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Dennis J. Matos June 21, 2012 ENC 1102 Section A004 Summer 2012


Reflection Paper Dear Professor Martinez, Prior coming into this class I knew little to no information on genres. I’ve had a couple teachers try to explain what a genre is but none have explained it as well as you have, you by far are the best English teacher I have had, and I am not trying to say this for brownie points. After reading the articles from Reiff, Barwashi, and Devitt on their views on genre, I’ve learned a lot of information that I never knew before coming into this class. They taught me a lot about genres, like the meaning of it and aspects of genre such as they are not a container, meaning they mold to any type of discourse community. In all of my previous papers I wrote, I’ve obtained a great amount of knowledge with each one I wrote. For example, in our Preliminary Genre Analysis Paper, I learned that not only are there many different types of discourse community’s, but I also found out that the genre included within a discourse community, differs among communities. They involve a series of jargon, organization, and patterns among a community. For example, when doctors write to other doctors they are under the impression that the other doctor is very knowledgeable in the health field, so they write many complex words that others won’t understand unless they were also doctors. Learning about genres will definitely help me in future writing situations because learning about genres has opened my eyes to which I am writing to, given the situation. Depending on what discourse community I am talking in, depends on the context of what I am talking about. For example I am talking within the context of our ENC 1102 community, I am talking about what I have learned through this past semester from English. This letter is a genre to you because it’s a form of communication in regards to the context of the ENC 1102


community. Learning about genres made me realize that I have to keep in mind who I am writing to, whether it’d be my family or my co-workers. I have met the course objectives by successfully learning about genres and discourse communities. It was a bit complex at first, but as the course went on, I learned more and more about these topics and it helped me better understand discourse communities with writing, and life situations. This course has prepared me for the research I may have to do in the future because it showed me how to successfully understand the writings of my professions and how to write in the field of my profession. I know now that when I do a research topic on a profession based on my major, it’ll be ten times easier because I’ve already went through the tedious process of learning and understanding the writings of the professionals in my major. So now when I write any research papers about my profession all I have to do is look up the studies and information and just translate on paper instead of having to go through the hassle of the countless hours of trying to understand the research myself. Throughout this entire semester, we have been working on discourse communities and genres, and with each paper my writing has increasingly gotten better. Lets start with the first paper, the Preliminary Genre Analysis. When I first sent you my first draft for tis paper you said, “The points that you’re making in this section are strong, but you’ll want to be careful not to get too general. What do you mean by “scientific method?” Maybe give a couple of examples from each of the sections—abstract, methods, results, discussion, and then explain how these sections build on each other in a logical manner. This will be a more direct way of referencing the “scientific method,” I think”. And when I turned in my final draft you told me I did a good job explaining my points because in my final paper I took your comments and I applied it to my


writing which increased the content of my paper tremendously. The most you fixed on my paper were grammatical errors and a few ideas, but other than that you said my paper did improve a lot. Now lets discuss the Annotated bibliography. When I showed you my Rough draft I absolutely did not know what I was doing and you told me that I need to expand the audience discussion and to remember to always introduce my quotes, but when I turned in my final draft you said “you do a nice job discussing your sources, and its clear that you can identify the connections between them”. Another improvement was my citations, I never really knew how to cite my work till this semester, and you would always comment on my citations, but you didn’t comment on it on my annotated bib, which was a plus. My grades have also improved, from the Genre Analysis, to the Annotated Bibliography, which raised 5%. Through each project, I’ve learned how my discourse community works. For example in the Genre Analysis, researching information for me helped me learn all the features and patterns that the professional use in all of their articles, I also learned how to cite my research on the format that the professionals use when they cite their work through writing the Annotated Bibliography. Writing the Line of Inquiry Paper made me go more in depth with how the professionals in my major really worked. I really went into depth on their methods, including how to get participants, and how to measure and test them. The grade that I think I deserve in the course is a B+. I have spent countless hours on writing papers, I wrote at least 3 rough drafts for each paper and they were all longer that 5 pages. (You’ll see it in my Portfolio). In every single one of my papers, you would agree that my content is very strong. Also I include many quotes and I elaborate them very well. The only reason I think I shouldn’t get an A, is because I didn’t revise it to it’s full potential, and I didn’t


always show up to class on time. But in all of my papers I have gotten a B so I think my grade should be around there. And I took my time out of my class period to make a video for our presentations. But I think I deserve an A on my portfolio because I did a lot of revisions and it has improved a lot because you helped me when I would ask you to revise it and I took your revision and I transitioned it into my paper. Also all the peer reviews gave me a lot of information and my peers suggested a lot of ideas that I used in my paper. It was truly a good experience to be in your class, you’re a great teacher and you make the class fun. I enjoyed all the group participation and interaction, and you taught me the best I’ve gotten so far. I know where ever you teach you’re going to do amazing! Thank you so much for the opportunity to be in your class.


TABLE OF CONTENTS Section 1 Preliminary Genre Analysis Section1A=Final Draft Section1B=rough Draft Section1C=Peer Review Section 2 Annotated Bibliography Section2A=Final Draft Section2B=Rough Draft Section2C=Peer Review Section 3 Line of Inquiry Paper Section3A=Final Draft Section3B=Rough Draft Section3C=Peer Review Section 4 Final Project Section4A=Final Draft Section4B=Rough Draft Section4C=Peer Review


FINAL Section1A Preliminary Genre Analysis FINAL Draft In everyday life you always come across some sort of communication, whether it be a flyer, the news, or even 2 words on a bathroom stall. Many forms of communication are called genres. Genres are in your everyday life whether you believe it or not. As Amy Devitt says, “Genres develop, then, because they respond appropriately to situations that writers encounter repeatedly. In principle, that is, writers first response in fitting ways and hence similarly to recurring situations”(576). For example, you meet someone for the first time, what is your regular response? In the US, You’ll usually say hi, smile and shake their hand. This is an illicit response that you learned over time. You formed this reaction because it was presented to you multiple times before, and now it becomes natural. According to other authors such as Devitt, Bawarshi, and Reiff, “ Genre study gives us specific access to the sites of language use that make up communities in all their complexity” (549). In this case, they were talking about a discourse community, which is a community that is formed because they have their own set of values, goals, and beliefs that they all share in common. Devitt et al. referred to genres as an access to language, in discourse communities you need some sort of mechanism of communication to be able to talk to members in the discourse communities, this is what genres are. Now that I have a strong understanding of what genre is, I will attempt to interpret what genres are in my discourse community, the medical field, mainly athletic training. The medical field has endless jargon and methods of communications; I will be analyzing three articles from the medical field, breaking them up into setting, participants, features, subjects, and patterns, in order to further elaborate my view on genre. Setting


The articles that I am using for this project were found on the UCF’s library database, when you enter the database you type in what you’re interested in and then look for articles within your search. For example, what I put in my search bar was athletic training, and within that group they give you a list of databases that you can choose from, once you enter that, you can search whatever you want, in my case, concussions. The journal that I’ve obtained all of my articles from is called the Journal of Athletic Training; they post many articles involving health related issues, mainly to do with sports, and it can also range from the anatomical to the psychological studies. For example, one of my articles is called “Possible Lingering Effects of Multiple Past Concussions” written by Cynthia W Majerske, MD, MS, Jason P Mihalik, MS, CAT(C), ATC, Dianxu Ren, PhD, Michael W Collins, PhD,Cara Camiolo Reddy, MD, Mark R Lovell, PhD, and Amy K Wagner, MD. This study was meant to examine whether or not athletes perform better or worse on neuropsychological testing after they suffered three or more concussions.

Subjects The topics that are discussed in my articles are concussions; for example, in my article “Concussion History and Postconcussion Neurocognitive Performance and Symptoms in Collegiate Athletes” a study on concussions and how they affect collegiate athletes’ post concussion, long term and short term conducted by Grant L. Iverson, Ruben J. Echemendia, Amanda K. LaMarre, Brian L. Brooks, and Michael B. Gaetz . Some of the issues that are addressed in these articles are the impact of concussions and how athletes perform afterwards. They are informative to give the reader some insight on what concussions are and the outcomes of concussions using concussion tests called the ImPACT. When it comes to the


discussion of this article, it is going to vary depending on who is reading it. For example, a parent of a child who plays football may think twice about their kid playing football, or if it is an Athletic Trainer for a local high school, they could decided whether or not they should administer Concussion tests to the football team in order to figure out who has suffered recent concussions. Participants The people who typically read these articles are most likely professionals of the medical field who want to know up to date news of current illnesses or research on what their professions concerned. More towards the athletic trainers or sports doctors such as Mihalik JP, whose profession deals a lot with athletic neuropsychology. He was one of the main authors of one of my articles and has concluded research on sports and the brains functions from as recent as 20052012. Some characteristics that the reader must have some sort of medical background, someone from the sports medicine field; they need to know about the brain and psychology in order to value the significance of this article. For example, in one of my articles “Concussion History and Postconcussion Neurocognitive Performance and Symptoms in Collegiate Athletes” written by Tracey Covassin, PhD, David Stearne, PhD, and Robert Elbin, III, the authors refer to

something called an “ImPACT test” which no commoner is going to know that this stands for Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing and even after they know what it stands for I’m still highly confident that people outside of the medical field will still have a hard time gauging what the meaning of it is. Features


Some recurrent features that the articles share is the way they are set up. They all are set up as a psychology study. They start off with Abstract, which is a very brief description of what the study entails, then, they transition into methods, which are basically who is participating how they are measuring the test subjects, and data analysis. They also include Results, Discussion, and the Conclusion. They are deeply vested within the scientific method. All the articles also share a very key characteristic, they are all informative, they are simply writing these articles to inform the reader about concussions, no argument or biased opinions towards the subject, they propose the question and attempt to answer it through an elaborate procedure. Their evidence is provided through an extensive amount of studies, where they really rely on statistics and neuropsychological testing. But for the most part examples aren’t really part of these articles; they rely mostly on facts and visual aids to help you interpret the information that is given, easier. For example In Covassin’s article, “Concussion History and Postconcussion Neurocognitive and Collegiate Athletes”, He relies more on statistics to show you the facts instead of relying on examples to show his findings. The texts are rather lengthy; they involve a lot of big words and long sentences, for example “Multivariate regression analysis revealed that adjusted symptom scores decreased (P < .001) at each time interval, suggesting an improvement in the self-report of symptoms over time”. This is just a very fancy way to say that this test shows that people are getting better at knowing what the symptoms of a concussion is. This text clearly shows that this is for someonein the medical profession who understands these concepts, not for someone who is looking for an article in the magazine to wait for time to pass. Patterns What the genre features reveal about the genre and the situation, which it is used in, is how generic this form of writing is becoming for Psychologists or Doctors. In every one of my


articles that I have found everything has the same format. It is mostly based of the scientific method. No matter what, when you are reading an article based on medicine or psychology, you already know what you are going to read before you read it! You know the basis of it, you’ve learned it since you were very little, and regardless what the content of the article is about the genre, it is always going to be the same in this scenario, The who, what, where, when, why, how approach is always going to apply to every one of these studies, or at least based around of it. “Treating genre as form requires dividing form from content, with genre as the form into which content is put”. (576) This is just reinforcing my point, Devitt is basically saying that genre is its own category, no matter what the content of it is, it’s always going to have the same form, in this case, my Athletic Training articles and their topic, It can always be different content but the format for it doesn’t change. What I feel people have to know or believe in order to appreciate reading this article is having an understanding of what the main focus of this article is, which is to better understand concussions and their effects. You really can’t try to begin and read something if you have no idea where it is going. And I think you have to have a certain understanding of genre itself. Some values and beliefs that are revealed through the genre’s pattern is how they really value medical terminology and how they abide by the very strict

format of research, such as the scientific method. In every one of my articles it includes the Abstract, Methods, Results, Discussion, Limitations, and Conclusions. Each section possesses their unique details. For example, they start with Abstract, to give you the most general details about the study. Then they go further into depth with Methods to show the reader how they are conducting the study and how they find the answer to their problem. After, they lead to the


results that give you the outcome of their experiment. Furthermore, in the Discussion section, they really just discuss the study and go further into depth on topics that they may not have touched on or feel need more elaboration. Then they go to Limitations to discuss anything and everything that can hinder the research project in the slightest. Last, they go into Conclusion to sum up their findings in a brief matter. The attitude toward the people is implied that the reader is a specialist on medical topics who know what they are reading; they made this articles because they wanted to strictly inform other specialist what up-to-date medical research is being conducted and the results that they yield. In no way were the three of my articles meant for nonspecialist because they never went into depth with medical terminology or what key terms were, For example, â&#x20AC;&#x153;The assumption of covariance matrix homogeneity in the data was not violatedâ&#x20AC;?. They, in now way even bothered to mention what this meant because they were under the assumption that the reader is a professional.


Work Cited Cynthia W Majerske, MD, MS, Jason P Mihalik, MS, CAT(C), ATC, Dianxu Ren, PhD, Michael W Collins, PhD,Cara Camiolo Reddy, MD, Mark R Lovell, PhD, and Amy K Wagner, MD. “Concussion in Sports: Postconcussive Activity Levels, Symptoms, and Neurocognitive Performance” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. May-June 2008. Journal of Athletic Training http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2386420/?tool=pmcentrez.

