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contents Reading the riot facts

Extreme weather

Aug opener

Charting a month of elemental damage

Sat 20th Aug

Counting the cost of August’s civil unrest

The hacking of Milly Dowler’s phone

Amy Winehouse dies

Mon 4th July

by Dr William Shanahan, consultant psychiatrist

by Tom Watson MP

SHORT

Fri 1st Jul – Fri 30th Sep 2011

Sat 23rd July

Lucien Freud remembered Thu 21st Jul

Shale gas discovered under Blackpool

Sue Tilly recalls her time posing for the artist

By Matt Ridley, author

Wed 21st Sep

SERIOUS

The London riots

Phone hacking timeline

Mon 8th Aug

Fri 26th Aug

By Carla Rees, musician

Trouble in Transylvania

How the scandal unfolded

Mon 18th Jul

Thu 15th Sep

Maurice Glasman on the rise and fall of Blue Labour

Will Hungarian nationalism tear a hole in Romania?

Fri 22nd July

How terror rocked a haven of liberalism

Mon 1st Aug

Imran Khan on Pakistan after Bin Laden’s death

Crossing the line Fri 19th Aug

Can a train help to bridge the divide in the Middle East?

All to play for Fri 2nd Sep

Can the World Cup save Haiti?

LONG

The dark heart of Scandinavia

“I felt confusion, anger and humiliation”

A rejection of mentalism


Written in the Stars Sep opener

SHORT

The month in blockbusters

September as reported by the Daily Star

Jul opener

The butterfly effect Tue 13th Sep

From conkers to green energy via Einstein and Israel

Fri 16th Sep

Charting 30 years of summer hits

How to leave a currency union

Mapping the contents of the London Sperm Bank

Fri 9th Sep

Breaking up is easy to do

Battle of the bands The quarter in excuses

The quarter in online auctions

Tue 26th Jul

Sun 17th Jul

Three months of unusual The summer sales explanations of note

Every sperm is sacred

The smart money

The quarter in animals

Fri 30th Sep

Thu 29th Sep

The bets you should have made this quarter

The best of the beasts

‘Spray offenders green’

Wed 21st Sep

Thu 4th Aug

The most successful groups of all time revealed

Our pick of the most unpopular e-petitions

The film formula Sun 31st Jul, Wed 31st Aug, Fri 30th Sep

Tevez does not play against Bayern Munich

“By not very bright I mean astoundingly thick” Mon 22nd Aug

Tue 27th Sep

Can libel laws keep up with the pace of the modern world?

By Jonathan Wilson, sports writer

Every film release of the quarter boiled down

frivolous

On the cover… Overleaf

Gordon Cheung interviewed

David Haye loses to Wladimir Klitschko

Everyone who’s ever been in space

Fri 1st Jul

Visitors to the final frontier visualised

Fri 8th Jul

By Elliot Worsell, biographer

“Put down the books and pick up reality” Mon 4th July

The death of slow news

Can romantic fiction rot your brain?

Tue 16th Aug

How one transatlantic cable changed the world

Rock n Roll vs the Iron Curtain Sun 4th Sep

Was Bill Haley behind the building of the Berlin Wall?

A clash of loyalties

LONG

Sat 16th Jul

The incredible story of Saddam Hussein’s lost propaganda film

Enemy of the stoat Mon 29th Aug

New Zealand’s war on its animal invaders


Jul

1999

STAR WARS EPISODE I: THE PHANTOM MENACE

1994

1997

MISSION: IMPOSSIBLE II

JURASSIC PARK III

BATMAN FOREVER

MISSION: IMPOSSIBLE

THE LOST WORLD: JURASSIC PARK

GODZILLA

2001 1998

2000 1996 1995

1992

1991

ROBIN HOOD: PRINCE OF THIEVES

BATMAN RETURNS

JURASSIC PARK RETURNS BATMAN

THUMBELINA

1993


The month in blockbusters July traditionally sees the release of the year’s biggest blockbusters and 2011 was no exception. ‘Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows Part Two’ took a record-breaking £23,753,171 at the UK box office on its opening weekend (16th-17th July). But who ruled the summer in days gone by? Research: Marcus Webb Illustration: Christian Tate Chart shows the film with the highest opening weekend UK box office in July. Figures are adjusted for inflation.

2011

HARRY POTTER AND THE DEATHLY HALLOWS PART 2

2009

HARRY POTTER AND THE HALF BLOOD PRINCE

2004

SHREK 2 PIRATES OF THE CARIBBEAN: DEAD MAN’S CHEST

2010

THE DARK KNIGHT

WAR OF THE WORLDS

HULK

SHREK THE THIRD

AUSTIN POWERS IN GOLDMEMBER

2007

THE TWILIGHT SAGA: TWIGHLIGHT SAGA: ECLIPSE

2008

2005

2003

£19.8 M £19.0 M

£15.3 M

2006

2002

£23.8 M

£13.8 M £12.4 M £11.6 M £9.9 M £8.1 M £7.1 M £6.8 M £6.6 M £6.5 M £6.2 M £6.1 M £5.9 M £5.9 M £5.6 M £5.5 M £4.2 M £3.9 M


Sat 2nd Jul 2011

Moment that mattered

David Haye loses the heavyweight title fight to Wladimir Klitschko Elliot Worsell, biographer “Wladimir was the toughest challenge David could take on in his career, as he has these physical dimensions that are such an advantage. I’ve come into contact with the Klitschkos a few times and you couldn’t meet nicer people. I am impressed by how intelligent Wladimir is and I like what he stands for, but, ultimately, I hoped he’d get knocked out. During David’s last week of training he looked tremendous and I had no reason to doubt he could do it. The only doubts I had were just superstitions. It had been sunny in Hamburg all week, then there was this biblical downpour – so bad it almost caused the postponement of the event. David’s England football shirt was another ominous sign. For the last ten fights his T-shirt colour had reflected the way that he intended to fight. Red for the more aggressive performances, blue when he was more cautious. Ultimately these things don’t matter but any break in the routine doesn’t bode well for a fan or friend. I find it a privilege that David calls me into his room before a fight. I thinks it’s because I let him decide if he wants to talk or not. Other people try to chat, but I think he likes it that I seem quite calm. He’s incredibly laidback before a fight, you wouldn’t believe it. I’ve been with other boxers who act like they’re being sent to the gallows. That night was different though – while he was still calm, he seemed to be feeling the magnitude of it all. Getting to the ring he usually embraces the atmosphere – he makes the most of the music, soaks it in. In Hamburg he was rushed, he was sent a strange way through the crowd, got mobbed and I could see on his face that he was distressed by it. Rather than there being an actual moment [when he lost hold of the fight], it was more of a progressive thing. He did well in the opening rounds, but every time David threw his right hand, Wladimir would know it was coming and let it glance up over his left shoulder. As the rounds went on I realised that without his right, Haye wasn’t equipped to do the damage he needed to. There was one moment where Wladimir caught David with a big right hand when he was backed up against the ropes. If anything I took heart from that because my greatest fear was that anything flush could have knocked David out cold. As it happened, he took half a dozen hard rights.

To me, the clearest opportunity for David to turn it around was in the twelfth when he finally landed a right. But Wlad did what a great champion does – he stalled for 30 seconds and then continued to fight exactly the fight he wanted to fight. David has always hated anyone using excuses after a fight, which leads me to imagine that the toe story [post-fight Haye claimed that a broken toe sustained in training three weeks before the title prevented him sparring during the build-up and cost him the fight] was an instinctive response. Only David really knows if it was the real reason that he couldn’t land his right hand with full effectiveness. In the aftermath I think David deserves recognition that he went 12 rounds and he got hit less than any other Klitschko opponent I can remember – it was more competitive than people remember. If you look at the stats, David landed far more power punches but ultimately Klitschko’s jab wiped the floor with him as he controlled the range. David was gutted he didn’t win the fight and you could tell he felt he’d let people down. He joked to me that he hoped he hadn’t fucked up the ending for my book – which he obviously hadn’t. Deep down he knows he didn’t disgrace anyone and that he had nothing to be embarrassed about. But he’s always on the internet reading about boxing and he Googles his own name more than anyone else’s. He saw all the stuff people were saying about him and some of it was really harsh. I was with him in Jamaica just after he announced his retirement a few months later and it seemed like a final decision. He didn’t seem to have any competitiveness left in him. He was into his golf and was thinking about changing career, becoming an actor or something. Then he came back to the UK and started realising that getting into acting wouldn’t be easy, not a quick fix, and he started training again. At 31 he’s at his athletic peak, all faculties intact, but he wasn’t building up to anything. I suspect he will stay retired for now, but would be tempted back by the chance to fight Vitali Klitschko – he’s been chasing that for a long time. I think if there was any possibility of that fight happening he’d jump out of bed.” l Interview: Rob Greig Elliot Worsell is the author of David Haye’s authorised biography ‘Making Haye’, published by Quercus.

