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Demelash Shalo ID NO: GSR/3479/11 Advisor: BT Costantinos, (PhD) June, 2013 Saturday, May 24, 2014

Demelash Shalo, MPA Thesis

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Introduction ď‚ž ď‚ž

ď‚ž

The UN defines urbanization as the course of shift in population from a rural to a more urban society. A means of showing the way in which urbanization has been rapid is to compare the current rate of growth with historical trends to see if indeed the pace of urbanization has been rapid. It is now widely accepted that urbanization is as much a social process as it is an economic and territorial process. It transforms societal organizations, the role of the family, demographic structures, the nature of work, and the way we choose to live and with whom. It also modifies domestic roles and relations within the family, and redefines concepts of individual and social responsibility. Saturday, May 24, 2014

Demelash Shalo, MPA Thesis

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Urbanisation in Ethiopia  Ethiopia

is one of the least urbanized countries in the world. It has only 16% of its population living in urban centers (PCC, 2008).

Given the 2.73% total annual population growth rate, high rate of in-migration to towns, and increase in the number of urban centers, the rate of urbanization is increasing at a rate of 4.4%  Furthermore, the country’s urban population is expected to grow on average by 3.98%. 

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Demelash Shalo, MPA Thesis

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Statement of the problem 

Societies in urban areas suffer from many kinds of urban problems among these:  limited access to employment opportunities and income,  inadequate and insecure housing and services,  violent and unhealthy environments,  little or no social protection mechanisms, and  limited access to adequate health and education opportunities

The promise of jobs and prosperity, among other factors, pulls people to cities.  The knowledge gap the research addresses is based on identifying the impact of rapid urbanization on the society living the city of Adama. 

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Urban threats  Intensive urban growth (rapid urbanization) can lead to greater poverty, with local governments unable to provide services for all people.  Concentrated energy use leads to greater air pollution with impact on human health.  Automobile exhaust produces elevated lead levels in urban air.  Large volumes of uncollected waste create multiple health hazards.  Urban development can magnify the risk of environmental hazards such as flash flooding.  Pollution and physical barriers to root growth promote loss of urban tree cover.  Animal populations are inhibited by toxic substances, vehicles, and the loss of habitat and food sources. Saturday, May 24, 2014

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Research Questions ď‚ž ď‚ž ď‚ž

What is the trend of urbanization in Adama city? What is the link between rapid urbanization & social well-being? What is the impact of rapid urbanization on the overall living conditions of urban dwellers in Adama

Objectives of the study 1. Assess the standard of living in Adama city; 2. Investigate the impact of rapid urbanization on society; 3. Assess the link between urbanization & well being; 4. Assess capacity of the city to provide general services; 5. Identify measures that reduce negative impact of rapid urbanization Saturday, May 24, 2014

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Significance of the study  This research is important for those who are interested in studying in this particular field of study;  It is also important to the city administration of Adama to further understand the challenges of rapid urbanization;  It also gives some insight to the researcher to further extend his study as a researcher. Scope and limitations  This study is delimited to rapid urbanization and its impact on social well being a particular study conducted in former capital of Oromia regional states, Adama city. The scope of the data for this study is limited to the post-1991 administration;  Moreover to further due the emphasis of this study to other cities of the country and extended issues, time and finance has had hampered. This is because the issue raised is very complex and huge so one cannot cover the whole issue to the overall country, therefore it confined to Adama city Saturday, May 24, 2014

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Research Design  The researcher used descriptive research design Population of the study  These population for this research purpose are grouped into key informants which are grouped into urban dwellers (selected based on their residence and ownership of a house in the city).  The researcher uses both qualitative and quantitative methods of data analysis.  The secondary data was collected from unpublished project reports, data extracted from Websites, World Bank reports, UN agencies & Development Manuals, Academic Journals, texts, journals and newspapers, research studies, books… Saturday, May 24, 2014

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Sample Size - Infinite Population (where the population is greater than 50,000) SS = Z2 x (p) x (1 – p) C2 SS = Sample Size Z = Z-value (e.g., 1.645 for a 90 percent confidence level) P = Percentage of population picking a choice, expressed as decimal C = Confidence interval, expressed as decimal (e.g., . 04 or .05 = +/- 4 or +/-5 percentage points) SS = 2.706025 x .4 x .6 .0025 SS = 259.7784≈ 260 Saturday, May 24, 2014

Demelash Shalo, MPA Thesis

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Urban dwellers = 120 Teachers = 30 Officers = 25 Members of associations = 50 Interviewee’s = 8 The sample populations for this research are selected using simple random sampling and purposive/ judgmental sampling technique.  the primary data will be gathered through structured questionnaire, semi-structured interview, and other primary data like report of the municipality. 