Grant L. Iverson, Ruben J. Echemendia, Amanda K. LaMarre, Brian L. Brooks, and Michael B. Gaetz. “Possible Lingering Effects of Multiple Past Concussions”. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. 2012 February 26. Rehabilitation Research and Practice. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3328154/?tool=pmcentrez

Tracey Covassin, PhD, David Stearne, PhD, and Robert Elbin, III. Concussion History and Postconcussion Neurocognitive Performance and Symptoms in Collegiate Athletes. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. March-April 2008, Journal of Athletic Training. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2267331/?tool=pmcentrez


Section1B Preliminary Genre Analysis Rough Draft In everyday life you always come across some sort of communication, whether it be a flyer, the news, or even if it were 2 words on a bathroom stall. Any form of communication is called a genre. Genres are in your everyday life whether you believe it or not. As Devitt says, “Genres develop, then, because they respond appropriately to situations that writers encounter repeatedly. In principle, that is, writers first response in fitting ways and hence similarly to recurring situations.”(576) For example, you meet someone for the first time, what is your regular response? You’ll usually say hi, smile and shake their hand. This is an illicit response that you learned over time. You formed this reaction because it was presented to you multiple times before, and now it becomes natural. According to other authors such as Devitt, Bawarshi, and Reiff, “ Genre study gives us specific access to the sites of language use that make up communities in all their complexity” (549) In this case, they were talking about a discourse community, which is a community that is formed because they have their own set of values, goals, and beliefs that they all share in common. Devitt et al. referred to genres as an access to language, in discourse communities you need some sort of mechanism of communication to be able to talk to members in the discourse communities, this is what genres are. Now that I have a strong understanding of what genre is, I will attempt to interpret what genres are in my discourse community, the medical field, mainly athletic training. The medical field has endless jargon and methods of communications; I will be analyzing three articles from the medical field, breaking them up into setting, participants, features, subjects, and patterns. Setting


The articles that I am using for this project were found on the UCF’s library database, when you enter the database you type in what you’re interested in and then look for articles within your search. For example, what I put in my search bar was athletic training, and within that group they give you a list of databases that you can choose from, once you enter that, you can search whatever you want, in my case, concussions. The journal that I’ve obtained all of my articles from is called the Journal of Athletic Training; they post many articles involving health related issues, mainly to do with sports, and it can also range from the anatomical to the psychological studies. For example, one of my articles are called “Possible Lingering Effects of Multiple Past Concussions” written by Cynthia W Majerske, MD, MS, Jason P Mihalik, MS, CAT(C), ATC, Dianxu Ren, PhD, Michael W Collins, PhD,Cara Camiolo Reddy, MD, Mark R Lovell, PhD, and Amy K Wagner, MD This study was meant to examine whether or not athletes perform better or worse on neuropsychological testing after they suffered three or more concussions. Subjects The topics that are discussed in my articles are concussions; for example, in my article “Concussion History and Postconcussion Neurocognitive Performance and Symptoms in Collegiate Athletes” a study on concussions and how they affect collegiate athletes’ post concussion, long term and short term conducted by Grant L. Iverson, Ruben J. Echemendia, Amanda K. LaMarre, Brian L. Brooks, and Michael B. Gaetz . Some of the issues that are addressed in these articles are the impact of concussions and how athletes perform afterwards. They are informative to give the reader some insight on what concussions are and the outcomes of concussions using concussion tests called the ImPACT. When it comes to the discussion of this article, it is going to vary depending on who is reading it. For example, a


parent of a child who plays football may think twice about their kid playing football, or if it is an Athletic Trainer for a local high school, they could decided whether or not they should administer Concussion tests to the football team in order to figure out who has suffered recent concussions. Participants The people who typically read these articles are most likely professionals of the medical field who want to know up to date news of current illnesses or research on what their professions concerned, more towards the athletic trainers or sports doctors such as Mihalik JP, who’s profession deals a lot with athletic neuropsychology who was one of the main authors of one of my articles and has many researches done on sports and the brains functions from as recent as 2005-2012. Some characteristics that the reader must have some sort of medical background, someone from the sports medicine field; they need to know about the brain and psychology in order to value the significance of this article. For example, in one of my articles “Concussion History and Postconcussion Neurocognitive Performance and Symptoms in Collegiate Athletes” written by Tracey Covassin, PhD, David Stearne, PhD, and Robert Elbin, III, the authors refer to something called an “ImPACT test” which no commoner is going to know that this stands for Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing and even after they know what it stands for I’m still highly confident that people outside of the medical field will still have a hard time gauging what the meaning of it is. Features Some recurrent features that the articles share is the way they are set up. They all are set up as a psychology study. They start off with Abstract, which is a very brief description of what the study entails, then, they transition into methods, which are basically who is participating how


they are measuring the test subjects, and data analysis. They also include Results, Discussion, and the Conclusion. They are deeply vested within the scientific method. All the articles also share a very key characteristic, they are all informative, they are simply writing these articles to inform the reader about concussions, no argument or biased opinions towards the subject, they propose the question and attempt to answer it through an elaborate procedure. Their evidence is provided through an extensive amount of studies, where they really rely on statistics and neuropsychological testing. But for the most part examples aren’t really part of these articles; they rely mostly on facts and visual aids to help you interpret the information that is given, easier. The texts are rather lengthy; they involve a lot of big words and long sentences, for example “Multivariate regression analysis revealed that adjusted symptom scores decreased (P < .001) at each time interval, suggesting an improvement in the self-report of symptoms over time”. This is just a very fancy way to say that this test shows that people are getting better at knowing what the symptoms of a concussion is. This text clearly shows that this is for someone in the medical profession who understands these concepts, not for someone who is looking for an article in the magazine to wait for time to past. Patterns What the genre features reveal about the genre and the situation, which it is used in, is how generic this form of writing is becoming for Psychologist or Doctors. In every one of my articles that I have found everything has the same format. It is mostly based of the scientific method. No matter what, when you are reading an article based on medicine or psychology, you already know what you are going to read before you read it! You know the basis of it, you’ve learned it since you were very little, and regardless what the content of the article is about the genre, it is always going to be the same in this scenario, The who, what, where, when, why, how


approach is always going to apply to every one of these studies, or at least based around of it. “Treating genre as form requires dividing form from content, with genre as the form into which content is put”. (576) This is just reinforcing my point, Devitt is basically saying that genre is its own category, no matter what the content of it is, it’s always going to have the same form, in this case, my Athletic Training articles and their topic, It can always be different content but the format for it doesn’t change. What I feel people have to know or believe in order to appreciate reading this article is having an understanding of what the main focus of this article is, which is to better understand concussions and their effects. You really can’t try to begin and read something if you have no idea where it is going. And I think you have to have a certain understanding of genre itself. Knowing what a genre is helps you realize what kind there are and how it is incorporated in your everyday life, whether it’d be a text message or an essay, genre is everywhere! Some values and beliefs that are revealed through the genre’s pattern is how they really value medical terminology and how they abide by the very strict format of research, such as the scientific method. The attitude toward the world is implied is that the reader is a specialist on medical topics who know what they are reading; they made this articles because they wanted to strictly inform other specialist what up-to-date medical research is being conducted and the results that they yield. In no way were the three of my articles meant for non-specialist because they never went into depth with medical terminology or what key terms were, For example, “The assumption of covariance matrix homogeneity in the data was not violated”. They, in now way even bothered to mention what this meant because they were under the assumption that the reader is a professional.


Section1C Preliminary Genre Analysis Peer Review In everyday life you always come across some sort of communication, whether it be a flyer, the news, or even if it were 2 words on a bathroom stall. Any form of communication is called a genre. Genres are in your everyday life whether you believe it or not. As Devitt says, “Genres develop, then, because they respond appropriately to situations that writers encounter repeatedly. In principle, that is, writers first response in fitting ways and hence similarly to recurring situations.”(576) For example, you meet someone for the first time, what is your regular response? You’ll usually say hi, smile and shake their hand. This is an illicit response that you learned over time. You formed this reaction because it was presented to you multiple times before, and now it becomes natural. According to other authors such as Devitt, Bawarshi, and Reiff, “ Genre study gives us specific access to the sites of language use that make up communities in all their complexity” (549) In this case, they were talking about a discourse community, which is a community that is formed because they have their own set of values, goals, and beliefs that they all share in common. Devitt et al. referred to genres as an access to language, in discourse communities you need some sort of mechanism of communication to be able to talk to members in the discourse communities, this is what genres are. Now that I have a strong understanding of what genre is, I will attempt to interpret what genres are in my discourse community, the medical field, mainly athletic training. The medical field has endless jargon and methods of communications; I will be analyzing three articles from the medical field, breaking them up into setting, participants, features, subjects, and patterns. Setting

Dennis Matos 5/22/12 11:19 AM Deleted: Dennis Matos 5/22/12 11:14 AM Deleted: discourse communities


The articles that I am using for this project were found on the UCF’s library database, when you enter the database you type in what you’re interested in and then look for articles within your search. For example, what I put in my search bar was athletic training, and within that group they give you a list of databases that you can choose from, once you enter that, you can search whatever you want, in my case, concussions. The journal that I’ve obtained all of my articles from is called the Journal of Athletic Training; they post many articles involving health related issues, mainly to do with sports, and it can also range from the anatomical to the psychological studies. For example, one of my articles are called “Possible Lingering Effects of Multiple Past Concussions” written by Cynthia W Majerske, MD, MS, Jason P Mihalik, MS, CAT(C), ATC, Dianxu Ren, PhD, Michael W Collins, PhD,Cara Camiolo Reddy, MD, Mark R Lovell, PhD, and Amy K Wagner, MD

This study was meant to examine whether or not athletes perform better or worse on neuropsychological testing after they suffered three or more concussions.

Subjects The topics that are discussed in my articles are concussions; for example, in my article “Concussion History and Postconcussion Neurocognitive Performance and Symptoms in Collegiate Athletes” a study on concussions and how they affect collegiate athletes’ post concussion, long term and short term conducted by Grant L. Iverson, Ruben J. Echemendia, Amanda K. LaMarre, Brian L. Brooks, and Michael B. Gaetz . Some of the issues that are addressed in these articles are the impact of concussions and how athletes perform afterwards. They are informative to give the reader some insight on what concussions are and the outcomes of concussions using concussion tests called the ImPACT. When it comes to the


discussion of this article, it is going to vary depending on who is reading it. For example, parent of a child who plays football may think twice about their kid playing football, or if it is an Athletic Trainer for a local high school, they could decided whether or not they should administer Concussion tests to the football team in order to figure out who has suffered recent concussions. Maybe insert a quote here to demonstrate why this would be clear to a parent reading this article. Participants The people who typically read these articles are most likely professionals of the medical field who want to know up to date news of current illnesses or research on what their professions concerned, more towards the athletic trainers or sports doctors such as Mihalik JP, who’s profession deals a lot with athletic neuropsychology who was one of the main authors of one of my articles and has many researches done on sports and the brains functions from as recent as 2005-2012. Some characteristics that the reader must have some sort of medical background, someone from the sports medicine field; they need to know about the brain and psychology in order to value the significance of this article. For example, in one of my articles “Concussion History and Postconcussion Neurocognitive Performance and Symptoms in Collegiate Athletes” written by Tracey Covassin, PhD, David Stearne, PhD, and Robert Elbin, III, the authors refer to something called an “ImPACT test” which no commoner is going to know that this stands for Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing and even after they know what it stands for I’m still highly confident that people outside of the medical field will still have a hard time gauging what the meaning of it is. Features

Dennis Matos 5/22/12 11:20 AM Deleted: a Dennis Matos 5/22/12 11:17 AM Deleted: A


Some recurrent features that the articles share is the way they are set up. They all are set up as a psychology study. They start off with Abstract, which is a very brief description of what the study entails, they then transition into methods, which are basically who is participating how they are measuring the test subjects, and data analysis. They also include Results, Discussion, and the Conclusion. They are deeply vested within the scientific method. The articles all also share a very key characteristic they areall informative, they are simply writing these articles to inform the reader about concussions, no argument or biased opinions towards the subject, they propose the question and attempt to answer it through

Comments Overall great analysis. I really enjoyed your introduction, it was relatable and made the concept of genre clear for someone who may be unfamiliar with the concept. It was also great that you explained what ImPACT means, I felt that I understood your articles more because of this. The only thing I can say is perhaps add some quotes to illustrate the examples you included, and I think this would compliment your paper perfectly. You may also be able to elaborate more on the features section. Lastly, there were very few grammar errors.

Dennis Matos 5/22/12 11:19 AM Deleted: , it is Dennis Matos 5/22/12 11:19 AM Deleted:


FINAL Section2A Annotated Bibliography Final Draft Introduction After exploring genres common to the field of Health Science through a preliminary genre analysis, I am further analyzing the genres of my field by tracing the claims made by psychologists. I have obtained numerous articles relating to the effects of concussions on athlete’s neurocognitive development post-concussion. Through my sources I have gathered information stating that concussions make it harder for athletes to perform well on the neurocognitive tests (ImPACT) after receiving a concussion. (Gaetz; Covassin). These sources have helped me identify the various aspects of Health Science, enabling me to further continue my studies through these genres and obtain a wide range of information that will help prepare me to enter a new community through my major. "High School And Collegiate Football Athlete Concussions: A Biomechanical Review". Broglio, Steven P, Tyler Surma, and James An Ashton-Miller. "High School And Collegiate Football Athlete Concussions: A Biomechanical Review."Annals Of Biomedical Engineering 40.1 (2012): 37-46. MEDLINE. Web. 31 May 2012. Broglio et al., in their article “”High School And Collegiate Football Athlete Concussions: A Biomechanical Review” assert that to understand the biomechanics of concussive injury that occur in the context of sport, you must examine the literature on the effects of the number of impacts, impact magnitude, impact distribution, and concussion threshold in high school and collegiate football athletes. Broglio supports his assertion by examining the recorded information using The Head Impact Telemetry System (HIT). Their purpose was to better understand concussions and to recognize injury and prevention. Their


intended audiences are professionals of the Health Science field or Athletic Trainers. Health Science professionals can find new and better ways to prevent concussions and Athletic Trainers can better understand what concussions are to protect the health of the high school/collegiate athletes. He targets his audience by setting up a study that shows the effects of concussions. Broglio’s article pertains to my topic because his article is based on the biomechanics of head impacts that cause concussions and my topic is just the general concept of concussions. Broglio states“Improved techniques of measuring head motion include the implementation of motion capture and post injury analysis” This is showing that the articles is mostly based on the certain head position you have to be in in order to sustain a concussion. This article is similar to that of Broglio’s study that focus more on the biomechanics of high school athletes instead of collegiate. “Helmets and Mouth Guards: The Role of Personal Equipment in Preventing SportRelated Concussions”. RC Cantu, et al., "Helmets And Mouth Guards: The Role Of Personal Equipment In Preventing Sport-Related Concussions." Clinics In Sports Medicine 30.1 (2011): 145-163. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 4 June 2012. RC Cantu et al., in his article “Helmets And Mouth Guards: The Role Of Personal Equipment in Preventing Sport-related Concussions” asserts that helmets significantly decrease the potential for sever TBI after a collision by reducing the acceleration of the head on impact. He supports his assertion by going through the years and describing what the helmets were like, how they protected you, and how they continue to get better and better. The purpose of this article is to inform readers the effects of wearing head guards. His intended audience is those of the Health Science field who seek knowledge for the biomechanical works of a concussion.


