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Design Portfolio

May 2013 Deng Ai Unit 24 Year 4



UDP Planning Summary Brief Government Planning

Site & Location -

Geology Analysis Climate Opportunities & Constraints Site Context Site Photos

01 FORM & FUNCTION - Access - Design Strategy General Arrangement Drawing -

Location Plan Site Plan Ground Floor First Floor Roof Sections Elevations

M&E Analysis - Fire Escape - Foam/Water Spray System


Material Reused Strategy Case Study Canopy Construction Sequence Canopy Tectonic Analysis Canopy Crane System Material Palette Material Selection Material Precedents Material Use Case Study Construction of the Art Centre Exploded Module Axonometric Structure Framework Details Junction Details

Chapter 00


UDP Planning Summary Brief Government Planning

Site & Location -

Geology Analysis Climate Opportunities & Constraints Site Context Site Photos

Core Strategy Proposals Map

The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea

as Adopted 8th December 2010



Conservation Areas




28 3

24 2

11B - Courtfield 1 - Oxford Gardens 22 - Kensal Green Cemetery 11C - Earl's Court Square 2 - Norland 23 - Brompton Cemetery 11D - Nevern Square 3 - Ladbroke 24 - Avondale Park Gardens 12 - The Boltons 4 - Pembridge 25 - The College of 13A - Thurloe/Smith's Charity 5 - Holland Park St. Mark and St. John 13B - Brompton 6 - Kensington 26 - Philbeach 14A - Hans Town 7 - Kensington Palace 27 - Lexham 8 - Edwardes Square/ 14B - Sloane Square 28 - Colville Scarsdale and Abingdon 15 - The Billings 16 - Sloane/Stanley 9A - Kensington Square 4 9B - Kensington Court 17 - Chelsea Park/Carlyle 9C - De Vere 18 - Chelsea 9D Cornwall 19 - Cheyne 9A 10 - Queen's Gate 20 - Royal Hospital 7 9B 11A - Earl's Court Village 21 - Thames 6








250 500




19 25


14B 18

18 20






11B 11D 11C









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Health and Safety Executive Hazardous Installation

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Rail Safeguarding Lines

Red Routes







Sites of Nature Conservation Importance



Conservation Areas




Strategic Roads






Proposed Thames Path Existing Thames Path

Health and Safety Executive Consultation Zones (inner)

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Metropolitan Open Land

Archaeological Priority Area (Thames) Sites of Archaeological Importance

South Kensington Strategic Cultural Area

Areas Unsuitable for Diplomatic Uses

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Strategic Sites Central Activities Zone Cremorne Safeguarded Wharf

Thames Policy Area

Employment Zones ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

International Shopping Centre

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Strategic View of St Paul's Cathedral from King Henry's Mound, Richmond Park

Major Shopping Centres

Flood Risk Zone 2 Flood Risk Zone 3

Special District Shopping Centres District Shopping Centres

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Special Neighbourhood Shopping Centre

Note: The entire Borough is designated as an Air Quality Management Area

Neighbourhood Shopping Centres







SM 500



For more information: Email:










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R iv er Th a m es






Coordinate System : British National Grid Projection: Transverse Mercator Datum : OSGB 1936 False Easting: 400,000.0000 False N orthing: -100,000.0000 Central Meridian: -2.0000 Scale Factor: 0.9996 Latitude Of Origin: 49.0000 Units: Meter

© Crown copyright and database rights 2012 Ordnance Survey 100021668



Here are some viewpoint and suggestion on the UDP.

“Core Strategy Proposals Map” RBKC UDP 2010

1. The council considers the site to have the capacity for upwards of 2,500 new dwellings and also has potential for at least 10,000sqm of offices or other B1 uses. This should provide a better relationship with Ladbroke Grove and would form the hub of a new town centre. 2. Access to the site is limited to a single entrance on Ladbroke Grove, therefore the development is also likely to require substantially improved infrastructure including new roads, new public transport nodes and links over the railway lines. 3. The development should also look to reduce residential car parking on site to the minimum number of spaces necessary, thereby easing access on, off and through the site. 4. Improved connections over both the railway lines and the canal which currently isolate the site will be necessary to knit the site into its surrounding context, aid permeability, create a legible street network and make best use of the site’s assets and open spaces. 5. On-site waste treatment facilities will be required as part of the development to handle waste arising from the new uses of the site (this could include recycling facilities and anaerobic digestion). Development must also achieve a high environmental standard in terms of construction, building materials, waste management and energy usage/retention and low levels of car use. 6. There is a potential flood risk on site and was sequentially tested to examine this risk.The site subsequently passed the sequential test as required.

