’s orientation and facade design maximises capture and use of prevailing cooling breezes for natural ventilation in habitable rooms. Depth of habitable rooms to be minimised as much as practicable in order to optimise natural ventilation. Light wells should not be the primary air source for habitable rooms. Doors and openable windows maximise natural ventilation opportunities by using the following design solutions: —— adjustable windows with large effective openable areas; —— windows which the occupants can reconfigure to funnel breezes into the apartment such as vertical louvres, casement windows and externally opening doors.
DC1 – At least 60% of apartments are naturally cross ventilated in the first nine storeys of the building. Apartments at 10 storeys or greater are deemed to be cross-ventilated only if any enclosure of the balconies at these levels allows adequate natural ventilation and cannot be fully enclosed.
DC1 – Single-aspect apartments to be considered for the 60% minimum requirement for natural ventilation provided they meet the following:
DC2 – Overall depths of cross-over or cross-through apartments do not exceed 18m measured glass line to glass line. Apartment Depth
Cross-over & crossthrough ventilation
Up to 15m
Does not meet criteria
Table 4.2.2 Dual-aspect apartment depths for cross ventilation.
DESIGN GUIDANCE The building should include dual aspect apartments, cross through apartments and corner apartments. In cross-through apartments external window and door opening sizes/ areas on the leeward (low pressure or downwind) side of an apartment should be equal to or larger than the external window and doors opening sizes/areas on the windward (high pressure or upwind) side.
—— ventilation openings face within 45 o of the prevailing cooling wind direction; —— ventilation openings are equivalent to 7% of the floor area of the room; and —— Room depth is not more than 3 x ceiling height (8m for a 2.7m high ceiling). Apartment Depth
Up to 5.5m
Does not meet criteria
Table 4.2.3 Single-aspect apartment depths for natural ventilation.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Natural ventilation to single aspect apartments in achieved with the following design solutions: —— Primary windows are augmented with plenums and light wells (generally not suitable for cross ventilation). —— Stack effect ventilation/solar chimneys, wind scoops or similar to naturally ventilate internal building areas or rooms such as bathrooms and laundries (particularly in climate zone 3). —— Courtyards or building indentations have a width to depth ratio of less than 3:1 to ensure effective air circulation and avoid trapped smells.
Contents 4 Designing the building 4.3 Ceiling heights
Ceiling heights Intent
Service bulkhead Nonhabitable (e.g. bathroom)
Ceiling height is directly linked to achieving good natural ventilation and daylight access to habitable rooms. The ground and first floor levels of mixed use apartment buildings should have increased ceiling heights to ensure their longer-term adaptability for other uses.
Residential ground floor
Figure 4.3b Ceiling heights of minimum 2.7m help to achieve good daylight access and natural ventilation to residential apartments.
Increased ceiling heights for cafes/restaurants
2.4 m 2.7 m
Double height space for smaller apartments
Figure 4.3a Service bulkheads are located with non-habitable rooms and limit incursion into habitable spaces.
Design principles (see 1.3) that particularly relate to ceiling heights include Built form and scale, Functionality and build quality and Amenity.
(3.3 m) 4m
The overall building height is highly constrained once established in a development application, so internal ceiling heights need to be considered at planning stage. The provisions for ceiling heights included in this policy complement the more technical requirements of the NCC applied at building permitÂ stage.
The size of an apartment is most often discussed in terms of floor area, but ceiling heights also have a significant effect on the perceived spaciousness of interiors. The width, depth and height of rooms should be considered in concert to create wellproportioned spaces. These proportions also relate closely to the daylighting and natural ventilation characteristics of rooms.
Cafe / Restaurant
Figure 4.3c Greater than minimum ceiling heights for retail and commercial floors of mixed use developments are encouraged to promote flexibility of use. Cafe and restaurant uses should have ceiling heights of 4m to allow for additional servicing needs.
4.3 OBJECTIVE 4.3.1 Ceiling heights provide for well-proportioned spaces and facilitate natural ventilation and daylight access.
DESIGN CRITERIA DC1 – Measured from finished floor level to finished ceiling level, minimum ceiling heights are: —— Habitable rooms – 2.7m —— Non-habitable rooms – 2.4m —— For two storey apartments – 2.7m for main living area floor and 2.4m for second floor —— Loft/attic spaces – Refer to NCC requirements. The portion of room with ceiling height more than 1.5m can be included in required minimum floor area calculations. Photo 4.3a Higher ceilings can make small rooms feel spacious.
—— If located in mixed use areas – 3.3m for ground and first floor to promote future flexibility of use. This may be varied to meet site specific level constraints or if a strong local precedent of a different height can be demonstrated.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Ceiling height can accommodate use of ceiling fans for cooling and heat distribution. Greater than minimum ceiling heights for commercial and retail floors of mixed use developments are encouraged to promote flexibility of use. Café and restaurant uses require greater minimum ceiling heights of 4m to allow for additional servicing needs.
Photo 4.3b Bulkheads concealing mechanical services can also serve to delineate spaces in an open plan layout. (PC)
The hierarchy of rooms in an apartment is defined using changes in ceiling heights, such as raked or curved ceilings, or double height spaces. Where possible, locate bulkheads above non-habitable areas such as robes or storage, to maintain higher ceilings in habitable areas. Where DC1 ceiling heights are not achieved, applicants should demonstrate that room depths are comensurately limited.
OBJECTIVE 4.3.2 Ceiling heights contribute to the flexibility of building use over the life of the building.
Photo 4.3c Ceilings can be a striking design element to add to the character and legibility of communal areas. (PC)
Ceiling heights of lower level apartments in urban corridors or centres should be greater than the minimum required by the Design Criteria allowing flexibility and conversion to non-residential uses (see Figure 4.3c).
Contents 4 Designing the building 4.4 Apartment size and layout
Apartment size and layout 4D.3
Intent Like house dwellers, people living in apartments need spaces that support their lifestyles, with rooms to spend time with family and friends, rooms to seek time alone, and a range of functional spaces for cooking, cleaning, washing and storage. By their nature, apartments are a relatively compact dwelling type, but with the right design considerations they can be efficient and enabling spaces. Apartment sizes and layout configurations are endlessly variable, but this element sets out some basic standards and common principles to be used when designing and reviewing development proposals. These provisions are intended to help cultivate good practice standards within the apartment market that will strengthen the acceptance and status of apartments amongst other housing types. While recommended minimum apartment sizes have been noted in the Design Criteria, it is recognised that there is a role for well-designed apartments that fall below these sizes, as they can contribute to housing diversity and affordability. Using the guidance provided, proponents can provide smaller apartments, provided they can demonstrate that they are fit for purpose and offer an appropriate level amenity for theÂ occupant. Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration for apartment size and layout include Functionality and build quality, Amenity, Community and Aesthetics.
Photo 4.4a Apartment layouts are designed to accommodate a variety of household activities and needs. Apartments with living rooms that extend out to the balcony are often a preferred layout as it maximises spaces as well as provide dwellers with the feeling of an extended living area.
Ceiling height = X
The maximum depth for open plan layouts (living, dining, kitchen) is 3 x ceiling height or 8m
OK for open plan layouts
Figure 4.4a The depth of a single aspect apartment relative to the ceiling height directly influences the quality of natural ventilation and daylight access. The maximum depth of open layouts that combine living, dining and kitchen spaces is 8 metres.
4.4 OBJECTIVE 4.4.1
The layout of rooms within an apartment is functional, well-organised and provides a high standard of amenity.
The proportions and layout of rooms supports the environmental performance of the apartment.
DC1 – Apartments meet the minimum internal areas of the following table:
DC1 – Greater than minimum ceiling heights can allow for proportional increases in room depth up to the permitted maximum depths
Minimum internal Areas
Table 4.4.1 Minimum internal areas.
Notes: The minimum internal areas include only one bathroom. Additional bathrooms increase the minimum internal area by 5m2 each. A fourth bedroom and further additional bedrooms increase the minimum internal area by 12m2 each.
—— Habitable room depths should not exceed 3x the ceiling height. —— In open plan layouts (where the living, dining and kitchen are combined) the maximum habitable room depth is 8m from a window.
DESIGN GUIDANCE All living areas and bedrooms should be located on the external face of the building. Where possible provide an external openable window to bathrooms and laundries. Main living spaces should be oriented toward the primary outlook and aspect and away from noise sources.
Areas are measured according to the plot ratio area of each apartment.
DESIGN GUIDANCE In a studio apartment a bed area should not be enclosed with permanent walls on more than three sides. Where DC1 minimum areas or room dimensions are not achieved, applicants need to demonstrate that the apartment design ensures usable and functional space despite the smaller area. Realistically-scaled furniture layouts and circulation areas should be shown. These circumstances would be assessed on their merits. Development proposals with apartment sizes significantly smaller than DC1 areas should provide appropriate detail of non-standard fitout design needed to achieve spaceefficiency.
Contents 4 Designing the building 4.4_1 - STUDIO 4.4_1 - STUDIO 4.4 Apartment size and layout
4.4_5 - 2 BEDDER CORNER
4.4_2 - 1 BEDDER
STUDIO TYPE 1
STUDIO TYPE 1
STUDIO TYPE 2
STUDIO TYPE 2
1-bedroom examples HEIRRISON PLAN ROTATED ^
4.4_2 - 1 BEDDER
1-bedroom / 2 storey example
SOUTH FACING DUAL ASPECT HEIRRISON PLAN ROTATED ^
4.4_3 - 1 BEDDER 2 LEVEL
4.4_3 - 1 BEDDER 2 LEVEL
Figure 4.4b Indicative apartment layouts of different configurations. These do not represent the only solutions.
4.4_7 - 2 BEDDER SOUTH FACING DUAL ASPECT
4.4_8 - 3 BEDDER
OBJECTIVE 4.4.3 Apartment layouts are designed to accommodate a variety of household activities and needs.
DESIGN CRITERIA DC1 – Master bedrooms have a minimum area of 10m2 and other bedrooms 9m2 (excluding wardrobes). DC2 – Bedrooms have a minimum dimension of 3m (excluding wardrobe space). DC3 – Living rooms or combined living/dining rooms have a minimum width of: —— 3.6m for studio and 1-bedroom apartments —— 4m for 2-bedroom and 3-bedroom apartments.
4.4_9 - 3 BEDDER CORNER
DESIGN GUIDANCE Where possible, avoid direct access from living areas to bedrooms, bathrooms and laundries. Provide sufficient space for robes, generally at least 1.8m long for main bedroom or 1.5m for other bedrooms. Apartment layouts allow flexibility over time, design solutions may include: —— dimensions that facilitate a variety of furniture arrangements and removal —— spaces for a range of activities and privacy levels between different spaces within the apartment —— dual-master apartments or dual-key apartments (note: apartments which are separate but on the same title are regarded as two sole occupancy units for the purposes of the NCC and for calculating the mix of apartments) —— room sizes and proportions or open plans (rectangular spaces (2:3) are more easily furnished than square spaces (1:1))
4.4_4 - 2 BEDDER 2 LEVEL
2-bedroom / 2 storey example
—— efficient planning of circulation by stairs, corridors and through rooms to maximise the amount of usable floor space in rooms. Cross-over or cross-through apartments should have an internal width of at least 4m, to avoid deep narrow apartment layouts.
Figure 4.4c Indicative apartment layouts of different configurations. These do not represent the only solutions.
Contents 4 Designing the building 4.5 Private open space and balconies
Private open space and balconies Intent Well-designed balconies, terraces and courtyards can support indoor-outdoor living in apartment buildings. The appropriate size and configuration of balconies will vary according to the nature of the development, including: —— urban context, relationship to views and landscape —— apartment type, market, demographic —— physical conditions, climate, exposure, height.
Whether they are compact or more generous in size, balconies should be designed to be well-integrated with apartment spaces and to be useful, enabling spaces. With appropriate design consideration, balconies can provide for pets, gardens and play space for children, supporting more diverse apartment communities. The configuration and detailing of balconies and terraces is a significant design element of facades (see 4.12) and can be used for articulation of building form and materiality. Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration for apartment size and layout include Functionality and build quality, Amenity and Community.
Photo 4.5a This apartment provides a large, useful balcony which is partially covered, allowing for plenty of natural light as well as protection from the weather (both shade and rain). The balcony is an extension of the living room, giving the apartment a feeling of space and comfort.
Figure 4.5a Building layout should maximise balcony use by allowing access from the main living area and a bedroom (where possible). Secondary balconies provide further amenity to apartment living and are best accessed off kitchen and laundries.
4.5 OBJECTIVE 4.5.1
Apartments provide appropriately-sized private open space and balconies to enhance residential amenity.
Primary private open spaces and balconies are appropriately located and orientated to enhance liveability for residents.
DC1 – All apartments have primary balconies meeting the standards of following table:
Primary open space and balconies should be located adjacent to the living room, dining room or kitchen to extend the living space.
1 bedroom apartment
2 bedroom apartments
3 bedroom apartments
In climate zones 4, 5 and 6, private open spaces and balconies predominantly face north, east or west. Primary open space and balconies should be orientated with the longer side facing outwards or be open to the sky to optimise daylight access into adjacent rooms.
Table 4.5.1 Balcony requirements.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Increased communal open space should be provided where the number or size of balconies are reduced. Storage areas on balconies is additional to the minimum balcony size. For apartments at ground level or on a podium or similar structure, a private open space should be provided instead of a balcony. It sho uld have a minimum area of 15m2 and a minimum depth of 3m. Balcony use may be limited in some proposals by: —— consistently high wind speeds at 10 storeys and above; —— close proximity to road, rail or other noise sources; —— exposure to significant levels of aircraft noise; —— heritage and adaptive reuse of existing buildings. In these situations, Juliet balconies, operable walls, enclosed wintergardens or bay windows may be appropriate, and other amenity benefits for occupants should also be provided in the apartments or in the development or both. Natural ventilation also needs to be demonstrated.
Contents 4 Designing the building 4.5 Private open space and balconies
Ground floor apartments and podium levels should provide private terraces.
A balcony with a minimum depth of 2 metres is appropriate for 1 and 2 bedroom apartments and fits a table and 2-4 chairs.
1, 2, 3 +
A balcony for a three bedroom apartment has a minimum depth of 2.4 metres fit a table and 4-6 chairs.
Noisy locations may necessitate different solutions such as enclosed wintergardens, balconies with operable walls, bay windows or Juliet balconies.
Figure 4.5b Diagrams illustrating minimum balcony depth and options for noise treatment.
Photo 4.5b Balconies with storage units are successfully integrated into the facade design.
Photo 4.5c Balconies in laneway provide passive surveillance.
4.5 OBJECTIVE 4.5.3 Private open space and balcony design is integrated into and contributes to the overall architectural form and detail of the building.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Solid, partially solid or transparent fences and balustrades are selected to respond to the location. They are designed to allow views and passive surveillance of the street while maintaining visual privacy and allowing for a range of uses on the balcony. Solid and partially solid balustrades are generally preferred but visual privacy screening should be minimised.
Photo 4.5d Balconies can enhance the amenity of the residents by providing extra space and views. (PC)
Full width full height glass balustrades alone are generally not desirable. Providing a portion of opaque balustrade allows for the storage of unsightly objects and offers occupants the choice of privacy, while optimising outlook. Projecting balconies should be integrated into the building design and the design of soffits considered. Operable screens, shutters, hoods and pergolas are used to control sunlight and wind. Balustrades are set back from the building or balcony edge where overlooking or safety is an issue. Downpipes and balcony drainage are integrated with the overall facade and building design. Air-conditioning units should be located on roofs, in basements, storerooms, or fully integrated into the building design. No exposed pipework or outdoor units should be visible from the street.