RC Cantu et al. article is similar to my topic because it has to do with protective headgear and how it prevents severe concussions from happening. “The energy-absorbing material within a helmet accomplishes this by compressing to absorb force during the collision and slowly restoring to its original shape” this is showing the emphasis on how he really wants the reader to know how well protective head gear works so that we can get a better understanding of concussions. This article is very similar to that of one of his other articles “The Epidemiology of Sport-Related Concussion” which entails ways to prevent concussions. "The Epidemiology Of Sport-Related Concussion". RC Cantu, et al., "The Epidemiology Of Sport-Related Concussion." Clinics In Sports Medicine 30.1 (2011): 1-17. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 31 May 2012. RC Cantu, in his article “ The Epidemiology Of Sport-Related Concussion” claims that the rate of concussions has risen steadily over the past twenty years. He supports his argument by stating that athletes are continuously getting bigger, stronger, and faster, increasing the force in the collision causing the concussion. The purpose of this article was to show the readers the statistics of concussions in every sport and then ways of preventing them. The audience of this article is mainly Athletic Trainers in every sport because they are the ones who ultimately decide whether or not an athlete is good enough to compete, so with this insight Athletic Trainers can better understand concussions and to also prevent them. He targets his audience by talking about the statistics of the concussions happening among high school athletes. This article is similar to my topic because it talks about how concussions happen in multiple sports and how you can prevent them. “The majority of concussions in high school athletes resulted from participation in football, followed by women’s soccer, men’s soccer, and


women’s basketball”. This shows that concussions can happen in more sports than one and it is not gender biased, just because girls may not be as rough as boys, doesn’t mean they can’t suffer concussions as severe as boys who play in more contact sports. This article is very similar to the work of Kelly because they both talk about the effects and they statistics of concussions on athletes and they both try to talk about taking precautions to eliminate further concussions. “Computerized Neurocognitive Testing For The Management Of Sport-Related Concussions”. R., Dawn Comstock, et al., "Computerized Neurocognitive Testing For The Management Of Sport-Related Concussions." Pediatrics 129.1 (2012): 38-44. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 4 June 2012 Comstock et al., in his article “Computerized Neurocognitive Testing For the Management Of Sport-Related Concussions” asserts that athletes who underwent computerized neurocognitive testing were less likely to be returned within 10 days of injury. He supports his assertion by showing statistics from the High School Reporting Information Online, recording 1056 concussions and he also shows that approximately 40% of US high schools use computerized neurocognitive tests when managing sport-related concussions. The purpose of this study was to show that using computerized neurocognitive testing for the assessment of high school athletes who get concussions are better than just a regular physician. The audience is those of the Health Science Profession. She targets her audience by showing a set of statistics that talk about the frequency of concussions. This article is similar to my topic because it shows the computerized component of measuring concussions. “Computerized neurocognitive tests are significantly associated with the timing of return-to-play”. This is showing how heavily schools rely on these computerized tests


to clear athletes for playing again. This article is very similar to that of RC Cantu et al. because they both talk about ways concussions can be diagnosed and prevented. “Epidemiology Of Concussions Among United States High School Athletes”. R., Dawn Comstock, et al., "Epidemiology Of Concussions Among United States High School Athletes In 20 Sports." American Journal Of Sports Medicine 40.4 (2012): 747-755. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 4 June 2012. Comstock et al., in her article “Epidemiology of Concussions Among United States High School Athletes in 20 Sports” claims that full-contact sports like football and ice hockey are not the only time concussions can occur. She supports her claim by conducting a test that measure concussions over the range of 20 sports. Her purpose was to investigate the epidemiology of concussions in high school athletes by comparing information of concussions among 20 sports. The intended audience is other neuropsychologists and professionals of the Health Science field. She targets her audience by providing statistical information that further credits their research. Comstock et al. article is similar to my topic because it deals with Concussions among those participating in high school sports. “Concussion rates vary by sport, gender, and type of exposures”. This means that concussions can happen in any sport you play but the number of times they occur vary between sports. This article is very similar to that of RC Cantu because they both conducted a study on concussions over a range of numerous amounts of sports. "Concussion History And Postconcussion Neurocognitive Performance And Symptoms In Collegiate Athletes". Covassin, T, D Stearne, and R, III Elbin. "Concussion History And Postconcussion Neurocognitive Performance And Symptoms In Collegiate Athletes." Journal Of Athletic Training 43.2 (2008): 119-124. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 31 May 2012.


Covassin et al., in her article “Concussion History and Postconcussion Neurocognitive Performance and Symptoms in Collegiate Athletes” claims that Research that examines the long-term effects of sport related concussion has been inconsistent in demonstrating lingering neurocognitive activity. Covassin et al. develops this claim by setting up a psychological experiment that involves 36 collegiate athletes without concussion history and 21 with a history of 2 or more concussions. Then they follow up with the measurements to test the subjects. Leading with the Conclusion that collegiate athletes who have suffered 2 or more concussions took longer to recover verbal memory and reaction time than athletes who have not received concussions. The purpose of this study was to test the neurocognitive ability of athletes who have received one or more concussions and then report the results. The intended audience is Health Science professionals that deal a lot with neurocognitive functions. He targets his audience by talking about neuropsychological tests that can be done on concussions. Covassin et al. article pertains to my topic because they talk about long-term effects of a collegiate athlete who has received 2 or more concussions as opposed to those who have never received concussions. My topic deals with the general idea of concussions. “Subjects who sustained a concussion were administered 2 follow-up tests at day 1 and 5 post-injury”. This is showing that they really focus more on the statistics rather than the neuroscience of concussions. This article is similar to that of Gaetz et al. because their article also deals with the lingering effects of concussions on athletes. Possible Lingering Effects of Multiple Past Concussions Michale, B Gaetz, et al., "Possible Lingering Effects Of Multiple Past Concussions." Rehabilitation Research & Practice (2012): 1-7. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 29 May 2012


Michale B. Gaetz et al., in his article, “Possible Lingering Effects of Multiple Past Concussions,” argues that effects from concussions can still stay with you after multiple concussions. Michale B. Gaetz et al. tests this argument by conducting a series of tests that measure neuropsychological activity of 786 athletes. The purpose of this study was to find out if subjects that have a history of three or more concussions perform worse on neuropsychological tests in order to inform the audience on the after effects of concussions. The intended audience is other professionals in the field of Health Science or Psychology who seek the latest information in their said profession. He targets his audience by discussing long-term effects of concussions. Gaetz et al. article pertains to my topic because my topic deals with concussions, and Gaetz et al. article deals with testing athletes neurocognitive skills after suffering three or more concussions. “Sport-related concussions result in temporary neurocognitive deficits and subjectively experienced physical, emotional, and cognitive symptoms in the initial hours, days, and sometimes weeks after injury” this is stating that after a concussion, you begin to experience irregular symptoms, sometimes weeks after the initial concussion. These articles are similar to the articles of RC Cantu et al. which is a study based on grade 1 and 2 level concussions on athletes who have sustained one or two concussions. "Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Lessons Learned From Clinical, Sports, And Combat Concussions”. Kelly, Judy, C, Efland, H Amerson, and Jeffrey, T Barth. "Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Lessons Learned From Clinical, Sports, And Combat Concussions." Rehabilitation Research & Practice (2012): 1-5. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 31 May 2012.


Kelly et al., in her article “Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Lessons Learned From Clinical, Sports, And Combat Concussions” suggests that Concussions suffered from sports related injuries can correlate with those who have suffered from multiple blast injuries in the military. Kelly supports this suggestion by using the Sports as a Laboratory Assessment Model (SLAM) in the military, which involves the use of collecting neurocognitive test information that would later be compared to repeat postconcussion test data. Kelly’s purpose was to inform her readers of the severity of concussions. Kelly’s intended audience can vary, it could be for Doctors who are involved with the military that are looking for more information on concussions to better aid those who suffer concussions in the military, Or for professionals of the Health Science field that are looking for more knowledge on concussions. Kelly targets her audience by providing scientific information that pertains to the Health Science community, such as their methodology and their results. Kelly et al. article pertains to my topic because it deals with concussions in the military and the severity of it that can be linked with other serious injuries that can be fatal to their health. “ Approximately 79% of combat-related TBIs are caused by improvised explosive devices, leading to blast concussive injuries” This shows the high rates of possible concussions in military soldiers that draw a high concern to the medical officials of the military to really test them for concussions. This article is similar to that of Covassin et al. article about symptoms of postconcussion in athletes because they both relate to the symptoms of the concussions rather than the biomechanical aspect of the concussion. "Long-Term Electrophysiological Changes In Athletes With A History Of Multiple Concussions".


P Jolicoeur, et al., "Long-Term Electrophysiological Changes In Athletes With A History Of Multiple Concussions." Brain Injury 21.6 (2007): 631-644.CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 31 May 2012. P Jolicoeur et al. in his article “Long-term electrophysiological changes in athletes with a history of multiple concussions” that long-term effects are linked to a history of one or more concussions. P Jolicouer et al. supports this assertion by setting up an experiment that involved 47 university football players that were assigned to three groups that were based on their concussion level and then tested on the Post-Concussion Symptoms scale in order to gauge their neurocognitive performance. The purpose of this study is to investigate long-term effects of one or more concussions. The target audience is Health Science professionals that deal with Neuropsychology that understand their methods and medical jargon. This article pertains to my topic because it deals with the effects of a concussion on visual-spatial attention that also show long lasting affects of the suppression of the visual-spatial attention span. “Further work may allow one to pinpoint the cognitive system that is specifically affected by multiple concussions” This is showing that this study will allow others to gain insight on what particular part of the brain is effected by a concussion. This article is similar to that of Gaetz et al. because they both deal with the longterm effects of concussions on athlete’s neurocognitive performance. "Biomechanical Properties Of Concussions In High School Football". Jerrad Zimmerman, et al., "Biomechanical Properties Of Concussions In High School Football." Medicine & Science In Sports & Exercise 42.11 (2010): 2064-2071. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 31 May 2012.


Zimmerman et al., in his article “Biomechanical properties of concussions in high school football” asserts that if the Head Impact Telemetry System were used for medical purposes, sideline personnel will be able to diagnose and treat one of every five athletes with a concussion. He supports this claim by setting up a test that monitored all football related head impacts in 78 high school athletes from 2005 to 2008. The purpose of this study is to better understand the biomechanical element of concussions to make diagnosing and treating easier. The primary audience is Health Science professionals who can interpret the statistical information given by the authors. Zimmerman et al. article pertains to my topic because it has to deal with the biomechanical properties of high school athlete’s concussions and to better understand concussions so they can treat and diagnose them with less error. “Understanding the biomechanical properties of this injury will support the development of better diagnostic and preventative techniques”. This shows you that Zimmerman is really concerned with the biomechanical feature of concussions rather than the psychological effects because he wants to be better prepared to diagnose and treat the initial concussion rather than the long-term effects. This article is also similar to that of his own work that measured biomechanical properties of collegiate as well as high school athletes.


Section2B Annotated Bibliography Rough Draft Introduction After exploring genres common to the field of Health Science through a preliminary genre analysis, I am further analyzing the genres of my field by tracing the claims made by psychologist. I have obtained numerous articles relating to the effects of concussions on athlete’s neurocognitive development post-concussion. Through my sources I have gathered information stating that concussions make it harder for athletes to perform well on the neurocognitive tests (ImPACT) after receiving a concussion. (Gaetz;Covassin) These sources have helped me identify the various aspects of Health Science, enabling me to further continue my studies through these genres and obtain a wide range of information that will help prepare me to enter a new community through my major. Possible Lingering Effects of Multiple Past Concussions Michale, B Gaetz, et al. "Possible Lingering Effects Of Multiple Past Concussions." Rehabilitation Research & Practice (2012): 1-7. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 29 May 2012 Michael B. Gaetz et al., in his article, “Possible Lingering Effects of Multiple Past Concussions,” argues that effects from concussions can still stay with you after multiple concussions. Michael B. Gaetz et al. tests this argument by conducting a series of tests that measure neuropsychological activity of 786 athletes. The purpose of this study was to find out if subjects that have a history of three or more concussions perform worse on neuropsychological tests in order to inform the audience on the after effects of concussions. The intended audience is


other professionals in the field of Health Science or Psychology who seek the latest information in their said profession. Peer review Intro, Citations, Precis, Tie to your topic and sources List each entry in alphabetical order Do not number your entries Double space. Do not add extra space between entries. Use hanging indent after the first line of citation. Shoot for 10

Concussion History and Postconcussion Neurocognitive Performance and Symptoms in Collegiate Athletes Broglio, Steven P, Tyler Surma, and James A Ashton-Miller. "High School And Collegiate Football Athlete Concussions: A Biomechanical Review."Annals Of Biomedical Engineering 40.1 (2012): 37-46. MEDLINE. Web. 31 May 2012.

Covassin, T, D Stearne, and R, III Elbin. "Concussion History And Postconcussion Neurocognitive Performance And Symptoms In Collegiate Athletes." Journal Of Athletic Training 43.2 (2008): 119-124. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 31 May 2012. Jerrad Zimmerman, et al. "Biomechanical Properties Of Concussions In High School Football." Medicine & Science In Sports & Exercise 42.11 (2010): 2064-2071. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 31 May 2012.

Kelly, Judy, C, Efland, H Amerson, and Jeffrey, T Barth. "Mild Traumatic Brain Injury:


Lessons Learned From Clinical, Sports, And Combat Concussions." Rehabilitation Research & Practice (2012): 1-5. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 31 May 2012.

P Jolicoeur, et al. "Long-Term Electrophysiological Changes In Athletes With A History Of Multiple Concussions." Brain Injury 21.6 (2007): 631-644.CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 31 May 2012.