Martin Meissner/AP/Press Association Images

“David landed far more power punches but ultimately Klitschko’s jab wiped the floor with him as he controlled the range”


Everyone who’s ever been in space

SOVIET UNION RUSSIAN FEDERATION PEOPLES’ REPUBLIC OF CHINA

On 8th July 2011 the Space Shuttle Atlantis lifted-off for the final time, leaving NASA without the means to launch its own astronauts into space for the first time in 50 years. We chart half a century of human space flight as the USA leaves the final frontier open for the Russians, the Chinese and Richard Branson. Research and illustration: Christian Tate

PRIVATE/COMMERCIAL

Fri 8th

First manned lunar landing

Soyuz 5

Aleksei Yeliseyev Boris Volynov James A. McDivitt David R. Scott 2 John W. Young

First spacewalk 18th Mar 1965

24th Apr 1967

L. Gordon Cooper

Aleksei Leonov Pavel Belyayev

Georgi Shonin Valery Kubasov

Gemini 4

Vostok 6

L. Gordon Cooper Charles P. Conrad

Mercury-Redstone 4

Flight 90 - X-15

Frank F. Borman James A. Lovell

Vostok 2

Gherman Titov

Joseph A. Walker

Flight 91 - X-15

Joseph A. Walker 2

Anatoly Filipchenko Vladislav Volkov Viktor Gorbatko

Gemini 5

Soyuz 8

Vladimir Shatalov Aleksei Yeliseyev

Gemini 7

Gemini 6A

Walter M. Schirra 2 Thomas P. Stafford

Apollo 12 l

Soyuz 1 6

Vladimir Komarov 2 5

Skylab 2 Apollo 14 l

Alan B. Shepard 2 m Stuart A. Roosa Edgar D. Mitchell m

Soyuz 10

Soyuz 7

Virgil I. Grissom 2 John W. Young

Vostok 5

Virgil I. Grissom

Soyuz 6

Charles P. Conrad 2 m Richard F. Gordon 2 Alan L. Bean m

World’s first reusable spacecraft 12th Apr 1981

17th Jul 1975

Apollo 11 l

Voskhod 2

Mercury-Redstone 3

Valentina Tereshkova

Thomas P. Stafford 3 John W. Young 2 Eugene A. Cernan 2 Neil A. Armstrong 2 m Michael Collins 2 Edwin E. Aldrin 2 m

Vostok 1

Valery Bykovsky

First joint Soviet-US docking

Apollo 10

First fatality during space flight

Mercury-Atlas 9

First Space Shuttle launch

Apollo 9

16th Jun 1963

Alan B. Shepard

STS-6 t Challenger

Vladimir Shatalov

First woman in space

Soyuz T-13

18th Jun 1983

Soyuz 4

12th Apr 1961

Yuri Gagarin

l Moon landings m People who have walked on the moon t Shuttle missions $ Space tourists 6 Disasters 5 Fatalities First American woman in space

21st Jul 1969

First person in space

STS-51C t Discovery Thomas K. Mattingly 3 Loren J. Shriver Ellison S. Onizuka James F. Buchli Gary E. Payton STS-51D t Discovery Karol J. Bobko 2 Donald E. Williams M. Rhea Seddon Jeffrey A. Hoffman S. David Griggs Charles D. Walker 2 E. Jake Garn STS-51C t Challenger Robert F. Overmyer 2 Frederick D. Gregory Don L. Lind Norman E. Thagard 2 William E. Thornton Lodewijk van den Berg Taylor G. Wang

USA

Vladimir Shatalov 2 Aleksei Yeliseyev 2 Nikolai Rukavishnikov

Soyuz 11 6

Georgiy Dobrovolskiy 5 Viktor Patsayev 5 Vladislav Volkov 2 5

Apollo 15 l

David R. Scott 3 m Alfred M. Worden James B. Irwin m

Charles P. Conrad 3 Paul J. Weitz Joseph P. Kerwin

Skylab 3

Alan L. Bean 2 Jack R. Lousma Owen K. Garriott

Soyuz T-4

Vladimir Kovalyonok 3 Viktor Savinykh

Soyuz 17

Soyuz 39

Georgi Grechko Aleksei Gubarev

Soyuz 12

Soyuz 18A

Skylab 4

Soyuz 19

Viktor Gorbatko Yuri Glazkov

Vasili Lazarev Oleg Makarov

Vasili Lazarev 2 Oleg Makarov 2

Gerald P. Carr William R. Pogue Edward G. Gibson

Alexei Leonov Valery Kubasov 2

Apollo-Soyuz

Vladimir Kovalyonok Valeri Ryumin

Valentin Lebedev Pyotr Klimuk

Vance D. Brand Donald K. Slayton

Georgi Grechko Yuri Romanenko

Soyuz 13

Thomas P. Stafford 4

Vladimir Dzhanibekov 2 J. Gürragchaa STS-1 t Columbia John W. Young 3 Robert L. Crippen

Soyuz 24 Soyuz 25

Soyuz 32

Soyuz 26

Soyuz 33

Vladimir Lyakhov Valery Ryumin Nikolai Rukavishnikov 3 Georgi Ivanov

Soyuz 40

Leonid Popov 2 Dumitru Prunariu STS-2 t Columbia Joseph H. Engle Richard H. Truly

Paul J. Weitz Karol J. Bobko Donald H. Peterson F. Story Musgrave

Soyuz T-8

Vladimir Titov Gennadi Strekalov Aleksandr Serebrov 2 STS-7 t Challenger Robert L. Crippen 2 Frederick H. Hauck John M. Fabian Sally K. Ride Norman E. Thagard

Soyuz T-9

Vladimir Lyakhov 2 Aleksandr Aleksandrov STS-8 t Challenger Richard H. Truly 2 Daniel C. Brandenstein Dale A. Gardner Guion Bluford William E. Thornton STS-7 t Columbia John W. Young 4 Brewster H. Shaw Owen K. Garriott Robert A. Parker Byron K. Lichtenberg Ulf Merbold

Vladimir Dzhanibekov 5 Viktor Savinykh STS-51G t Discovery Daniel C. Brandenstein John O. Creighton Shannon W. Lucid Steven R. Nagel John M. Fabian Patrick Baudry Sultan Salman Al Saud STS-51F t Challenger C. Gordon Fullerton Roy D. Bridges F. Story Musgrave 2 Anthony W. England Karl G. Henize Loren W. Acton John-David F. Bartoe STS-51I t Discovery Joseph H. Engle Richard O. Covey James van Hoften 2 John M. Lounge William F. Fisher

Soyuz T-14

Vladimir Vasyutin Aleksandr Volkov Georgi Grechko STS-51J t Atlantis Karol J. Bobko 3 Ronald J. Grabe David C. Hilmers Robert L. Stewart William A. Pailes STS-61A t Atlantis Henry W. Hartsfield 2 Steven R. Nagel 2 James F. Buchli Guion Bluford 2 Bonnie J. Dunbar Reinhard Furrer Ernst Messerschmid Wubbo J. Ockels STS-61B t Atlantis Brewster H. Shaw Bryan D. O’Connor Mary L. Cleave Sherwood C. Spring Jerry L. Ross Rodolfo Neri Vela Charles D. Walker 3