Photo 4.5e Providing generous, covered balconies allows them to be used as living spaces. (PC)
Where clothes drying, storage or air conditioning units are located on balconies, they should be screened and integrated in the building design. Air conditioners installed in storerooms adjacent to balconies should be installed at a high level and vent away from habitable areas. Ceilings of apartments below terraces should be insulated to avoid heat loss and minimise heat gain. Consider providing a water tap for plants and gas outlet for a barbeque to primary balconies and private open space.
Photo 4.5f Where noise is a factor, an enclosed wintergarden can balance protection and openness.
Contents 4 Designing the building 4.6 Circulation and common spaces
Circulation and common spaces Intent Entries, lifts, stairs, corridors and walkways are the stage for everyday interactions between apartment residents. Although primarily functional spaces, when they are welcoming and attractive places in their own right, circulation spaces can improve these interactions and help foster a sense of community in an apartment building. Dedicated communal facilities responsive to the needs of residents can provide further opportunities for shared activity and engagement.
The configuration of circulation spaces (such as enclosed-corridor or open-walkway, single or 4F.7 double loaded access) has a strong relationship to the siting and orientation (see 3.2) of development. Sometimes primary built form massing decisions can rely on satisfactory resolution of circulation. It is also an important factor in the apartment building layouts, to ensure privacy and amenity of rooms adjacent to circulation spaces. Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration for common circulation and spaces include Functionality and build quality, Amenity, Legibility, Safety and Community.
Photo 4.6a These external circulation corridors provide plenty of light and ventilation as well as varying degrees of shelter through the different types of balustrades. (PC)
Photo 4.6b The seating and lobby area are located between the entrance and the lifts for these apartments to provide an incidental space for social interaction between residents to occur. (PC)
Figure 4.6a Windows provide daylight and natural ventilation to common circulation spaces.
4.6 OBJECTIVE 4.6.1 Common circulation spaces achieve good amenity and properly service the number of apartments.
DESIGN CRITERIA DC1 - No more than 12 apartments on a single level are served by a single circulation core. DC2 - (For buildings of 10 storeys and over) No more than 40 apartments on are served by a single lift. DC3 - Circulation corridors are at least 1.5m in width (other requirements may also apply). DC4 - The width of the lift landing exceeds the internal depth of the lift car.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Additional corridor widths and/ or ceiling heights allow comfortable movement and access particularly in entry lobbies, outside lifts and at apartment entry doors. Daylight and natural ventilation should be provided to all common circulation spaces that are above ground. Windows should be provided in common circulation spaces and should be adjacent to the stair or lift core or at the ends of corridors. Corridors greater than 12m in length from the lift core should consider design measures to improve corridor amenity, including: —— foyer areas with windows and spaces for seating; —— widening for apartment entries and varied ceiling heights. Design circulation spaces to maximise opportunities for dual aspect apartments, including multiple-core apartment buildings and cross-over apartments. Where a development is unable to achieve DC1, a high level of amenity for common lobbies, corridors and apartments should be demonstrated, including: —— sunlight and natural cross ventilation in apartments; —— access to ample daylight and natural ventilation in common circulation spaces; —— common areas for seating and gathering ; —— increased corridor widths and ceiling heights; —— other innovative design solutions that add to amenity.
Photo 4.6c Combining circulation pathway with communal open space makes outdoor areas integral to resident experience. (PC)
Primary living room or bedroom windows should not open directly onto common circulation spaces, whether open or enclosed. Visual and acoustic privacy from common circulation spaces to any other rooms should be carefully controlled.
Contents 4 Designing the building 4.6 Circulation and common spaces
Optimise size and position of windows for light and privacy
Consider views from walkways to dwellings above and below
Structural separation of common walkway from habitable rooms.
Recessed balcony with void to common walkway.
Planter bed creates a buffer between walkway and habitable rooms.
Figure 4.6b A range of design responses to maintaining comfortable separation between open gallery accessways and apartments.
Void and store create separation between common walkway and habitable rooms.
4.6 OBJECTIVE 4.6.2 Common circulation and communal spaces promote safety and provide for social interaction between residents.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Figure 4.6c The total number of apartments accessed from a single circulation core should not be more than 12.
Direct and legible access should be provided between vertical circulation points and apartment entries by minimising corridor or gallery length to give short, straight, clear sight lines. Tight corners and spaces are avoided. Circulation spaces should be well-lit at night. Where possible, design common stairs to be pleasant and accessible for everyday use as an alternative to the lift, to encourage physical activity among residents. Legible signage should be provided for apartment numbers, common areas and general wayfinding. Incidental spaces, for example space for seating in a corridor, at a stair landing, or near a window are provided.
Figure 4.6d Multiple cores improve natural cross ventilation and provide more entries along the street, increasing activity and passive surveillance.
Where external galleries are provided, they are more open than closed above the balustrade along their length. In larger developments, community rooms for activities such as strata committee meetings or resident use should be provided and are ideally co-located with communal open space. Consider spaces flexible enough to accommodate a variety of uses, such as creche, menâ€™s shed or playgrounds. Providing facilities and spaces that can also be used by the public can promote a sense of connection with the wider community.
Figure 4.6e External gallery access can be useful to maximise a desirable aspect for apartments or as a buffer to a noise source.
Figure 4.6f Mixed use buildings may have a range of circulation spaces including multiple cores, gallery access and doubleloaded corridors with cross-over apartments.
Photo 4.6d Distinctive graphic treatments make entrances and circulation spaces unique and easily recognisable. The tapering entrance space offers better sightlines and connection with the street than a long, narrow corridor. (PC)
Contents 4 Designing the building 4.7 Storage
Storage Intent Apartment sizes vary but in general they are a compact dwelling type and need to be designed for particular efficiency. Providing dedicated storage space can help to preserve living spaces, reduce the need for storage off-site and enable residents to maintain their hobbies and lifestyle choices. Storage provision should be proportionate to the size of apartments and be adaptable to a range of possible uses. Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration for storage include Functionality and build quality and Amenity.
Photo 4.7a This storage area is integrated into the balcony design, weatherproof and screened from view.
Photo 4.7b Safe, secure and well ventilated storage is well located in the circulation area near the entrance to the apartment.
4.7 OBJECTIVE 4.7.1
Adequately-sized and well-designed storage is provided for each apartment.
Additional storage is conveniently located, accessible and nominated for individual apartments.
DESIGN CRITERIA DC1 â€“ In addition to storage in kitchens, bathrooms and bedrooms, apartments include storage according to the table below, of which up to 50% may be separate from the apartment.
1 bedroom apartment
2 bedroom apartments
3 bedroom apartments
Table 4.7.1 Storage requirements.
Storage not located in apartments is secure and clearly allocated to specific apartments. Storage is provided for larger and less frequently accessed items. Storage space in internal or basement car parks is provided at the rear or side of car spaces or in cages so that allocated car parking remains accessible. If communal storage rooms are provided they should be accessible from common circulation areas of the building. Storage not located in an apartment is integrated into the overall building design and is not visible from the public domain.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Storage should be accessible from either circulation or living areas. Storage provided on balconies (in addition to the minimum balcony size) should be integrated into the balcony design, weather proof and screened from view from the street. Left over space such as under stairs can be used for storage. Irregular shaped storage spaces can be evaluated according to the equivalent volume of DC1 areas x 2m height. Consider locating services such as A/C units at high levels in the storeroom so as to retain storage functionality below. Bicycles can be accommodated within stores when provide with bicycle mount at high levels in the storeroom so as not to obstruct storage functionally.
Contents 4 Designing the building 4.8 Acoustic privacy
Acoustic privacy Intent To support more people living in close proximity, apartment buildings should provide effective sound separation to limit disturbances between neighbours. The physical performance of the building fabric is an important part of managing sound transmission, which is regulated by the technical standards of the BCA (Part F5). Design considerations at planning stage can also make a significant contribution to achieving acoustic privacy, through well-considered arrangements of public and private spaces for different activities within and outside the development. This section outlines typical considerations for acoustic privacy. For constrained sites such as sites near a rail corridor, major roads or underneath flight paths, refer to 4.9 Noise and Pollution for further guidance. Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration for storage include Functionality and build quality and Amenity.
Figure 4.8a The building layout should protect living areas and bedrooms from impacts of noise by avoiding adjacency between living spaces and the noisy circulation core.
4.8 OBJECTIVE 4.8.1
Noise transfer is minimised through the siting and layout of buildings.
Reduce internal noise transfer between apartments within a building through layout and acoustic treatments.
Adequate building separation is provided within the development and from neighbouring buildings/adjacent uses (see also 2.6 Building Separation and 3.6 Visual Privacy).
Internal apartment layout separates noisy spaces from quiet spaces, using design solutions including:
Window and door openings are generally orientated away from or shielded from noise sources.
—— rooms with similar noise requirements are grouped together;
Noisy areas within buildings including building entries and corridors should be located next to or above each other and quieter areas next to or above quieter areas.
—— wardrobes in bedrooms are located to buffer noise sources.
Storage, circulation areas and nonhabitable rooms should be located to buffer noise from external sources. Noise sources such as garage doors, driveways, service areas, plant rooms, building services, mechanical equipment, active communal open spaces and circulation areas should be located at least 3m away from bedrooms. The structure-borne noise transmission from these noise sources should also be mitigated. Locate living areas and bed rooms away from lifts, communal stairwells and communal bin stores.
—— doors separate different usezones;
Where physical separation cannot be achieved, noise conflicts are resolved using design solutions including: —— acoustic glazing or double glazing; —— acoustic seals to doors and windows; —— acoustic floor-finishes; —— use of materials with high sound reduction properties, with preference to high mass materials; —— continuous walls to ground level courtyards where they do not conflict with streetscape or other amenity requirements.
Contents 4 Designing the building 4.9 Noise and pollution
Noise and pollution 4J.2/4J.3
Intent Where development sites may be affected by noise or pollution factors, careful design solutions can help maintain good living amenity in apartment developments. Typical challenges include proximity to major roads, rail lines and beneath flight paths.
Louvres open for maximum natural ventilation
Responding to these factors in the siting and orientation (see 3.1, 3.2) of the development can help minimise the impact on living amenity and identify appropriate strategies for detailed design measures. Development near busy roads, rail infrastructure and airports should refer to State Planning Policy 5.4 - Road and Rail Transport Noise and Freight Considerations in Land Use Planning Developments near Perth Airports should refer to State Planning Policy 5.1 - Land Use Planning in the Vicinity of Perth Airport. Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration for noise and pollution include Functionality and build quality, Amenity and Safety.
Louvres partly open for natural ventilation with some noise penetration
Enclosed balconies with openable acoustic/glass louvres for flexibility
Acoustic soffit-lining to balcony absorbs noise
Louvres closed to minimise noise
Figure 4.9a Enclosed balconies or â€˜wintergardensâ€™ can mitigate site noise impacts such as major road and rail corridors.
Photo 4.9a Louvres and sliding sash glazing enable modulation of enclosure and openness.
Apartment protected from noise by podium below
Photo 4.9b By considering noise sources in the orientation of the building and the design of facades and windows, good living conditions can be achieved even in close proximity to noise sources. (PC)
Figure 4.9b Setting back the residential component above a podium helps shield apartments from major noise. Balcony soffits can be treated with sound absorption to assist to mitigate noise.
4.9 OBJECTIVE 4.9.1
In noisy environments the impacts of external noise and pollution are minimised through the careful siting and layout of buildings.
Appropriate noise shielding or attenuation techniques for the building design, construction and choice of materials are used to mitigate noise transmission.
To minimise impacts the following design solutions may be used:
Design solutions to mitigate noise include:
—— Maximise the distance between the noise source and the residential facade. —— Residential uses are located perpendicular to the noise source and where possible buffered by other uses. —— Non-residential buildings are sited to be parallel with the noise source to act as an acoustic barrier that shields the residential uses and communal open spaces. —— Lower floor commercial tenancies are configured as a podium to block the residential apartments from street level noise sources. —— Building should respond to both solar access and noise. Where solar access is away from the noise source, nonhabitable rooms can provide a buffer.
—— Where solar access is in the same direction as the noise source, dual aspect apartments with shallow building depths are preferable. —— Whilst landscaping (trees and shrubs) do not physically act as a noise barrier, it can reduce the perceived level of noise. Landscaping can also act as a filter for air pollution generated by traffic and industry.
—— Limiting the number and size of openings facing noise sources. —— Providing effective seals to the perimeter of openable windows, doors, and louvres to prevent acoustic leakage through gaps. —— Use high mass construction systems for external walls. —— Design the balconies to reduce the level of noise reaching the apartment facade, including of acoustically solid balustrades, acoustic absorption to the underside of the soffit within the balcony, vertical screens that block line-of-sight with the noise source. —— Using acoustic glass, double-glazing or acoustic louvres. —— Consider enclosed balconies or ‘wintergardens’ to mitigate significant site noise. Note that BCA and DFES regulations will apply.
The requirement for facade attenuation for compliance with the State Planning Policy 5.4 should not diminish the proponent’s responsibility to provide solar and daylight access, private open space and balconies, and natural crossflow ventilation.
Width allows sunlight and daylight access Retractable privacy screens Retractable glazed acoustic screens Residential Commercial
Figure 4.9c Manage noise and pollution by providing non-residential uses at lower levels (vertical separation), setting-back residential uses (horizontal separation) and orienting private open space and windows that provide natural ventilation to habitable rooms away from the busy road or rail corridor.
Full height glazed sliding doors
Figure 4.9d Balconies designed as acoustically sealed wintergardens can improve liveability of the balcony and adjoining habitable rooms. In considering how much of the facade is solid or open, the width of the opening needs to be sufficient to allow sunlight and daylight access.
Contents 4 Designing the building 4.10 Apartment mix
Apartment mix 4K.3
Intent As apartments become a common alternative to single and attached houses, large and small configurations should be included in new developments to reflect the diversity of households and individuals that may wish to live in a particular area — they could be singles, couples, families or those with certain needs. Apartment mix refers to the percentage of apartments with different numbers of bedrooms in a development. To inform an appropriate apartment mix for the development, housing needs in the local area should be analysed, with reference to demographic trends and the relevant local planning strategy. Provision for flexible apartment configurations should be encouraged to accommodate changing demographics and allow existing residents to adapt their living arrangements over time. This is particularly important because apartment buildings are in place for a long time.
Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration for apartment mix include Context and character, Functionality and build quality, Amenity and Community.
2 Bed ‘up & over’
2 Bed ‘up & over’
Figure 4.10a Large apartments are often located on the ground or roof level due to opportunities for increased private open space. Internal common circulation (e.g. corridors) can be reduced by adding ‘up and over’ apartments to the mix.
3 Bed 2 Bed
Figure 4.10b A variety of apartments can be accommodated within a floor plate.
4.10 OBJECTIVE 4.10.1 A range of apartment types and sizes is provided to cater for different household types now and into the future.
DESIGN GUIDANCE An appropriate mix of apartment types should be provided, taking into consideration: —— objectives identified in the relevant local planning strategy or local housing strategy; —— the distance to public transport, employment and education centres; —— the current market demands and projected future demographic trends; —— the demand for social and affordable housing; —— different cultural and socioeconomic groups. Flexible apartment configurations are provided to support diverse household types and stages of life including single person households, families, multi-generational families and group households. Consider providing apartment types of larger size to suit families, multi-generational and group households.