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Review Literature 2.1 Urbanization 2.1.1 Defining urbanization 2.1.2 Problems of Urbanization 2.1.3 Benefits of urbanization

2.2 Trends of Urbanization 2.3 Rapid Urbanization 2.4 Urbanization in Africa 2.4.1 Africa’s Urban Challenges 2.4.2 Policy Responses to the Expansion of Urbanization in Africa Saturday, May 24, 2014

2.5 Empirical Studies on Rapid Urbanization 2.6 Trends of Rapid Urbanization in Ethiopia 2.6.1 Government’s Role on Directing Rapid Urbanization in Ethiopia 2.6.2 PASDEP: The Urban Development Strategy in Ethiopia 2.7 Social Well-being 2.7.1 Overview 2.7.2 Features of urban society 2.7.3 Standards of Living

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Data Analysis and Presentations Saturday, May 24, 2014

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  

Majority of respondents don’t have a house or condominium. However, urban dwellers have better chance of having their own house in Adama city rather than the other groups. Teachers and officers had better chance of owning or receiving condominium houses rather than the other groups. Majority of the respondents said Adama city has grown rapidly over a few years because of  increase in population through migrations (68% of poor households were migrants)  expansion of commercial center  construction of houses  expansion of asphalted road  expansion of sub-urban  geographic proximity to the center Saturday, May 24, 2014

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 

Urbanization and social well-being correlate each other in the way that each of them had major effect on each other. In one way, urbanization had effect on social well-being through depriving the lives of the society in the way that the societies cannot reach to all social services. On the other way, social wellness has very good impact on urbanization through expanding the services to the societies and developing the city to fit for living. The majority of the respondents (77.78%) confirmed that the social service in Adama city is not sufficient because  Lack of capacity of city administration to deliver social services  The population is congested;  Discrimination and corruption  Inadequacy of the service by private service providers  Inappropriate use of resources Saturday, May 24, 2014 Demelash Shalo, MPA Thesis

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Majority of respondents (84.44%) have confirmed urbanization has positive impact on society in Adama:     

Expansion and access to any infrastructure Employment opportunity Growth of industry Growth of trade Growth of the economy

According to minority respondents, the negative impact of rapid urbanization on the societies of Adama city could be mostly the increase in informal housing and trading lack of sufficient housing service. transport congestion, decrease in cultural practice of the society, vulnerability to health problems like cancer and malnutrition, increase of urban poor who has no home, no food or anything, and finally, ○ environmental degradation and increase in crime rate ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

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Conclusion and Recommendation Saturday, May 24, 2014

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Conclusion Adama city is growing at alarming rate and the population of the city also growing on a speed.  The growth of a city without social and infrastructure facilities is detrimental to people.  In order to match the growth with development, these facilities must cope up with the growth of population.  Societies that are mostly affected by rapid urbanization are the poor & laborers that are living in subsistence life. The rich can adapt with changes in city.  Urbanization and social well-being correlate each other in the way that each of them had major effect on each other. 

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The problems that Adama city had are the problem of unemployment it is shortage of housing service the exposure to epidemic diseases the increase in crime rate of the city environmental deteriorations of the city through increase in the temperature and the increase in drugs and alcohol users causing a lot of crime and damage to the city.

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Recommendations The major infrastructural facilities such as the housing services, electric power supply, clean water supply, the expansion in road network and administrative efficiency of Adama city Administration should be improved in order to at least cope up with the enormous growth of the population of the city. ď‚ž For the housing problem, the government should also start 10/90, 20/80 and 40/60 housing package that are projected to begin in Addis Ababa. ď‚ž

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ď‚ž Although,

the rapid urbanization is very important in this country but, the societies should be benefited from not suffer from it. ď‚ž Therefore in order to do that the city administration and the societies in Adama city should come into common understanding to much the fast growth of the city with the infrastructural services. Saturday, May 24, 2014

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THANK YOU! Demelash Saturday, May 24, 2014

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The impact of rapid urbanization on adama city