1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 Mercury-Atlas 6 John H. Glenn

Mercury-Atlas 7 M. Scott Carpenter

Voskhod 1

Vladimir Komarov Konstantin Feoktistov Boris Yegorov

Vostok 3

Gemini 8

Neil A. Armstrong David R. Scott

Gemini 9A

Thomas P. Stafford 2 Eugene A. Cernan

Andrian Nikolayev

Vostok 4

Gemini 10

Pavel Popovich

John W. Young 2 Michael Collins

Mercury-Atlas 8 Walter M. Schirra

Gemini 11

Charles P. Conrad Richard F. Gordon

Apollo 7

Walter M. Schirra 3 Donn F. Eisele R. Walter Cunningham

Soyuz 3

Georgi Beregovoi

Apollo 8

Frank F. Borman 2 James A. Lovell 3

Apollo 13

James A. Lovell 4 John L. Swigert Fred W. Haise

Soyuz 9

Andriyan Nikolayev Vitaliy Sevastyanov

Apollo 16 l

John W. Young 2 m Thomas K. Mattingly Charles M. Duke m

Apollo 17 l

Eugene A. Cernan 3 m Ronald E. Evans Harrison H. Schmitt m

Soyuz 14

Soyuz 21

Soyuz 27

Soyuz 35

Soyuz 15

Soyuz 22

Soyuz 28

Soyuz 36

Yuri Artyukhin Pavel Popovich 2 Lev Demin Gennadi Sarafanov

Soyuz 16

Anatoly Filipchenko 2 Nikolai Rukavishnikov 2

William A. Anders

Furthest distance travelled from earth: 401,056 km

Gemini 12

James A. Lovell 2 Edwin E. Aldrin

15th Apr 1970

Boris Volynov Vitaliy Zholobov Valery Bykovsky 2 Vladimir Aksyonov

Soyuz 23

Vyacheslav Zudov Valery Rozhdestvensky

Vladimir Dzhanibekov Oleg Makarov 3 A leksey Gubarev Vladimír Remek

Soyuz 29

Vladimir Kovalyonok 2 Aleksandr Ivanchenkov

Soyuz 30

Pyotr Klimuk Miroslaw Hermaszewski

Soyuz 31

Valery Bykovsky 3 Sigmund Jähn

24th Dec 1968

Fruit flies Rhesus Monkey, Albert II 5 Mouse Dogs, Tsgan & Dezik

First higher living organisms to survive

1957 Dog, Laika 5

First animal to orbit the earth

1959 Monkeys, Able & Baker First monkeys to survive

1960 Dogs, Belka & Strelka

First animals to orbit the earth and survive

1961 Chimp, Ham

Male vs female 10.7% F 89.3% M

Vance D. Brand Robert L. Gibson Bruce McCandless II Ronald E. McNair Robert L. Stewart

Soyuz T-5

Yuri Malyshev Vladimir Aksyonovn

Vladimir Dzhanibekov 3 Aleksandr Ivanchenkov 2 Jean-Loup Chrétien STS-4 t Columbia Thomas K. Mattingly 2 Henry W. Hartsfield

Soyuz T-2 Soyuz 37

Viktor Gorbatko Pham Tuân

Soyuz 38

Yuri Romanenko A. Tamayo-Mendez

Soyuz T-3

Total as of 8th July 2011. *Altitude of 100km as defined by the internationally-recognised Fédération Aéronautique Internationale

1947 1949 1950 1951

STS-41B t Challenger

Jack R. Lousma C. Gordon Fullerton

Anatoli Brergovoy Valentin Lebedev

Total number of people who have travelled into space*

Animals who got there first

STS-3 t Columbia

Valeri Kubasov 3 Bertalan Farkas

Leonid Kizim Oleg Makarov Gennadi Strekalov

First manned lunar orbit

531

Leonid Popov Valery Ryumin 2

Space Shuttle vs Soyuz MAX PAYLOAD 24,400kg vs 100kg LAUNCH COST $450m vs $100m+ TOTAL MISSIONS 135 vs 66+ REUSABLE YES vs NO CREW 7 vs 3

Soyuz T-6

Soyuz T-7

Leonid Popov 3 Aleksandr Serebrov Svetlana Savitskaya STS-5 t Columbia Vance D. Brand Robert F. Overmyer Joseph P. Allen William B. Lenoir

Second woman in space

19th Aug 1982

Soyuz T-10

Leonid Kizim Vladimir Solovyov Oleg Atkov

Soyuz T-11

Yuri Malyshev Gennadi Strekalov Rakesh Sharma STS-41C t Challenger Robert L. Crippen 3 Francis R. Scobee George D. Nelson James van Hoften Terry J. Hart

Soyuz T-12

Vladimir Dzhanibekov 4 Igor Volk Svetlana Savitskaya 2 STS-41D t Discovery Henry W. Hartsfield 2 Michael L. Coats Judith A. Resnik Steven A. Hawley Richard M. Mullane Charles D. Walker STS-41G t Challenger Robert L. Crippen 4 Jon A. McBride Kathryn D. Sullivan Sally K. Ride 2 David C. Leestma Marc Garneau Paul D. Scully-Power STS-51A t Discovery Frederick H. Hauck David M. Walker Anna L. Fisher Dale A. Gardner 2 Joseph P. Allen 2

First untethered spacewalk 7th feb 1984


STS-32 t Columbia

Daniel C. Brandenstein James D. Wetherbee Bonnie J. Dunbar 2 G. David Low Marsha S. Ivins

Soyuz TM-9

Challenger disaster

The Space Shuttle disintegrates 73 seconds after launch at an altitude of 14.6km 28th Jan 1986

Anatoly Solovyev 2 Alexander Balandin STS-36 t Atlantis John O. Creighton John H. Casper Richard M. Mullane David C. Hilmers Pierre J. Thuot STS-31 t Discovery Loren J. Shriver 2 Charles F. Bolden 2 Steven A. Hawley 3 Bruce McCandless II 2 Kathryn D. Sullivan 2

Soyuz TM-10

Gennadi Strekalov Gennadi Manakov STS-41 t Discovery Anatoly Solovyev Richard N. Richards 2 Victor Savinykh Robert D. Cabana Aleksandr Aleksandrov 3 William M. Shepherd 2 Soyuz TM-6 Bruce E. Melnick Thomas D. Akers Vladimir Lyakhov 3 Abdul Ahad Mohmand STS-38 t Atlantis Valeri Polyakov Richard O. Covey 3 STS-26 t Discovery Frank L. Culbertson Robert C. Springer Frederick H. Hauck 2 2 Carl J. Meade Richard O. Covey Charles D. Gemar STS-61C t Columbia John M. Lounge 2 George D. Nelson 3 STS-35 t Columbia Robert L. Gibson 2 David C. Hilmers Charles F. Bolden Vance D. Brand 2 Soyuz TM-7 Franklin R. Chang-Diaz Guy S. Gardner 2 2 Aleksandr Volkov Steven A. Hawley Jeffrey A. Hoffman 2 Sergei Krikalev George D. Nelson 2 John M. Lounge 3 Jean-Loup Chrétien 2 Robert J. Cenker Robert A. Parker Clarence W. Nelson Samuel T. Durrance STS-27 t Atlantis Ronald A. Parise 3 STS-51Lt Challenger 6 Robert L. Gibson Soyuz TM-11 Guy S. Gardner Soyuz T-15 Richard M. Mullane Viktor Afanasyev Jerry L. Ross 2 Musa Manarov Leonid Kizim 2 Toyohiro Akiyama Vladimir Solovyov 2 William M. Shepherd