OBJECTIVE 4.10.2 The apartment mix is distributed to suitable locations within the building.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Different apartment types are located to achieve successful facade composition and to optimise solar access. Larger apartment types are located on the ground and/or roof level where there is potential for larger terraces and on corners where more building frontage is available.
Photo 4.10a Apartment types can relate to different orientations and building form elements. (PC)
Photo 4.10b A range of apartment types and sizes is provided to cater for different household types now and into the future. (PC)
Contents 4 Designing the building 4.11 Ground floor apartments
Ground floor apartments Intent
Ground floor apartments offer opportunities for housing diversity by varying dwelling types from those at upper levels. The potential for good accessibility may suit adaptation for multi-age and disabled-access units. Apartments with direct street access could suit configuration for home office unit types. The potential for larger gardens or courtyards at ground floor may be advantageous for larger family apartment types. These characteristics could be used to assist meeting provisions of 4.10 Apartment mix. The ground floor condition also requires particular attention to the interface between private dwellings and communal 4L.4 spaces or streetscape. A well-considered arrangement can offer positive street activation and passive surveillance characteristics. Refer also to 3.7 Public Domain Interface and 3.8 Pedestrian access and entries. Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration in regard to ground floor apartments include Amenity, Legibility, Safety and Community.
Ground floor furnished as home-office
Ground floor furnished as living unit
Figure 4.11.a Plan and section of a ground floor apartment with an elevated terrace and a level private courtyard.
Figure 4.11.a Plan and section of a multi-storey apartment with potential for home-office use.
4.11 OBJECTIVE 4.11.1
Street frontage activity is maximised where ground floor apartments are located.
Design of ground floor apartments delivers amenity and safety for residents.
Direct street access to ground floor apartments can be beneficial to residents and the streetscape.
Privacy and safety should be provided without obstructing casual surveillance. Design solutions may include:
Activity is facilitated through front gardens, terraces and the facade of the building. Design solutions may include: —— both street, foyer and other common internal circulation entrances to ground floor apartments; —— private open space is next to the street; —— doors and windows face the street. Fencing treatments to balance the need for privacy and with passive surveillance and activation of the street. Retail or home office spaces should be located along street frontages.
—— elevation of private gardens and terraces above the street level by 1m to 1.5m; —— landscaping and private courtyards to provide a buffer between public and private space; —— window sill heights that minimise sight lines into apartments; —— integrating balustrades, safety bars or screens with the exterior design. Solar access should be maximised through: —— high ceilings and tall windows; —— trees and shrubs that allow solar access in winter and shade in summer.
Ground floor apartment layouts support small office/home office use to provide future opportunities for conversion into commercial or retail areas. In these cases provide higher floor to ceiling heights and ground floor amenities for easy conversion.
Photo 4.11a Direct street access to ground floor apartments can be beneficial to residents and the streetscape.
Photos 4.11b Achieving the right balance between solid and open balustrades, helps to make a comfortable relationship between public and private spaces.
Contents 4 Designing the building 4.12 Facades
Facades Intent The composition of the facade is the most evident expression of the design of a building to its surroundings. When a new building is introduced into a streetscape, it is an opportunity to relate to existing proportions and features, or to introduce new characteristics in dialogue with surrounding buildings. Good facade design demonstrates a well-conceived concept that informs all scales, from articulation of building form through to materiality and detail. A coherent design logic can unify the functional elements of the building into a composition that makes a positive contribution to the surroundings. Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration for facades include Context and character, Built form and scale, Functionality and build quality, Legibility andÂ Aesthetics.
Photo 4.12a A â€˜twistâ€™ at the corner creates an interesting play on the strong geometrical lines of the facade, highlighting the corner of the building.
4.12 OBJECTIVE 4.12.1 Building facades provide visual interest along the street while respecting the character of the local area.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Design solutions for front building facades may include: —— a composition of varied building elements —— a defined base, middle and top of buildings —— revealing and concealing certain elements —— changes in texture, material, detail and colour to modify the prominence of elements. Photo 4.12b Differentiating detailing and materials helps to articulate building form. (PC)
Locate building service fixtures away from street frontages where possible. Building service fixtures should be integrated within the facade design. Vent and downpipe locations should be noted on plans and elevations. Building facades should be well resolved with an appropriate scale and proportion to the streetscape and human scale. Design solutions may include: —— well-composed horizontal and vertical elements; —— variation in floor heights to enhance the human scale; —— elements that are proportional and arranged in patterns; —— public artwork or treatments to exterior blank walls; —— grouping of floors or elements such as balconies and windows on taller buildings.
Photo 4.12c Varying the depth and form can add interest to a facade. (PC)
Building facades relate to key datum lines of adjacent buildings through upper level setbacks, parapets, cornices, awnings or colonnade heights. Shadow is created on the facade throughout the day with building articulation, balconies and deeper window reveals.
OBJECTIVE 4.12.2 Building functions are expressed by the facade.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Building entries should be clearly defined. Important corners are given visual prominence through a change in articulation, materials or colour, roof expression or changes in height.
Photo 4.12d Overlaid screens with a regular grid rationalise the appearance of the irregular windows and inset balconies, projecting both a unified volume and a modulating pattern.
Contents 4 Designing the building 4.13 Roof design
Roof design Intent Apartment buildings are often prominent in an urban skyline and the roof design is an important design element. Apartment facades are often characterised by repetition of the dwelling module, and the roof treatment may be an opportunity to differentiate that form and resolve the overall composition. Recognisable and memorable features can contribute to local identity and wayfinding. Apartment roofs also offer functional possibilities, such as communal gardens and facilities or distinctive dwelling types. Building height (see 2.6) provisions should make allowance for appropriate roof treatments. Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration for roof design include Context and character, Built form and scale, Functionality and build quality andÂ Aesthetics.
Photo 4.13a In larger apartment project, communal facilities such as swimming pool, open space, BBQ, dining area, lounge, gym are very often located on the open/roof area to maximise its usage. 118
Photo 4.13b Well-designed roof terraces, with good levels of shade and wind protection, can provide communal space for residents. (PC)
4.13 OBJECTIVE 4.13.1
Roof treatments are integrated into the building design and positively respond to the street.
Opportunities to use roof space for residential accommodation and open space are maximised.
Roof design incorporates sustainability features.
Roof design relates to the street. Design solutions may include: —— special roof features and strong corners; —— use of skillion or very low pitch hipped roofs; —— breaking down the massing of the roof by using smaller elements to avoid bulk; —— using materials or a pitched form complementary to adjacent buildings;
Habitable roof space should be provided with good levels of amenity. Design solutions may include: —— penthouse apartments —— dormer or clerestory windows —— openable skylights. Provide open space on roof tops, subject to acceptable visual and acoustic privacy, comfort levels, safety and security considerations.
—— concealed roofs. Roof treatments should be integrated with the building design. Design solutions may include: —— roof design proportionate to the overall building size, scale and form;
DESIGN GUIDANCE Roof design maximises solar access to apartments during winter and provides shade during summer. Design solutions may include: —— skillion roof with north-facing clerestory windows (excluding climate zones 1 and 3). —— eaves and overhangs shade walls and windows from summer sun. Skylights and ventilation systems should be integrated into the roof design. Green roofs are encouraged. Refer to 4.15 Planting on Structures. Provide an area of roof that is suitable for a photovoltaic system, located to reduced visibility from ground level. Consider optimum solar collection angle for the roof, according to the relevant climate zone.
—— roof materials complement the building; —— service elements are integrated into the design, considering position, alignment and screening where appropriate.
Photo 4.13c Roof treatment being integrated into the overall design of the building.
Photo 4.13d The roof line of this development mimics the original building’s roof structure.
Contents 4 Designing the building 4.14 Landscape design
Landscape design Intent Landscape design integrates the apartment building and its open spaces into a natural system. Urban ecology is an essential part of a sustainable built environment. The importance of landscape is recognised in this policy through 3.3 Existing tree retention, 3.4 Deep soil areas and 3.5 Communal and public open space. These initiatives support space for trees in siting the development, complemented by the recommendations for implementation and maintenance of landscapes in thisÂ section.
Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration for landscape design include Context and character, Landscape quality, Built form and scale, Sustainability, Amenity, Community and Aesthetics.
Landscape design can assist in mitigating bulk and scale of buildings through incorporation of organic materials and forms, and inclusion of soft foliage or screening effects. Landscape design is important in controlling micro-climate to mitigate against urban heat in summer or cold winds in winter. It can enhance biodiversity and habitat values and provide access to food production.
Photo 4.14a Well considered landscape design can add significant amenity to communal areas. (PC)
Photo 4.14b Landscaped spaces of various scales and functions can be created by changes in materials and planting. (PC)
4.14 OBJECTIVE 4.14.1
Landscape design is viable and sustainable.
Landscape design contributes to resident amenity and recreation.
Landscape design contributes to the streetscape and amenity.
Landscape design should be environmentally sustainable and can enhance environmental performance by incorporating:
Landscape design should consider the requirements of the residents. Refer to 3.5 Communal and public open space.
—— diverse and appropriate planting that preferences native species or other low water use plants; —— vegetated stormwater management systems or passively irrigated gardens; —— appropriately planted shading trees; —— areas for residents to plant vegetables and herbs; —— space and equipment for composting; —— green roofs or green walls/facades and other vertical greening strategies; —— integrated water re-use systems that can increase the ability to irrigate and to improve landscape quality and cooling effects in summer (See 4.21); —— irrigation systems that offer responsive controls to maximise water efficiency. (See 4.21); —— When planting species, use ecozoning and hydrozoning to minimise irrigation needs.
Micro-climate is enhanced by: —— consideration of winter and summer sun angles/positions; —— consideration of prevailing winds; —— a balance of evergreen and deciduous trees to provide shading in summer and sunlight access in winter; —— shade structures such as pergolas for balconies and courtyards; —— water bodies that can cool through transpiration; —— use of irrigation. Food production areas (veggie patch or herb gardens for example) require specific micro-climate, soil and maintenance requirements. Ensure the type of garden and species will grow in the given conditions and that maintenance needs are considered.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Landscape design responds to existing site conditions; including views, topography and significant landscape features such as trees and rock outcrops. Where the local authority is supportive of verge greening, consider including low native ground covers. Avoid turf and other irrigation-intensive plantings. Streetscapes that require ceding of private land (typically in the front set back) for future road widening are to be landscaped in accordance with local authority verge greening policy until which time the road is widened. Low native ground covers are generally recommended. Maintenance of the road widening area (on private lot) is to be considered. Consider permeable pavement surfaces, especially as part of driveways, visitor car parking near adjacent trees. Consider the use of structural soils under car parking or drive way surfaces adjacent to existing or proposed trees to improve tree health.
Landscape plan and ongoing maintenance plans should be prepared. All gardens require maintenance and an area from which maintenance can be conducted. Ensure adequate provision of garden equipment storage or address in maintenance plan. Minimise water and maintenancehungry turf areas unless required for recreational area. Tree and shrub selection considers size at maturity and the potential for roots to compete. Consider planting species that are endemic to the region and reflect the local ecology.
Contents 4 Designing the building 4.15 Planting on structures
Planting on structures Intent Planting on structures can contribute to urban ecology by integrating planting onto built elements including slabs, terraces, walls and roofs, enabling landscape even in highly urban environments. This can offer the natural and aesthetic benefits of planting wherever it is of most benefit; a communal roof terrace, greening of a lobby or softening a carpark. These constructed environments require particular technical expertise for implementation and for ongoing maintenance. Soil profiles, species selection, irrigation and nutrient systems must be specified with care for the gardens to survive and thrive in the intended situation. Coordinating the structural, drainage and waterproofing aspects is also critical. Where these resources are available and justified in a project, it is possible to create extraordinary urban gardens.
Photo 4.15b Well established and maintained planters make communal areas attractive and inviting.
Planting on structures may be considered as an alternative where deep soil areas (see 3.4) cannot be achieved for a constrained or highly urban site. Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration for planting on structures include Context and character, Landscape quality, Built form and scale, Sustainability, Amenity, Community and Aesthetics.
Photo 4.15c Planting along internal courtyard walls can help create a shaded, attractive space.
Photo 4.15d Planters on rooftops can facilitate communal gardening. (PC)
Photo 4.15a Planting can be integrated into the facade design, via sophisticated detailing and consideration of ongoing care and maintenance required.
Photo 4.15e Raised bed planting above an underground carpark contributes significantly to the amenity and attractiveness of a courtyard.
4.15 OBJECTIVE 4.15.1
Appropriate soil profiles and technologies are provided.
Plant growth is optimised with appropriate selection and maintenance.
Planting on structures contributes to the quality and amenity of communal and public open spaces.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Seek expert technical advice for design and specification of planting on structures.
Plants are suited to site conditions, considerations include:
Establish planter requirements early to ensure structures are reinforced for additional saturated soil weight.
Building design incorporates opportunities for planting on structures. Design solutions may include:
—— seasonal changes in solar access
Soil volume is appropriate for plant growth, considerations include:
—— drought and wind tolerance —— modified substrate depths for a diverse range of plants —— plant longevity
—— modifying depths and widths according to the planting mix and irrigation frequency
—— Low water use species.
—— free draining and long soil life span
—— changing site conditions
—— tree anchorage.
Irrigation and drainage systems respond to:
—— whether rainwater, stormwater or recycled grey water is used.
Account for drainage pathways to reduce staining and on-going maintenance. Ensure adequate and free draining falls to low points within raised planter beds.
—— planter boxes. To minimise scheme water use, consider the use of an alternative water source, such as rainwater or recycled greywater, for watering of green walls, if feasible. Structures designed to accommodate green walls should be integrated into the building facade and consider the ability of the facade to change over time.
Consider providing extended inspection tube and access lids to drainage points in slab to improve access and maintenance.
—— wall design that incorporates planting including trellis structures; —— extensive or intensive green roofs, particularly where roofs are visible from the public domain or other parts of the development;
—— soil profile and the planting regime
Minimum soil standards for plant sizes should be provided in accordance with Table 4.15.
—— green walls, living walls or vertical gardens to enable planting in highly constrained spaces;
Over 12m high, crown spread at maturity
8m x 8m or equivalent
8-12m high, crown spread at maturity
6m x6m or equivalent
6-8m high, crown spread at maturity
3.5m x3.5m or equivalent
Table 4.15 Minimum soil standards for plants types and sizes. Note: The above has been calculated assuming fortnightly irrigation. Any sub-surface drainage requirements are in addition to the above minimum soil depths.
Contents 4 Designing the building 4.16 Universal design
Universal design Intent Universal design is concerned with promoting space standards for housing that make them safer and easier to move around and live in. This assists occupants with special needs, such as the elderly and those with permanent or temporary disabilities; however, adopting the space standards can make housing more robust and suitable for the whole community regardless of age or ability. Universal design dwellings are more adaptable to the changing needs of occupants, incorporating commonly required features that are difficult and expensive to retrofit after the initial construction. The applicable standards for universal design are known as Liveable Homes (WA), which provides checklists for essential and desirable criteria to be considered. Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration for universal design include Functionality and build quality, Amenity and Community.
Photo 4.16a A level threshold facilitates universal access and an open plan allows flexibility of use. (PC)
4.16 OBJECTIVE 4.16.1 Universal design features are incorporated, providing a variety of apartment types and flexibility to accommodate all community members.
DESIGN CRITERIA 20% of the total apartments meet the “Essential” design features checklist according to the WA Liveable Homes universal design standards.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Adaptable housing should be provided in accordance with the relevant council policy. Design solutions for adaptable apartments include: —— convenient access to communal and public areas; —— high level of solar access; —— minimal structural change and residential amenity loss when adapted; —— larger car parking spaces for accessibility; —— parking titled separately from apartments or shared car parking arrangements.
