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ISSN 2050-6732 (Print) ISSN 2050-6740 (Online)

Counter-IED Report Autumn 2017

INSTITUTIONALIZING C-IED TRAINING; CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS ERW AND LANDMINE INFLUENCE: MATERIEL CONTAMINATION AND ECONOMIC MALADY HUMANITARIAN MINE ACTION AND IEDs TAKING AWAY TERRORIST ANONYMITY BIOMETRICS ADDS TO THE FIGHT AGAINST IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE DEVICES TRAINS – LUCRATIVE TARGETS FOR TERRORIST BOMBINGS HELL FROM ABOVE; USE AND MISUSE OF INCENDIARY DEVICES IN SYRIA THE USE OF IEDs IN A MARITIME ENVIRONMENT AND C-IED CAPABILITY


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REPORT CONTRIBUTORS

Counter-IED Report Published by Delta Business Media Limited 3rd floor, 207 Regent Street London, W1B 3HH United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 20 7193 2303 Fax: +44 (0) 20 3014 7659 info@deltabusinessmedia.com www.deltabusinessmedia.com www.counteriedreport.com

ISSN 2050-6732 (Print) ISSN 2050-6740 (Online)

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The opinions and views expressed in the editorial content in this report are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily represent the views of any organisation with which they may be associated. Material in advertisements and promotional features may be considered to represent the views of the advertisers and promoters. The views and opinions expressed in this report do not necessarily express the views of the publisher. While every care has been taken in the preparation of the report, the publisher is not responsible for such opinions and views or for any inaccuracies in the articles. Š 2017. The entire contents of this publication are protected by copyright. Full details are available from the publisher. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.

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IFC QINETIQ NORTH AMERICA 4 - 5 GARRETT METAL DETECTORS 7

ICOR TECHNOLOGY

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DSA DETECTION

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SCHIEBEL MINE DETECTION SYSTEMS

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QSA GLOBAL, INC.

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FOREWORD By Rob Hyde-Bales, Consulting Editor, Counter-IED Report

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HARRIS CORPORATION

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NOVO DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY

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INSTITUTIONALIZING C-IED TRAINING; CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS By Michael Solis, United States Africa Command, J34 C-IED Deputy Branch Chief

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VIDISCO LEADING X-RAY SOLUTIONS

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BCTL, CO.

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COUNTER-IED REPORT, Autumn 2017


CONTENTS

CONTENTS

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ERW AND LANDMINE INFLUENCE: MATERIEL CONTAMINATION AND ECONOMIC MALADY By Major Caleb A. Lewis, C-IED cell chief for Headquarters Joint Force Command Brunssum, Netherlands

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EOD/IED & COUNTERMINE SYMPOSIUM

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HUMANITARIAN MINE ACTION AND IEDs By Craig McInally, Operations Manager for Norwegian People’s Aid in Northern Iraq and Hans Risser, Global Head of Operations for Norwegian People’s Aid in Oslo, Norway

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MILITARY ENGINEERING 2018

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NCT EVENTS 2018

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HUMANITARIAN DEMINING, THE BEST PRODUCT PRESENTED BY THE NATIONAL ARMY TO COLOMBIA

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COMBAT ENGINEER 2017

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UK SECURITY EXPO 2017

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“NON SIBI SED OMNIBUS”; A REFURBISHED TECHNICAL EXPLOITATION FOR A REDEFINED THREAT ENVIRONMENT By Lieutenant Colonel Jose M Rufas, Head of the Defeat the Device Branch, C-IED Centre of Excellence

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TRAINS – LUCRATIVE TARGETS FOR TERRORIST BOMBINGS By Colonel H R Naidu Gade, Indian Army Veteran

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SIX MUNICIPALITIES FREE FROM THE SUSPICION OF ANTI-PERSONNEL LANDMINES

By National Army of Colombia

COUNTER-IED REPORT, Autumn 2017


CONTENTS

CONTENTS

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BEHAVIOURAL ANALYSIS 2018

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TAKING AWAY TERRORIST ANONYMITY By Asia Pacific Counter IED Fusion Center (APCFC)

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DEFENSE & SECURITY 2017

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MILIPOL PARIS 2017

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BIOMETRICS ADDS TO THE FIGHT AGAINST IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE DEVICES By András Pátkai, Director of Business Security Solution Inc, USA and Péter Györgydeák, Founder of Biosec Group Ltd, Budapest, Hungary

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ENFORCE TAC 2018

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EUROSATORY 2018

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HELL FROM ABOVE; USE AND MISUSE OF INCENDIARY DEVICES IN SYRIA By Lieutenant Colonel Jose M Rufas, Head of the Defeat the Device Branch, C-IED Centre of Excellence

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ISNR 2018 - INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION FOR NATIONAL SECURITY & RESILIENCE

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THE USE OF IEDs IN A MARITIME ENVIRONMENT AND C-IED CAPABILITY By Robert Shaw, Security and Intelligence consultant