Soyuz TM-5

STS-42 t Discovery Ronald J. Grabe 3 Stephen S. Oswald Norman E. Thagard 4 David C. Hilmers William F. Readdy Roberta L. Bondar Ulf Merbold 2 Soyuz TM-14 Klaus-Dietrich Flade Aleksandr Viktorenko 2 Aleksandr Kaleri STS-45 t Atlantis Charles F. Bolden 3 Brian Duffy Kathryn D. Sullivan 3 David C. Leestma C. Michael Foale Byron K. Lichtenberg Dirk Frimout STS-49 t Endeavour Daniel C. Brandenstein Kevin P. Chilton Pierre J. Thuot 2 Kathryn C. Thornton 2 Richard J. Hieb 2 Thomas D. Akers 2 Bruce E. Melnick 2 STS-50 t Columbia Richard N. Richards 3 Kenneth D. Bowersox Bonnie J. Dunbar 3 Lawrence J. DeLucas Ellen S. Baker 2 Carl J. Meade 2 Eugene H. Trinh Soyuz TM-15 Michael Tognini Anatoly Solovyev 3 Sergei Avdeyev STS-46 t Atlantis Loren J. Shriver 3 Andrew M. Allen Jeffrey A. Hoffman 3 F. R. Chang-Diaz 3 Claude Nicollier Marsha S. Ivins 2 Franco Malerba STS-47 t Endeavour Robert L. Gibson 4 Curtis L. Brown Mark C. Lee 2 N. Jan Davis Jerome Apt 2 Mae C. Jemison Mamoru Mohri STS-52 t Columbia James B. Wetherbee Michael A. Baker 2 Charles L. Veach 2 William M. Shepherd 3 Tamara E. Jernigan 2 Steven G. MacLean STS-53 t Columbia David M. Walker 3 Robert D. Cabana 2 Guion Bluford 4 James S. Voss 2 Michael R. Clifford

400+

Soyuz TM-18

Viktor Afanasyev 2 Yuri Usachyev Valeri Polyokov STS-60 t Discovery Charles F. Bolden 4 Kenneth S. Reightler 2 N. Jan Davis 2 Ronald M. Sega F. R. Chang-Diaz 4 Sergei Krikalev 3 STS-62 t Columbia John H. Casper 3 Andrew M. Allen 2 Pierre J. Thuot 3 Charles D. Gemar 3 Marsha S. Ivins 3 STS-59 t Endeavour Sidney M. Gutierrez 2 Kevin P. Chilton 2 Linda M. Godwin 2 Jerome Apt 3 Michael R. Clifford 2 Thomas D. Jones

Soyuz TM-19

Yuri Malenchenko Talgat Musabayev STS-65 t Columbia Robert D. Cabana 3 James D. Halsell Richard J. Hieb 3 Carl E. Walz 2 Leroy Chiao Donald A. Thomas Chiaki Naito-Mukai STS-64 t Discovery Richard N. Richards 4 L. Blaine Hammond 2 Jerry M. Linenger Susan J. Helms 2 Carl J. Meade 3 Mark C. Lee 3 STS-68 t Endeavour Michael A. Baker 3 Terrence W. Wilcutt Thomas D. Jones 2 Steven L. Smith Daniel W. Bursch 2 Peter J.K. Wisoff

Number of people signed up for Richard Branson’s future $200,000 Virgin Galactic spaceflights

STS-72 t Endeavour Brian Duffy 3 Brent W. Jett Leroy Chiao 2 Daniel T. Barry Winston E. Scott Koichi Wakata

Oldest person in space, aged 77 29th Oct 1998

Soyuz TM-23

Yuri Onufrienko Yuri Usachyev 2 STS-75 t Columbia Andrew M. Allen 3 Scott J. Horowitz F. R. Chang-Diaz 5 Maurizio Cheli Jeffrey A. Hoffman 5 Claude Nicollier 3 Umberto Guidoni STS-76 t Atlantis Kevin P. Chilton 2 Richard A. Searfoss 2 Linda M. Godwin 3 Michael R. Clifford 3 Ronald M. Sega 2 Shannon W. Lucid 5 STS-77 t Endeavour John H. Casper 4 Curtis L. Brown 3 Daniel W. Bursch 3 Mario Runco, Jr. 3 J. Marc Garneau Andrew S.W. Thomas STS-78 t Columbia Terence T. Henricks 4 Kevin R. Kregel 2 Susan J. Helms 3 Richard M. Linnehan Charles E. Brady Jean-Jacques Favier Robert B. Thirsk

Soyuz TM-24

Claudie Haigneré Valery Korzun Aleksandr Kaleri 2 STS-79 t Atlantis William F. Readdy 3 Soyuz TM-20 Terrence W. Wilcutt 2 Ulf Merbold 3 Thomas D. Akers 4 3 Aleksandr Viktorenko Jerome Apt 4 Yelena Kondakova Carl E. Walz 3 John E. Blaha 5 STS-66 t Atlantis Donald R. McMonagle 3 STS-80 t Columbia 2 Curtis L. Brown Kenneth D. Cockrell 3 2 Ellen L. Ochoa Kent V. Rominger 2 Scott E. Parazynski Tamara E. Jernigan 4 Joseph R. Tanner Thomas D. Jones 3 Jean-François Clervoy F. Story Musgrave 6

STS-109 t Columbia

STS-89 t Endeavour

Terrence W. Wilcutt 3 Joe F. Edwards Bonnie J. Dunbar 4 Michael P. Anderson James F. Reilly Salizhan Sharipov Andrew S.W. Thomas 2

Soyuz TM-27

Léopold Eyharts Talgat Musabayev 2 Nikolai Budarin 2 STS-90 t Columbia Richard A. Searfoss 3 Scott D. Altman Richard M. Linnehan 2 Dafydd R. Williams Kathryn P. Hire Jay C. Buckley James A. Pawelzyk STS-91 t Discovery Charles J. Precourt 3 D. L. Pudwill Gorie Wendy B. Lawrence 3 F. R. Chang-Diaz 6 Janet L. Kavandi Valery Ryumin 3

Soyuz TM-28

Yuri Baturin Gennadi Padalka Sergei Avdeyev 3 STS-95 t Discovery Curtis L. Brown 5 Steven W. Lindsey 2 Scott E. Parazynski 3 Stephen K. Robinson 2 Pedro Duque Chiaki Mukai John H. Glenn 2 STS-88 t Endeavour Robert D. Cabana 4 Frederick W. Sturckow N. J. Sherlock Currie 3 Jerry L. Ross 6 James H. Newman 3 Sergei Krikalev 4

STS-99 t Endeavour Kevin R. Kregel 4 D. L. Pudwill Gorie 2 Janet L. Kavandi 2 Janice E. Voss 5 Mamoru Mohri 2 Gerhard Thiele

Soyuz TM-30

Sergei Zalyotin Aleksandr Kaleri 3 STS-101 t Atlantis James D. Halsell 5 Scott J. Horowitz 2 Mary E. Weber 2 Jeffrey N. Williams James S. Voss 4 Susan J. Helms 4 Yuri Usachev STS-106 t Atlantis Terrence W. Wilcutt 4 Scott D. Altman 2 Daniel C. Burbank Edward T. Lu 2 Richard A. Mastracchio Yuri Malenchenko 2 Boris Morukov STS-92 t Discovery Brian Duffy 2 Pamela A. Melroy Koichi Wakata 2 Leroy Chiao 3 Peter J.K. Wisoff 2 M.l E. Lopez-Alegria 2 William S. McArthur 3

Soyuz TM-31

Yuri Gidzenko Sergei Krikalev 5 William M. Shepherd 4 STS-97 t Endeavour Brent W. Jett 2 Michael J. Bloomfield 2 Joseph R. Tanner 2 J. Marc Garneau 2 Carlos I. Noriega 2

Scott D. Altman 3 Duane G. Carey John M. Grunsfeld 3 N. J. Sherlock Currie 4 James H. Newman 4 Richard M. Linnehan 3 Michael J. Massimino STS-110 t Atlantis Michael J. Bloomfield 3 Stephen N. Frick Jerry L. Ross 3 Steven L. Smith 3 Ellen L. Ochoa 4 Lee Morin Rex J. Walheim

STS-122 t Atlantis

First commercial human spaceflight 21st Jun 2004

Soyuz TM-34

Yuri Gidzenko 4 Roberto Vittori Mark Shuttleworth $ STS-111 t Endeavour Kenneth D. Cockrell 5 Paul S. Lockhart F. R. Chang-Diaz 7 Philippe Perrin Valeri Korzun Sergei Treshchev Peggy A. Whitson STS-112 t Atlantis Jeffrey S. Ashby 3 Pamela A. Melroy 2 David A. Wolf 3 Piers J. Sellers Sandra H. Magnus Fyodor Yurchikhin