OBJECTIVE 4.16.2 Apartment layouts are flexible and accommodate a range of lifestyle needs.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Apartment design incorporates flexible design solutions which may include: —— rooms with multiple functions; —— dual master bedroom apartments with separate bathrooms; —— larger apartments with various living space options; —— open plan ‘loft’ style apartments with only a fixed kitchen, laundry and bathroom.
Figure 4.16a A flexible dual key apartment design allows for a variety of configurations including home office or separate tenancy. Note: dual key apartments which are separate but on the same title are regarded as two sole occupancy units for the purposes of the BCA and for calculating dwelling mix.
Contents 4 Designing the building 4.17 Adaptive reuse
Adaptive reuse Intent Adapting existing structures for new uses is a statement of appreciation for the value and significance of historical layering in the built fabric. Typical opportunity sites include former industrial buildings, heritage buildings and underutilised commercial buildings. In some cases it is simply the utilisation of an existing structure for economy and efficiency, but most often redevelopments are motivated by the unique character or spatial qualities offered by an existing structure. Reuse of structures can offer sustainability benefits, saving on wasteful demolition and material and energy for rebuilding. Retaining and rejuvenating local landmarks can benefit local character and identity. Configuring new apartments to existing conditions can involve adaptation and sometimes compromise of some typical conventions, but skilful design often results in very liveable and unique apartments. Some discretion should be applied by design reviewers and decision-makers considering adaptive reuse proposals. Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration for adaptive reuse include Context and character, Built form and scale, Functionality and built quality, Sustainability, Amenity, Community and Aesthetics.
Photo 4.17a Heritage building fabric can be reinterpreted in unexpected ways in adaptive reuse projects, making unique and site-specific outcomes.
4.17 OBJECTIVE 4.17.1 New additions to existing buildings are contemporary and complementary, enhancing an area’s identity and sense of place.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Design solutions may include: —— additions that make good use of the qualities of existing building, complementing the character, siting, scale, proportion, pattern, form and detailing; —— use of contemporary and complementary materials, finishes, textures and colours. Additions to heritage items should be clearly identifiable from the original building. New additions allow for the interpretation and future evolution of the building.
OBJECTIVE 4.17.2 Photo 4.17b Adaptive reuse projects are an opportunity to combine new and reclaimed materials as part of reinterpreting old building elements.
Adaptation builds upon character of existing building and meets performance-objectives for residential amenity.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Design features should be incorporated sensitively into adapted buildings to make up for any physical limitations, to ensure residential amenity is achieved. Design solutions may include: —— generously-sized voids and courtyards in deeper buildings; —— alternative apartment types when orientation is poor; —— additions to expand the existing building envelope.
Photo 4.17c The additions to this building reference the qualities of the existing facades, complementing the character, siting, scale, proportion, pattern, form and detailing.
Some adaptive reuse proposals may not be able to achieve all of the Design Criteria in this policy. Where developments are unable to achieve the Design Criteria, relaxation of conventional standards could be considered in the following areas: —— flexibility for habitable room depths and ceiling heights; —— flexibility on natural ventilation and daylighting; —— alternative landscape approach where deep soil requirements cannot be achieved; —— building and visual separation (subject to satisfactory alternative design approaches to achieving piracy); —— building services such as air-conditioning; —— common circulation; —— car parking provision; —— alternatives for private open space and balconies.
Photo 4.17d Additional levels of apartments reinforce characteristics of the existing heritage building while remaining modern and distinct.
Contents 4 Designing the building 4.18 Mixed use
Mixed use Intent A common feature of higher-density mixed use development is where commercial and retail uses are combined with residential uses and accommodated within a residential apartment building. Mixed use is typically associated with ground floor uses oriented towards the active streetscape, and may extend to upper levels, depending on the intended mix of uses. Commercial and retail uses complement residential areas by providing services and potential employment, but also extend the active hours of activity in the neighbourhood, which improves streetscapes and offers passive surveillance benefits. This section provides some guidance regarding the integration of multiple uses, including configuration of entries and circulation, vehicle access and parking, and avoiding conflicting land uses.
Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration for mixed use include Context and character, Amenity and Community.
Residential Commercial Retail/cafe & restaurants
Figure 4.18a Shop and office entries, service areas and loading zones in a mixed use development should be separate from lobby entries to residential apartments.
Figure 4.18b Commercial floors are an appropriate buffer between residential apartments and busy active ground floor uses such as cafe.
4.18 OBJECTIVE 4.18.1 Mixed use developments are provided in appropriate locations and provide active street frontages that encourage pedestrian movement.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Mixed use development should be concentrated around public transport and centres. Where mixed use is not yet feasible in the current context, ground floor spaces should be designed to enable future conversion to mixed use. Mixed use developments positively contribute to the public domain. Design solutions may include: —— development addresses the street; —— active frontages are provided; —— diverse activities and uses; —— avoiding blank walls at the ground level; Photo 4.18a Mixed use development should maximise retail and commercial use at ground level to encourage diverse activities and uses.
—— live/work apartments on the ground floor level, rather than commercial.
Residential levels of the building are integrated within the development, and safety and amenity is maximised for residents.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Residential circulation areas should be clearly defined. Design solutions may include: —— residential entries are separated from commercial entries and directly accessible from the street; —— commercial service areas are separated from residential components; Photo 4.18b This mixed use development establishes future streetscape character and sets back apartments from the streetfront to create good levels of privacy. (PC)
—— residential car parking and communal facilities are separated or secured; —— security at entries and safe pedestrian routes are provided; —— concealment opportunities are avoided. Landscaped communal open space should be provided at podium levels. Adequate acoustic separation should be provided between residential and other uses.
Photo 4.18c The design expresses the change of use at ground level, while still integrating with the rest of the facade. (PC)
Contents 4 Designing the building 4.19 Awnings and signage
Awnings and signage Intent Development can contribute to the desired streetscape conditions in a number of ways, and one of the most directly beneficial is the provision of awnings over pedestrian pavements. In locations with active mixed-use frontages, awnings create good walking environments and help to visually signify active uses. The design of awnings should be well integrated with the aesthetic of the overall building. The awning can assist the articulation of the building design, to adapt the building form to meet the street. Signage is concerned with the function of the apartment building and to demark mixed-use elements and entries. Signage should be consistent with the overall building aesthetic. Local governments generally coordinate awnings and signage in their jurisdictions, especially in main-street environments. Design principles (see 1.3) that should be given particular consideration for awnings and signage include Context and character, Built form and scale, Functionality and build quality, Amenity, Community and Aesthetics.
Photo 4.19a Signage should respond to the context and desired streetscape character. Here the building address signage has been integrated as a feature of the facade design. (PC)
Photo 4.19b This continuous frosted glass awning allows for daylight access but also provide shade and protection from weather.
4.19 OBJECTIVE 4.19.1 Awnings are well located and complement and integrate with the building design.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Awnings should be located along streets with high pedestrian activity and active frontages. Have regard for applicable local government streetscape policies. A number of the following design solutions are used: —— continuous awnings are maintained and provided in areas with an existing pattern; —— height, depth, material and form complements the existing street character; —— protection from the sun and rain is provided; Photos 4.19c Awning, colour and graphic pattern act as signage to direct visitors to this entrance. (PC)
—— awnings are wrapped around the secondary frontages of corner sites; —— consider retractable awnings in areas without an established pattern. Awnings should be located over building entries for building address and public domain amenity. An enhanced design over entrances can improve visitor navigation to and from the development. Awnings relate to residential windows, balconies, street tree planting, power poles and street infrastructure. Awning material and configuration is designed to reduce acoustic reverberation in loud environments (like alfresco areas) and between mixed land uses. Gutters and down pipes should be integrated and concealed, while considering maintenance in the event of functional failure.
Photos 4.19d Clear signage that is well-integrated into the design, facilitates wayfinding. (PC)
Lighting under awnings should be provided for pedestrian safety.
OBJECTIVE 4.19.2 Signage responds to the context and desired streetscape character.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Legibility of building design should reduce dependence on signage. Signage should be integrated into the building design and respond to the scale, proportion and detailing of the development. Way finding signage should be provided for larger developments. Photo 4.19e An enhanced awning over the entrance can signal an entry point and improves visitor navigation to and from the development.
Contents 4 Designing the building 4.20 Energy efficiency
Energy efficiency Intent It is possible to create attractive, healthy, and comfortable apartments that reduce energy demand through good design. A large part of apartment energy consumption is typically for space heating, cooling and lighting, as well as kitchen and laundry usage. Energy use in apartments has the potential to be highly efficient with good design.
This element introduces the requirement for a sustainability report for all apartment projects, to provide a summary of how all of the Objectives, Design Criteria and Design Guidance relating to sustainability have been addressed at the planning stage.
In all stages of the development process, good practice can improve sustainability in housing. Decisions made in the early design stages from initial feasibility to the development application have a major influence on the project outcome. The measures in this section are strategic, rather than detailed, determining what targets are appropriate and integrating them into the project workflow.
Larger projects are also required to address Design Criteria for specific targets through a report from a suitablyqualified professional, including calculations as appropriate, confirming that the project will meet certain quantitative targets, or a thorough explanation as why the target could not be achieved due to project circumstances or site conditions.
Section J of the BCA (WA) is applicable and sets minimum energy performance standards for most buildings. Development projects should seek to improve on these minimums, which are in place to govern the least energy efficient buildings.
Photo 4.20a Shading devices that can be operated by the resident to control the level of daylight and sun access.
Design principles (see 1.3). that should be given particular consideration for energy efficiency include Functionality and build quality and Sustainability.
4.20 OBJECTIVE 4.20.1
Development establishes appropriate energy efficiency commitments in the development application stage.
Minimise energy use and emissions through passive strategies, supported by active systems.
DC1 – (Applicable to all developments) The development proposal is accompanied by a sustainability report addressing the items listed in Appendix A8 – Sustainability checklist.
DC1 – (Applicable to proposed developments which include 10 dwellings or more, and/or are three storeys or more in height).
DESIGN GUIDANCE The sustainability report outlines the sustainability commitments of a development proposal for consideration in design review and development application discussions, particularly when exercising discretion when some Objectives have not been met. Demonstrating goodpractice through the sustainability report will support a balanced assessment of the overall merits of a proposal. Compliance with National Construction Code (NCC) requirements for residential energy efficiency is tested through a NatHERS protocol test of the design. The development must clearly state the targeted NatHERS rating against the minimum compliance in the following form in the sustainability report: Average
[ ] star
[ ] star
Where approval authorities adopt the sustainability report as a condition of development application, proponents will be expected to demonstrate that the sustainability commitments have been appropriately addressed in the building permit application.
The development seeks a reduction in Green House Gas Emissions in operation through improvements in energy efficiency over minimum compliance with each part of Section J of the National Construction Code (NCC). This criterion is met where the project commits to an overall reduction in annual energy consumption of 25% compared to a similar design achieving minimum compliance. The sustainability report must contain the project’s strategy, addressing individually Parts J0 to J8 of Section J of the applicable edition of the NCC, written by a suitably qualified professional, for pursuing the target. Maximum length 10 pages.
DESIGN GUIDANCE – Design measures for solar access and natural ventilation contribute to enhanced passive building performance and better comfort conditions. Refer to 4.1 Solar and daylight access and 4.2 Natural ventilation. Development incorporates passive solar design to optimise heat storage in winter and reduce heat transfer in summer. The following design approaches may be applicable: —— consider use of higher-performance glazing, especially on west-facing windows; —— insulated roofs, walls and floors and seals on window and door openings; —— shading solution – for climate zones 4,5,6; -- thermal mass in floors and walls should be exposed to direct winter sun and completely shaded in summer. Effective use of thermal mass also requires effective night purging by natural ventilation. -- northern glazing should be protected by shade projection of 50% of glazing height. —— shading solution – for climate zones 1,3: -- provide shade projection of 50% of glazing height to windows of all orientations. Well located, screened outdoor clothes drying areas should be provided to each dwelling, or adjacent to a central laundry. Avoid using electric storage systems (resistive electric element in a storage tank) as primary domestic hot water systems.
Contents 4 Designing the building 4.21 Water management and conservation
Water management and conservation Intent In South West Western Australia rainfall has been steadily declining while demand for water has been growing, and rainfall patterns mean very long periods without rain. The heaviest water consumption is in summer, due mainly to irrigation demand southern parts of the state are now subject to restrictions on garden irrigation. The water infrastructure response has been to turn to desalination, which now provides around half of the Perth scheme water supply. With recharge to groundwater and inflows into dams used for drinking water continuing to decline, new climate-resilient water sources are needed to secure both potable and non-potable water supplies for future growth in South West Western Australia. It remains vital to seek to achieve a sustainable rate of water consumption. There are design techniques and technologies that can support an excellent quality of life, including plentiful green space, whilst moving towards sustainable water management in the State. These guidelines direct projects to consider how best to plan for effective water management at all stages of the project, and point to current design and technology options that are available while keeping the focus on the objective, rather than the method. The design response to all of the objectives and design clauses in this chapter are to be clearly explained in a sustainability report, which is a required element in all development applications. —— Small projects (under 10 dwellings) confirm that they have incorporated each clause, or provide a note on why they have not. —— Larger projects do the same but they also add a short report from a suitably qualified professional, including calculations as appropriate, confirming that the project will meet the objectives. A checklist to inform the Sustainability Report is provided in Appendix A8 Sustainability checklist. Design principles (see 1.3). that should be given particular consideration for water management and conservation include Landscape quality and Sustainability.
4.21 OBJECTIVE 4.21.1
Development establishes appropriate water management and conservation commitments in the development application stage.
Seek to minimise scheme water consumption throughout the development.
DESIGN CRITERIA DC1 – (Applicable to all developments) The development proposal is accompanied by a sustainability report addressing the items listed in Appendix A8 – Sustainability checklist.
DESIGN GUIDANCE The sustainability report outlines the sustainability commitments of a development proposal for consideration in design review and development application discussions, particularly when exercising discretion when some objectives have not been met. Demonstrating good-practice through the sustainability report will support a balanced assessment of the overall merits of a proposal. Where approval authorities adopt the sustainability report as a condition of development application, proponents will be expected to demonstrate that the sustainability commitments have been appropriately addressed in the building permit application.
DESIGN CRITERIA DC1 – (Applicable to proposed developments which include 10 dwellings or more, and/or are 3 storeys or more in height). The development targets a 40% reduction in scheme-water use relative to Water Corporation published average per person figures. The sustainability report must contain the project’s strategy, written by a suitably qualified professional, for pursuing the target.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Identify on-site, or nearby off-site opportunities for alternative water sources. As suggested in 3.1 Site Analysis and Design Response section, locate any precinct potable water systems, precinct wastewater systems, or sustainably managed bore systems that may have been identified and could be connected to the development. All fittings and appliances supplied by the developer should be within one level (or ‘star’) of the highest level currently available under the Water Efficiency Labelling and Standards (WELS) system.
Dwellings should be individually metered for water usage, preferably with remote reading for larger developments. Individual apartment metering of water is an effective way to transfer price signals to apartment occupants. Developments may seek opportunities to use alternatives to scheme water for irrigation purposes. Considerations should include: availability of suitable and reliable alternative water source, cost/benefit analysis, technical feasibility, service provision (where applicable) and community acceptance. Grey water systems should be considered as a means for meeting the overall objective of reducing scheme water use. When not installing grey water system initially, it is preferable that plumbing is ‘grey water ready’ as per guidance from the Greywater and Wastewater Industry Group (GWIG). Drought-tolerant, low-water use plants are encouraged within landscaped areas. Refer to 4.14 Landscape design. Where recycled water schemes are proposed for landscape irrigation, appropriate allowances for setbacks (building-boundary etc.) must be made in accordance with WA Department of Health requirements. Consider rainwater harvesting systems to reduce scheme water use during the rainy seasons.