RC Cantu, et al. "The Epidemiology Of Sport-Related Concussion." Clinics In Sports Medicine 30.1 (2011): 1-17. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 31 May 2012


Section2C Annotated Bibliography Peer Review Introduction After exploring genres common to the field of Health Science through a preliminary genre analysis, I am further analyzing the genres of my field by tracing the claims made by psychologist. I have obtained numerous articles relating to the effects of concussions on athlete’s neurocognitive development post-concussion. Through my sources I have gathered information stating that concussions make it harder for athletes to perform well on the neurocognitive tests (ImPACT) after receiving a concussion. (Gaetz;Covassin) These sources have helped me identify the various aspects of Health Science, enabling me to further continue my studies through these genres and obtain a wide range of information that will help prepare me to enter a new community through my major. Possible Lingering Effects of Multiple Past Concussions Michale, B Gaetz, et al. "Possible Lingering Effects Of Multiple Past Concussions." Rehabilitation Research & Practice (2012): 1-7. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 29 May 2012 Michael B. Gaetz et al., in his article, “Possible Lingering Effects of Multiple Past Concussions,” argues that effects from concussions can still stay with you after multiple concussions. Michael B. Gaetz et al. tests this argument by conducting a series of tests that measure neuropsychological activity of 786 athletes. The purpose of this study was to find out if subjects that have a history of three or more concussions perform worse on neuropsychological tests in order to inform the audience on the after effects of concussions. The intended audience is


other professionals in the field of Health Science or Psychology who seek the latest information in their said profession. Peer review Megan Muckenfuss just gave me a few ideas on what I should be writing about and how to tie in my sentences. She also fixed a couple of grammatical errors that I had.

Concussion History and Postconcussion Neurocognitive Performance and Symptoms in Collegiate Athletes

Broglio, Steven P, Tyler Surma, and James A Ashton-Miller. "High School And Collegiate Football Athlete Concussions: A Biomechanical Review."Annals Of Biomedical Engineering 40.1 (2012): 37-46. MEDLINE. Web. 31 May 2012.

Covassin, T, D Stearne, and R, III Elbin. "Concussion History And Postconcussion Neurocognitive Performance And Symptoms In Collegiate Athletes." Journal Of Athletic Training 43.2 (2008): 119-124. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 31 May 2012. Jerrad Zimmerman, et al. "Biomechanical Properties Of Concussions In High School Football." Medicine & Science In Sports & Exercise 42.11 (2010): 2064-2071. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 31 May 2012.

Kelly, Judy, C, Efland, H Amerson, and Jeffrey, T Barth. "Mild Traumatic Brain Injury:


Lessons Learned From Clinical, Sports, And Combat Concussions." Rehabilitation Research & Practice (2012): 1-5. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 31 May 2012.

P Jolicoeur, et al. "Long-Term Electrophysiological Changes In Athletes With A History Of Multiple Concussions." Brain Injury 21.6 (2007): 631-644.CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 31 May 2012.

RC Cantu, et al. "The Epidemiology Of Sport-Related Concussion." Clinics In Sports Medicine 30.1 (2011): 1-17. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 31 May 2012.


FINAL Section3A Line of  Inquiry  Paper  Final  Draft   From  Genres  to  Arguments:  Concussions  in  Sports     After exploring genres common to the field of Health Science through a preliminary genre analysis, I am further analyzing the genres of my field by tracing the claims made by psychologist. I have obtained numerous articles relating to the effects of concussions on athlete’s neurocognitive development post-concussion. Through my sources I have gathered information stating that concussions make it harder for athletes to perform well on the neurocognitive tests (ImPACT) after receiving a concussion. (Gaetz; Covassin) These sources have helped me identify the various aspects of Health Science, enabling me to further continue my studies through these genres and obtain a wide range of information that will help prepare me to enter a new community through my major. My  topic  that  I  decided  to  choose  was  concussions  in  sports.  How  I  decided  on  my  topic  was   through  my  chiropractor.  I  hurt  myself  playing  sports  my  junior  year  of  high  school  and  he   really  helped  me  out  and  I  got  a  lot  better  fast.  So  it  came  upon  me  to  write  about   something  about  sports  because  when  I  am  older  I  want  to  be  a  chiropractor  to  help   athletes.  So  I  decided  to  write  about  high  school  and  collegiate  athletes  to  better  expand  my   knowledge  on  what’s  out  there  and  the  current  big  issues  in  sports.  I  searched  and  Athletic   Trainer  database,  I  originally  tried  to  go  with  chiropractor  but  there  wasn’t  enough       information  there  for  me  to  write  a  paper  in  so  I  had  to  switch  my  databases.  How  I  knew   this  was  a  big  issue  was  that  I  used  to  play  football,  and  getting  a  concussion  was  a  big  thing   in  football,  you  saw  it  all  over  the  news,  and  the  NFL  even  created  new  rules  to  try  and  


reduce the  amount  of  concussion  that  there  were  happening.  What  exploring  this  issue   made  me  realize  in  my  field  is  it  involves  a  lot  of  medical  jargon  and  very  complex  wording   that  I  will  eventually  have  to  learn  because  this  is  what  I  am  interested  in  and  want  to  be.       Prevention/Diagnostic    

There are  different  ways  that  you  can  help  prevent  and  diagnose  concussions.  Some  

sources suggest  that  with  the  proper  gear,  prevention  and  detection  of  concussions  are   easier  to  obtain  (Cantu;  Comstock).  For  example  Robert  Cantu  states  “The  energy-­‐ absorbing  material  within  a  helmet  accomplishes  this  by  compressing  to  absorb  force   during  the  collision  and  slowly  restoring  to  its  original  shape”  (3).  This  is  showing  us  how   he  really  emphasizes  the  importance  of  a  helmet  in  full  contact  sports  in  the  prevention  of   concussion  because  the  helmet  works  to  send  the  shock  away  from  your  head.     RC  Cantu  believes that helmets significantly decrease the potential for sever Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBIs) after a collision by reducing the acceleration of the head on impact. According to Comstock if all school’s Athletic Trainer used the computer program to detect concussion, you can detect every 1 out of 5 concussed athletes, furthermore claiming that using the computer program can help prevent an athlete from being hurt any further.    

Both Cantu  and  Comstock  both  agree  that  prevention  is  key  to  athletes  from  further  

becoming injured,  But  Comstock  focuses  more  on  the  detection  of  concussions  to  prevent   further  injury  through  a  computer  programming  system,  while  Cantu  focuses  more  on  the   prevention  of  the  initial  concussion  through  protective  head  gear.   Epidemiology    

Epidemiology is defined as the study of medicine that deals with the incidence,

distribution, and control of diseases. Some sources suggest concussions can be better understood


and reduced through extensive epidemiology (Cantu; Comstock). “A simple random sample was then used to select schools from each sampling strata to achieve a nationally representative sample of 100 schools”. This shows us that Dawn Comstock highly values the study of epidemiology, she tests 100 schools for concussions and then compares them because you have to test a wide range of subjects to better understand concussions and to also obtain the information needed within epidemiology. RC Cantu asserts that with better data comes along improved knowledge of the types of actions and activities that typically result in concussions. Comstock believes that the epidemiology of concussions can provide the scientific data needed to calculate injury rates, monitor patterns of injury, and identify risk factors of concussions, therefore, reducing the amount of concussions that happen nationally. RC Cantu and Dawn Comstock both find that the use of epidemiology on concussions is key to better understand concussions because it produces a massive amount of information due to the national studies they conduct. The two had their differences; RC Cantu decided to conduct a large study on various sports nationally, while Dawn Comstock decided to conduct a study on fewer sports but had more participants within their respected sports then RC Cantu did in his studies Biomechanics There are only so many ways you can try and reduce someone’s chances of getting a concussion. Some sources suggest that studying the biomechanics; which is studying the mechanical laws relating to the movements of a human, is key to help diagnose and treat concussions (Broglio; Zimmerman). “Understanding the biomechanical properties of this injury will support the development of better diagnostic and preventative techniques” (12). This shows


you that Zimmerman is really concerned with the biomechanical feature of concussions rather than the psychological effects because he wants to be better prepared to diagnose and treat the initial concussion rather than the long-term effects. Broglio argues that improved techniques of measuring head motion through the Head Impact Telemetry System, include the implementation of motion capture and post injury analysis. Zimmerman asserts that if the Head Impact Telemetry System were used for medical purposes, sideline personnel will be able to diagnose and treat more athletes who have sustained a concussion. Both Broglio, and Zimmerman agree that using the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS) is a very fundamental way to help diagnose and treat concussions, but Broglio believes that to understand the biomechanics of concussive injury that occur in the context of sport, you must examine the literature on the effects of the number of impacts, impact magnitude, impact distribution, and concussion threshold in high school and collegiate football athletes. Zimmerman asserts that studying concussions involve equipment age, quality, and how it fits, which is key because if the equipment isn’t up to par, concussions are more easily sustainable. Long-Term Effects Playing any sport has its risks and hazards, not just physically, but mentally as well. Many sources claim that a concussion can have psychological long-term effects (Covassin; Gaetz;  P  Jolicoeur). For example P Jolicoeur asserts, “Long-term electrophysiological changes in athletes with a history of multiple concussions” (11). Showing us that long-term psychological effects may be caused by concussions. Covassin asserts that collegiate athletes who have suffered 2 or more concussions take longer to recover verbal memory and reaction time than athletes who have not received concussions,


showing that concussions have lingering effects. Gaetz states “Sport-related concussions result in temporary neurocognitive deficits and subjectively experienced physical, emotional, and cognitive symptoms in the initial hours, days, and sometimes weeks after injury”(9). This is stating that after a concussion, you begin to experience irregular symptoms, sometimes weeks after the initial concussion. P Jolicoeur claims that, the effects of a concussion on visual-spatial attention also show long lasting affects of the suppression of the visual-spatial attention span. Covassin, P Jolicoeur, and Gaetz all assert that long-term psychological effects are linked with a history of concussions but they all have different views on it. Covassin mainly focuses on the statistical part of long-term effects by showing the amount of people who have been affected by the concussion, while Gaetz emphasizes on the lingering effects of a concussion by testing subjects neuropsychological abilities, and P Jolicoeur focuses on the neurocognitive performances of the subject’s long term by setting up an experiment based on the subjects concussion level. All these authors and articles have more than enough evidence to back up their claims, but what I would like to see is for them to conduct an experiment on the National Football League. They should test them in practices and games and also monitor their neurocognitive functions on and off the field to measure how concussions affect them and how they can find a way to prevent and treat concussions, because all of these authors were mainly focused on high school and collegiate athletes which aren’t the best of the best, unlike the athletes of the NFL. The Gap All the authors such as Gaetz who conducted a study on possible lingering effects of concussions, and other articles have more than enough evidence to back up their claims regarding concussions in sports, but what they have not addressed is studies on the National


Football League (NFL). They all have done studies on concussions in high school and collegiate athletes and have all made claims for them regarding their research. For example Comstock did a study on the epidemiology of concussions and later claimed that 1 out of 5 concussions can be detected using the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS). But what I think they should have done is a study on the NFL because they are the most premier athletes in the world, physically they are unmatched, and their bodies have been able to fully develop and mature. High school and collegiate athletes are just learning how to play the sport as opposed to NFL players who have more experience than high school and collegiate athletes so they can test all of the players in the NFL, because they make little to no error when it comes to playing the sport to obtain groundbreaking information that can also help the high school and collegiate athletes with concussions.


Sectio3B Line of  Inquiry  Peer  Review   Prevention/Diagnostic    

There are  different  ways  that  you  can  help  prevent  and  diagnose  concussions.  Some  

sources suggest  that  with  the  proper  gear,  prevention  and  detection  of  concussions  are   easier  to  obtain  (Cantu;  Comstock).  For  example  Robert  Cantu  states  “The  energy-­‐ absorbing  material  within  a  helmet  accomplishes  this  by  compressing  to  absorb  force   during  the  collision  and  slowly  restoring  to  its  original  shape”  (3).  This  is  showing  us  how   he  really  emphasizes  the  importance  of  a  helmet  in  full  contact  sports  in  the  prevention  of   concussion  because  the  helmet  works  to  send  the  shock  away  from  your  head.     RC  Cantu  believes that helmets significantly decrease the potential for sever Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBIs) after a collision by reducing the acceleration of the head on impact. According to Comstock if all school’s Athletic Trainer used the computer program to detect concussion, you can detect every 1 out of 5 concussed athletes, furthermore claiming that using the computer program can help prevent an athlete from being hurt any further.    