Soyuz TMA-1

Sergei Zalyotin 2 Yuri Lonchakov 2 Frank De Winne STS-113 t Endeavour James D. Wetherbee 2 Paul S. Lockhart 2 M. E. Lopez-Alegria 3 John B. Herrington Kenneth D. Bowersox 4 Donald R. Pettit Nikolai Budarin 3

Soyuz TMA-8

Soyuz TMA-4

André Kuipers Gennadi Padalka 2 E. Michael Fincke

SpaceShipOne

Michael W. Melvill

SpaceShipOne

Michael W. Melvill 2

SpaceShipOne W. Brian Binnie

Soyuz TMA-5

Yuri Shargin Salizhan Sharipov 2 Leroy Chiao 4

Marcos Pontes Pavel Vinogradov 2 Jeffrey N. Williams 2 STS-121 t Discovery Steven W. Lindsey 2 Mark Kelly 2 Michael E. Fossum Piers J. Sellers 2 Lisa M. Nowak Stephanie D. Wilson Thomas Reiter 2 STS-115 t Atlantis Brent W. Jett 3 Christopher J. Ferguson Joseph R. Tanner 3 Daniel C. Burbank 2 H. M. Stefanyshyn-Piper Steven G. MacLean 2

Soyuz TMA-9

Anousheh Ansari $ Mikhail Tyurin 2 M. E. Lopez-Alegria 4 STS-116 t Discovery Mark L. Polansky 2 William A. Oefelein Robert L. Curbeam 3 Joan E. Higginbotham Nicholas J.M. Patrick Christer Fuglesang Sunita L. Williams

Stephen N. Frick 2 Alan G. Poindexter Leland D. Melvin Rex J. Walheim 2 Stanley G. Love Hans Schlegel 2 Léopold Eyharts 2 STS-123 t Endeavour D. L. Pudwill Gorie 2 Gregory H. Johnson Robert L. Behnken Michael J. Foreman Richard M. Linnehan 4 Takao Doi 2 Garrett E. Reisman

Soyuz TMA-12

Yi So-yeon Sergey Volkov Oleg Kononenko STS-124 t Discovery Mark Kelly 3 Kenneth T. Ham Karen L. Nyberg Ronald J. Garan Michael E. Fossum 2 Akihiko Hoshide Gregory E. Chamitoff

Shenzhou 7 Zhai Zhigang Liu Boming Jing Haipeng

Soyuz TMA-13

Yuri Lonchakov 3 E. Michael Fincke 2 Richard A. Garriot $ STS-126 t Endeavour Christopher J. Ferguson 2 Eric A. Boe Donald R. Pettit 2 Stephen G. Bowen H. M. Stefanyshyn-Piper 2 Robert S. Kimbrough Sandra H. Magnus 2

STS-130 t Endeavour

George D. Zamka 2 Terry W. Virts Kathryn P. Hire 2 Stephen K. Robinson 2 Nicolas J.M. Patrick Robert L. Behnken 2

Soyuz TMA-18

Aleksandr Skvortsov Mikhail Korniyenko Tracy E. Caldwell Dyson 2 STS-131 t Discovery Alan G. Poindexter 2 James P. Dutton Richard A. Mastracchio 3 Clayton C. Anderson 2 D. Metcalf-Lindenburger Stephanie D. Wilson 3 Naoko Yamazaki STS-132 t Atlantis Kenneth T. Ham 2 Dominic A. Antonelli Garrett E. Reisman 2 Michael T. Good Stephen G. Bowen 2 Piers J. Sellers 3

Soyuz TMA-19

Fyodor Yurchikhin 3 Shannon Walker Douglas H. Wheelock 2

Soyuz TMA-01M Aleksandr Kaleri 5 Oleg Skripochka Scott Kelly 2

Soyuz TMA-20

Dmitri Kondratyev Catherine G. Coleman 3 Paolo Nespoli 2

1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Soyuz TM-2

Alexander Laveykin Yuri Romanenko

STS-29 t Discovery

Michael L. Coats John E. Blaha James P. Bagian Soyuz TM-3 James F. Buchli Aleksandr Viktorenko Robert C. Springer Mohammed Faris Aleksandr Aleksandrov 2 STS-30 t Atlantis David M. Walker 2 Soyuz TM-4 Ronald J. Grabe 2 Anatoli Levchenko Norman E. Thagard 3 Vladimir Titov 2 Mary L. Cleave 2 Musa Manarov Mark C. Lee STS-28 t Columbia Brewster H. Shaw Richard N. Richards James C. Adamson David C. Leestma Mark N. Brown

Soyuz TM-8

Alexander Viktorenko 2 Aleksandr Serebrov 3 STS-34 t Atlantis Donald E. Williams Michael J. McCulley F. R. Chang-Diaz 2 Shannon W. Lucid 2 Ellen S. Baker STS-33 t Discovery Frederick D. Gregory John E. Blaha 2 F. Story Musgrave 3 Manley L. Carter Kathryn C. Thornton

STS-37 t Atlantis

Steven R. Nagel 3 Kenneth D. Cameron Jerry L. Ross 3 Jerome Apt Linda M. Godwin STS-39 t Discovery Michael L. Coats L. Blaine Hammond Guion Bluford 3 Gregory J. Harbaugh Richard J. Hieb Donald R. McMonagle Charles L. Veach

Soyuz TM-12

Helen Sharman Anatoli Artsebarsky Sergei Krikalev 2 STS-40 t Columbia Bryan D. O’Connor Sidney M. Gutierrez James P. Bagian Tamara E. Jernigan M. Rhea Seddon 2 F. Drew Gaffney Millie Hughes-Fulford STS-43 t Atlantis John E. Blaha 3 Michael A. Baker Shannon W. Lucid 3 James C. Adamson G. David Low 2 STS-48 t Discovery John O. Creighton Kenneth S. Reightler James F. Buchli Charles D. Gemar 2 Mark N. Brown

Soyuz TM-13

Toktar Aubakirov Franz Viehböck Aleksandr Volkov 2 STS-44 t Atlantis Frederick D. Gregory 2 Terence T. Henricks F. Story Musgrave 4 Mario Runco, Jr. James S. Voss Thomas J. Hennen

First Briton in space First European woman in Space 18th May 1991

STS-54 t Endeavour

John H. Casper 2 Donald R. McMonagle 2 Mario Runco, Jr. 2 Gregory J. Harbaugh 2 Susan J. Helms

Soyuz TM-16

Gennadi Manakov 2 Aleksandr Poleshchuk STS-56 t Discovery Kenneth D. Cameron 2 Stephen S. Oswald 2 C. Michael Foale 2 Kenneth D. Cockrell Ellen L. Ochoa STS-55 t Columbia Steven R. Nagel 4 Terence T. Henricks 2 Jerry L. Ross 4 Charles J. Precourt Bernard A. Harris Ulrich Walter Hans Schlegel STS-57 t Endeavour Ronald J. Grabe 4 Brian Duffy 2 G. David Low 3 Nancy J. Sherlock Currie Peter J. Wisoff Janice E. Voss

Soyuz TM-17

Jean-Pierre Haigneré Vasili Tsiblyev Aleksandr Serebrov 4 STS-51 t Discovery Frank L. Culbertson 2 William F. Readdy 2 James H. Newman Daniel W. Bursch Carl E. Walz STS-58 t Columbia John E. Blaha 4 Richard A. Searfoss M. Rhea Seddon 3 William S. McArthur David A. Wolf Shannon W. Lucid 4 Martin J. Fettman STS-61 t Endeavour Richard O. Covey 4 Kenneth D. Bowersox 2 F. Story Musgrave 5 Kathryn C. Thornton 3 Claude Nicollier 2 Jeffrey A. Hoffman 4 Thomas D. Akers 3