Photos 4.21a, 4.21b and 4.21c Water-sensitive features are attractive elements able to effectively filter and reuse stormwater runoff.
Contents 4 Designing the building 4.21 Water management and conservation
Clean water Contaminated water 1. First flush diversion valve 2. Diversion to water feature spout 3. Overflow from water feature 4. Retention tank 1
5. Detention tank 6. Pump and filter 7. Overflow from courtyard detention 8. Water feature supply 9. Pavement runoff
10. First flush roof water (15mm) 11. Infiltration to water table 12. Bio-sink/wetland filter system 13. Irrigation 14. Water feature
15. Municipal stormwater system 16. Basement parking 17. Water table
Figure 4.21a Stormwater quantities can be reduced and water quality increased by circulating rainwater through a connected water feature and wetland system
NO No. 8 IN ORIGINAL DOC?
4.21 OBJECTIVE 4.21.3
Stormwater is managed on-site wherever practical either by retainment or detention.
Ensure that the potential for flooding over the lifetime of the development is considered in the design and the impacts of any flooding will be minimal on occupants, buildings and the environment.
DESIGN GUIDANCE Water-sensitive urban design systems are designed by a suitably qualified professional.
4V.4 GUIDANCE DESIGN
Review documentation generated through A3 Site analysis checklist for any opportunities to manage stormwater that may have been identified.
Ensure sufficient space is allowed for the provision of rainwater tanks, stormwater detention/retention and any on-site water and wastewater treatment systems.
Stormwater should be managed on-site as much as practical. Design solutions may include:
On large sites, parks or open spaces are designed to provide on-site retention or detention systems.
—— runoff is collected from roofs and balconies in water tanks and plumbed into toilets, laundry and irrigation; —— permeable and open paving materials are maximised; —— on-site infiltration and detention systems, such as garden beds, rain gardens, tree pits, infiltration cells, green walls and detention tanks.
Provide an overland flow path for safe conveyance of runoff from major rainfall events. As suggested in 3.1 Site Analysis and Design Response section, locate any flood management areas or other useful forms that may have been identified.
Consider recovery and re-use of stormwater for non-potable water applications using integrated design and ‘fit-for-purpose’ water applications. If required, detention/retention tanks should be located under paved areas, driveways or in basement car parks in order to avoid interrupting deep soil areas.
Overflow collection pit
Capacity for stormwater detention
Figure 4.21b Streets and parks of larger developments should be designed to manage stormwater runoff and accommodate flowpaths and management of flood events.
Figure 4.21c Illustration of a bioretention garden using plants to treat roof and surface water runoff.
Contents 4 Designing the building 4.22 Waste management
Waste management Intent Waste management is an important function of an apartment building and all stages of the process should be considered in a design proposal, including waste generation, recycling, storage and collection. Early consideration of waste management will ensure effective integration of facilities into the design without detriment to the visual and physical amenity of the building, and improve convenience, efficiency and safety for residents and waste removalÂ services. Waste management matters should be coordinated with the waste removal contractor (this may be the local authority), to ensure an outcome that delivers efficient use of of space while meeting local collection requirements. Design principles (see 1.3). that should be given particular consideration for waste management include Functionality and build quality and Amenity.
Photo 4.22b General waste and recycling facilities located in the underground car park of this building.
Photo 4.22a Design of waste storage facilities can minimise impacts on the streetscape, building entry and amenity of residents.
Photo 4.22c Where service vehicles can access waste from the rear of the site the visual and noise impact on the primary streetscape is minimised.
4.22 OBJECTIVE 4.22.1
Waste storage facilities are designed to minimise impacts on the streetscape, building entry and amenity of residents.
Domestic waste is minimised by providing safe and convenient source separation and recycling.
Consider the appropriate waste management systems for the scale and nature of development. Consider combined bulk receptacles for larger developments. Consult with local authority to determine waste collection strategy, which may require a waste management plan.
Consider incorporating a waste and recycling cupboard to reduce the residentsâ€™ need for frequent trips to communal waste repositories.
Avoid excessive numbers of individual dwelling wheeled bins and demonstrate that proposed numbers can be practically accommodated in streetscape. Ensure that design of communal areas and vehicle access will accommodate waste management methods.
Communal waste and recycling rooms are in convenient and accessible locations related to each vertical core. For mixed use developments, residential waste and recycling storage areas and access should be separate and secure from other uses. Alternative waste disposal methods such as composting should be provided.
Well-ventilated and adequately-sized storage areas for rubbish bins should be located discreetly away from the front of the development or in the basement car park. Circulation design allows bins to be easily manoeuvred between storage and collection points. Temporary storage should be provided for large bulk items such as mattresses.
Photo 4.22d Communal waste facilities associated with circulation cores at each floor make waste handling convenient for residents.
Photo 4.22e Dedicated recycling and waste disposal chutes source separation and recycling.
Contents 4 Designing the building 4.23 Building maintenance
Building maintenance Intent Apartments should be designed for a long useful life, with appropriately selected materials and components to stand up to usage and the elements. Designers should also consider likely maintenance requirements and make appropriate provisions to allow for safeÂ access. Design principles (see 1.3). that should be given particular consideration for building maintenance include Functionality and build quality, Amenity and Safety.
Photo 4.23a Building facades should use materials that are durable over time. (PC)
4.23 OBJECTIVE 4.23.1
Building design detail provides protection from weathering.
Systems and access enable ease of maintenance.
Material selection reduces ongoing maintenance costs.
A number of the following design solutions are used:
Window design enables cleaning from the inside of the building.
A number of the following design solutions are used:
—— roof overhangs or eaves to protect walls;
Building maintenance systems should be incorporated and integrated into the design of the building form, roof and facade.
—— sensors to control artificial lighting in common circulation and spaces;
—— hoods or awnings over windows and doors to protect openings; —— detailing horizontal edges with drip lines to avoid staining of surfaces; —— methods to eliminate or reduce planter box leaching; —— appropriate design and material selection for harsh locations such as coastal or regional areas.
Design solutions do not require external scaffolding for maintenance access. Manually-operated systems such as blinds, sunshades and curtains are used in preference to mechanicallydependent systems. Centralised maintenance, services and storage should be provided for communal open space areas within the building.
Photo 4.23b Services are easily accessible and have a minimal impact on the streetscape.
Photo 4.23c Meter boxes arranged neatly outside the gate of this development ensures easy access.
—— natural materials that weather well and improve with time such as face brickwork; —— easily cleaned surfaces that are graffiti resistant; —— robust and durable materials and finishes are used in locations which receive heavy wear and tear, such as common circulation areas and lift interiors; —— adequate water and drainage considerations near common areas and facilities (such as waste collection areas) to allow for easy, regular cleaning.
Photo 4.23d This apartment building has incorporated service facilities into the design by making it visible and prominent and a feature along the internal wall. (PC)
Appendices Supporting figures, operational checklists and definitions.
PRECINCT PLANNING CONTEXT
LIST OF POTENTIAL INCENTIVE-BASED DEVELOPMENT STANDARDS
SITE ANALYSIS CHECKLIST
SITE DESIGN RESPONSE CHECKLIST
PRE-DEVELOPMENT APPLICATION CHECKLIST
DEVELOPMENT APPLICATION CHECKLIST
Contents Appendices Appendix 1 â€” Precinct planning context
Precinct planning context
Good design responds and contributes to its context. Context is everything that has a bearing on an area and comprises its key natural and built features. Context also includes social, economic and environmental factors. Understanding the context means understanding how the inter-relationships between all these factors, including between the local area and the region, will impact on the area over time. The process of defining the contextâ€™s setting and scale has direct implications for design quality of apartments. It establishes the parameters for individual development and how new buildings should respond to and enhance the quality and identity of an area.
The planning process establishes the appropriate location for residential apartment development by determining land use and density in proximity to transport, employment, services, land form and environmental features. Within this framework, the specific characteristics of a place or its setting will inform design decisions. Common settings for apartment buildings include:
The desired future character can vary from preserving the existing look and feel of an area to establishing a completely new character based on different uses, street patterns, subdivisions, densities and typologies. Establishing the desired future character is determined through the strategic planning process in consultation with the community, industry and other key stakeholders. Understanding the context during this process is crucial to support change and determine appropriate building types and planning controls.
Activity Centres Activity centres are characterised by a commercial core with a full range of services, taller buildings and a network of retail and commercial streets with active frontages. Activity centres are identified within a metropolitan or regional strategic plan, and typically receive detailed planning attention in relation to their strategic function. Considerations for apartment development in activity centres include complex relationships with adjacent buildings, impact of taller building types, privacy between commercial and residential uses, parking demand, high site coverage, limited deep soil, reliance on quality public streets and places and overshadowing.
coverage, narrow-site frontages, heritage, relationship with adjacent low-density residential uses and multiple small-lot land ownership requiring amalgamation to support changing use and density. Urban neighbourhoods Urban neighbourhoods are often located within walking distance of centres. Established urban neighbourhoods may be characterised by existing apartment buildings ranging from three storey walkups to eight-storey perimeter blocks or towers. Other urban neighbourhoods may be transitioning from low density residential and/or a mix of larger format commercial and light industrial use. Considerations for residential apartment development in these settings include overshadowing, amenity and privacy impacts between existing and future buildings, open space patterns, existing vegetation, demand for new public domain elements, variety of lot sizes and shapes and changing streetscape and scale. Suburban neighbourhoods
Neighbourhood centres are typically characterised by an established main street. In larger local centres, retail and commercial uses are distributed around the main street or across a small network of streets defining the core. In smaller local centres, the main street or shopping strip is surrounded by residential uses.
Suburban neighbourhoods are typically characterised by detached housing in a landscaped setting. Considerations for residential apartment development in suburban neighbourhood settings include relationships and interface with existing houses, appropriateness of apartment buildings compared to other forms of medium density housing (such as terraces or townhouses), landscape setting, existing significant trees and the pattern of front and rear gardens.
Considerations for apartment development in neighbourhood centres include shop-top housing, high-site
Residential apartment developments are generally developed on individual sites or within precincts.
A1 Individual sites
An individual site is a single lot or an amalgamation of several lots that can support individual or clustered apartment buildings.
Precincts are characterised by large land parcels or a group of larger sites undergoing extensive change. These sites often need to be restructured to support a change of land use mix, building height and density.
The size, shape and orientation of individual sites directly inform the possible building types and development capacity. The Streetscape Character Types and Primary Controls in Part 2 of this guide can assist in testing individual sites to determine the planning controls and supporting guidelines, such as deep soil areas, communal open spaces, privacy, solar access and natural ventilation. Where an area is planned to change, new development needs to address the desired future character at both the neighbourhood and street scales. In established areas new development should carefully respond to neighbouring development.
Precinct plans typically incorporate new streets and infrastructure, through-site links and public open spaces that relate in scale, location and character to the local context. The subdivision of large land parcels into smaller ones assists in creating a finer urban grain and achieving greater diversity in building design. It can also assist with the staging of redevelopment. Precinct plans provide a number of opportunities including: —— reconnecting parts of the city or town that have previously been isolated
Incremental change typically occurs lot by lot in established areas and can be constrained by existing development adjacent to the site. Planning and design considerations for managing this change include:
—— improving the public domain network and providing more public open space
—— site amalgamation requirements may be appropriate and expressed as minimum site frontages or site specific amalgamation patterns included in Local Development Plans
—— integrating heritage and important views within the site or surrounding context
—— corner sites and sites with multiple frontages can be more efficient for development yield than mid-block sites with a single frontage —— the development potential of the adjacent site is retained where zoning permits this —— avoiding left over and isolated sites that are unable to realise the planned development form and potential. —— On sites with good public transport accessibility, a reduction in parking rates can help to incentivise amalgamation of sites for better development potential.
—— incorporating a mix of uses to support more vibrant renewal areas
—— providing greater housing diversity —— providing space for new community facilities such as recreational centres, libraries and childcare centres
Precinct plans establish building envelopes and inform the controls within a local environmental plan and Local Development Plan, against which future development applications are assessed. Indicative plans at both ground and upper levels can assist to describe the expectations of future development types within the envelope providing more certainty for local government, applicants and the community. When determining the floor space of a precinct plan, the net floor space is based on the whole site area including streets and open spaces. This will be significantly lower than the net floor space of individual parcels within the precinct plan (refer to 2.9 Plot Ratio). Through the precinct plan design process and the testing of proposed building envelopes against the site constraints, alternative solutions to some of the Design Criteria in this guide may be appropriate. Some Design Criteria may be best applied to the entire precinct area or to stages within the site, for example deep soil and communal open space may be consolidated and accessed by a number of buildings. Other Design Criteria associated with the amenity of individual apartments, such as visual privacy, sunlight access and ventilation, are typically applied to each building within the precinct plan.
—— leveraging efficiencies of scale to deliver more effective environmental measures such as on site energy production, integrated stormwater management and wastewater recycling —— supporting greater flexibility in site layout to provide greater amenity to individual apartments and open spaces.
Contents Appendices Appendix 2 â€“ List of potential incentive-based development standards
A2 â€” List of potential incentive-based development standards
This list assists local governments to set incentive-based development standards in their statutory planning framework. Incentives are not applicable unless included in the applicable planning statutory planning framework. No.
Development provides affordable housing, demonstrated through partnership agreements with an approved housing provider or not-for-profit organisation recognised by Department of Housing.
Lot amalgamation or lot width
Lots being of a sufficient size or width (at the street frontage) to accommodate suitable development; or; Amalgamation of two or more freehold lots to provide a certain area or frontage.
Removing existing vehicular access from a major road.
A proposal which effects the discontinuance of a non-conforming use.
Dwelling type and size
Provision of a particular dwelling type such as aged and dependent persons dwellings, single bedroom dwellings, universally accessible dwellings and other types identified by the local authority.
Conservation of heritage places
Protection and conservation of a heritage place as listed on the State or municipal heritage register.
Retention of vegetation
Retention of mature or native vegetation on site.
Provision of serviced apartments (or equivalent) within a development.
Facilities for the use of residents over and above those required by the design guidelines which improve the amenity and quality of the design.
Where a local government has identified existing lot layouts which are too small or narrow to achieve a specific design objective.
Where a local government has identified a particular type of housing to address a specific planning objective.
Where a local government has identified the need for short stay accommodation (generally applied to specific precincts rather than a whole local government area).
Development includes one or more of the following public facilities or amenities: public open space, public car parking, pedestrian access ways, provision of public facilities on private land (including public toilets, change rooms, end of trip facilities), land uses which provide a benefit to the local community, public art.
The local government should identify a need and nexus for relevant facilities.
The proposed development meets or exceeds a high rating of a reputable sustainability or energy efficiency assessment tool.
Applications should be supported by a qualified consultant report identifying the exemplary sustainability outcomes. Examples include but are not limited to: GreenStar (5 star accreditation or above).; E-tools (Gold or Platinum Rating); EnviroDevelopment (accreditation for 5 out of 6 elements). The development must achieve WaterWise status (from Water Corp); and incorporate all of the applicable clauses in the Water Management and Conservation section of this policy; or minimum 80% of available points in the applicable Green Star water category. NatHERS (2 stars improvement on minimum compliance, certified by a registered assessor).