Both Cantu  and  Comstock  both  agree  that  prevention  is  key  to  athletes  from  further  

becoming injured,  But  Comstock  focuses  more  on  the  detection  of  concussions  to  prevent     further  injury  through  a  computer  programming  system,  while  Cantu  focuses  more  on  the   prevention  of  the  initial  concussion  through  protective  head  gear.     Epidemiology    

Epidemiology is defined as the study of medicine that deals with the incidence,

distribution, and control of diseases. Some sources suggest concussions can be better understood


and reduced through extensive epidemiology (Cantu; Comstock). “A simple random sample was then used to select schools from each sampling strata to achieve a nationally representative sample of 100 schools”. This shows us that Dawn Comstock highly values the study of epidemiology, she tests 100 schools for concussions and then compares them because you have to test a wide range of subjects to better understand concussions and to also obtain the information needed within epidemiology. RC Cantu asserts that with better data comes along improved knowledge of the types of actions and activities that typically result in concussions. Comstock believes that the epidemiology of concussions can provide the scientific data needed to calculate injury rates, monitor patterns of injury, and identify risk factors of concussions, therefore, reducing the amount of concussions that happen nationally. RC Cantu and Dawn Comstock both find that the use of epidemiology on concussions is key to better understand concussions because it produces a massive amount of information due to the national studies they conduct. The two had their differences; RC Cantu decided to conduct a large study on various sports nationally, while Dawn Comstock decided to conduct a study on fewer sports but had more participants within their respected sports then RC Cantu did in his studies. Biomechanics There are only so many ways you can try and reduce someone’s chances of getting a concussion. Some sources suggest that studying the biomechanics; which is studying the mechanical laws relating to the movements of a human, is key to help diagnose and treat concussions (Broglio; Zimmerman). “Understanding the biomechanical properties of this injury will support the development of better diagnostic and preventative techniques” (12). This shows


you that Zimmerman is really concerned with the biomechanical feature of concussions rather than the psychological effects because he wants to be better prepared to diagnose and treat the initial concussion rather than the long-term effects. Broglio argues that improved techniques of measuring head motion through the Head Impact Telemetry System, include the implementation of motion capture and post injury analysis. Zimmerman asserts that if the Head Impact Telemetry System were used for medical purposes, sideline personnel will be able to diagnose and treat more athletes who have sustained a concussion. Both Broglio, and Zimmerman agree that using the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS) is a very fundamental way to help diagnose and treat concussions, but Broglio believes that to understand the biomechanics of concussive injury that occur in the context of sport, you must examine the literature on the effects of the number of impacts, impact magnitude, impact distribution, and concussion threshold in high school and collegiate football athletes. Zimmerman asserts that studying concussions involve equipment age, quality, and how it fits, which is key because if the equipment isn’t up to par, concussions are more easily sustainable. Long-Term Effects Playing any sport has its risks and hazards, not just physically, but mentally as well. Many sources claim that a concussion can have psychological long-term effects (Covassin; Gaetz;  P  Jolicoeur). For example P Jolicoeur asserts, “Long-term electrophysiological changes in athletes with a history of multiple concussions” (11). Showing us that long-term psychological effects may be caused by concussions. Covassin asserts that collegiate athletes who have suffered 2 or more concussions take longer to recover verbal memory and reaction time than athletes who have not received concussions,


showing that concussions have lingering effects. Gaetz states “Sport-related concussions result in temporary neurocognitive deficits and subjectively experienced physical, emotional, and cognitive symptoms in the initial hours, days, and sometimes weeks after injury”(9). This is stating that after a concussion, you begin to experience irregular symptoms, sometimes weeks after the initial concussion. P Jolicoeur claims that, the effects of a concussion on visual-spatial attention also show long lasting affects of the suppression of the visual-spatial attention span. Covassin, P Jolicoeur, and Gaetz all assert that long-term psychological effects are linked with a history of concussions but they all have different views on it. Covassin mainly focuses on the statistical part of long-term effects by showing the amount of people who have been affected by the concussion, while Gaetz emphasizes on the lingering effects of a concussion by testing subjects neuropsychological abilities, and P Jolicoeur focuses on the neurocognitive performances of the subject’s long term by setting up an experiment based on the subjects concussion level. All these authors and articles have more than enough evidence to back up their claims, but what I would like to see is for them to conduct an experiment on the National Football League. They should test them in practices and games and also monitor their neurocognitive functions on and off the field to measure how concussions affect them and how they can find a way to prevent and treat concussions, because all of these authors were mainly focused on high school and collegiate athletes which aren’t the best of the best, unlike the athletes of the NFL.


Section3C Line of Inquiry Peer Review I accidentally saved Megan Muckenfussâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; track changes to my Rough Draft But all she fixed was grammatical errors


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FINAL Section4A Final Project Final Draft In everyday life you always come across some sort of communication, whether it be a flyer, the news, or even 2 words on a bathroom stall. Many forms of communication are called genre. Genres are in your everyday life whether you believe it or not. As Amy Devitt says, “Genres develop, then, because they respond appropriately to situations that writers encounter repeatedly. In principle, that is, writers first response in fitting ways and hence similarly to recurring situations”(576). For example, when you meet someone for the first time, what is your regular response? In the United States, You’ll usually say hi, smile, and shake their hand. This is an illicit response that you learned over time. You formed this reaction because it was presented to you multiple times before, and now it becomes natural. According to other authors such as Devitt, Bawarshi, and Reiff, “Genre study gives us specific access to the sites of language use that make up communities in all their complexity” (549). In this case, they were talking about a discourse community, which is a community that is formed because they have their own set of values, goals, and beliefs that they all share in common. Devitt et al. referred to genres as an access to language. In discourse communities, you need some sort of mechanism of communication to be able to talk to members in the discourse communities and this is what genres are. Now that I have a strong understanding of what genre is, I will attempt to interpret what genres are in my discourse community, the medical field, mainly athletic training. Since the medical field has endless jargon and methods of communications, I will be analyzing three articles from the medical field, breaking them up into setting, participants, features, subjects, and patterns, in order to further elaborate my genre analysis


Setting The articles that I am using for this project were found on the University of Central Florida’s library database. When you enter the database, you type in what you’re interested in and then look for articles within your search. For example, what I put in my search bar was athletic training, and within that group they give you a list of databases that you can choose from. Once you enter that, you can search whatever you want, in my case, concussions. The journal that I’ve obtained all of my articles from is called the Journal of Athletic Training; they post many articles involving health related issues, mainly to do with sports, and it can also range from anatomical to psychological studies. For example, one of my articles is called, “Possible Lingering Effects of Multiple Past Concussions,” written by Cynthia W Majerske, MD, MS, Jason P Mihalik, MS, CAT(C), ATC, Dianxu Ren, PhD, Michael W Collins, PhD,Cara Camiolo Reddy, MD, Mark R Lovell, PhD, and Amy K Wagner, MD. This study was meant to examine whether or not athletes perform better or worse on neuropsychological testing after they suffered three or more concussions. Subjects The topics that are discussed in my articles are concussions. For example, in my article, “Concussion History and Post-concussion Neurocognitive Performance and Symptoms in Collegiate Athletes,” Grant L. Iverson, Ruben J. Echemendia, Amanda K. LaMarre, Brian L. Brooks, and Michael B. Gaetz conducted a study on long term and short term concussions and how they affect collegiate athletes’ post concussion. Some of the issues that are addressed in these articles are the impact of concussions and how athletes perform afterwards. They are informative and give the reader insight on what concussions are and the outcomes of concussions using a test called ImPACT. When it comes to the discussion of this article, it is


going to vary depending on who is reading it. For example, a parent of a child who plays football may think twice about their kid playing football, or if it is an Athletic Trainer for a local high school, they could decided whether or not they should administer concussion tests to the football team in order to figure out who has suffered recent concussions. Participants The people who typically read these articles are most likely professionals of the medical field who want to know up to date news of current illnesses or research on concerns in their profession. More towards the athletic trainers or sports doctors such as Mihalik JP, whose profession deals a lot with athletic neuropsychology. He was one of the main authors of one of my articles and has concluded research on sports and the brains functions from as recent as 20052012. Some characteristics readers must possess are a medical background, experience in the field of sports medicine, and knowledge about the brain and psychology in order to value the significance of this article. For example, in one of my articles, “Concussion History and Postconcussion Neurocognitive Performance and Symptoms in Collegiate Athletes,” written by Tracey Covassin, PhD, David Stearne, PhD, and Robert Elbin, III, the authors refer to an “ImPACT test” which an outsider would not know this stands for Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing. I’m still highly confident that people outside of the medical field will still have a hard time gauging what the meaning of it is. Features Some recurrent features that the articles share is the way they are set up. They all are set up as a psychology study. They start off with abstract, which is a very brief description of what the study entails, then, they transition into methods, which are basically who is participating how they are measuring the test subjects, and data analysis. They also include a result, discussion, and


a conclusion section. They are deeply vested within the scientific method. All the articles also share a very key characteristic, they are all informative, they are simply writing these articles to inform the reader about concussions, no argument or biased opinions towards the subject, they propose the question and attempt to answer it through an elaborate procedure. Their evidence is provided through an extensive amount of studies, where they really rely on statistics and neuropsychological testing. But for the most part examples aren’t really part of these articles; they rely mostly on facts and visual aids to help you interpret the information that is given, easier. For example In Covassin’s article, “Concussion History and Postconcussion Neurocognitive and Collegiate Athletes”, He relies more on statistics to show you the facts instead of relying on examples to show his findings. The texts are rather lengthy; they involve a lot of big words and long sentences, for example “Multivariate regression analysis revealed that adjusted symptom scores decreased (P < .001) at each time interval, suggesting an improvement in the self-report of symptoms over time”. This is just a very fancy way to say that this test shows that people are getting better at knowing what the symptoms of a concussion is. This text clearly shows that this is for someone in the medical profession who understands these concepts, not for someone who is looking for an article in the magazine to wait for time to pass. Patterns What the genre features reveal about the genre and the situation, which it is used in, is how generic this form of writing is becoming for Psychologists or Doctors. In every one of my articles that I have found everything has the same format. It is mostly based of the scientific method. No matter what, when you are reading an article based on medicine or psychology, you already know what you are going to read before you read it! You know the basis of it, you’ve learned it since you were very little, and regardless what the content of the article is about the


genre, it is always going to be the same in this scenario, The who, what, where, when, why, how approach is always going to apply to every one of these studies, or at least based around of it. “Treating genre as form requires dividing form from content, with genre as the form into which content is put”. (576) This is just reinforcing my point, Devitt is basically saying that genre is its own category, no matter what the content of it is, it’s always going to have the same form, in this case, my Athletic Training articles and their topic, It can always be different content but the format for it doesn’t change. What I feel people have to know or believe in order to appreciate reading this article is having an understanding of what the main focus of this article is, which is to better understand concussions and their effects. You really can’t try to begin and read something if you have no idea where it is going. And I think you have to have a certain understanding of genre itself. Knowing what a genre is helps you realize what kind there are and how it is incorporated in your everyday life, whether it’d be a text message or an essay, genre is everywhere! Some values and beliefs that are revealed through the genre’s pattern is how they really value medical terminology and how they abide by the very strict format of research, such as the scientific method. In every one of my articles it includes the Abstract, Methods, Results, Discussion, Limitations, and Conclusions. Each section possesses their unique details. For example, they start with Abstract, to give you the most general details about the study. Then they go further into depth with Methods to show the reader how they are conducting the study and how they find the answer to their problem. After, they lead to the results that give you the outcome of their experiment. Furthermore, in the Discussion section, they really just discuss the study and go further into depth on topics that they may not have touched on or feel need more elaboration. Then they go to Limitations to discuss anything and everything that can hinder the research project in the slightest. Last, they go into Conclusion to sum up their findings in a brief


matter. The attitude toward the people is implied that the reader is a specialist on medical topics who know what they are reading; they made this articles because they wanted to strictly inform other specialist what up-to-date medical research is being conducted and the results that they yield. In no way were the three of my articles meant for non-specialist because they never went into depth with medical terminology or what key terms were, For example, “The assumption of covariance matrix homogeneity in the data was not violated”. They, in now way even bothered to mention what this meant because they were under the assumption that the reader is a professional. From Genres  to  Arguments:  Concussions  in  Sports     After exploring genres common to the field of Health Science through a preliminary genre analysis, I am further analyzing the genres of my field by tracing the claims made by psychologist. I have obtained numerous articles relating to the effects of concussions on athlete’s neurocognitive development post-concussion. Through my sources I have gathered information stating that concussions make it harder for athletes to perform well on the neurocognitive tests (ImPACT) after receiving a concussion. (Gaetz; Covassin) These sources have helped me identify the various aspects of Health Science, enabling me to further continue my studies through these genres and obtain a wide range of information that will help prepare me to enter a new community through my major. My  topic  that  I  decided  to  choose  was  concussions  in  sports.  How  I  decided  on  my   topic  was  through  my  chiropractor.  I  hurt  myself  playing  sports  my  junior  year  of  high   school  and  he  really  helped  me  out  and  I  got  a  lot  better  fast.  So  it  came  upon  me  to  write   about  something  about  sports  because  when  I  am  older  I  want  to  be  a  chiropractor  to  help   athletes.  So  I  decided  to  write  about  high  school  and  collegiate  athletes  to  better  expand  my  


knowledge on  what’s  out  there  and  the  current  big  issues  in  sports.  I  searched  and  Athletic   Trainer  database,  I  originally  tried  to  go  with  chiropractor  but  there  wasn’t  enough   information  there  for  me  to  write  a  paper  in  so  I  had  to  switch  my  databases.  How  I  knew   this  was  a  big  issue  was  that  I  used  to  play  football,  and  getting  a  concussion  was  a  big  thing   in  football,  you  saw  it  all  over  the  news,  and  the  NFL  even  created  new  rules  to  try  and   reduce  the  amount  of  concussion  that  there  were  happening.  What  exploring  this  issue   made  me  realize  in  my  field  is  it  involves  a  lot  of  medical  jargon  and  very  complex  wording   that  I  will  eventually  have  to  learn  because  this  is  what  I  am  interested  in  and  want  to  be.     Prevention/Diagnostic   There  are  different  ways  that  you  can  help  prevent  and  diagnose  concussions.  Some   sources  suggest  that  with  the  proper  gear,  prevention  and  detection  of  concussions  are     easier  to  obtain  (Cantu;  Comstock).  For  example  Robert  Cantu  states  “The  energy-­‐ absorbing  material  within  a  helmet  accomplishes  this  by  compressing  to  absorb  force   during  the  collision  and  slowly  restoring  to  its  original  shape”  (3).  This  is  showing  us  how   he  really  emphasizes  the  importance  of  a  helmet  in  full  contact  sports  in  the  prevention  of   concussion  because  the  helmet  works  to  send  the  shock  away  from  your  head.  RC  Cantu   believes that helmets significantly decrease the potential for sever Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBIs) after a collision by reducing the acceleration of the head on impact. According to Comstock if all school’s Athletic Trainer used the computer program to detect concussion, you can detect every 1 out of 5 concussed athletes, furthermore claiming that using the computer program can help prevent an athlete from being hurt any further.    