STS-63 t Discovery

James D. Wetherbee 2 Eileen M. Collins C. Michael Foale 3 Janice E. Voss 2 Bernard A. Harris 2 Vladimir Titov 3 STS-67 t Endeavour Stephen S. Oswald 3 William G. Gregory Tamara E. Jernigan 3 John M. Grunsfeld Wendy B. Lawrence Ronald A. Parise 2 Samuel T. Durrance 2

Soyuz TM-21

Norman E. Thagard 5 Vladimir Dezhurov Gennadi Strekalov 2 STS-71 t Atlantis Robert L. Gibson 5 Charles J. Precourt 2 Ellen S. Baker 3 Bonnie J. Dunbar 4 Gregory J. Harbaugh 3 Anatoly Solovyev 4 Nikolai Budarin STS-70 t Discovery Terence T. Henricks 3 Kevin R. Kregel N. J. Sherlock Currie 2 Donald A. Thomas 2 Mary E. Weber

Soyuz TM-22

Sergei Avdeyev 2 Yuri Ghidzenko Thomas Reiter STS-69 t Endeavour David M. Walker 4 Kenneth D. Cockrell 2 James S. Voss 3 James H. Newman 2 Michael L. Gernhardt STS-73 t Columbia Kenneth D. Bowersox 3 Kent V. Rominger Kathryn C. Thornton 4 Catherine G. Coleman Michael E. Lopez-Alegria Fred W. Leslie Albert Sacco STS-74 t Atlantis Kenneth D. Cameron 3 James D. Halsell 2 Jerry L. Ross 5 William S. McArthur 2 Chris A. Hadfield

STS-83 t Columbia

James D. Halsell 3 Susan L. Still Janice E. Voss 3 Donald A. Thomas 3 Michael L. Gernhardt 2 Roger K. Crouch Gregory T. Linteris STS-84 t Atlantis Charles J. Precourt 3 Eileen M. Collins 2 Jean-François Clervoy 2 Carlos I. Noriega Edward T. Lu Yelena Kondakova 2 C. Michael Foale 4 STS-94 t Columbia James D. Halsell 4 Susan L. Still 2 Janice E. Voss 4 Donald A. Thomas 4 Michael L. Gernhardt 3 Roger K. Crouch 2 Gregory T. Linteris 2

Soyuz TM-26

Anatoly Solovyev 5 Pavel Vinogradov STS-85 t Discovery Curtis L. Brown 4 Kent V. Rominger 3 N. Jan Davis 3 Robert L. Curbeam Stephen K. Robinson Bjarni V. Tryggvason STS-86 t Atlantis James D. Wetherbee 3 Michael J. Bloomfield Vladimir Titov 4 Scott E. Parazynski 2 Jean-Loup Chrétien 3 Wendy B. Lawrence 2 David A. Wolf 2 STS-87 t Columbia Steven W. Lindsey Kevin R. Kregel 3 Winston E. Scott 2 Kalpana Chawla Takao Doi Leonid Kadeniuk

Soyuz TM-29

Ivan Bella Viktor Afanasyev 3 Jean-Pierre Haigneré 2 STS-96 t Discovery Kent V. Rominger 4 Rick D. Husband Ellen L. Ochoa 3 Tamara E. Jernigan 5 Daniel T. Barry 2 Julie Payette Valery Tokarev STS-93 t Columbia Eileen M. Collins 3 Jeffrey S. Ashby Steven A. Hawley 4 Catherine G. Coleman 2 Michel Tognini STS-103 t Discovery Curtis L. Brown 6 Scott J. Kelly Steven L. Smith 2 C. Michael Foale 5 John M. Grunsfeld 2 Claude Nicollier 4 Jean-François Clervoy 3

STS-98 t Atlantis

Kenneth D. Cockrell 4 Mark L. Polansky Robert L. Curbeam 2 Marsha S. Ivins 4 Thomas D. Jones 4 STS-102 t Discovery James D. Wetherbee 4 James M. Kelly Andrew S. W. Thomas Paul W. Richards Yury Usachev James S. Voss 5 Susan J. Helms 5 STS-100 t Endeavour Kent V. Rominger 5 Jeffrey S. Ashby 2 Scott E. Parazynski 4 John L. Phillips Chris A. Hadfield 2 Umberto Guidoni 2 Yuri Lonchakov

STS-107 t Columbia 6 Rick D. Husband 2 5 William C. McCool David M. Brown Kalpana Chawla 2 5 Michael P. Anderson 2 5 Laurel B. Clark 5 Ilan Ramon 5 Soyuz TMA-2

Yuri Malenchenko 3 Edward T. Lu 3

Shenzhou 5 Yáng Lìwei

Soyuz TMA-3

Aleksandr Kaleri 4 C. Michael Foale 6

Soyuz TMA-6

Roberto Vittori 2 Sergei Krikalev 6 John L. Phillips 2 STS-114 t Discovery Eileen M. Collins 4 James M. Kelly 2 Stephen K. Robinson 3 Andrew S. W. Thomas 2 Wendy B. Lawrence 2 Charles J. Camarda Soichi Noguchi

Soyuz TMA-7

Gregory H. Olsen $ Valery Tokarev 2 William S. McArthur 4

Shenzhou 6 Fèi Jùnlóng Niè Haishèng

Charles Simonyi $ Oleg Kotov Fyodor Yurchikhin 2 STS-117 t Atlantis Frederick W. Sturckow 3 Lee J. Archambault Patrick G. Forrester Steven R. Swanson John D. Olivas James F. Reilly 3 Clayton C. Anderson STS-118 t Endeavour Scott Kelly Charles O. Hobaugh 2 Tracy E. Caldwell Dyson Richard A. Mastracchio 2 Barbara R. Morgan Benjamin A. Drew Dafydd R. Williams 2

Soyuz TMA-11

Soyuz TM-32

Talgat Musabayev 3 Yuri Baturin 2 Dennis A. Tito $ STS-104 t Atlantis Steven W. Lindsey 3 Charles O. Hobaugh Michael L. Gernhardt 4 James F. Reilly 2 Janet L. Kavandi 2 STS-105 t Discovery Scott J. Horowitz 2 Frederick W. Sturckow 2 Daniel T. Barry 3 Patrick G. Forrester Frank L. Culbertson 3 Vladimir Dezhurov 2 Mikhail Tyurin

Soyuz TMA-10

Columbia disaster The Space Shuttle disintegrates on re-entry 1st Feb 2003

S. Muszaphar Shukor Yuri Malenchenko 4 Peggy A. Whitson 2 STS-120 t Discovery Pamela A. Melroy 3 George D. Zamka Scott E. Parazynski 5 Stephanie D. Wilson 2 Douglas H. Wheelock Paolo Nespoli Daniel M. Tani 2

Sources: The Orbital Report News Agency; NASA; Russian Federal Space Agency

Soyuz TM-33

Victor Afanasyev Konstantin Kozeyev Claudie Haigneré 2 STS-108 t Endeavour D. L. Pudwill Gorie 3 Mark Kelly Linda M. Godwin 4 Daniel M. Tani Yuri Onufrienko 2 Carl E. Walz 4 Daniel W. Bursch 4

First space tourist 28th Apr 2001

First Chinese human spaceflight 15th Oct 2003

STS-119 t Discovery Lee J. Archambault 2 Dominic A. Antonelli Joseph M. Acaba Steven R. Swanson 2 Richard R. Arnold John L. Phillips 3 Koichi Wakata 3

Soyuz TMA-14

Gennadi Padalka 3 Michael R. Barratt Charles Simonyi 2 $ STS-125 t Atlantis Scott D. Altman 3 Gregory C. Johnson Michael T. Good K. Megan McArthur John M. Grunsfeld 4 Michael J. Massimino 2 Andrew J. Feusteli

Soyuz TMA-15

Roman Romanenko Frank De Winne 2 Robert Thirsk STS-127 t Endeavour Mark L. Polansky 3 Douglas G. Hurley Christopher J. Cassidy Thomas H. Marshburn David A. Wolf 4 Julie Payette 2 STS-128 t Discovery Frederick W. Sturckow 4 Kevin A. Ford 4 Patrick G. Forrester 3 Jose M. Hernández John D. Olivas 2 Christer Fuglesang 2 Nicole P. Stott