Water sensitive design
The proposed development incorporates elements of water sensitive urban design significantly higher than those required under the guidelines.
Solar passive design
The proposed development incorporates elements of solar passive design significantly higher than those required under the guidelines.
Contents Appendices Appendix 3 – Site analysis checklist
A3 – Site analysis checklist
This checklist assists proponents when starting their design process. Materials are not expected to be highly resolved at this stage, to facilitate productive early design review discussions with the relevant local government. Category Site location/ wider context Plan Aerial photograph
A plan/map diagram showing the wider context that identifies the site in relation to retail and commercial areas, community facilities, public open space, transport, and other major public destinations within a 5-10 minute walk (400m radius) of the site. This plan shall also identify the climate zone of the site. Colour aerial photographs of the site in its context. Plan(s) and photographs of the existing features of the wider context including adjoining properties and the other side of the street, that show: —— pattern of buildings, proposed building envelopes and heights, setbacks and subdivision pattern —— streetscape including land use, building typologies, overall height and important parapet/datum lines of adjacent buildings
Local context plan
—— movement and access for vehicles, servicing, pedestrians and cyclists —— topography, landscape, open spaces and vegetation —— significant views to and from the site —— Any sources of nuisance emissions in the vicinity of the site such as noise, light and odour that may have a bearing on the residential proposal, particularly vehicular traffic, train, aircraft and industrial noise —— location of relevant heritage items, areas of environmental significance and elements of cultural significance. Plan(s) of the existing site based on a survey drawing showing the features of the immediate site including: —— boundaries, site dimensions, site area, north point, street frontage, street name, lot number and address —— topography, showing relative levels and contours at 0.5 metre intervals for the site and across site boundaries where level changes exist, any unique natural features such as rock outcrops, watercourses, existing cut or fill, adjacent streets and sites —— location, type and size of existing trees exceeding 3m and/or significant landscaping features on site and relative levels where relevant, on adjacent properties and street trees —— location, use, dimensions, setback distances of existing buildings or built features (such as retaining walls and other structures) on the site
Site context and survey plan
—— Identification and location of any areas of potentially valuable habitat vegetation —— location and important characteristics of adjacent public, communal and private open spaces —— location and height of existing windows, balconies, walls and fences on adjacent properties facing the site, as well as parapet and ridge lines —— pedestrian and vehicular access points, driveways and features such as crossovers, truncations, service poles, bus stops, fire hydrants, access restriction (e.g. road islands adjacent to the site) etc. —— location of utility services, including easements and drainage —— the location of any adjoining and existing buildings that might affect, or be affected by, the proposed development, including the position of the proposed development, levels and position of habitable room windows, and designated outdoor living areas —— location of any other relevant features.
Streetscape elevations and sections
Photographs or drawings of the site in relation to the streetscape and along both sides of any street that the development fronts, that show: —��� overall height (storeys, metres) and important parapet/datum lines of adjacent buildings —— patterns of building frontage, street setbacks and side setbacks —— planned heights.
Contents Appendices Appendix 4 – Site design response checklist
A4 – Site design response checklist
This checklist assists proponents when formulating an early design response to A3 Site analysis checklist. Materials are not expected to be highly resolved at this stage, to facilitate productive early design review discussions with the relevant local government. Category
Drawings, 3D studies, and diagrams that synthesise and interpret the context into opportunities and constraints to generate early design parameters. Matters to cover: —— building massing, illustrating why the proposed massing and overall height are appropriate to the context —— the public domain interface and street setback —— relationship to and interface with adjacent properties, including side and rear setbacks —— ventilation for the subject site and immediate neighbours.
Drawings, 3D studies, and diagrams that synthesise and interpret the building performance into opportunities and constraints to generate early design parameters. Matters to cover: —— assessment of opportunities due to good site orientation, location and topography for on-site alternative power generation systems (photo voltaic/wind etc) —— what strategies are employed to reduce energy and water usage within the identified climate zone —— orientation and any overshadowing of the site and adjoining properties by neighbouring structures (excludes vegetation). The winter sun path should be shown between 9 am and 3 pm on 21 June —— direction of prevailing wind and demonstration of the approach to maximise natural ventilation through the proposed building layout and massing
—— the geotechnical characteristics of the site and suitability of the proposed development —— what opportunities for alternative energy systems have been explored based on opportunities available on site and or in the local area —— how culturally relevant or heritage elements have been considered in the design to provide a meaningful environment for residents —— strategy for location of services such as pump and tanks for fire protection and electrical transformers and the like.
Drawings, 3D studies, and diagrams that synthesise and interpret the building configuration into opportunities and constraints to generate early design parameters. Matters to cover: —— carparking approach proposed including footprint, depth, proposed vehicle access points and relationship to the provision of deep soil areas. —— how the layout of buildings on site provides safe and high level of amenity for residents Configuration
—— proposed building footprint location —— retained and proposed significant trees, vegetation, and deep soil areas —— proposed communal open space —— proposed car park footprint and depth —— proposed building entries.
Contents Appendices Appendix 5 – Pre-development application checklist
A5 – Pre-development application checklist
This checklist assists proponents as their designs develop. It includes a list of basic information that should be provided by the applicant for pre-development application design review. The emphasis should be on having enough information to communicate the proposal rather than having fully resolved drawings of every aspect of the project. Category Site analysis
Materials [Prepared at earlier stage of design development in A3 Site analysis checklist] A summary of the proposal that establishes the: —— plot ratio
—— building height in metres and storeys —— number and mix of apartments —— number of car parking spaces —— indicative percentage of apartments receiving the minimum level of cross ventilation and daylight access. Images of precedents relevant to the proposal such as: —— streetscape concept
—— landscape design —— communal open spaces use —— building elements such as entries, balconies, materials. A drawing to scale showing: —— any proposed site amalgamation or subdivision —— the indicative footprint of the proposal —— setbacks and building separation dimensions
—— site entry points —— areas of communal open space and private open space —— indicative locations of planting and deep soil areas including retained or proposes significant trees —— interface with public domain —— landscape intent (through simple sketches). Drawings to scale showing: —— the internal building layout and unit type distribution for the ground floor
—— representative middle floor, and the top floor —— typical car park layout —— sample unit plans with furniture layouts, key room depth dimensions and —— balcony sizes.
Building mass elevations
Drawing to scale showing the basic massing of the proposal in the context of the adjacent three properties, or for 50m in each direction, on each elevation. This drawing should show, in diagrammatic form: —— the composition of the elevations including ground level, roof form, and articulation of massing of the overall building —— pattern of buildings and spaces between buildings along the street —— the profile of any existing buildings.
SPP7 design principles statement
A drawing to scale showing: —— the proposal and adjacent buildings —— the relationship of the proposal to the ground plane, streets, open spaces and deep soil areas.
A draft statement of key points that establishes how the proposal satisfies the design principles of State Planning Policy 7 – Design of the Built Environment.
Contents Appendices Appendix 6 – Development application checklist
A6 – Development application checklist (1/2)
This checklist assists proponents when formulating the appropriate materials when submitting a development application. Check with the relevant local authority if there are any additional materials required. Documentation
Required Information A summary document that provides the key details of the development proposal. It contains information such as the: —— plot ratio of the development —— number, mix, size and accessibility of apartments —— number of car parking spaces for use (residential, retail, accessible, visitor etc.) —— percentage of apartments meeting cross ventilation and daylight Design Criteria. [Prepared at earlier stage of design development in A3 Site analysis checklist] An explanation of how the design relates to the design principles in State Planning Policy 7 – Design of the Built Environment. An explanation of how the proposed development achieves the relevant objectives of this policy in A7 Objectives checklist. A scale drawing showing: —— any proposed site amalgamation or subdivision —— location of any proposed buildings or works in relation to setbacks, building envelope controls and building separation dimensions —— proposed finished levels of land in relation to existing and proposed buildings and roads —— pedestrian and vehicular site entries and access —— interface of the ground floor plan with the public domain and open spaces within the site —— areas of communal open space and private open space —— indicative locations of planting and deep soil areas including retained or proposed significant trees.
A scale drawing showing: —— the building footprint of the proposal including pedestrian, vehicle and service access —— trees to be removed shown dotted —— trees to remain with their tree protection areas (relative to the proposed development) —— deep soil areas and associated tree planting —— areas of planting on structure and soil depth —— proposed planting including species and size —— details of public space, communal open space and private open space —— external ramps, stairs and retaining wall levels —— security features and access points —— built landscape elements (fences, pergolas, walls, planters and water features) —— ground surface treatment with indicative materials and finishes —— site lighting —— water management and irrigation concept design.
A scale drawing showing: —— all levels of the building including roof plan —— layout of entries, circulation areas, lifts and stairs, communal spaces, and service rooms with key dimensions and Real Level (RL) heights shown —— apartment plans with apartment numbers and areas, all fenestration, typical furniture layouts for each apartment type, room dimensions and intended use and private open space dimensions —— accessibility clearance templates for accessible units and common spaces —— visual privacy separation shown and dimensions where necessary —— vehicle and service access, circulation and parking —— storage areas.
A6 A6 – Development application checklist (2/2) Documentation
A scale drawing showing: —— all levels of the building including roof plan —— layout of entries, circulation areas, lifts and stairs, communal spaces, and service rooms with key dimensions and Real Level (RL) heights shown —— apartment plans with apartment numbers and areas, all fenestration, typical furniture layouts for each apartment type, room dimensions and intended use and private open space dimensions —— accessibility clearance templates for accessible units and common spaces —— visual privacy separation shown and dimensions where necessary —— vehicle and service access, circulation and parking —— storage areas.
A scale drawing showing: —— proposed building height and RL lines —— building height control —— setbacks or envelope outline —— building length and articulation —— the detail and features of the facade and roof design —— any existing buildings on the site —— building entries (pedestrian, vehicular and service) —— profile of buildings on adjacent properties or for 50m in each direction, whichever is most appropriate.
A scale drawing showing: —— proposed building height and RL lines —— building height control —— setbacks or envelope outline —— adjacent buildings —— building circulation —— the relationship of the proposal to the ground plane, the street and open spaces particularly at thresholds —— the location and treatment of car parking —— the location of deep soil and soil depth allowance for planting on structure (where applicable) —— building separation within the development and between neighbouring buildings —— ceiling heights throughout the development —— detailed sections of the proposed facades.
Building performance diagrams
A solar diagram (where required) at the winter solstice (21 June) at a minimum of hourly intervals showing: —— number of hours of solar access to the principal communal open space —— number of hours of solar access to units within the proposal and tabulation of results —— overshadowing of existing adjacent properties and overshadowing of future potential development where neighbouring sites are planned for higher density —— elevation shadows if likely to fall on neighbouring windows, openings or solar panels A ventilation diagram (where required) showing unobstructed path of air movements through dual aspect apartments and tabulation of results.
A sample of proposed external materials, finishes and colours of the proposal, keyed to elevations.
Photomontages or similar rendering or perspective drawings illustrating the proposal in the context of surrounding development. Note: Illustrative views need to be prepared using a perspective that relates to the human eye. Where a photomontage is prepared, it should use a photo taken by a full frame camera with a 50mm lens and 46 degree angle of view. A three dimensional computer generated model showing views of the development from adjacent streets and buildings. A physical model for a large or contentious development (if required by the consent authority).
Contents Appendices Appendix 7 â€“ Objectives checklist
A7 â€“ Objectives checklist (1/3)
This checklist assists proponents and assessors to explain and assess the development against the objectives listed in this policy.
SITING THE DEVELOPMENT 3.1 Site analysis and design response 3.1.1 Thorough site analysis identifies opportunities and constraints of planning framework, local urban context and physical site conditions. Reliable and relevant information is available for designers, design-reviewers and decision-makers. 3.1.2 Design decisions are informed by the opportunities and constraints of the site conditions, and proposed development responds positively to the surrounding context.
3.2 Orientation 3.2.1 Building layouts respond to the streetscape and site while optimising solar access within the development. 3.2.2 Building form and orientation minimises overshadowing of neighbouring properties. 3.2.3 Building form and orientation is optimised to respond to a range of design factors.
3.3 Existing tree retention 3.3.1 Identify existing trees for retention prior to development and as part of early site planning. 3.3.2 Healthy existing trees are retained where possible; or adequate measures are taken to mitigate reduction of tree canopy.
3.4 Deep soil areas 3.4.1 Deep soil areas support healthy plant and tree growth. Healthy tree growth improves residential amenity and promotes management of water and air quality. Major trees assist in moderating bulk and scale of built form and provide a human scale to larger developments.
3.5 Communal and public open space 3.5.1 An adequate area of quality communal open space is provided to enhance residential amenity and to provide opportunities for soft landscape areas. 3.5.2 Communal open space is designed to allow for a range of activities, respond to site conditions and be attractive and inviting. 3.5.3 Communal open space is designed to maximise safety and comfort. 3.5.4 Publicly accessible open space, (e.g. cross site link), where provided, is responsive to the existing pattern and uses of the neighbourhood.
3.6 Visual privacy 3.6.1 Adequate building separation distances are shared equitably between neighbouring sites, to achieve reasonable levels of external and internal visual privacy. 3.6.2 Site and building design elements increase privacy without compromising access to light and air and balance outlook and views from habitable rooms and private open space.
3.7 Public domain interface 3.7.1 Transition between private and public domain is achieved without compromising safety and security. 3.7.2 Amenity of the public domain is retained and enhanced.
3.8 Pedestrian access and entries 3.8.1 Entries and pathways are accessible and easy to identify. 3.8.2 Building entries and pedestrian accessways connect-to and address the public domain. 3.8.3 Large sites provide pedestrian links for access to streets and connection to destinations.
3.9 Vehicle access 3.9.1 Vehicle access points are designed and located to minimise streetscape impacts and avoid conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles.
3.10 Car and bicycle parking 3.10.1 Car parking provision is appropriate to the development location, considering walkability, cycling network, public transport and local employment and services. 3.10.2 Parking and facilities are provided for other modes of transport. 3.10.3 Car park design and access is safe and secure. 3.10.4 Visual and environmental impacts of below ground car parking are minimised. 3.10.5 Visual and environmental impacts of at-grade car parking are minimised. 3.10.6 Visual and environmental impacts of above ground car parking are minimised.
[meets objectives] [rethink for improvement] [not adequatley addressed]
A7 A7 â€“ Objectives checklist (2/3) DESIGNING THE BUILDING 4.1 Solar and daylight access 4.1.1 (For climate zones 4,5,6) To optimise the number of apartments receiving sunlight to habitable rooms, primary window and private open space. OR (For climate zones 1,3) To minimise the number of apartments receiving direct sunlight to habitable rooms. 4.1.2 To optimise daylight access for habitable rooms. 4.1.3 To incorporate shading and glare control, particularly for warmer months.
[meets objectives] [rethink for improvement] [not adequatley addressed]
4.2 Natural ventilation 4.2.1 All habitable rooms can be naturally ventilated. 4.2.2 The number of apartments with natural cross-ventilation is maximised to create a comfortable indoor environment for residents. 4.2.3 The layout and design of single aspect apartments maximises natural ventilation and, where possible cross ventilation.
4.3 Ceiling heights 4.3.1 Ceiling heights provide for well-proportioned spaces and facilitate natural ventilation and daylight access. 4.3.2 Ceiling heights contribute two the flexibility of building use over the life of the building.
4.4 Apartment size and layout 4.4.1 The layout of rooms within an apartment is functional, well-organised and provides a high standard of amenity. 4.4.2 Environmental performance of the apartment is maximised. 4.4.3 Apartment layouts are designed to accommodate a variety of household activities and needs.