“Kensal Employment Zone” :P148, RBKC UDP 2002

7. The Memorial site of the victims of the Paddington rail disaster has been included in the strategic site. 8. Development should balance social benefit and economic value without environmental harm to bring benefit to all. 9 National Grid, who own the gas holders, have informed the Council that they are looking to remove them by 2017 at the earliest. The UDP Schedule identifies the land uses which the site of Kensal Green Gasworks in the proposal is a

Grade I Nature Conservation Importance, Offices & Industry Zone. The program of my proposal, Arts Centre, is suitable in the UDP of Kensington and Chelsea’s council. Benefited with tons of people flow bring by the new Railway station and huge work opportunity, will regenerate a new activate centre in this area.

“Sites of Nature Conservation Importance” :P291, RBKC UDP 2002


Planning The gasworks were Grade I listed by English Heritage. The definition of Grade I listing is ‘buildings are of exceptional interest, sometimes considered to be internationally important.’ The proposal suggests de-constructing the old gasworks of the kensal green. Obtaining the owner's consent and planning permission for reused the cast iron and steel as resource material in the construction of the new arts centre. The involvement of a planning consultant and the local planning officer from an early stage will be key to the success in this project. Planning permission: The scheme is imaginative with the proposition for a new railway station, for an alternative use for the demolished construction to a new arts centre as laid out in the UDP and planning brief. Public use of the gasworks peaked in the 1840s and it was closed in 2001 as a result of falling usage of gas, need to demolished before the new railway station's begin due to it has potential damage to environment and pollution to the soil. Rather to recast the waste iron and steel in the factory, but reused them to establish as a new arts centre is my proposal. Benefit: The arts centre will connecting the canal to the new railway station with a beautiful new public square and route, there is seating there, trees etc. Sainsbury's may benefit from creating an entrance from this new route, in addition to the current one that is oriented towards people who are arriving by car.


Summary This report is divided into four main chapters: “Form & Function”, “Building Delivery”, “Constructing Process”, “Environment Strategy”. Together they address the varied requirements of the design realisation report. Individually, each will also each have a focus subject which will be investigated in greater depth. The report is a summary of a speculative project: an art centre nearby a new railway station, which is the key facility that government want to regenerate this area where abandon for more than 20 years.

Surrounded by canal and near to the Kensal Green Cemetery, the building is to be predominantly steel framed. Material source will be come from the demolished Gas Holder, along with the use of timber and concrete as a structural system for the building. The Crane Bridge acting a very important role in this project, it is the first procedure to setup as a structural frame, then the main body of the building build up beneath it. Even after the building finished the crane still be used to deliver large scale art craft between workshop and gallery space. The performance of the Crane Bridge will be key to the success of the proposal. The report will attempt to analyse the project in terms of design, technical and practical realisation potential, and aims to demonstrate that the proposal, although theoretical might work in the real world and considers building regulations and other design policy.



Location: Kensal Green Riverside Client: Kensington & Chelsea Council Project: Kensal Green Riverside Art Centre Project area: 900 sqm Program: Art Centre provide not only exhibition space, but also workshop and studio to express the crafting process in the meanwhile, and including shops and offices to support the daily running. Systems: Caste-in-place concrete foundations and slab, steel frame structure, precast plywood veneer, smooth metal panel, exposed mechanical system with hard cast ducts, steel crane frame, canvas shelter.


Government Planning The Council’s Core Strategy (2010) Chapter 5 sets out a vision for the Kensal area Chapter 20 allocates Kensal Gasworks as a strategic development site. The Core Strategy vision for Kensal was developed in consultation with local people. It states in 2028: ‘The gasworks sites will have realised their potential and developed into a thriving and valued community in North Kensington. Along with residential development there will be job creation and regeneration benefits which will be enhanced by a Crossrail station. Kensal will connect North Kensington with central London and beyond. Well connected, high density, mixed use and environmentally responsive developments will have populated the sites. Better use will have been made of the canal and its towpath and over 2,500 dwellings, with offices and a range of community facilities will have been delivered. The area will also have been knitted into the surrounding urban fabric and the development, taken as a whole, will have provided a successful precedent for the remainder of the Borough. Development in the employment zone will support its function as a vital and valued asset for small and medium industries and the cultural and creative sector in particular.’ This would mean that the City would be just 15 minutes away, Canary Wharf 20.