STS-133 t Discovery Steven Lindsey Eric A. Boe 2 Nicole P. Stott 2 Benjamin A. Drew Michael R. Barratt 2 Stephen G. Bowen 3 Soyuz TMA-21

Aleksandr Samokutyayev Andrei Borisenko Ronald J. Garan 2 STS-134 t Endeavour Mark Kelly 4 Gregory H. Johnson 2 Michael Fincke 2 Gregory E. Chamitoff 2 Andrew J. Feustel Roberto Vittori 3

Soyuz TMA-02M

Sergey Volkov 2 Michael E. Fossum 3 Satoshi Furukawa STS-135 t Atlantis Christopher Ferguson Douglas G. Hurley 2 Sandra Magnus Rex J. Walheim 3

Soyuz TMA-16

Guy Laliberté $ Maksim Surayev Jeffrey N. Williams 2 STS-129 t Atlantis Charles O. Hobaugh 3 Barry E. Wilmore Leland D. Melvin 2 Randolph J. Bresnik Michael J. Foreman 2 Robert L. Satcher

Soyuz TMA-17

Oleg Kotov 2 Timothy J. Creamer Soichi Noguchi 2

Final shuttle launch 8th Jul 2011


The dark heart of Scandinavia


Simon Reid-Henry revisits Utøya after Anders Behring Breivik’s massacre, and asks how the most avowedly liberal region in the world produced an act of such horror Fri 22nd

On the dark Norway pine, On that dark heart of mine Fell their soft splendour. – Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, ‘The Skeleton in Armour’

Matt Dunham/AP/Press Association Images

T

hey were images that shocked the world and would haunt Scandinavia: footage shot from a helicopter above Utøya showed an island strewn with bodies and one man calmly strolling amongst them. The 69 bodies were those of students and volunteers at a Labour Party Youth (AUF) camp. The man was Anders Behring Breivik and he had just committed a massacre. Two months on from Breivik’s horrifying actions and we are back on Utøya in the company of AUF leader Eskil Pederson, a survivor of 22nd July. We shuffle around, exploring the island using a marked-up catalogue of places and events: recently affixed laminated signs correspond to our handheld maps, referencing sites of murder or escape. The island is a postcard-perfect image of a summer camp: the cluster of painted white and red-blue wooden farm buildings that greet you when you step off the boat, some with an “AUF” sign hanging lopsided over the door, impart such a strong college fraternity feel that one immediately senses what fun times would have been had in this place, before all hell broke loose. They make it all the more frightful to imagine how Breivik set about his task safe in the knowledge that the bomb he had earlier set off in the government quarter of downtown Oslo would give him an hour or so without interruption for his killing spree. Pederson tells me how he was in the farm buildings when the shooting

began – which by my reckoning can’t have been more than 30 yards away from him at that point – and later escaped by boat. He recounts the confusion and panic as people scrabbled to make sense of the day. At the time he feared a coup, targeted against the government and its representatives; he felt he couldn’t trust even those police officers who were guarding them later that evening. “It was impossible to know what was happening,” he says. “It was difficult to understand how it was going to end.” But were those killed on 22nd July victims of a crazed “lone wolf”, as Janne Kristiansen, head of Norway’s PST security services, labelled Breivik, going on to claim that “not even the Stasi could have stopped him”? Or were they lost to something larger? Something darker that beats in Scandinavia, the heartland of social democracy.

The rise of the far right It is a question whose answers cannot be found on Utøya alone. Right-wing extremism of the sort that Breivik unleashed is on the rise across Europe. But it is most usually associated with other parts of the continent, where history recalls the extremisms of an earlier time: neo-Nazism has grown more vocal once again in Austria and Germany, while in Hungary, black-booted vigilantes of the Jobbik party terrify the Roma with threats of lynching and summary violence. Yet the truth is that Scandinavia has not been free from the taint of Europe’s resurgent extremism either, and its appearance here is all the more shocking for the fact that these nations have been, for the last

“Pederson recounts the confusion and panic as people scrabbled to make sense of the day. At the time he feared a coup”


Enemy of the stoat On a visit to New Zealand’s stoat Killing Fields Chris Bourn investigates the country’s schizophrenic attitude towards wildlife Mon29th

O

n 29th August New Zealand waved goodbye to its favourite ever foreigner. Not a visiting rugby player or a Hollywood Hobbit, but an incompetent penguin. For ten weeks a once magnificently stoic nation had gone all Morgan Freeman for “Happy Feet”, a bedraggled emperor penguin found plodding around Peka Peka Beach on the North Island’s Kapiti Coast. The bird was exhausted and malnourished, having swum some 3,000 kilometres wide of its Antarctic home and eaten a bellyful of sand, mistaking it for snow. The idiot. Travelling the North Island in August to see some of New Zealand’s rare indigenous wildlife, I was invited to Wellington Zoo to meet Mr Feet, adopted national hero. It was three days before he was due to hop on a boat back to Antarctica, and an audience with him was by now something of an honour. Here was a penguin that had been given better medical care than many New Zealanders have access to, in the zoo’s dedicated bird hospital; whose daily fish consumption was being closely monitored by the national press; whose story had even prompted a Facebook campaign, backed by an MP, to appoint him as a last-minute ambassador for the Rugby World Cup – despite being only partially black.

Inside the zoo, a harried-looking PR person conducted me to a section of the bird-hospital complex away from public view. The metal door to Happy Feet’s ice-pen swung open, ‘X Factor’-style… He was… a bird. He didn’t even seem that happy. With the onset of the southern spring, Wellington was becoming uncomfortably warm for him, and he was sprawled on his tummy, trying to get as much ice-on-feather contact as he could. Most undignified. As I tried to formulate the appropriate diplomatic greeting, a pair of vets bundled past to give him a hose-down, and I was ushered away. “Happy Feet came to our shores, not feeling so great – we welcomed him with open arms,” was how the Facebook campaign had it. “He’s a clean, green symbol of New Zealand and our people, our welcoming and friendly nature and our all-embracing hospitality.” Except the rest of my tour told a very different story. You might get the full red-carpet treatment if you’re a metre-high penguin, but if you’re one of any number of non-waddling, non-native species to have pitched up on these islands in the past 200 years – a possum, rat, stoat, ferret, deer, wallaby or feral cat – and if you break cover, you’ll be shown no mercy. In its forests and islands, farmlands and fjords, New Zealand is waging total war against furry aliens. And I was there, embedded with frontline patrols, to witness it.

“You might get the full redcarpet treatment if you’re a metre-high penguin, but but New Zealand is waging total war against furry aliens”

The battle for the islands Kapiti Island lies 5.2km off the North Island’s lower west coast, directly opposite the spot where Happy Feet’s rescuers picked up their penguin – and it’s an island under siege. The whole outcrop is an asylum for indigenous birdlife – a rangy natural aviary that was wiped clean of rats, mice and possums in the ’80s and ’90s. It is now rigorously managed by the Department of Conservation (DoC) in partnership with the island’s tiny Maori community, and is home to some of New Zealand’s rarest endemic birds: takahe – purple-plumaged mega-coots, of which only around 200 exist in the world; saddlebacks – a thrush-like wattlebird with a crimson handlebar moustache, which only narrowly escaped extinction in the 1960s; and a thriving population of around 1,200 little spotted kiwi, a variety of the national mascot that has been extinct for over a century on the mainland. Before I am permitted to disembark on Kapiti’s pebbled shore, I have to undergo two thorough bag and pocket searches for crafty rodent stowaways. Tough biosecurity checks are always in place here, but on my visit it’s likely they are tighter than usual – because since December 2010 three stoats have been discovered dead in traps in this supposedly predator-free habitat. As a result, the New Zealand media are currently on high stoatwatch alert and the island is in lockdown. The DoC is wary of exciting further alarm, but on the quiet is convinced there are more invaders hidden out here somewhere, in the 20 square kilometres of rolling scrub.