4.5 Private open space and balconies 4.5.1 Apartments provide appropriately sized private open space and balconies to enhance residential amenity. 4.5.2 Primary private open spaces and balconies are appropriately located and orientated to enhance liveability for residents. 4.5.3 Private open space and balcony design is integrated into and contributes to the overall architectural form and detail of the building.
4.6 Common circulation and spaces 4.6.1 Common circulation spaces achieve good amenity and properly service the number of apartments. 4.6.2 Common circulation spaces promote safety and provide for social interaction between residents.
4.7 Storage 4.7.1 Adequately sized and well-designed storage is provided for each apartment. 4.7.2 Additional storage is conveniently located, accessible and nominated for individual apartments.
4.8 Acoustic privacy 4.8.1 Noise transfer is minimised through the siting and layout of buildings. 4.8.2 Reduce internal noise transfer between apartments within a building through layout and acoustic treatments.
4.9 Noise and pollution 4.9.1 In noisy environments the impacts of external noise and pollution are minimised through the careful siting and layout of buildings. 4.9.2 Appropriate noise shielding or attenuation techniques for the building design, construction and choice of materials are used to mitigate noise transmission.
4.10 Apartment mix 4.10.1 A range of apartment types and sizes is provided to cater for different household types now and into the future. 4.10.2 The apartment mix is distributed to suitable locations within the building.
4.11 Ground floor apartments 4.11.1 Street frontage activity is maximised where ground floor apartments are located. 4.11.2 Design of ground floor apartments delivers amenity and safety for residents.
4.12 Facades 4.12.1 Building facades provide visual interest along the street while respecting the character of the local area. 4.12.2 Building functions are expressed by the facade. APARTMENT DESIGN
Contents Appendices Appendix 7 – Objectives checklist, Appendix 8 – Sustainability checklist
A7 – Objectives checklist (3/3)
A7 Page 3/6
DESIGNING THE BUILDING (CONTINUED) 4.13 Roof design 4.13.1 Roof treatments are integrated into the building design and positively respond to the street. 4.13.2 Opportunities to use roof space for residential accommodation and open space are maximised. 4.13.3 Roof design incorporates sustainability features.
4.14 Landscape design 4.14.1 Landscape design is viable and sustainable. 4.14.2 Landscape design contributes to resident amenity and recreation. 4.14.3 Landscape design contributes to the streetscape and amenity.
4.15 Planting on structures 4.15.1 Appropriate soil profiles and technologies are provided. 4.15.2 Plant growth is optimised with appropriate selection and maintenance. 4.15.3 Planting on structures contributes to the quality and amenity of communal and public open spaces.
4.16 Universal design 4.16.1 Universal design features are incorporated, providing a variety of apartments with adaptable designs to accommodate diverse community members. 4.16.2 Apartment layouts are flexible and accommodate a range of lifestyle needs.
4.17 Adaptive reuse 4.17.1 New additions to existing buildings are contemporary and complementary, enhancing an area’s identity and sense of place. 4.17.2 New additions tailor design solutions to the characteristics of existing buildings that maintain residential amenity through alternative means.
4.18 Mixed use 4.18.1 Mixed use developments are provided in appropriate locations and provide active street frontages that encourage pedestrian movement. 4.18.2 Residential levels of the building are integrated within the development, and safety and amenity is maximised for residents.
4.19 Awnings and signage 4.19.1 Awnings are well located and complement and integrate with the building design. 4.19.2 Signage responds to the context and desired streetscape character.
4.20 Energy efficiency 4.20.1 Appropriate water management and conservation commitments are established as part of the development application. 4.20.2 Minimise energy use and emissions through passive strategies, supported by active systems.
4.21 Water management and conservation 4.21.1 Appropriate water management and conservation commitments are established as part of the development application. 4.21.2 Seek to minimise scheme water consumption throughout the development. 4.21.3 Stormwater is managed on-site wherever practical either by containment or by infiltration, 4.21.4 Ensure that the potential for flooding over the lifetime of the development is considered in the design and the impacts of any flooding will be minimal on occupants, buildings and the environment.
4.22 Waste management 4.22.1 Waste storage facilities are designed to minimise impacts on the streetscape, building entry and amenity of residents. 4.22.2 Domestic waste is minimised by providing safe and convenient source separation and recycling.
4.23 Building maintenance 4.23.1 Building design detail provides protection from weathering. 4.23.2 Systems and access enable ease of maintenance. 4.23.3 Material selection reduces ongoing maintenance costs.
[meets objectives] [rethink for improvement] [not adequatley addressed]
A8 A8 – Sustainability checklist
This checklist assists proponents and assessors to develop a Sustainability Report as outlined in Objectives 4.20.1 and 4.21.1. Its purpose establish sustainability commitments. Applications may not need to meet all items below. Objectives
Items Adequate natural light is provided to habitable rooms. Adequate natural ventilation is provided to habitable rooms.
Obj. 4.20.1 —Development projects establish appropriate energy efficiency commitments in the Development Application stage.
Obj. 4.20.2 — Minimise energy use and emissions through passive strategies, supported by active systems.
Compliance with NCC requirements for residential energy efficiency. Targeted NatHERS rating against the minimum. Electricity and gas consumption (if connected) should be individually metered. Identify opportunities for alternative energy sources. Reduced use of masonry and concrete constructions. Consider timber for appropriate, low-maintenance uses. Consider robust materials. Favor locally sourced materials where suitable. Passive solar design according to climate zone. Building sealing performance. Well-located, screened outdoor clothes drying areas. Central domestic hot water, and central space heating and cooling systems have been assessed by services engineers. Common area energy offset by sufficient onsite renewable energy generation.
Obj.4.21.1 – Development projects establish appropriate water management and conservation commitments in the Development Application stage.
Obj. 4.21.2 – Seek to minimise scheme water consumption throughout the development.
Provide a means by which multi-residential building occupants can install renewable energy systems, or share in a larger communal system. Identify onsite, or nearby offsite opportunities for alternative water sources. All fittings and appliances should be within one level (or ‘star’) of the highest level currently available under the WELS system for the particular product type. Apartments should be individually metered for water consumption. Any common area services are to be installed with ‘dual plumbing’ and connected to an appropriately sized rainwater tank. Provide dual plumbing to all dwellings.
Obj.4.21.3 — Stormwater is managed on-site wherever practical either by retainment or detention. Obj.4.21.4 — Ensure that the potential for flooding over the lifetime of the development is considered in the design and the impacts of any flooding will be minimal on occupants, buildings and the environment.
Greywater systems should be considered as a means for meeting the overall objective of reducing scheme water use. Plumbing should be ‘grey water ready’ as per guidance from the Grey Water Industry Group. Options for alternative water sources for irrigation use must have been assessed by services engineers for larger developments. Where fit-for-purpose water schemes are proposed for landscape irrigation, appropriate allowances for setbacks must be made in accordance with WA health regulations. Water sensitive urban design systems are designed by a suitably qualified professional. Review the site analysis documentation for any opportunities to manage stormwater that may have been identified. Stormwater is to be managed onsite. As much as possible, onsite infiltration is preferred. Ensure sufficient space is allowed for the provision of rainwater tanks, stormwater detention/retention and any onsite water and wastewater treatment systems.
Contents Appendices Definitions
Definitions Definitions of terms used
Apartment (or Multiple dwelling) - A dwelling:
In the case of an apartment development under Volume 2 of the R-Codes, unless the context requires otherwise, words and expressions have the meaning given to them below.
—— in a building containing two or more dwellings; or
This list includes common terms and definitions shared with Volume 1 of the R-Codes (for single and grouped dwellings) insofar as they apply to apartment development.
At-grade - Located at same height as ground level.
Acoustic privacy - freedom from sound-based disturbance between apartments, between apartments and commercial areas, and between external and internal spaces. Active frontages - Building frontage which contains uses that promote both activity on the street and active visual engagement between the street and the ground floor of the building. Activity centre - Community focal points within an urban area that include activities such as commercial, retail, higherdensity housing, entertainment, tourism, civic, community, higher education, and medical services. Activity centres vary in size and composition and are designed to be well-serviced by public transport. Activity centre plan or activity centre structure plan - Plan for the coordination of the future subdivision, zoning and development of an activity centre. These are produced in accordance with State Planning Policy 4.2 for strategic metropolitan centres, secondary centres, district and specialised centres but not for neighbourhood or local centres. It can be prepared by local government, a landowner, landowner’s representative or a government agency. Adaptive reuse - The conversion of an existing building or structure from one use to another, or from one configuration to another. Adaptable housing - Dwellings designed and built to accommodate future changes to suit occupants with mobility impairment or life cycle needs. Amenity - The ‘liveability’, comfort or quality of a place which makes it pleasant and agreeable to be in for individuals and the community. Amenity is important in the public, communal and private domains and includes the enjoyment of sunlight, views, privacy and quiet. It also includes protection from pollution and odours. 156
—— in a mixed use development —— but does not include a grouped dwelling. Attached development - One of the two main streetscape patterns relating to the intended intensity, height, and broad character of development. Attached development allows boundary wall development to the sides, offset by larger rear setbacks, assisting retention of existing vegetation. Refer also to detached development (See 2.3). Balcony - A balustraded platform on the outside of a dwelling with access from an upper internal room. Bay window - Window element which projects a short way past the face of the building. It can have windows on the return walls and sometimes incorporates a seat. BCA- Building Code of Australias. Refer also to NCC. Building - Any structure whether fixed or moveable, temporary or permanent, placed or erected on land, and the term includes dwellings and structures appurtenant to dwellings such as carports, garages, verandahs, patios, outbuildings and retaining walls, but excludes boundary fences, pergolas and swimming pools. Building envelope - An expression of the intended maximum extents of development for a site, defined by a combination of building height limits and setbacks from street, side and rear boundaries. Building line - The predominant line formed by the main external face of the building. Balconies or bay window projections may or may not be included depending on desired streetscape. Building massing - Refers to the overall shape, form and size of a building. Clerestory - High level windows that can be part of a wall above a lower roof. Climate zone - Based on extract of climate zone published by ABCB (See map at the end of this section). Western Australia is divided into 5 climate zones based on humidity and temperature, ranging from temperate in the south-west to hotarid in the interior to hot-humid in the north.
Common property - Property that is jointly owned by all of the owners in the strata or survey strata scheme and not contained within any individual lot. Communal open space - Outdoor areas within the lot and either at ground level or on structure that is accessible to and shared by residents for common recreational use and in some instances accessible to the public. It must promote gathering and social interaction. It does not include primary external circulation areas for vehicles or pedestrians however a seating niche or small gathering space within a circulation area is included. A minimum dimension is applicable for the main (largest) component. Circulation core - Vertical circulation (lift and/or stairs) within a building. A single core may include multiple lifts serving the same floor area. Corner apartment - Cross-ventilating apartments on one level with aspects at least 90 degrees apart. Corner apartments are commonly located on the outermost corners of buildings. Cornice - Decorative horizontal moulding at the top of a building which ‘crowns’ or finishes the external facade. Courtyard - Communal space at ground level or on a structure that is open to the sky and enclosed by the building on three or more sides. Crossover – The vehicle access point (or driveway) running from the property boundary to the edge of the road. Cross-over apartment - Cross ventilating apartment with two opposite aspects and with a change in level between one side of the building and the other. Cross-through apartment - Cross ventilating apartment on one level with two opposite aspects. Datum line - Significant point or line in space established by the existing or desired context, often defined as an Australian Height Datum (AHD). For example, the top of significant trees or the cornice of a heritage building. Daylight - Consists of both skylight (diffuse light from the sky) and sunlight (direct beam radiation from the sun). Daylight changes with the time of day, season and weather conditions. Deep soil area - Soft landscape area on lot with no impeding building structure or feature above or below, which supports growth of medium to large canopy trees and meets a stated minimum dimension. Deep soil areas exclude basement car parks, services, swimming pools, tennis courts and impervious surfaces including car parks, driveways and roof areas. Dense urban area - An area where the permitted plot ratio for development under a Local Planning Scheme is plot ratio 2.5 or greater. Design principles - The design principles as set out by State Planning Policy 7.1 Design of the Built Environment: Schedule 1. Detached development - One of the two main streetscape patterns relating to the intended intensity, height, and broad character of future development. Detached development maintains side setbacks to facilitate landscaping. (See also Attached development).
Development - As defined by the Planning and Development Act 2005: Development or use of any land including: —— Any demolition, erection, construction, alteration of, or addition to, any building or structure on the land. —— The carrying out of any excavation or other works on the land. —— Under the “Heritage Act 1990” which applies to any act or thing that is likely to change the character of that place or the external appearance of any buildings, or, would constitute an irreversible alteration of the fabric of any building. Development site - A parent lot in which development is proposed. Driveway - The portion of the paved vehicle access way between a car parking area and the property boundary, excluding any associated landscaping or pedestrian path on either side. Dual aspect apartment - Cross ventilating apartments which have at least two major external walls facing in different directions, including corner, cross-over and cross-through apartments. Dual key apartment - An apartment with a common internal corridor and lockable doors to sections within the apartment so that it is able to be separated into 2 independent units. Under the BCA, dual key apartments are regarded as two sole occupancy units. They are also considered as two units when calculating apartment mix. Dual plumbing (or third-pipe system) - provision for immediate or future greywater harvesting and reuse in the plumbing of domestic systems. Dwelling - A building or portion of a building being used, adapted, or designed or intended to be used for the purpose of human habitation on a permanent basis by a single person, a single family, or no more than six persons who do not comprise a single family. Effective openable area - The minimum area of clear opening of a window that can take part in providing natural ventilation. Refer to detailed definition in the BCA. Enclosed - An area bound on three or more sides by a permanent wall and covered in a water impermeable material. Facade - the external face of a building, generally the principal face, facing a public street or space. Frontage - The width of a lot at the primary street setback line. Gallery access - An external corridor, generally single loaded, which provides access to individual apartments along its length Glass line - Inside face of windows on the external walls of a building Green facade or green wall - A wall with fixtures to facilitate climbing plants. It can also be a cladding structure with growing medium to facilitate plant growth.
Contents Appendices Definitions
Green roof - A roof surface that supports the growth of vegetation comprised of a waterproofing membrane, drainage layer, organic growing medium (soil) and vegetation. Green roofs can be classified as either extensive or intensive, depending on the depth of substrate used and the level of maintenance required. Intensive green roofs are generally greater than 300mm deep and are designed as accessible landscape spaces with pathways and other features. Extensive green roofs are generally less than 300mm deep and are generally not trafficable. Greywater - used household water sourced from baths, showers, bathroom basins and laundries, but excludes water from the toilet (which is regarded as â€˜blackwaterâ€™). Generally, greywater from the kitchen is not recommended for reuse due to the high levels of organic materials such as oils and fats. Refer to published guidance from the Greywater and Wastewater Industry Group (GWIG). Grouped dwelling - A dwelling that is one of a group of two or more detached or attached dwellings on the same lot which are not located above or below another dwelling or another type of building other than a garage, and includes a dwelling on a survey strata lot with common property but does not include an ancillary dwelling. Habitable room - A room used for normal domestic activities, and includes a bedroom, living room, lounge room, music room, sitting room, television room, kitchen, dining room, sewing room, study, playroom, family room, sunroom, gymnasium, fully enclosed swimming pool or patio; but excludes a bathroom, laundry, water closet, pantry, walk-in wardrobe, corridor, hallway, lobby, photographic darkroom, clothes-drying room, verandah and unenclosed swimming pool or patio and other spaces of a specialised nature occupied neither frequently nor for extended periods, as defined by the BCA.
