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governance structures for landscape development and heritage, including top-down, bottom-up and approaches somewhere in between; (2) implementation of metropolitan planning instruments, including both restrictive ones, like green belts, as well as incentivizing ones like large development projects; (3) implementation and marketing of sustainable transport networks (metro, bus rapid transit, bicycle highways) as well as extensive recreational cycling and hiking trails. In the following paragraph we discuss best practices regarding these three instruments. REGIONAL GOVERNANCE Many metropolises compete in the global battle for talent as a single entity, while their administrations are a rather complex mix of municipal, provincial and national entities. Furthermore, many landscape development issues require a regional perspective, while a metropolitan authority that acts on the regional scale is rarely present. For these metropolises the question is therefore how their regional governance structure is organized, given the specific spatial and economic challenges and the existing governmental and non-governmental institutions. There is no prevailing regional governance model for neither economic nor landscape development. The European cases have the benefit of European environmental protection policies, such as Natura 2000, giving lower government levels the responsibility of implementation. European heritage policy on the other hand is largely left to the individual member states. Besides the international ones, national or provincial governments decide the designation of many protection areas. Since the approved Unesco area, the landscape and heritage of Rio de Janeiro is protected on all possible levels: (inter)national, state and local, which makes it a clear priority, although this does not ensure long-term funding. The government of Taiwan takes a leading role in determining the large-scale developments and landscape conservation policies in and around Taipei, but increasingly leaves room for local initiatives. In the UK, the national government facilitates green belt policies (i.e. London), without having a mandatory role, while the Greater London Authority determines large part of the urban landscape and heritage policies, in close collaboration with the different boroughs. In federations such as the United States and Germany, regional associations are formed to manage the economic and landscape development of the metropolis. In the state of California, nine counties, over 60 cities and several cooperating members have joined the ABAG platform of the Bay Area. This occurs in parallel to other associations such as the Greenbelt Alliance and Open Space Council, which also take a role in attracting companies and other private stakeholders. This way, the planning of and investing in the metropolitan landscape become a public-private participatory event. In the state North Rhine-Westphalia, there is no metropolitan authority for the Rhein-Ruhr agglomeration. Instead, two regions – Köln-Bonn and Ruhr – work closely together with the city of Düsseldorf, coaching and stimulating municipalities and private actors in the regional development issues. The political decision for the long-term development of the Emscher Landscape Park was a crucial choice made by state politicians Johannes Rau and Christoph Zöpel (North Rhine – Westphalia) in 1988.

Despite the successes, the gap between the metropolitan scale and the different governance mandates often creates barriers (or obstructs opportunities) in the development of the metropolitan landscape as an asset for the knowledge economy. Fragmented governance disables strategic planning. In contrast to London, Paris, Toronto and Taipei, the Dutch Deltametropolis does not have an elected mayor, but rather about 200 appointed mayors. It is difficult to organize strong leadership and political mandate for metropolitan landscape development from within such a constellation. The subsequent publication Metropolitan Landscapes (2016) following a recent conference in Brussels suggests the appointment of a ‘curator’ or ‘curators’ to bridge the gap between state decision makers and local associations and people. This would connect large scale planning decisions to the heart of local communities, who experience the metropolitan landscape services daily. REGIONAL PLANNING INSTRUMENTS Planning instruments on the regional scale can be either restrictive or incentivizing. Combinations of both types in one metropolitan area are common, though not often at the same site. Examples of the first include zones where building is restricted or prohibited all together, such as green belts, for the protection of open space for agricultural use, recreational purpose, or natural protection. Even though restrictive planning instruments worldwide have been successful in containing urban expansion and conserving agricultural land near metropolitan centers, they are often one-dimensional. These instruments fail to form a dynamic and multi-purpose element in the daily urban system and lack the posibilities for the development of relevant recreation options for city dwellers, as for example in London. In Toronto, recreational trail projects are being developed to improve a similar situation. Other regions may have less planning tools in the form of belts and zones, but rather protect their landscape as a system of hundreds of heritage sites, such as in Lombardy, where the specific architecture of farm houses and churches gives identity to the entire rural area. Lombardy has the ambition to turn part of the rural area into a green belt. The development of robust metropolitan open space networks, often referred to as ‘green infrastructure’, green grid, open space system, and ecological network, is currently high on many metropolitan agendas, for example in Toronto, Rhein-Ruhr and London. Non-­development zones within the urban tissue are essential to safeguard open spaces with recreational, ecological and (slow) transport functions. These open spaces contribute to social cohesion, as demonstrated in San Francisco, Toronto, Taipei, Paris and Rio de Janeiro. These metropolitan open space networks are usually a combination of restrictive (building) policy and incentives, such as public investment. For many innovative sectors, and surely the creative sector, the built-up urban landscape with its historical elements and even decay, is just as important as the green parts of the metropolitan landscape. The increased importance of such dynamic areas serves as a driving force behind the attractiveness of London, Johannesburg and parts of the Deltametropolis, following the well-known adagio of Jane Jacobs: “New ideas must use old buildings.” A common instrument used to increase the quality of the metropolitan landscape is through funding and