Image source: Kensington and Chelsea Council

The Kensington and Chelsea Council’s 2011 plan to spend £33m in the region, especially build a new railway station on 27-hectare site, to regenerate this wasteland acts as a catalyst to this project, which investigates the potential near future scenario of a area reconstruction. Also the old gas works will be remove because it may jeopardise its plans for a new Crossrail station on the site. The reconstruction project will be completed by January 2018.

The Crossrail station enabling higher density development and benefiting the wider area. Good links to the surrounding areas including a connection hub across the wasteland to provide easy access to the station from the south and to St Charles Hospital. Greater opportunity for new jobs and community facilities mainly for the surrounding residents.

We think that kind of accessibility will turbocharge the development potential of the Kensal site, helping to create economic activity in the hundreds of millions. The development would bring thousands of new homes and hundreds of new jobs. It will mean new enterprise and new community facilities and it will also mean new people. For all of these reasons we believe we have a one time only opportunity to really make a difference, and not just for the Royal Borough, because the regenerative impact will be felt in equally disadvantaged south Brent and north Westminster as well. 10

Geology Analysis

residential boaters The boaters living in the Canal Basin are an established residential community. ecology existing scrubland retained as a public nature area. canalside features The new canalside activity centre which provides ecology and watersports training combined with residential units. canal A 200 metre site boundary onto the Grand Union Canal- a natural amenity with links to pedestrian and cycle routes along tow path. views Exceptional views to the north of the Kensal Green Cemetery.

London Tube Map

Image Source: Transport for London

Site Radial Distance

Image Source: London Development Agency

topography The Gasworks and the cemetery are situated at the highest point in the borough. This unique position demands thoughtful development. New public building The Gasworks are a valued local landmark. They could be adapted to a new public culture function in the future: an arts centre, cinema or theatre. site area Large land area available for integrated development. Potential for phased development when additional land becomes available. transport A number of bus routes serve the site. Regular heavy traffic congestion on Ladbroke Grove. visitors The site already attracts a large number of visitors who come to use the supermarket. Extensive car parking facilities are provided.

Site Transportation

Area Property





There are opportunities for this site to establish a new community and provide benefits for the wider area:



A Cross-rail station would allow more intensive development of the site and:

Reduce journey times to central London by more than 20 minutes and to Docklands by more than 30 minutes (a trip to the West End would take 10 minutes, as opposed to 32 minutes at present, and travelling to Canary Wharf would take 18 minutes rather than 48 minutes). This will make it much easier for local people to work or study in other parts of the capital. Make it easier for visitors to get to the northern part of Portobello Road and Golborne, increasing passing trade for shops, stalls and other businesses. Make the area more attractive to businesses, particularly the type of creative businesses that have already chosen to locate here. In the longer term it will also allow the area to have easy access to the HS2 interchange at Old Oak Common. 2.

Community facilities

The development could provide new facilities such as GP surgeries, nurseries and art store. Sainsbury’s could relocate the entrance on the site, bring double amount of new customers and new residents then before Bird view to the North


Reducing the current isolation of the site:

Exploring the potential for a new bridge over the railway lines to improve access from the south and make it easier for new residents to get to local facilities like St Charles Hospital. Opening up new footbridge across the canal and improving the footpath through Kensal Cemetery. 4.


The site could be developed as a new cultural quarter to reflect and build on the area’s rich and varied arts heritage. 5.

Public space

Making the most of the canal-side by opening up access and possibly re-excavating the canal basin that was on the site. Creating new public spaces and providing opportunities to incorporate public art into the development.  6. Environment Creating an environmentally responsible development which generates its own energy through, for example, a combined heat and power source. Part of the site is a Site of Nature Conservation Importance (SNCI) so, where possible, creates areas of natural habitat to encourage biodiversity.



There are also some constraints that will restrict the type of development that will happen: 1.


There is currently only one road route into the site, which would limit the amount of additional traffic that can come onto the site.


Provision must be made for buses to serve the site on both sides of the railway line. 2.

Land ownership

The Sainsbury’s supermarket provides an important service for local people and will be retained, although, it may need to be relocated the goods import entrance within the site to allow the rest of the site to be developed. Land to the west of the gasworks by National Grid. 3.