Both Cantu  and  Comstock  both  agree  that  prevention  is  key  to  athletes  from  further  

becoming injured,  But  Comstock  focuses  more  on  the  detection  of  concussions  to  prevent    


further injury  through  a  computer  programming  system,  while  Cantu  focuses  more  on  the   prevention  of  the  initial  concussion  through  protective  head  gear.   Epidemiology    

Epidemiology is defined as the study of medicine that deals with the incidence,

distribution, and control of diseases. Some sources suggest concussions can be better understood and reduced through extensive epidemiology (Cantu; Comstock). For example Comstock states, “A simple random sample was then used to select schools from each sampling strata to achieve a nationally representative sample of 100 schools”(6). This shows us that Dawn Comstock highly values the study of epidemiology; she tests 100 schools for concussions and then compares them because you have to test a wide range of subjects to better understand concussions and to also obtain the information needed within epidemiology. RC Cantu claims that with better data comes along improved knowledge of the types of actions and activities that typically result in concussions. Comstock believes that the epidemiology of concussions can provide the scientific data needed to calculate injury rates, monitor patterns of injury, and identify risk factors of concussions, therefore, reducing the amount of concussions that happen nationally. RC Cantu and Dawn Comstock both find that the use of epidemiology on concussions is key to better understand concussions because it produces a massive amount of information due to the national studies they conduct. The two had their differences; RC Cantu decided to conduct a large study on various sports nationally, while Dawn Comstock decided to conduct a study fewer sports but had more participants within their respected sports then RC Cantu did in his studies. Biomechanics


There are only so many ways you can try and reduce someone’s chances of getting a concussion. Some sources suggest that studying the biomechanics; which is studying the mechanical laws relating to the movements of a human, is key to help diagnose and treat concussions (Broglio; Zimmerman). “Understanding the biomechanical properties of this injury will support the development of better diagnostic and preventative techniques” (12). This shows you that Zimmerman is really concerned with the biomechanical feature of concussions rather than the psychological effects because he wants to be better prepared to diagnose and treat the initial concussion rather than the long-term effects. Broglio argues that improved techniques of measuring head motion through the Head Impact Telemetry System, include the implementation of motion capture and post injury analysis. Zimmerman attests that if the Head Impact Telemetry System were used for medical purposes, sideline personnel will be able to diagnose and treat more athletes who have sustained a concussion. Both Broglio, and Zimmerman agree that using the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS) is a very fundamental way to help diagnose and treat concussions, but Broglio believes that to understand the biomechanics of concussive injury that occur in the context of sport, you must examine the literature on the effects of the number of impacts, impact magnitude, impact distribution, and concussion threshold in high school and collegiate football athletes. Zimmerman argues that studying concussions involve equipment age, quality, and how it fits, which is key because if the equipment isn’t up to par, concussions are more easily sustainable. Long-Term Effects Playing any sport has its risks and hazards, not just physically, but mentally as well. Many sources claim that a concussion can have psychological long-term effects (Covassin; Gaetz;  P  Jolicoeur). For example P Jolicoeur asserts, “Long-term electrophysiological changes


in athletes with a history of multiple concussions” (11). Showing us that long-term psychological effects may be caused by concussions. Covassin asserts that collegiate athletes who have suffered 2 or more concussions take longer to recover verbal memory and reaction time than athletes who have not received concussions, showing that concussions have lingering effects. Gaetz states “Sport-related concussions result in temporary neurocognitive deficits and subjectively experienced physical, emotional, and cognitive symptoms in the initial hours, days, and sometimes weeks after injury”(9). This is stating that after a concussion, you begin to experience irregular symptoms, sometimes weeks after the initial concussion. P Jolicoeur claims that, the effects of a concussion on visual-spatial attention also show long lasting affects of the suppression of the visual-spatial attention span. Covassin, P Jolicoeur, and Gaetz all avow that long-term psychological effects are linked with a history of concussions but they all have different views on it. Covassin mainly focuses on the statistical part of long-term effects by showing the amount of people who have been affected by the concussion, while Gaetz emphasizes on the lingering effects of a concussion by testing subjects neuropsychological abilities, and P Jolicoeur focuses on the neurocognitive performances of the subject’s long term by setting up an experiment based on the subjects concussion level. The Gap All the authors such as Gaetz who conducted a study on possible lingering effects of concussions, and other articles have more than enough evidence to back up their claims regarding concussions in sports, but what they have not addressed is studies on the National Football League (NFL). They all have done studies on concussions in high school and collegiate


athletes and have all made claims for them regarding their research. For example Comstock did a study on the epidemiology of concussions and later claimed that 1 out of 5 concussions can be detected using the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS). But what I think they should have done is a study on the NFL because they are the most premier athletes in the world, physically they are unmatched, and their bodies have been able to fully develop and mature. High school and collegiate athletes are just learning how to play the sport as opposed to NFL players who have more experience than high school and collegiate athletes so they can test all of the players in the NFL, because they make little to no error when it comes to playing the sport to obtain groundbreaking information that can also help the high school and collegiate athletes with concussions. Research Methods Gaetz, P Jolicoeur, Covassin, RC Cantu, and Comstock all have done extensive studies on concussions in high school and collegiate athletes; however, they have not looked into athletes in the NFL. If I were going to continue to explore this gap I would conduct a similar experiment to Comstock. Comstock took samples from 100 schools to represent her study nationally, but what I want to do is a little different, I would conduct a study on all 32 teams in the NFL according to their position. I would use the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS) to measure the number of impacts, impact magnitude, impact distribution, and concussion threshold in every single player in the NFL, very similar to the studies of Broglio and Zimmerman, however, they did a study on high school and collegiate athletes and I will be doing it on NFL athletes in comparison. I would also make them take the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing at the end of every practice because I would like to see who has sustained a concussion or not to get a good statistical standpoint much similar to the research of Gaetz who


did a study on possible lingering effects of multiple past concussions. I would also monitor their well being after they have retired for the next 10-15 years to see if they have had any long-term effects due to concussions much similar to the studies of Gaetz and P Jolicoeur. The Set Up

In all of my articles the authors set up their articles in a psychology study format. In every one of the articles that I have researched they all have an Abstract, Introduction, Method, Results, and Discussion. In the Abstract I will basically just describe the entire article in short, I will give a brief description on each section that will give you a general idea of what the article has to offer without you having to read the entire paper. For example, if you were doing a research project on a certain subject and you come across a paper that is 10 pages long, you don’t want to have to read the entire article just so you can find out the jest of it. That’s what the Abstract provides for you. In any article you can’t just jump into the article and start stating everything about your research, you need an introduction to provide the readers with a general description on what your topic is. I will add in an introduction because I need to be able to transition my way into my article so that my readers are able to understand what I’m writing about, easier. For example in Gaetz et al. article “Possible Lingering effects of Multiple Past Concussions” He states “Sportrelated concussions result in temporary neurocognitive deficits and subjectively experienced physical, emotional, and cognitive symptoms in the initial hours, days, and sometimes weeks after injury”. This is showing how Gaetz introduces his article by stating what his topic

was and he gave us a little bit of background information on what his research is going to be about.


Method is another aspect of the author’s article that is very important. The methods are basically how they perform the study. Method’s usually include who the participants are and the

measures they are taking to prove whether or not their claims are accurate. The participants are always going to be categorized so that they can use them as a means to prove their claims. For example if I were going to do a study on concussions in the NFL, I would categorize my participants to those who play the sport of football in the NFL because those are the people who are going to receive the concussions. The measures are basically how they are going to test the participants. An example of a measure in my research would be the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT), which tests participants’ attention, memory, reaction time and processing speed. I would also add in the Results in my research because it gives you elaborate details of what the researches find from the methods. In every single article that I have read for this research, their has always been a Results section included because that’s essentially what all study’s are for, to find out whether or not their claims were accurate or to just find out information about what researchers are studying. In any research you need to provide a means of showing the statistics for the reader to see, so they can make a conclusion of their own. I would provide bar graphs and charts in my research because it’s easy to interpret, and it clearly shows your results so that the reader won’t read the results wrong. Discussion was always another category that I found in most articles such as Covassin’s article “Concussion History and Postconcussion Neurocognitive Performance and Symptoms in Collegiate Athletes”. Discussion is just that, they discuss their research and their findings from their studies. They get to discuss what they didn’t get to include in their study; for example,


authors get a chance to voice their opinion on the matter, such as how they feel about their research, limitations, or what they would do to apply their findings to everyday life. They also talk about studies from other researchers and compare them to their research. Covassin states, “Certain limitations of the current study should be addressed. First, concussion history data were self-reported”. This is showing us what Covassin would like to talk about in his discussion part of his article. The Discussion is also the Conclusion in a sense because even though it’s not labeled “conclusion”, it still sums the findings from the research and gives you a general sense of an ending to the article so that you know what the research was about and what the researcher was looking for so that you’re not stuck at the end of the article still having questions about it. In the end, I think I will find ground breaking information that will change concussions, in any sport, forever because I am doing a very extensive study on the NFL and hopefully by the time I am finished with my research, will be able to permanently rid sports of concussions, if not, reduce the amount of concussions that occur in sports drastically.


Work Cited Broglio, Steven P, Tyler Surma, and James An Ashton-Miller. "High School And Collegiate Football Athlete Concussions: A Biomechanical Review."Annals Of Biomedical Engineering 40.1 (2012): 37-46. MEDLINE. Web. 31 May 2012. RC Cantu, et al., "Helmets And Mouth Guards: The Role Of Personal Equipment In Preventing Sport-Related Concussions." Clinics In Sports Medicine 30.1 (2011): 145-163. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 4 June 2012. RC Cantu, et al., "The Epidemiology Of Sport-Related Concussion." Clinics In Sports Medicine 30.1 (2011): 1-17. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 31 May 2012. R., Dawn Comstock, et al., "Computerized Neurocognitive Testing For The Management Of Sport-Related Concussions." Pediatrics 129.1 (2012): 38-44. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 4 June 2012 R., Dawn Comstock, et al., "Epidemiology Of Concussions Among United States High School Athletes In 20 Sports." American Journal Of Sports Medicine 40.4 (2012): 747-755. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 4 June 2012. Covassin, T, D Stearne, and R, III Elbin. "Concussion History And Postconcussion Neurocognitive Performance And Symptoms In Collegiate Athletes." Journal Of Athletic Training 43.2 (2008): 119-124. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 31 May 2012. Michale, B Gaetz, et al., "Possible Lingering Effects Of Multiple Past Concussions." Rehabilitation Research & Practice (2012): 1-7. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 29 May 2012.


Kelly, Judy, C, Efland, H Amerson, and Jeffrey, T Barth. "Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Lessons Learned From Clinical, Sports, And Combat Concussions." Rehabilitation Research & Practice (2012): 1-5. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 31 May 2012 P Jolicoeur, et al., "Long-Term Electrophysiological Changes In Athletes With A History Of Multiple Concussions." Brain Injury 21.6 (2007): 631-644.CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 31 May 2012. Jerrad Zimmerman, et al., "Biomechanical Properties Of Concussions In High School Football." Medicine & Science In Sports & Exercise 42.11 (2010): 2064-2071. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 31 May 2012.


Section4B Final Project Rough Draft In everyday life you always come across some sort of communication, whether it be a flyer, the news, or even 2 words on a bathroom stall. Many forms of communication are called genre. Genres are in your everyday life whether you believe it or not. As Amy Devitt says, “Genres develop, then, because they respond appropriately to situations that writers encounter repeatedly. In principle, that is, writers first response in fitting ways and hence similarly to recurring situations”(576). For example, when you meet someone for the first time, what is your regular response? In the United States, You’ll usually say hi, smile, and shake their hand. This is an illicit response that you learned over time. You formed this reaction because it was presented to you multiple times before, and now it becomes natural. According to other authors such as Devitt, Bawarshi, and Reiff, “Genre study gives us specific access to the sites of language use that make up communities in all their complexity” (549). In this case, they were talking about a discourse community, which is a community that is formed because they have their own set of values, goals, and beliefs that they all share in common. Devitt et al. referred to genres as an access to language. In discourse communities, you need some sort of mechanism of communication to be able to talk to members in the discourse communities and this is what genres are. Now that I have a strong understanding of what genre is, I will attempt to interpret what genres are in my discourse community, the medical field, mainly athletic training. Since the medical field has endless jargon and methods of communications, I will be analyzing three articles from the medical field, breaking them up into setting, participants, features, subjects, and patterns, in order to further elaborate my genre analysis


Setting The articles that I am using for this project were found on the University of Central Florida’s library database. When you enter the database, you type in what you’re interested in and then look for articles within your search. For example, what I put in my search bar was athletic training, and within that group they give you a list of databases that you can choose from. Once you enter that, you can search whatever you want, in my case, concussions. The journal that I’ve obtained all of my articles from is called the Journal of Athletic Training; they post many articles involving health related issues, mainly to do with sports, and it can also range from anatomical to psychological studies. For example, one of my articles is called, “Possible Lingering Effects of Multiple Past Concussions,” written by Cynthia W Majerske, MD, MS, Jason P Mihalik, MS, CAT(C), ATC, Dianxu Ren, PhD, Michael W Collins, PhD,Cara Camiolo Reddy, MD, Mark R Lovell, PhD, and Amy K Wagner, MD. This study was meant to examine whether or not athletes perform better or worse on neuropsychological testing after they suffered three or more concussions. Subjects The topics that are discussed in my articles are concussions. For example, in my article, “Concussion History and Post-concussion Neurocognitive Performance and Symptoms in Collegiate Athletes,” Grant L. Iverson, Ruben J. Echemendia, Amanda K. LaMarre, Brian L. Brooks, and Michael B. Gaetz conducted a study on long term and short term concussions and how they affect collegiate athletes’ post concussion. Some of the issues that are addressed in these articles are the impact of concussions and how athletes perform afterwards. They are informative and give the reader insight on what concussions are and the outcomes of concussions using a test called ImPACT. When it comes to the discussion of this article, it is


going to vary depending on who is reading it. For example, a parent of a child who plays football may think twice about their kid playing football, or if it is an Athletic Trainer for a local high school, they could decided whether or not they should administer concussion tests to the football team in order to figure out who has suffered recent concussions. Participants The people who typically read these articles are most likely professionals of the medical field who want to know up to date news of current illnesses or research on concerns in their profession. More towards the athletic trainers or sports doctors such as Mihalik JP, whose profession deals a lot with athletic neuropsychology. He was one of the main authors of one of my articles and has concluded research on sports and the brains functions from as recent as 20052012. Some characteristics readers must possess are a medical background, experience in the field of sports medicine, and knowledge about the brain and psychology in order to value the significance of this article. For example, in one of my articles, “Concussion History and Postconcussion Neurocognitive Performance and Symptoms in Collegiate Athletes,” written by Tracey Covassin, PhD, David Stearne, PhD, and Robert Elbin, III, the authors refer to an “ImPACT test” which an outsider would not know this stands for Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing. I’m still highly confident that people outside of the medical field will still have a hard time gauging what the meaning of it is. Features Some recurrent features that the articles share is the way they are set up. They all are set up as a psychology study. They start off with abstract, which is a very brief description of what the study entails, then, they transition into methods, which are basically who is participating how they are measuring the test subjects, and data analysis. They also include a result, discussion, and