Thu 1st

The remains of infamous Australian bushranger Ned Kelly are found in the former HM Prison Pentridge in Melbourne, Victoria. A DNA sample from Kelly’s sister’s great grandson, Leigh Oliver, confirm the remains are those of Kelly.

“We are not women and we are going to keep on fighting” Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi vows to “let Libya burn” and defies calls from world leaders for him to step down as he speaks from his hideout, believed to be in southern Libya. Fri 2nd

Taliban militants kidnap 30 Pakistani children as they picnic near the Afghan border, local Pakistani officials report. Haiti plays the US Virgin Islands in a World Cup qualification match. g’All to play for’ A court in Cologne hears that a German art forger scammed collectors into spending an

estimated £14 million on bogus paintings. Wolfgang Beltracchi

used old wood with fake wormwood holes and special painting techniques to make collectors believe they were purchasing ancient masterpieces. Sat 3rd

A Chilean plane crashes off the coast of the Juan Fernandez islands in the South Pacific, killing 21 people. The plane, which was struck by heavy winds and rain, was carrying a group of businessmen, aid workers and journalists, including Chilean TV presenter Felipe Camiroaga. Thousands of protesters clash with security forces in the cities of

Tabriz and Orumieh in north-west Iran. The protestors had gathered to demonstrate against the government’s failure to protect Lake Orumieh, which is at risk of drying out in the next few years.

All to play for: can the World Cup save Haiti? Fri 2nd On 2nd September, the Haiti national football team began their 2014 World Cup qualification campaign 18 months after an earthquake destroyed much of their country’s capital city. James Montague discovers a nation and its president desperate for a rare piece of good news

I

t was inevitable that the heavens would open and rain on Haiti’s parade. Dark clouds had swirled, rumbled and flashed portentously around Port-auPrince, its shattered capital, for three days without delivering the promised rain to take the sting out of the brutal summer heat. But it arrives, two hours before kick-off, as 10,000 Haitians try to crush through the one door into the Sylvio Cator stadium. A police blockade had been thrown around the stadium, such was the fear that Haiti’s fragile civil truce would be blown apart by the Haitian national team’s first qualifying match for the 2014 World Cup against the minnows from the US Virgin Islands. The stadium itself had become a slum for hundreds of families, just one of the hellish tented cities built on any scrap of open space left by the

earthquake that devastated Port-auPrince in January 2010. The families had now been moved on, their presence erased with a lick of paint and a new artificial pitch laid a few days before, with a rumoured pay-off from the government as compensation. They joined the swollen numbers in the torn ribbon of blue tents that surround the stadium on all sides. Inside the stadium, Creole rap music is being played at ear-splitting level. The smell is of fresh paint, burning refuse and excrement from the open sewers nearby. The crowd pushes forward in the hope of getting in; the police use shields and clubs to beat them back. It’s chaos, but such is the passion for football in Haiti, that a match pitting Les Grenadiers against a tiny team like the US Virgin Islands brings the country to a standstill.

“This is the country’s first home game since as many as 300,000 people were killed by a massive 7.0 magnitude earthquake”

Ramon Espinosa/AP/Press Association Images

Sep


Sep Sat 10th

Emergency plans to vaccinate the Queen’s swans are announced by royal officials in the UK after a lethal outbreak of avian disease. Officials say they plan to provide the birds with flu jabs after 115 swan deaths were reported in the area surrounding Windsor Castle.

The butterfly effect Tue 13th

How a World War I munitions crisis helped lead to a potential solution to climate change...

Words: Rob Orchard. Illustration: Christian Tate

l 1915

Britain is blockaded by German submarines and cannot import sufficient supplies of acetone to create the cordite for the high explosives it needs for the war effort. At the request of Minister of Munitions David Lloyd George, Chaim Weizmann, a Russian-born chemist and the leading spokesman for Zionism in Britain, creates a process for artificially producing acetone from maize starch. It is used to create a steady supply of acetone at six former whisky factories requisitioned by the Admiralty. British production of high explosives grows exponentially: Lloyd George is highly grateful to Weizmann.

Sun 11th

A Facebook campaign is launched by homosexual Iranians to highlight the government’s discrimination against gay and lesbian people in the country. Hundreds of Iranians join the “We are everywhere” Facebook page which asks members to share their stories online, showing defiance against the regime that punishes homosexuality with death.

Sources: ‘The Atlantic’ by Simon Winchester; Yeda Research and Development Company; Weizmann Institute of Science; Greenearth Energy; The Guardian; The Royal Society of Chemistry; BBC Radio 4; www. h2g2.com.

At New York Fashion Week a

catwalk show by the daughter of Uzbek’s president Islam Karimov is cancelled. Organisers of the event

came under pressure to ban Gulnara Karimova’s label Guli after protests from human rights groups who accuse the Uzbek dictator of using torture.

After protests outside the building turn violent, staff are airlifted from the Israeli embassy in the Egyptian capital, Cairo. The anti-Israeli attackers, angry over the killing of five Egyptian soldiers by Israeli forces in August, break down the exterior security wall, forcing 86 staff and family members to flee. Mon12th

6th Dec 1916 David Lloyd George becomes Prime Minister.

m

At least 75 people are killed after

a fire breaks out in a densely populated Kenyan slum. The blaze,

caused by an explosion in an oil pipeline after a man threw away a cigarette butt, leaves 112 people injured in the Sinai district. British actor David Walliams completes a 140-mile swim along the River Thames. The 40-yearold raised over £1 million for charity during his eight-day marathon, which he completed despite suffering from sickness described as “Thames tummy”.

g

1917

Maize supplies run short and Weizmann adapts his process to use conkers. The schoolchildren of Britain collect millions of conkers for the war effort, which are sent to be processed into acetone.


f 30th Jun 2011

CO2

CO2

CO2

CO2

H2O

2015+

Greenearth Energy, an Australian renewable energy company, signs an exclusive worldwide research and licence agreement with the Weizmann Institute’s commercial arm, Yeda, to use and develop their CO2-to-fuel technology.

h 2nd Nov 1917

After negotiations with Weizmann, and encouragement from Lloyd George, Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour sends a declaration to the Zionist Federation of Great Britain and Ireland favouring “the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people”.

f 24th Jul, 1922

The Mandate for Palestine, formalised at the League of Nations, states that the British should put the Balfour Declaration into effect. After the Mandate, Weizmann spends the rest of the 1920s and 1930s promoting the cause of Israel and fundraising with luminaries including Albert Einstein.

Medinat Yisrael

ED

GR

g

17th Feb 1949

Chaim Weizmann becomes Israel’s first president. In April he visits the US raising $23 million for Israel and the Daniel Sieff Research Institute, which he had founded in Rehovot in 1934. It is renamed the Weizmann Institute of Science in his honour.

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tio ra de in Fe rita t is B on at d Zi re lan G e of Ir d n a

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WEIZMANN INSTITUTE

j 13th Sep 2011

Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard introduces a package of 18 bills which will force 500 companies with big CO2 emissions to start paying a carbon tax as of July 2012: an emissions trading scheme will then begin as of 2015. The bills go on to be passed, giving a gigantic boost to the prospects of Greenearth Energy’s CO2-to-fuel ambitions to turn greenhouse gases into the fuel of the future.

PR

The Weizmann Institute becomes a major international research centre. Among countless other inventions, its scientists and technicians create Israel’s first computer, the WEIZAC; Copaxone, a drug for treating MS; and sniff-controlled wheelchairs for patients with ‘locked in’ syndrome. In 2005 a Weizmann Institute team demonstrates a way to use concentrated solar power to break CO2 into carbon monoxide and oxygen and water into hydrogen and oxygen. The mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, known as ‘Syngas’ can then be used as a fuel.

CO2

AP

PA

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1949-2005

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h1948

Weizmann meets with President Truman of the United States to discuss the importance of creating a Jewish state. The State of Israel is proclaimed on 14th May – 11 minutes after the declaration, the new state is recognised by the US.


the english riots imran khan on pakistan after bin laden rock 'n' roll vs the iron curtain saddam hussein, cinephile lucian freud by sue tilley, benefits supervisor how to leave a currency union Every news story that mattered And a huge amount more

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