As the site was a former gasworks, there will be some contaminated land. This must be fully remediated to ensure that it is safe for people to live, work and play in the area and will affect the overall cost of the development. Otherwise Bird view to the South


Existing construction

No decision has been made about Canal-side Boats. They may be retained, but if demolition is necessary for the overall success of the development, replacement accommodation will be provided on the site in line with the Borough’s decant procedure. The memorial to the Ladbroke Grove rail crash will be retained.


Site Context

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Site Photos from South Access

South View to Site

Sainsbury's Car Park

Sainsbury's Car Park

Close up to Entrance

West View to Site

Train Deport

Entrance to Site


Site Photos from North Access

Canalside Pathway

Canalside Pathway

Water Tower

Canalside Pathway

Canalside Pathway

Boat on Canal

Canalside Pathway

Boat on Canal

Canalside Pathway


Chapter 01

FORM & FUNCTION - Access - Design Strategy General Arrangement Drawing -

Location Plan Site Plan Ground Floor First Floor Roof Sections Elevations

M&E Analysis - Fire Escape - Foam/Water Spray System




Residential New Railway Station

Pedestrian Vehicle Path New Railway Station


Site Heat Position


Design Strategy

Pathway Analysis

The main access to the site are two parallel pathways one is pedestrian laid on north, the other is driveway on the south. This site is playing as an important role of connection hub, in addition huge amount of people will passing though here when the new railway station open to public. So place an optimised pathway to connect north and south is very important in this case. These new pathways will determine the massing block of the arts centre.

Visual Analysis

The site is surround by Kensal Green Cemetery as a negative sight on the north, although there is a row of 10 metre high trees to block the sight to the north but still can see some graves, however the view of the Grand Union Canal is a positive resource that can be used on the east and west. So the main facade of this arts centre will be facing east and west and get rid of the view to north.


Design Strategy

mass block from pathway analysis

Create a pathway amid blocks

mass block from visual analysis

Widen the block space to fit in more functions

Combine from previous two mass blocks

Create an atrium

Separate to upper and lower floors

Optimise interior spacial atmosphere

Optimise exterior pathway

Optimise shape



People from Canalside Bookshop Painting Gallery Scalpture Gallery


Studio Workshop

Admin Recption

Zoning Chart

People from new Railway Station

People from Sainsbury's 22

Location Plan

Natural urban meadow



Site Plan



Roof Plan

1:200 25

Lower Floor Plan

1:200 26

Upper Floor Plan

1:200 27


Short Section


Long Section




North Facade


East Facade




South Facade

West Facade



North view 31


Main Entrance

The Arts Centre is a fluid part of the canal context and as such has few entrances and a public plaza. The main entrance is facing to the new Kensal Green railway station, and the plaza located close to the canal to admit further access from the housing estates to the North and the adjacent Sainsbury's. There is a car park adjacent main entrance on the South can hold 40 vehicles.

The Arts Centre complies with UK Building Regulations, Approved Document M: Access to and use of buildings. In accordance with Approved Document M, Sections 1-4: - Main doors have a width of 1250mm while internal doorways have a clear opening width of 850mm. - The minimum width of an internal passageway is 1700mm, the main allotment pathways are 3500mm reduced to 1250mm on either side of the columns. - All corridor and doors are considered allow a wheelchair or with reduced movement to pass through. - Staircases have a maximum of 12 steps before a landing with a max rise of 170mm and a going of at least 250mm including suitable tread nosing profiles. Handrails and balustrades are set at 900mm above floor. Plaza


Fire Escape

Multiple escape routes from all parts of the building

Lower Floor

Upper Floor


Foam/Water Spray System

Water Sprinkler

Wet Pipe Closed-Head Foam/Water Sprinkler System

Foam Sprinkler

Foam / Water spray systems Water spray systems are systems of open sprinklers controlled by a quick opening valve (deluge valve) which is operated by a system of heat detectors or sprinklers installed in the same area as the open sprinklers. The gallery and admin area are using this system.

A foam water fire sprinkler system is a special application system, discharging a mixture of water and low expansion foam concentrate, resulting in a foam spray from the sprinkler. The workshop and studio area are using this system.