a conclusion section. They are deeply vested within the scientific method. All the articles also share a very key characteristic, they are all informative, they are simply writing these articles to inform the reader about concussions, no argument or biased opinions towards the subject, they propose the question and attempt to answer it through an elaborate procedure. Their evidence is provided through an extensive amount of studies, where they really rely on statistics and neuropsychological testing. But for the most part examples aren’t really part of these articles; they rely mostly on facts and visual aids to help you interpret the information that is given, easier. For example In Covassin’s article, “Concussion History and Postconcussion Neurocognitive and Collegiate Athletes”, He relies more on statistics to show you the facts instead of relying on examples to show his findings. The texts are rather lengthy; they involve a lot of big words and long sentences, for example “Multivariate regression analysis revealed that adjusted symptom scores decreased (P < .001) at each time interval, suggesting an improvement in the self-report of symptoms over time”. This is just a very fancy way to say that this test shows that people are getting better at knowing what the symptoms of a concussion is. This text clearly shows that this is for someone in the medical profession who understands these concepts, not for someone who is looking for an article in the magazine to wait for time to pass. Patterns What the genre features reveal about the genre and the situation, which it is used in, is how generic this form of writing is becoming for Psychologists or Doctors. In every one of my articles that I have found everything has the same format. It is mostly based of the scientific method. No matter what, when you are reading an article based on medicine or psychology, you already know what you are going to read before you read it! You know the basis of it, you’ve learned it since you were very little, and regardless what the content of the article is about the


genre, it is always going to be the same in this scenario, The who, what, where, when, why, how approach is always going to apply to every one of these studies, or at least based around of it. “Treating genre as form requires dividing form from content, with genre as the form into which content is put”. (576) This is just reinforcing my point, Devitt is basically saying that genre is its own category, no matter what the content of it is, it’s always going to have the same form, in this case, my Athletic Training articles and their topic, It can always be different content but the format for it doesn’t change. What I feel people have to know or believe in order to appreciate reading this article is having an understanding of what the main focus of this article is, which is to better understand concussions and their effects. You really can’t try to begin and read something if you have no idea where it is going. And I think you have to have a certain understanding of genre itself. Knowing what a genre is helps you realize what kind there are and how it is incorporated in your everyday life, whether it’d be a text message or an essay, genre is everywhere! Some values and beliefs that are revealed through the genre’s pattern is how they really value medical terminology and how they abide by the very strict format of research, such as the scientific method. In every one of my articles it includes the Abstract, Methods, Results, Discussion, Limitations, and Conclusions. Each section possesses their unique details. For example, they start with Abstract, to give you the most general details about the study. Then they go further into depth with Methods to show the reader how they are conducting the study and how they find the answer to their problem. After, they lead to the results that give you the outcome of their experiment. Furthermore, in the Discussion section, they really just discuss the study and go further into depth on topics that they may not have touched on or feel need more elaboration. Then they go to Limitations to discuss anything and everything that can hinder the research project in the slightest. Last, they go into Conclusion to sum up their findings in a brief


matter. The attitude toward the people is implied that the reader is a specialist on medical topics who know what they are reading; they made this articles because they wanted to strictly inform other specialist what up-to-date medical research is being conducted and the results that they yield. In no way were the three of my articles meant for non-specialist because they never went into depth with medical terminology or what key terms were, For example, “The assumption of covariance matrix homogeneity in the data was not violated”. They, in now way even bothered to mention what this meant because they were under the assumption that the reader is a professional. From Genres  to  Arguments:  Concussions  in  Sports     After exploring genres common to the field of Health Science through a preliminary genre analysis, I am further analyzing the genres of my field by tracing the claims made by psychologist. I have obtained numerous articles relating to the effects of concussions on athlete’s neurocognitive development post-concussion. Through my sources I have gathered information stating that concussions make it harder for athletes to perform well on the neurocognitive tests (ImPACT) after receiving a concussion. (Gaetz; Covassin) These sources have helped me identify the various aspects of Health Science, enabling me to further continue my studies through these genres and obtain a wide range of information that will help prepare me to enter a new community through my major. My  topic  that  I  decided  to  choose  was  concussions  in  sports.  How  I  decided  on  my   topic  was  through  my  chiropractor.  I  hurt  myself  playing  sports  my  junior  year  of  high   school  and  he  really  helped  me  out  and  I  got  a  lot  better  fast.  So  it  came  upon  me  to  write   about  something  about  sports  because  when  I  am  older  I  want  to  be  a  chiropractor  to  help   athletes.  So  I  decided  to  write  about  high  school  and  collegiate  athletes  to  better  expand  my  


knowledge on  what’s  out  there  and  the  current  big  issues  in  sports.  I  searched  and  Athletic   Trainer  database,  I  originally  tried  to  go  with  chiropractor  but  there  wasn’t  enough   information  there  for  me  to  write  a  paper  in  so  I  had  to  switch  my  databases.  How  I  knew   this  was  a  big  issue  was  that  I  used  to  play  football,  and  getting  a  concussion  was  a  big  thing   in  football,  you  saw  it  all  over  the  news,  and  the  NFL  even  created  new  rules  to  try  and   reduce  the  amount  of  concussion  that  there  were  happening.  What  exploring  this  issue   made  me  realize  in  my  field  is  it  involves  a  lot  of  medical  jargon  and  very  complex  wording   that  I  will  eventually  have  to  learn  because  this  is  what  I  am  interested  in  and  want  to  be.     Prevention/Diagnostic   There  are  different  ways  that  you  can  help  prevent  and  diagnose  concussions.  Some   sources  suggest  that  with  the  proper  gear,  prevention  and  detection  of  concussions  are   easier  to  obtain  (Cantu;  Comstock).  For  example  Robert  Cantu  states  “The  energy-­‐ absorbing  material  within  a  helmet  accomplishes  this  by  compressing  to  absorb  force   during  the  collision  and  slowly  restoring  to  its  original  shape”  (3).  This  is  showing  us  how   he  really  emphasizes  the  importance  of  a  helmet  in  full  contact  sports  in  the  prevention  of   concussion  because  the  helmet  works  to  send  the  shock  away  from  your  head.  RC  Cantu   believes that helmets significantly decrease the potential for sever Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBIs) after a collision by reducing the acceleration of the head on impact. According to Comstock if all school’s Athletic Trainer used the computer program to detect concussion, you can detect every 1 out of 5 concussed athletes, furthermore claiming that using the computer program can help prevent an athlete from being hurt any further.    

Both Cantu  and  Comstock  both  agree  that  prevention  is  key  to  athletes  from  further  

becoming injured,  But  Comstock  focuses  more  on  the  detection  of  concussions  to  prevent    


further injury  through  a  computer  programming  system,  while  Cantu  focuses  more  on  the   prevention  of  the  initial  concussion  through  protective  head  gear.   Epidemiology    

Epidemiology is defined as the study of medicine that deals with the incidence,

distribution, and control of diseases. Some sources suggest concussions can be better understood and reduced through extensive epidemiology (Cantu; Comstock). For example Comstock states, “A simple random sample was then used to select schools from each sampling strata to achieve a nationally representative sample of 100 schools”(6). This shows us that Dawn Comstock highly values the study of epidemiology, she tests 100 schools for concussions and then compares them because you have to test a wide range of subjects to better understand concussions and to also obtain the information needed within epidemiology. RC Cantu claims that with better data comes along improved knowledge of the types of actions and activities that typically result in concussions. Comstock believes that the epidemiology of concussions can provide the scientific data needed to calculate injury rates, monitor patterns of injury, and identify risk factors of concussions, therefore, reducing the amount of concussions that happen nationally. RC Cantu and Dawn Comstock both find that the use of epidemiology on concussions is key to better understand concussions because it produces a massive amount of information due to the national studies they conduct. The two had their differences; RC Cantu decided to conduct a large study on various sports nationally, while Dawn Comstock decided to conduct a study on fewer sports but had more participants within their respected sports then RC Cantu did in his studies. Biomechanics


There are only so many ways you can try and reduce someone’s chances of getting a concussion. Some sources suggest that studying the biomechanics; which is studying the mechanical laws relating to the movements of a human, is key to help diagnose and treat concussions (Broglio; Zimmerman). “Understanding the biomechanical properties of this injury will support the development of better diagnostic and preventative techniques” (12). This shows you that Zimmerman is really concerned with the biomechanical feature of concussions rather than the psychological effects because he wants to be better prepared to diagnose and treat the initial concussion rather than the long-term effects. Broglio argues that improved techniques of measuring head motion through the Head Impact Telemetry System, include the implementation of motion capture and post injury analysis. Zimmerman attests that if the Head Impact Telemetry System were used for medical purposes, sideline personnel will be able to diagnose and treat more athletes who have sustained a concussion. Both Broglio, and Zimmerman agree that using the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS) is a very fundamental way to help diagnose and treat concussions, but Broglio believes that to understand the biomechanics of concussive injury that occur in the context of sport, you must examine the literature on the effects of the number of impacts, impact magnitude, impact distribution, and concussion threshold in high school and collegiate football athletes. Zimmerman argues that studying concussions involve equipment age, quality, and how it fits, which is key because if the equipment isn’t up to par, concussions are more easily sustainable. Long-Term Effects Playing any sport has its risks and hazards, not just physically, but mentally as well. Many sources claim that a concussion can have psychological long-term effects (Covassin; Gaetz;  P  Jolicoeur). For example P Jolicoeur asserts, “Long-term electrophysiological changes


in athletes with a history of multiple concussions” (11). Showing us that long-term psychological effects may be caused by concussions. Covassin asserts that collegiate athletes who have suffered 2 or more concussions take longer to recover verbal memory and reaction time than athletes who have not received concussions, showing that concussions have lingering effects. Gaetz states “Sport-related concussions result in temporary neurocognitive deficits and subjectively experienced physical, emotional, and cognitive symptoms in the initial hours, days, and sometimes weeks after injury”(9). This is stating that after a concussion, you begin to experience irregular symptoms, sometimes weeks after the initial concussion. P Jolicoeur claims that, the effects of a concussion on visual-spatial attention also show long lasting affects of the suppression of the visual-spatial attention span. Covassin, P Jolicoeur, and Gaetz all avow that long-term psychological effects are linked with a history of concussions but they all have different views on it. Covassin mainly focuses on the statistical part of long-term effects by showing the amount of people who have been affected by the concussion, while Gaetz emphasizes on the lingering effects of a concussion by testing subjects neuropsychological abilities, and P Jolicoeur focuses on the neurocognitive performances of the subject’s long term by setting up an experiment based on the subjects concussion level. The Gap All the authors such as Gaetz who conducted a study on possible lingering effects of concussions, and other articles have more than enough evidence to back up their claims regarding concussions in sports, but what they have not addressed is studies on the National Football League (NFL). They all have done studies on concussions in high school and collegiate


athletes and have all made claims for them. But what I think they should have done is a study on the NFL because they are the most premier athletes in the world, physically they are unmatched, and their bodies have been able to fully develop and mature. They also have more experience than high school and collegiate athletes so they can test all of the players in the NFL, because they make little to no error when it comes to playing the sport to obtain groundbreaking information that can also help the high school and collegiate athletes with concussions. Research Methods Gaetz, P Jolicoeur, Covassin, RC Cantu, and Comstock all have done extensive studies on concussions in high school and collegiate athletes; however, they have not looked into athletes in the NFL. If I were going to continue to explore this gap I would conduct a similar experiment to Comstock. Comstock took samples from 100 schools to represent her study nationally, but what I want to do is a little different, I would conduct a study on all 32 teams in the NFL according to their position. I would use the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS) to measure the number of impacts, impact magnitude, impact distribution, and concussion threshold in every single player in the NFL, very similar to the studies of Broglio and Zimmerman, however, they did a study on high school and collegiate athletes and I will be doing it on NFL athletes in comparison. I would also make them take the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing at the end of every practice because I would like to see who has sustained a concussion or not to get a good statistical standpoint much similar to the research of Gaetz who did a study on possible lingering effects of multiple past concussions. I would also monitor their well being after they have retired for the next 10-15 years to see if they have had any long-term effects due to concussions much similar to the studies of Gaetz and P Jolicoeur. The Set Up


In all of my articles the authors set up their articles in a psychology study format. In every one of the articles that I have researched they all have an Abstract, Introduction, Method, Results, and Discussion. In the Abstract I will basically just describe the entire article in short, I will give a brief description on each section that will give you a general idea of what the article has to offer without you having to read the entire paper. For example, if you were doing a research project on a certain subject and you come across a paper that is 10 pages long, you don’t want to have to read the entire article just so you can find out the jest of it. That’s what the Abstract provides for you. In any article you can’t just jump into the article and start stating everything about your research, you need an introduction to provide the readers with a general description on what your topic is. I will add in an introduction because I need to be able to transition my way into my article so that my readers are able to understand what I’m writing about, easier. For example in Gaetz et al. article “Possible Lingering effects of Multiple Past Concussions” He states “Sportrelated concussions result in temporary neurocognitive deficits and subjectively experienced physical, emotional, and cognitive symptoms in the initial hours, days, and sometimes weeks after injury”. This is showing how Gaetz introduces his article by stating what his topic

was and he gave us a little bit of background information on what his research is going to be about. Method is another aspect of the author’s article that is very important. The methods are basically how they perform the study. Method’s usually include who the participants are and the measures they are taking to prove whether or not their claims are accurate. The participants are always going to be categorized so that they can use them as a means to prove their claims. For example if I were going to do a study on concussions in the NFL, I would categorize my


participants to those who play the sport of football in the NFL because those are the people who are going to receive the concussions. The measures are basically how they are going to test the participants. An example of a measure in my research would be the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT), which tests participants’ attention, memory, reaction time and processing speed. I would also add in the Results in my research because it gives you elaborate details of what the researches find from the methods. In every single article that I have read for this research, their has always been a Results section included because that’s essentially what all study’s are for, to find out whether or not their claims were accurate or to just find out information about what researchers are studying. Discussion was always another category that I found in most articles such as Covassin’s article “Concussion History and Postconcussion Neurocognitive Performance and Symptoms in Collegiate Athletes”. Discussion is just that, they discuss their research and their findings from their studies. They get to discuss what they didn’t get to include in their study; for example, authors get a chance to voice their opinion on the matter, such as how they feel about their research, limitations, or what they would do to apply their findings to everyday life. They also talk about studies from other researchers and compare them to their research. Covassin states, “Certain limitations of the current study should be addressed. First, concussion history data were self-reported”. This is showing us what Covassin would like to talk about in his discussion part of his article. The Discussion is also the Conclusion in a sense because even though it’s not labeled “conclusion”, it still sums the findings from the research and gives you a general sense of an ending to the article so that you know what the research was about and what the researcher was looking for so that you’re not stuck at the end of the article still having questions about it.