planning large-scale flagship projects or development programs that combine several smaller projects, such as the London High Street Project (Mayor of London, 2012). These projects and programs often have a holistic approach, integrating landscape development with, for example, inner city port redevelopment and flood risk management (Rio de Janeiro, Toronto), or the reuse of historical buildings and industrial heritage (Taipei Railway Workshop and Tobacco Factory, London Southbank, Rhein-Ruhr Zollverein, Gauteng Power Plant, Toronto Evergreen Brickworks quarry). The identity and image provided by the landscape (above all the heritage aspects) is often the initial catalyst behind these large developments, while the eventual revenues of the project in turn contribute to its restoration and conservation. These projects, which are often largely funded by local governments, are concrete enough to attract private investments, public participation and volunteers. It should be said, however, that important tasks like cleaning the brownfields in Rhein-Ruhr, especially when they are not located in a prime building location, are only made possible with heavy public spending. Special forms of metropolitan landscape development projects include campus developments, the IBA (International Building Exhibition), the Olympic village and other international event sites such as the Dutch quinquennial horticulture exhibition, the Floriade. While these development projects each have their specific needs and context, they all feature the large national and state investments in certain areas of the metropolis in a relatively short time (less than seven years). Another common trend is that these developments are not seen as isolated sites, but rather as additions to the metropolitan network of activities and connections. The London Olympics legacy plan, for instance, deliberately uses the physical structures of the games for the development of East London, whereas Rio de Janeiro hopes to use the Olympics to enhance its new town Barra da Tijuca. Unfortunately, the structures of the Soccer World Cup in Johannesburg and other locations in South Africa have not witnessed such legacy plans. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT NETWORKS An attractive metropolitan landscape is an accessible landscape, both in transport and monetary terms. Congestion and new transport modes such as the e-bike urge metropolises to enhance and restructure their ‘slow traffic’ networks, consisting of cycling and walking trails, bicycle parking and renting facilities. The Deltametropolis has an outstanding bicycle network, which has been under development for over half a century. However, other metropolises are determined to become as least as cycling-friendly as well (copenhagenize.eu). Toronto, Taipei and San Francisco are currently implementing hundreds of kilometers of trails that connect the urbanized parts of the metropolis to the waterfronts and forests. Rhein-Ruhr is developing a high speed cycling network that links together several Unesco world heritage sites – the ‘cathedrals of industry’, while providing a sustainable alternative to the automobile. As we speak, London is developing cycling superhighway CS1 and Rio de Janeiro is completing its Plano Cicloviário, a bicycle rental system similar to its successful predecessor, Vélib’ in Paris.

Part 3. Lessons from international cases

BLIND SPOT 43

BOEK Blind Spot - metropolitan landscape in the global battle for talent (4/2016, Deltametropolis)  

Publication in English, webpage in Dutch: http://deltametropool.nl/nl/blind_spot De publicatie Blind Spot bekijkt de relatie tussen kwalitei...

BOEK Blind Spot - metropolitan landscape in the global battle for talent (4/2016, Deltametropolis)  

Publication in English, webpage in Dutch: http://deltametropool.nl/nl/blind_spot De publicatie Blind Spot bekijkt de relatie tussen kwalitei...

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