Chapter 02

CONSTRUCTING PROCESS - Material Reused Strategy - Case Study - Canopy Construction Sequence - Canopy Tectonic Analysis - Canopy Crane System - Material Palette - Material Selection - Material Precedents - Material Use Case Study - Construction of the Art Centre - Exploded Module Axonometric - Structure Framework Details - Junction Details

Material Reused Strategy

In this project, the Gasworks play an important role in the material selection. Site Gasworks

As the source of contaminated land, the former Gasworks must be carefully and fully de-constructed to ensure that it is safe for people to live, work and play in the area and will affect the overall cost of the development. Later these recycled material from the gasworks would put back together to build up the main construction and the canopy above this art centre. The benefits are three: first of course, the cost of art centre will be cut off around 1/3 from the reuse material and transport fees; second, it will be a monument to rewind people in the memory of the predecessors’ hard work in the gasworks; third, steel fits perfectly to the mechanical property of this art centre.


Construction Site

Site excavated allowing minimum 600mm of space around foundation extent to allow working area. Soil to be spread on ground adjacent to excavation (or space reserved on site) to be used for casting roof slabs and timber walls on, to create soil imprint on underside of roof.


Arts Centre Construction Sequence

Clear the construction area that is made secure from the public.

Reinforced concrete strip foundations is placing in the site.

Site excavated allowing minimum 600mm of space around foundation extent to allow working area. Soil to be spread on ground adjacent to excavation (or space reserved on site) to be used for casting roof slabs and timber walls on, to create soil imprint on underside of roof.

After concrete has cured bury the foundation with soil only left the joint and beams above the ground.

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Arts Centre Construction Sequence

Align supports along joists, placing the concrete grid beam above foundation. Place the reused steel component from gasworks as load bearing column of the canopy. Finish the crane bridge system.

Prior to casting slab insulation and waterproofing layer is fixed to form-work. Before concrete slab cures water-proof plates are added to ensure water tight joint with walls

Steel structural columns bolted to slab foundation. Use crane bridge to lift connection bridge between workshop and admin areas.

Timber structural wall bolted to slab foundation. Placing service pathway on the canopy.

⑧ 39

Arts Centre Construction Sequence

Place timber slab on upper floor. Install glass shelter on the canopy structure.

Roof slabs lifted using crane bridge and a crane vehicle onto external walls and structural columns.

Timber structural wall bolted to upper slab.

Coating water-poof dressed over roof. Glazed Units fitted. Clear the site.

⑫ 40

Case Study - Gasworks Demolished

Etruscan Street, Etruria, Stoke-on-Trent Demolish started on April, 2011 and finished on May. The site will replaced with the “light industrial” and “storage & distribution” units. As you can see on the image, the demolish process is by pieces started from top to bottom on one section then go to the next one. The columns and beams are regular taken down and keep integrally, which mean the material is possible to reused for other projects.



Case Study - Gasworks De-construction


The iconic gas holders have been residents of King's Cross for over 150 years.

These pictures were took on 30 May, 31 May, 10 June and 24 June.

These pictures were took between 27 June and 6 July.


King's Cross Gasholder No. 8, London The iconic gas holders have been residents of King's Cross for over 150 years. Now without any gas to hold, they are being refurbished for a whole new use.

refurbished in Yorkshire. Disused since 2001, Located south of Regent's Canal, the gasholder will be restored on the north of the waterway by Camley Street Natural Park, in the King's Cross Central redevelopment.

Originally constructed in the 1850s, Gasholder No. 8 is a Grade II listed structure. Its 25 metretall, 35 metre-wide circular frame has been painstakingly dismantled and is currently being

The gasholder guide frame will sit in new landscaping with paths leading down to the canal towpath and a new pedestrian and cycle bridge over Regent's Canal is planned.

The gas holders are being restored by a specialist engineering firm in Yorkshire.


Canopy Construction Sequence

Gasworks - Ready to be demolished.

Start from top to bottom on one Section.

Taken down 30 framework Unit sets from each Gasworks.

Each Unit set have 4 different components can be reused, which need to be separate collection.

Demolish done.

Ship materials to site when demolish is done.

⑥ 43

Canopy Construction Sequence

Glass Shelter

Service Pathway

Canvas Shade

Crane Bridge

The canopy are consisted of 4 systems, from above to bottom are: glass shelter, service pathway, canvas shade, crane bridge.

Use crane vehicle to build up the canopy structure.

Beside some specific components need to order separated, most of the material are coming from the abandon gasworks. The columns, which serve as the principle means of support and bracing, are situated at the corners of the building and keep 500mm gap away from the wall to ensure the canopy framework and beneath building won’t have collision.