Work Cited Broglio, Steven P, Tyler Surma, and James An Ashton-Miller. "High School And Collegiate Football Athlete Concussions: A Biomechanical Review."Annals Of Biomedical Engineering 40.1 (2012): 37-46. MEDLINE. Web. 31 May 2012. RC Cantu, et al., "Helmets And Mouth Guards: The Role Of Personal Equipment In Preventing Sport-Related Concussions." Clinics In Sports Medicine 30.1 (2011): 145-163. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 4 June 2012. RC Cantu, et al., "The Epidemiology Of Sport-Related Concussion." Clinics In Sports Medicine 30.1 (2011): 1-17. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 31 May 2012. R., Dawn Comstock, et al., "Computerized Neurocognitive Testing For The Management Of Sport-Related Concussions." Pediatrics 129.1 (2012): 38-44. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 4 June 2012 R., Dawn Comstock, et al., "Epidemiology Of Concussions Among United States High School Athletes In 20 Sports." American Journal Of Sports Medicine 40.4 (2012): 747-755. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 4 June 2012. Covassin, T, D Stearne, and R, III Elbin. "Concussion History And Postconcussion Neurocognitive Performance And Symptoms In Collegiate Athletes." Journal Of Athletic Training 43.2 (2008): 119-124. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 31 May 2012. Michale, B Gaetz, et al., "Possible Lingering Effects Of Multiple Past Concussions." Rehabilitation Research & Practice (2012): 1-7. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 29 May 2012.


Kelly, Judy, C, Efland, H Amerson, and Jeffrey, T Barth. "Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Lessons Learned From Clinical, Sports, And Combat Concussions." Rehabilitation Research & Practice (2012): 1-5. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 31 May 2012 P Jolicoeur, et al., "Long-Term Electrophysiological Changes In Athletes With A History Of Multiple Concussions." Brain Injury 21.6 (2007): 631-644.CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 31 May 2012. Jerrad Zimmerman, et al., "Biomechanical Properties Of Concussions In High School Football." Medicine & Science In Sports & Exercise 42.11 (2010): 2064-2071. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 31 May 2012.


Section4C Final Project Peer Review In everyday life you always come across some sort of communication, whether it be a flyer, the news, or even 2 words on a bathroom stall. Any form of communication is called a genre. Genres are in your everyday life whether you believe it or not. As Amy Devitt says, “Genres develop, then, because they respond appropriately to situations that writers encounter repeatedly. In principle, that is, writers first response in fitting ways and hence similarly to recurring situations.”(576) For example, you meet someone for the first time, what is your regular response? You’ll usually say hi, smile and shake their hand. This is an illicit response that you learned over time. You formed this reaction because it was presented to you multiple times before, and now it becomes natural. According to other authors such as Devitt, Bawarshi, and Reiff, “ Genre study gives us specific access to the sites of language use that make up communities in all their complexity” (549) In this case, they were talking about a discourse community, which is a community that is formed because they have their own set of values, goals, and beliefs that they all share in common. Devitt et al. referred to genres as an access to language, in discourse communities you need some sort of mechanism of communication to be able to talk to members in the discourse communities, this is what genres are. Now that I have a strong understanding of what genre is, I will attempt to interpret what genres are in my discourse community, the medical field, mainly athletic training. The medical field has endless jargon and methods of communications; I will be analyzing three articles from the medical field, breaking them up into setting, participants, features, subjects, and patterns, in order to further elaborate my view on genre. Setting


The articles that I am using for this project were found on the UCF’s library database, when you enter the database you type in what you’re interested in and then look for articles within your search. For example, what I put in my search bar was athletic training, and within that group they give you a list of databases that you can choose from, once you enter that, you can search whatever you want, in my case, concussions. The journal that I’ve obtained all of my articles from is called the Journal of Athletic Training; they post many articles involving health related issues, mainly to do with sports, and it can also range from the anatomical to the psychological studies. For example, one of my articles is called “Possible Lingering Effects of Multiple Past Concussions” written by Cynthia W Majerske, MD, MS, Jason P Mihalik, MS, CAT(C), ATC, Dianxu Ren, PhD, Michael W Collins, PhD,Cara Camiolo Reddy, MD, Mark R Lovell, PhD, and Amy K Wagner, MD. This study was meant to examine whether or not athletes perform better or worse on neuropsychological testing after they suffered three or more concussions.

Subjects The topics that are discussed in my articles are concussions; for example, in my article “Concussion History and Postconcussion Neurocognitive Performance and Symptoms in Collegiate Athletes” a study on concussions and how they affect collegiate athletes’ post concussion, long term and short term conducted by Grant L. Iverson, Ruben J. Echemendia, Amanda K. LaMarre, Brian L. Brooks, and Michael B. Gaetz . Some of the issues that are addressed in these articles are the impact of concussions and how athletes perform afterwards. They are informative to give the reader some insight on what concussions are and the outcomes of concussions using concussion tests called the ImPACT. When it comes to the


discussion of this article, it is going to vary depending on who is reading it. For example, a parent of a child who plays football may think twice about their kid playing football, or if it is an Athletic Trainer for a local high school, they could decided whether or not they should administer Concussion tests to the football team in order to figure out who has suffered recent concussions. Participants The people who typically read these articles are most likely professionals of the medical field who want to know up to date news of current illnesses or research on what their professions concerned. More towards the athletic trainers or sports doctors such as Mihalik JP, whose profession deals a lot with athletic neuropsychology. He was one of the main authors of one of my articles and has many researches done on sports and the brains functions from as recent as 2005-2012. Some characteristics that the reader must have some sort of medical background, someone from the sports medicine field; they need to know about the brain and psychology in order to value the significance of this article. For example, in one of my articles “Concussion History and Postconcussion Neurocognitive Performance and Symptoms in Collegiate Athletes” written by Tracey Covassin, PhD, David Stearne, PhD, and Robert Elbin, III, the authors refer to something called an “ImPACT test” which no commoner is going to know that this stands for Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing and even after they know what it stands for I’m still highly confident that people outside of the medical field will still have a hard time gauging what the meaning of it is. Features Some recurrent features that the articles share is the way they are set up. They all are set up as a psychology study. They start off with Abstract, which is a very brief description of what


the study entails, then, they transition into methods, which are basically who is participating how they are measuring the test subjects, and data analysis. They also include Results, Discussion, and the Conclusion. They are deeply vested within the scientific method. All the articles also share a very key characteristic, they are all informative, they are simply writing these articles to inform the reader about concussions, no argument or biased opinions towards the subject, they propose the question and attempt to answer it through an elaborate procedure. Their evidence is provided through an extensive amount of studies, where they really rely on statistics and neuropsychological testing. But for the most part examples aren’t really part of these articles; they rely mostly on facts and visual aids to help you interpret the information that is given, easier. The texts are rather lengthy; they involve a lot of big words and long sentences, for example “Multivariate regression analysis revealed that adjusted symptom scores decreased (P < .001) at each time interval, suggesting an improvement in the self-report of symptoms over time”. This is just a very fancy way to say that this test shows that people are getting better at knowing what the symptoms of a concussion is. This text clearly shows that this is for someone in the medical profession who understands these concepts, not for someone who is looking for an article in the magazine to wait for time to pass. Patterns What the genre features reveal about the genre and the situation, which it is used in, is how generic this form of writing is becoming for Psychologists or Doctors. In every one of my articles that I have found everything has the same format. It is mostly based of the scientific method. No matter what, when you are reading an article based on medicine or psychology, you already know what you are going to read before you read it! You know the basis of it, you’ve learned it since you were very little, and regardless what the content of the article is about the


genre, it is always going to be the same in this scenario, The who, what, where, when, why, how approach is always going to apply to every one of these studies, or at least based around of it. “Treating genre as form requires dividing form from content, with genre as the form into which content is put”. (576) This is just reinforcing my point, Devitt is basically saying that genre is its own category, no matter what the content of it is, it’s always going to have the same form, in this case, my Athletic Training articles and their topic, It can always be different content but the format for it doesn’t change. What I feel people have to know or believe in order to appreciate reading this article is having an understanding of what the main focus of this article is, which is to better understand concussions and their effects. You really can’t try to begin and read something if you have no idea where it is going. And I think you have to have a certain understanding of genre itself. Knowing what a genre is helps you realize what kind there are and how it is incorporated in your everyday life, whether it’d be a text message or an essay, genre is everywhere! Some values and beliefs that are revealed through the genre’s pattern is how they really value medical terminology and how they abide by the very strict format of research, such as the scientific method. In every one of my articles it includes the Abstract, Methods, Results, Discussion, Limitations, and Conclusions. Each section possesses their unique details. For example, they start with Abstract, to give you the most general details about the study. Then they go further into depth with Methods to show the reader how they are conducting the study and how they find the answer to their problem. After, they lead to the results that give you the outcome of their experiment. Furthermore, in the Discussion section, they really just discuss the study and go further into depth on topics that they may not have touched on or feel need more elaboration. Then they go to Limitations to discuss anything and everything that can hinder the research project in the slightest. Last, they go into Conclusion to sum up their findings in a brief


matter. The attitude toward the people is implied that the reader is a specialist on medical topics who know what they are reading; they made this articles because they wanted to strictly inform other specialist what up-to-date medical research is being conducted and the results that they yield. In no way were the three of my articles meant for non-specialist because they never went into depth with medical terminology or what key terms were, For example, “The assumption of covariance matrix homogeneity in the data was not violated”. They, in now way even bothered to mention what this meant because they were under the assumption that the reader is a professional. From Genres  to  Arguments:  Concussions  in  Sports     After exploring genres common to the field of Health Science through a preliminary genre analysis, I am further analyzing the genres of my field by tracing the claims made by psychologist. I have obtained numerous articles relating to the effects of concussions on athlete’s neurocognitive development post-concussion. Through my sources I have gathered information stating that concussions make it harder for athletes to perform well on the neurocognitive tests (ImPACT) after receiving a concussion. (Gaetz; Covassin) These sources have helped me identify the various aspects of Health Science, enabling me to further continue my studies through these genres and obtain a wide range of information that will help prepare me to enter a new community through my major. My  topic  that  I  decided  to  choose  was  concussions  in  sports.  How  I  decided  on  my   topic  was  through  my  chiropractor.  I  hurt  myself  playing  sports  my  junior  year  of  high   school  and  he  really  helped  me  out  and  I  got  a  lot  better  fast.  So  it  came  upon  me  to  write   about  something  about  sports  because  when  I  am  older  I  want  to  be  a  chiropractor  to  help   athletes.  So  I  decided  to  write  about  high  school  and  collegiate  athletes  to  better  expand  my  


knowledge on  what’s  out  there  and  the  current  big  issues  in  sports.  I  searched  and  Athletic   Trainer  database,  I  originally  tried  to  go  with  chiropractor  but  there  wasn’t  enough   information  there  for  me  to  write  a  paper  in  so  I  had  to  switch  my  databases.  How  I  knew   this  was  a  big  issue  was  that  I  used  to  play  football,  and  getting  a  concussion  was  a  big  thing   in  football,  you  saw  it  all  over  the  news,  and  the  NFL  even  created  new  rules  to  try  and   reduce  the  amount  of  concussion  that  there  were  happening.  What  exploring  this  issue   made  me  realize  in  my  field  is  it  involves  a  lot  of  medical  jargon  and  very  complex  wording   that  I  will  eventually  have  to  learn  because  this  is  what  I  am  interested  in  and  want  to  be.     Prevention/Diagnostic    

There are  different  ways  you  that  can  help  prevent  and  diagnose  concussions.  Some  

sources suggest  that  with  the  proper  gear,  prevention  and  detection  of  concussions  are   easier  to  obtained  (Cantu;  Comstock).  For  example  Robert  Cantu  states  “The  energy-­‐ absorbing  material  within  a  helmet  accomplishes  this  by  compressing  to  absorb  force   during  the  collision  and  slowly  restoring  to  its  original  shape”  (pg#).  This  is  showing  us   how  he  really  emphasizes  the  importance  of  a  helmet  in  full  contact  sports  in  the   prevention  of  concussion  because  the  helmet  works  to  send  the  shock  away  from  your   head.     RC  Cantu  believes that helmets significantly decrease the potential for sever Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBIs) after a collision by reducing the acceleration of the head on impact. According to Comstock if all school’s Athletic Trainer used the computer program to detect concussion, you can detect every 1 out of 5 concussed athletes, furthermore claiming that using the computer program can help prevent an athlete from being hurt any further.  


Both Cantu  and  Comstock  both  agree  that  prevention  is  key  to  athletes  from  further  

becoming injured,  But  Comstock  focuses  more  on  the  detection  of  concussions  to  prevent   further  injury  through  a  computer  programming  system,  while  Cantu  focuses  more  on  the   prevention  of  the  initial  concussion  through  protective  head  gear.   I  accidentally  accepted  all  the  track  changes,  but  I  don’t  remember  what  she  changed   (Megan  Muckenfuss).  But  I  believe  all  she  changed  were  a  few  grammatical  errors   and  a  couple  of  ideas.  You  said  you  would  check  attendance  to  see  if  I  were  there.   Which  I  was.

Portfolio  

Dennis J. Matos june 21,2012 ENC102 Section A004 Summer 2012