Laneway - means a narrow local street type without a verge located along the rear and/or side property boundary, typically used in more dense residential areas when smaller lot layouts justify rear garaging, and where alternative vehicle access is needed for lots fronting busy streets or parks. (Liveable Neighbourhoods) Legibility - Where the design of the urban form, including the local street and public open space networks provides a sense of direction and connection, giving clear signals regarding the spatial layout and geography of an area. Light well - An opening to the sky, enclosed on four sides by building volume, with a height to width ratio of more than 2:1. Liveable Housing - Dwellings designed for accessibility and long-term adaptability. WA Liveable Homes standards are applicable in relation to this policy. Liveable Neighbourhoods - WAPC policy that guides the structure planning and subdivision for greenfield and large brownfield (urban infill) sites. Local character or Local identity - The natural, cultural and historic characteristics of an area that are intrinsic to the locality, and which the local community relate to. See also sense of place. Local Development Plan - adopted by a decision-maker under a local planning scheme and/or a structure plan, to provide specific and detailed planning to guide and coordinate development, which may include variation(s) to the R-Codes. It is a plan setting out specific and detailed guidance for development, including: (a) site and development standards that are to apply to the development; and (b) specifying exemptions from the requirement to obtain development application for development in the area to which the plan relates.
Heritage - A place listed on the Commonwealth or State heritage register or the municipal heritage inventory of the scheme.
Local identity - The natural, cultural and historic characteristics of an area that are intrinsic to the locality, and which the local community relate to. See also sense of place.
Highlight window - window with a sill at 1600mm above floor level, or higher.
Local Planning Framework - Comprises all strategic, statutory and policy planning documents which collectively outline the planning for an area and development requirements for sites, of the decision-maker and generally include a scheme, local planning strategy (including any housing component), local structure plans, activity centre plans, local development plans and local planning policies.
High-frequency transit route â€“ Public transit route with service interval of 15mins or less during peak times. Juliet balcony - A small balcony with little or no projection, generally ornamental or only large enough for one person standing. Landscape, landscaping or landscaped - Land developed with garden beds, shrubs and trees, or by the planting of lawns, and includes such features as rockeries, ornamental ponds, swimming pools, barbecue areas or playgrounds and any other such area approved of by the decision-maker as landscaped area. Landscape character - The distinct and recognisable pattern of elements that occurs consistently in a particular type of landscape, and how this is perceived by people. It reflects particular combinations of geology, landform, soils, vegetation, land use and human settlement.
Local Planning Policy - Any policy prepared by a local government in accordance with the procedures set out in the Local Planning Scheme. Local Planning Scheme - A document which supports the preparation and review of a scheme in accordance with Part 3 of the Planning and Development (Local Planning Schemes) Regulations 2015. Local Planning Strategy - A document which supports the preparation and review of a local planning scheme in accordance with Part 3 of the Planning and Development (Local Planning Schemes) Regulations 2015.
Local structure plan - A planning document prepared and approved under the provisions of the local planning scheme which provides a framework for the planning and coordination of land use, development and subdivision. Lot - A lot is a defined portion of land. For single houses, a lot as defined under the Planning and Development Act 2005, as amended. For multiple or grouped dwellings, the parent lot. Lot boundary - The boundary between a lot and any other parcel of land, excluding a street boundary. Mezzanine - An intermediate floor, similar to a balcony, facing onto a double height floor to ceiling. Mid-winter – Is 21 June (winter solstice) when the sun is lowest in the sky. Mixed use development - Buildings that contain commercial and other non-residential uses in conjunction with residential dwellings in a multiple dwelling configuration. The compatible mixing of a range of uses, integrated in close proximity to each other to improve the efficiency and amenity of neighbourhoods, reduce travel demand, increase walkability, and make more efficient use of available space and buildings. Multiple dwelling (or apartment) - A dwelling: —— in a building containing two or more dwellings; or —— in a mixed use development —— but does not include a grouped dwelling. Native-Vegetation that has evolved or is endemic to a local area. These species are preferred as they are well adapted to local soil and climate conditions, have lower water and fertiliser needs, and are often more resilient to pests and diseases. Natural cross ventilation - Natural ventilation which allows air to flow between positive pressure on the windward side of the building to the negative pressure on the leeward side of the building providing a greater degree of comfort and amenity for occupants. The connection between these windows must provide a clear, unobstructed air flow path. For an apartment to be considered cross ventilated, the majority of the primary living space and n-1 bedrooms (where n is the number of bedrooms) should be on a ventilation path. Natural ground level - The levels on a site which precede the proposed development, excluding any site works unless approved by the decision-maker or established as part of subdivision of the land preceding development. Natural ground level within a site can be determined by interpolation between the levels at the site boundary.
Open space - Generally that area of a lot not occupied by any building and includes: —— open areas of accessible and useable flat roofs and outdoor living areas above natural ground level; —— areas beneath eaves; —— verandahs, patios or other such roofed structures not more than 0.5m above natural ground level, unenclosed on at least two sides, and covering no more than 10 per cent of the site area or 50m2 whichever is the lesser; —— unroofed open structures such as pergolas; —— uncovered driveways (including access aisles in car parking areas) and uncovered car parking spaces; but excludes: —— non-accessible roofs, verandahs, balconies and outdoor living areas over 0.5m above natural ground level; and/or —— covered car parking spaces and covered walkways, areas for rubbish disposal, stores, outbuildings or plant rooms. Operable screening - Louvres, sliding, folding or retractable elements on a building designed to provide shade, privacy, and protection from natural elements. Operable walls - Walls which can be moved, for example by sliding, folding, or pivoting, to allow for different room configurations or a balcony. Parapet - A horizontal low wall or barrier at the edge of a balcony or roof. Often taken to refer to the decorative element which establishes the street wall height of heritage buildings (see cornice). Parent lot - Relating to multiple or grouped dwellings, the lot inclusive of common areas to which the strata scheme, as defined under the Strata Titles Act 1985, as amended, relates. Passive surveillance - Actual and percieved monitoring of public spaces by people as they go about their daily activities. Commonly referred to as ‘eyes on the street’. Permeable surface or permeable pavement - Ground surface treatments that allow rainwater to drain through to subterranean aquifers. Plot ratio - The ratio of the gross plot ratio area of buildings on a development site to the area of land in the site boundaries. Plot ratio area - The gross total area of all floors of buildings on a development site, including the area of any internal and external walls but not including: —— the areas of any lift shafts;
NCC - National Construction Code, comprising the Building Code of Australia (BCA) and Plumbing Code of Australia (PCA).
—— stairs or stair landings common to two or more dwellings;
Non-habitable room - A space of a specialised nature not occupied frequently or for extended periods, including a bathroom, laundry, water closet, pantry, walk-in wardrobe, corridor, hallway, lobby, photographic darkroom or clothesdrying room, as defined by the BCA.
—— space that is wholly below natural ground level;
Open plan - Apartment layouts where spaces are not divided into discrete rooms, but are open and connected to allow flexibility of use (typically living, dining, kitchen and study areas)
—— machinery, air conditioning and equipment rooms; —— areas used exclusively for the parking of wheeled vehicles at or below natural ground level; —— storerooms; —— lobbies, bin storage areas, passageways to bin storage areas or amenities areas common to more than one dwelling; or —— balconies, eaves, verandahs, courtyards and roof terraces.
Podium - The base of a building upon which taller (tower) elements are positioned. Potable water - Water which conforms to Australian Standards for drinking quality. Primary street - Unless otherwise designated by the local government, the sole or principal public road that provides access to the major entry (front door) to the apartment building. Private open space - Outdoor space located at ground level or on a structure that is within private ownership and provided for the recreational use of residents of the associated apartment. It excludes car parking spaces and access ways.
Site design response - Illustrated design strategy based on a comprehensive analysis of a site. The Site Design Response is carried out early in a design process to optimize the relationship between conflicting contextual design requirements. Site-responsive - deriving from analysis of the physical characteristics of an area (such as landform, views, prevailing breezes, environmental features) and to manage constraints and opportunities to create optimum design outcomes. Sloping site - A site with a slope of 15% or greater. Soffit - The under surface of a balcony or other projecting building element.
Primary windows - Windows to habitable rooms located on the external wall of a buildings; primary windows may be supplemented by windows in courtyards, skylights, notches and along galleries.
Soft landscape - Any landscaped area with a minimum soil depth of 300mm that contains in-ground planting, and is exclusive of removable planter boxes/pots and porous paving areas. Turf is included.
Public domain - places accessible for common use by the public, including both the natural and built environment. It often includes streets, parks, and public walkways.
Solar access - Is the ability of a building to continue to receive direct sunlight without obstruction from other buildings or impediments, not including trees.
Public open space - Publicly accessible land set aside for the purpose of public enjoyment and protection of unique, environmental, social and cultural values for existing and future generations. It is vested in or under the control of a public authority.
Solar collectors - Solar collecting components of the following: thermal heating systems, photovoltaic systems and skylights.
Rainwater - water harvested directly from roof runoff from domestic or commercial buildings and captured in rainwater tanks. Root protection area - An area defined by an arborist at the base of a tree to be retained and protected and in which contain critical roots required for the survival of that tree or group of trees. Rootable soil area - Areas beyond the primary deep soil area under adjacent pavements that are engineered and constructed to support tree root penetration. Screening - Permanently fixed external perforated panels or trellises composed of solid or obscured translucent panels. Secondary street - In the case of a site that has access from more than one public road, a road that is not the primary street but which intersects with or adjoins that road. Sense of place - The essential memorable and recognisable characteristics of an area. Service area - Areas designated for building services installed to make the building functional, comfortable, efficient and safe. Setback - The horizontal distance between a wall at any point and an adjacent lot boundary, measured at right angles (90 degrees) to the boundary. Sightlines - Lines of clear physically uninterrupted sight.
Stack effect ventilation or solar chimney - Air convection resulting from hot air being pushed up and out by colder denser air which is drawn in at a lower level. Strata, strata schemes and strata plans - Strata is â€œa defined portion of a building, group of buildings or land for which a separate Certificate of Title is issuedâ€?. This results in property types such as apartments, townhouses, mixed use developments and commercial offices, and allows for both individual ownership of property as well as shared ownership known as common property (lobbies, driveways, communal open space etc.) through the Strata Company. (Strata Community Australia) The Strata scheme or strata plan maps out the boundaries of strata lots, indicating individual ownership and common property. Strata scheme has the meaning given under the Strata Titles Act 1985, as amended. Street - Any public road, communal street, private street, rightof-way or other shared access way that provides the principal frontage to a dwelling but does not include an access to a single battleaxe lot. Street boundary - The boundary between the land comprising a street and the lands that abuts thereon. Streetscape - The visible components in a street between the facing buildings, including the form of the buildings, garages, setbacks, fencing, driveways, utility services, street surfaces, street trees and street furniture such as lighting, signs, barriers and bus shelters.
Site - In the case of apartment development, the lot (or parent lot where the lot is subdivided under strata title) on which the dwellings stand.
Storage (inside apartments) - Built in furniture (fixed) such as linen cupboards, shelves, media cabinets, study nooks excluding storage located in kitchens, bathrooms and bedrooms.
Site area - The area of land required for the construction of a dwelling to satisfy the requirements of the R-Codes.
Storage (external to apartments) - Dedicated , secured and conveniently located for residence.
Stormwater - urban surface water runoff from rain events, consisting of rainfall runoff and any material (soluble and insoluble) mobilised in its path of flow. Structural soil or structural cells -Materials for creation of rootable soil area beneath pavements and other structures. Structural Soil involves the use of structural materials, such as rock, that interlock under specified compaction loads while leaving macro spaces that provide rootable soil area for tree roots. Structural Cells are similar but utilise a plastic cell structure to meet the required compaction and loading. Structure plan - Framework for the coordinated provision and arrangement of future land use, subdivision and development in new urban areas (greenfield sites) and in existing developed/ redevelopment areas (brownfield sites). It considers the provision of transport networks, public open space (POS), utility and service networks, urban water management, development standards and community and other infrastructure investment and staging programs.
WAPC - Western Australian Planning Commission. Wastewater - Used water from households and business that is disposed of through the sewerage network (or into septic tanks in some areas). Water sensitive urban design - A planning and design approach that integrates water cycle management into the built form of houses, allotments, streets, suburbs and master planned communities. Wintergarden - An enclosed balcony, typically glazed and can be used to minimise noise impacts along busy roads, railway lines and from aircraft noise. Ziggurat - Having the form of a terraced structure with successive receding storeys.
Studio apartment - An apartment consisting of one habitable room that combines kitchen, living and sleeping space. Sunlight - Direct beam radiation from the sun. Sustainability - Meeting the needs of current and future generations through the integration of environmental protection, social advancement and economic prosperity. Terrace - An outdoor area, usually paved and unroofed, that is connected to an apartment and accessible from at least one room. May be on-grade or on a structure such as a podium or a roof. Tree for retention - Trees, regardless of species (other than on an applicable weed species register) which: —— are 3m or more high; and/or —— have a trunk with a circumference of 100mm or more, 1m from the ground; and/or —— have two or more trunks and the sum of their individual circumferences at 1 m above ground is 200mm or more; and or —— have a canopy 3m or more wide. If a tree, for whatever reason doesn’t meet this criteria but is recognised for its individual importance/significance, it may be considered. Universal design - Universal design is the design of products and environments that are inherently accessible to all, including older people and people with disability. Visually permeable - In reference to a wall, gate, door, screen or fence that the vertical surface, when viewed directly from the street, has: —— continuous vertical or horizontal gaps of 50mm or greater width occupying not less than one third of the total surface area; —— continuous vertical or horizontal gaps less than 50mm in width, occupying at least one half of the total surface area in aggregate; or —— a surface offering equal or lesser obstruction to view. APARTMENT DESIGN
Contents Appendices Photo credits
Photo credits Acknowledgement
The Department of Planning and WAPC gratefully acknowledge the following contributors for allowing the use of these photographs to illustrate this document.
MJA Studio / Darren Smith - Acorn Photo
Hillam Architects / Dion Photography
The Green Swing / Daniel Carson Photography
3.5f / 3.5g
Hillam Architects / Dion Photography
Hillam Architects / Dion Photography
Photo courtesy of LandCorp / FJM / Robert Frith - Acorn Photo
LandCorp / Kerry Hill Architects with Mirvac Design
LandCorp / FJM / Robert Frith - Acorn Photo
Kerry Hill Architects + Mirvac Design / D-Max Photography
4.3b / 4.3c
JCY Architects and Urban Designers / Damien Hatton
Klopper and Davis Architects / Dion Photography
Hillam Architects / Dion Photography
JCY Architects and Urban Designers / Damien Hatton
JCY Architects and Urban Designers / Damien Hatton
Breathe Architecture / Wuttke Photography
JCY Architects and Urban Designers / Rob Ramsay
Klopper and Davis Architects / Dion Photography
Hillam Architects / Dion Photography
Breathe Architecture / Wuttke Photography
David McLoughlin photographer
Joshâ€™s House / Josh Byrne Landscape Architects
Hillam Architects / Dion Photography
Breathe Architecture / Wuttke Photography
Turner / Tom Ferguson Photography
Klopper and Davis Architects / Dion Photography
Hillam Architects / Dion Photography
Hillam Architects / Dion Photography
JCY Architects and Urban Designers / Damien Hatton
JCY Architects and Urban Designers / Rob Ramsay
Klopper and Davis Architects / Dion Photography
Breathe Architecture / Michael Downes - UAcreative