Canopy Tectonic Analysis

Glass Shelter 45

Canopy 46

Canopy Crane System

The Crane Bridge will participate in the construction process of the Arts Centre and help to move large scale art works from workshop to the gallery space in the future. Crane Bridge 47

Canopy Tectonic Analysis

Service Pathway


Service Stair

Canvas Shelter 48

Explode View


Admin Exterior Entrance

Admin Interior Entrance

Facade of Workshop

Stair to Gallery

Cafe Plaza

Admin Exterior Entrance

Cafe Plaza

Cafe Plaza

Material Palette


Stainless Steel

Steel Grating Slabs

Mostly use in the foundation and structural framework in lower floor. Also concrete will feature throughout the surrounding landscape like the pool, cafe area and car park to cut off the harm from the beneath contaminated soil.

Since most of the construction steel are coming from the gasworks, but still need some new stainless steel to secure the main structural column or beam ain't cracked due to the long time serving.

The connection bridge and stair within the Art Centre will be made of steel grated slabs. They will provide an airiness to the space along with creating the desired industrial feel. Also the feature of quickly assemble and heavy load affordable let it become the better choice than concrete and timber.




The main material throughout the arts centre is KLH's Timber Board which self contain of insulation and structural loading rid inside. This kind of new material let the assemble process super easy and saving tons of time than traditional method.

As giving a comfortable sitting environment to cafe area and providing a suitable shading effect to the sunlight sensitive gallery, a controllable canvas shade structural device is necessary for this arts centre.

Copper is an excellent material for flashing because of its malleability, strength, solderability, workability, high resistance to the caustic effects of mortars and hostile environments, and long service life. Copper is a perfect material as a attaching material between the arts centre and the above canopy in some weak point. Also louvre and handrail will using copper as well.

The Arts Centre will be made up of a palette of six primary materials; Concrete, Stainless Steel, Steel Grating Slabs, Timber, Canvas and Copper. The intention is to give the Art Centre an industrial feel through the use of metal but to also humanise the environment with a warmer and more nature palette of wood.


Precedents House in Yoro by Airhouse Design Office

sneeoosh cabin House in Yoro by Airhouse Design Office

Neut by Apollo Architects & Associates

Eli & Edythe Broad Art Museum , East Lansing Prototyping UH by General Design

Indoor Cricket School, Lord's

A selection of precedents illustrating the desired material palette for the Art Centre.


Material Use Case Study - Falmouth School

Design Team >

Architect: Urban Salon Client: Falmouth School & Cornwall County Council Location: Falmouth, Cornwall, TR11 4LH The 95sqm extension is a solid prefabricated cross-laminated timber construction with the timber exposed to the interior and standing seam pre-weathered zinc to the exterior. The timber structure was chosen for its environmental performance and was designed with half lap joints and has no visible fixings in the building. The ceiling within the extension rises from 3.2m to 5.2m, allowing even north light to flood the space, and creates the distinctive saw-tooth form of the building. The only steel structural elements are T-sections that support the ridge of the roof panels from the timber beams below. Specialist contractor KLH manufactured the timber structure off site and this was the first time the system had been used in the West Country. This modular construction method meant that the structure was assembled on site in under two weeks.


Structure Framework Details

Upper Floor Structure Framework

Longitudinal Panel Joints

Main beam these steel beam provide rigidity to the structure and have more than 3 metre span.

Main support These triangle steel supports hold up the main load on upper floor and leave the space to fill insulation.

Mid-beam support these steel supports help to spread the load on to all the joists


Junction Details

Wall-Concrete Connection

Ceiling-Wall Connection

Wall-Wall Connection

② ③

④ ①

② ⑤


Junction Details

Wall-Roof Connection

Intermediate Bearing-Roof Connection

Roof-Roof Connection

④ ① ① ① ②

③ ② ③


Section Structure Details



Detail 1


Detail 3

Flashings at the ends of roofs where the roof does not end past the wall require a stopend flashing that ensures water is directed into

the gutter. Sufficient material should be left standing out from the wall so that cladding installers can ensure a weather secure finish. 59

Windows Details



Glass Wall Details

Structural Glass Assemblies

Glass Fixation

Structural glass walls overcome the restrictions of conventional frames to provide the ultimate all glass faรงade. They use proprietary mechanical fixings and toughened safety glass and combine strength and visible lightness to provide high performance window faรงade systems. Structural glass is secured to a support structure by a variety of fitting options which are designed to meet the unique requirements of the project. These fixings absorb forces when the glass flexes under load and provide a secure connection between the glass component and the support structure.


Atrium 62

U N I T 2 4

Deng Ai


Structure Portfolio  
Structure Portfolio