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BIDEC – BAHRAIN INTERNATIONAL DEFENCE EXHIBITION & CONFERENCE

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FOREWORD

FOREWORD By Rob Hyde-Bales, Consulting Editor, Counter-IED Report

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017 has finally seen a gradual displacement of ISIS and other Islamist militants from significant key areas in Iraq and Syria. In Iraq in July, security forces finally declared victory against ISIS in Mosul. This concluded a disastrous chapter for Iraq which began when ISIS captured Iraq’s second city in a matter of days in June 2014 after Iraqi security forces abandoned their posts and fled leaving behind huge caches of US provided military equipment. The human cost of retaking Mosul has been horrific in terms of civilian deaths, casualties and large scale displacement of refugees. During their occupation of the city ISIS made extensive use of IEDs – in particular Pressure Plate IEDs – PPIEDs – that are de facto anti personnel mines. To clear the IEDs from Mosul will be a very lengthy process and their presence will delay a return to any kind of normality in this benighted city. In Syria, government forces backed by Iran and Russia have retaken Aleppo from ISIS, whilst fighting still continues in Raqqa – the final stronghold of ISIS in Syria. As with Mosul, ISIS has made extensive use of PPIEDs in both Aleppo and Raqqa. In Afghanistan the Taliban continues to occupy large areas of the country and the United States now plans an increase to its forces in an attempt to counter the Taliban presence and influence. The fact is, however, that after 16 years of NATO operations in Afghanistan the Taliban now control some 50% of the country. Corruption within the Afghan administration is seen as a continuing block to meaningful governance throughout the country. The major existential threat to Europe today emanates from a dysfunctional and lawless Libya from where

thousands of migrants have crossed into southern Europe. It is anticipated that about 140,000 migrants will reach Italy this year. The flood of migrants is controlled by international criminality facilitating human trafficking on a massive scale. Economic migrants are causing widespread social pressure and discontent throughout Europe – one by product of this being the upsurge in far right wing popularity in the September German federal election. In Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya and Syria Islamist militants continue to use IEDs to devastating effect. In a highly topical article that demonstrates the proclivity of Islamist terrorists to attack mass transit targets, Colonel HR Naidu Gade (Retd), Chief Consultant of CBRNe Secure India examines the Mumbai multiple train bombings of July 2006. In these coordinated attacks which comprised seven IED explosions in just eleven minutes, 209 people were killed and more than 700 were injured. The IEDs were constructed using pressure cookers as containers and a mixture of RDX explosives and Ammonium Nitrate. Detailed police and forensics investigations led to the capture and conviction of 12 Indian perpetrators. Five were sentenced to death and seven received life imprisonment. The police also identified eleven Pakistanis who they stated were involved in these attacks. In his thought provoking article, Michael Solis of C-IED United States Africa Command argues cogently for institutionalised Counter-IED training within African partner nations. He highlights that currently the overall C-IED Western training effort is both disparate counteriedreport.com

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FOREWORD

and duplicative as various Western partner nations compete for position, influence and access within the African partner nations. The problem is that currently Western nations do not have standardised C-IED training procedures and this merely serves to confuse African recipient trainees. He highlights the excellent work undertaken by the International Peace Support Training Centre in Nairobi, Kenya. The IPSTC is configured to support an internationally agreed suite of C-IED training courses based on the UN International IEDD Standards. This comprehensive, detailed and much needed document is produced by UNMAS and is designed to complement IMAS. It is currently in draft form and it is hoped that the Standards will soon be finalised and adopted by both the UN and nations. In their timely article Graig McInally and Hans Risser of the highly respected NGO Norwegian People’s Aid examine the ways in which IED clearance is now an established element of Humanitarian Mine Action (HMA). They caution, however, that HMA should not attempt to undertake the full spectrum of IEDD – but rather to restrict themselves to those areas within IEDD that are appropriate to the skills and humanitarian operating principles of HMA. They examine the exponential increase in the usage, in particular, of PPIEDs by ISIS in Iraq and Syria and point out that these types of IEDs are de facto landmines, and as such should be covered by the same Mine Ban Convention, UN Protocols and International Humanitarian Law as commercially produced anti-personnel mines. They graphically describe the scale of the humanitarian crisis in these two countries caused by the widespread usage of IEDs and the massive and lengthy effort that will be required to eradicate this IED contamination by a combination of actions by security forces, NGOs and commercial companies. The US Army Asia Pacific Counter-IED Fusion Centre (APCFC) in a most interesting article emphasises the critical importance of understanding the Human Domain in facing the challenges of insurgency and terrorism. The Human Domain is defined as the physical, cultural and social environments that exist within a conflict. To assist in this task the US military have formulated an Identity Activities (IA) programme. The aim of 14 COUNTER-IED REPORT, Autumn 2017

IA is to discover the relevant actors and networks, track their movements and limit their mobility, and ultimately to help deter threat actors from taking action. IA accomplishes its objective by leveraging biometrics, forensics and identity intelligence. The APCFC provides training to partner nations by means of instruction and bilateral exercises. In a highly detailed technical article Lt Col Jose Rufas of the NATO Counter-IED Centre of Excellence describes the widespread and uncontrolled use by the Syrian regime of incendiary devices – in the main sourced from Russia – against the civilian population. He points out that Syria has been using a mixture of these incendiary devices since 2012 to include barrel bombs, thermobaric weapons, white phosphorus and an agent akin to napalm. Predictably the effects on the civilian population have been devastating – at one point a school was hit by an incendiary munition that resulted in the deaths of children. Throughout the conflict, Syria has demonstrated a total disregard for international regulations that prohibit the use of incendiary weapons against civilians. ■

Rob Hyde-Bales biography During his career in the UK Royal Engineers, Rob Hyde-Bales was responsible for landmine clearance in Libya and, more latterly, Afghanistan in the running of the first United Nations humanitarian landmine clearance training programme – Operation Salam. The programme trained Afghan male refugees in landmine clearance techniques, and Afghan women and children in mine awareness and avoidance training. More recently he set up the Caribbean Search Centre in Kingston, Jamaica. The Centre is designed to train security forces across the Caribbean in modern search techniques. After retiring from the army he joined Cranfield University at Shrivenham, near Oxford, and undertook a research project on behalf of the UK Ministry of Defence that examined ways to improve the sharing of IED threat information between the military and civilian organisations in hazardous areas.


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