Page 1

ALTAMA COMMUNITY TRANSFORMATION Brunswick, Georgia

University of Georgia College of Environmental Design Daniel DeLaigle Jason Ernest Cassie Nichols


ALTAMA COMMUNITY TRANSFORMATION Table of Contents

Intoduction

Transit

Green Infrastructure

Character of Place

Next Steps

Background

Phase 1

Project Map

page 3

page 4

page 5

Inventory

Analysis

Design

page 9

page 13

page 15

Inventory

Analysis

Design

page 25

page 27

page 29

Inventory

Analysis

Design

page 41

page 45

page 47

Next Steps

Sources

Conclusion

page 61

page 65

page 66


ALTAMA COMMUNITY TRANSFORMATION Introduction


Introduction | Project Background

While the design plan will be specific to this corridor and its surroundings, the stakeholder engagement and resulting design concepts will be developed and used in a way that they can be transferred to the remainder of the district as appropriate. Atlantic Ocean Glynn County Brunswick, Georgia

Brunswick, Georgia

A 1,600-acre property along the Altama Avenue in Brunswick, Georgia has been identified by the Archway Growth Task Force as a community ripe for revitalization. The Altama Community Transformation (ACT) District is home to the main campuses for the College of Coastal Georgia and the Southeast Georgia Health System, the site for the new Brunswick High School, and many other residential, commercial, institutional land uses. The prospects of future population growth the expansion plans of the College of Coastal Georgia, Southeast Georgia Health System, and Glynn County Board of Education, as well as the interests of business and property owners for a vibrant, thriving community underpin the need to revitalize ACT..

The ACT district contains a number of character areas, and each subsequent phase will develop design plans specific to the character of that subarea while aligning with the basic design concepts and elements developed in Phase 1 so as to provide an integrated and well-designed plan for the larger Altama Community Transformation District.

1 The Brunswick-Glynn County Archway Partnership was established July 1, 2008, to bring community leaders and citizens together to discuss high priority community needs. The City of Brunswick, Glynn County Board of Commissioners, Glynn County Board of Education, Brunswick-Golden Isles Chamber of Commerce, Brunswick-Glynn Development Authority, Southeast Georgia Health System, and College of Coastal Georgia, as well as citizen groups, business interests, and non-profit organizations, are all represented at the Archway discussion table. 2 Public Service and Outreach is central to the University of Georgia’s land- and sea-grant mission. For over 80 years, PSO has spearheaded the University’s efforts to use its resources to improve the quality of life in Georgia. Eight units provide services through PSO: Archway Partnership, Carl Vinson Institute of Government, Fanning Institute, Georgia Center for Continuing Education, Marine Extension, Office of Service Learning, Small Business Development Center, and State Botanical Garden. With more than 500 faculty and staff, and by actively involving faculty and students from all of UGA’s 16 colleges and schools, UGA PSO is a national leader in university outreach.

page 3 Introduction | Project Background


Introduction | The ACT District - Phase 1 PROJECT PURPOSE AND FOCUS The purpose of the Phase 1 project is to assist a diverse committee of stakeholders (Growth Task Force members and ACT District stakeholders) as they create a design for the Altama Avenue corridor as well as an implementation plan outlining the strategies and actions necessary to fulfill the design. This design will be created so that key design elements will be transferable to the remainder of ACT in future phases. PROJECT AREA This Phase 1 proposal will take into account the ACT District as a whole, but the primary project area is the Altama Avenue right-of-way corridor from the intersection of Cypress Mill Road/Hwy 303 to the north to the intersection of Parkwood Drive to the south. To develop design elements that can be transferable to the remainder of the district in subsequent phases, Phase 1 will also include planning and design for the diverse areas along and adjacent to the Altama Avenue right-of-way. The project area thus includes the three sub-area planning nodes(Commercial, Educational, and Residential/Instiutional) for study and design that will make the design work more manageable and enable the design team to focus on the specific needs of the ACT District’s diverse areas. A University of Georgia student team from the College of Environmental Design will focus on: -Streetscape improvements that will include street tree design, pedestrian lighting, creating a sense of entry, way finding signage, sidewalk improvements and better pedestrian crossings. -Right of Way redesign focusing on pedestrian and bicycle accessibility and safety. -Green infrastructure implementation and improvements with emphasis on storm water management and creating a greenway master plan. -Architectural concepts including infill design with examples of possible materials, styles, and facades, as well as parking improvements.

University of Georgia | Public Service and Outreach


Introduction | The ACT District - Phase 1 Dr

Shell

CYPRESS RUN rban

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Dr

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Dr

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CYPRESS MILL GARDENS

Rd

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SUBURBAN ESTATES

Dr

BEVERLY SHORES

Leeswo od Cir

cle Cir

WINTER CHASE APTS

Cart eret Rd

Key

Key Dr

TRANSVILLA MHP

CRYSTAL LAKE

North

park Dr

COLLEGE PARK

Rd

AZALEA GARDENS

SHERWOOD

Marsh Dr

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Cypress Mill Square

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OLD DEMERE HAMMOCK

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Dixie Blv d

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Tara Ln

MAGNOLIA PARK

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ISLAND VIEW

Old Tra

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LAKESIDE

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Altam a

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BRUNSWICK POINT Darien Hwy

LAKEVIEW HIGHLAND MANOR

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Schools Intersection

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Brunswick High School

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Glynn Plaza

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Dr

TWIN LAKES

LAKEWOOD

Island

Dr Rose

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AZALEA GARDENS

ar Dr

Commercial Redevelopment Pine

Park Dr

Palam

Palmera Ln

College

Bass St

DEMERE HAMMOCK

Colso

Pike St

n St

St Cate

College of Coastal Georgia St Blain

Fire Station 3

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Com

St

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St

Dr

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TALL PINES

Av

Park

St

Av

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n Av Glyn

Av

Av

Dogwood

Wisteria Av

RIVERSIDE

WILDWOOD Wildwood Dr

Crandall

NORTHSIDE ESTATES

r

Wren St

Willet St

Dr Riverside

Sherwood Dr

St

OAK PARK

Goodyear Elementary School

St

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Southeast Georgia Health System Brunswick Campus

St

Rd

Cleb

John

Dr

Redondo Rd

Heron St

Boxwood

PALMETTO TRAILER PARK

GLAUDE

Norman

St ling

Parkwood

MARSHVIEW CONDOS

EASTVIEW Rosewood

Willow Av

Lakeside

y Av

Wesle

St

Goodyear Park

Egret St

Seco

Dr

ble Av

Kem

g St

Starlin

St

Myrtle Av

ll Av

urne

in Av

St

nd St

St

LAKE FOREST

GOODYEAR PARK

Star

St Pine

St

Jeky

in Av

Cleb

ow St Bart

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Third

AYERS

BAKER Redwood

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Residential/ Institutional

WASHINGTON HEIGHTS

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LAWRENCEVILLE

REDWOOD

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Orio le St

n St

Lee

ord Av Brailsf

Gordo

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Fo

Third

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St urth

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St

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BONNIE DAY

CARVER HEIGHTS

n Rd

s Av

Fifth

g Pl

ough Burr

St

Robi

n St

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hi Was

Fifth Sixth

WASHINGTON SQUARE

Starlin

St

UNION TOWN

Roxboro

St ston

Sixth

Rd

John

Av

Residential

r

ry D

Cana

Shrine

m Branha

Wylly Av

ran Av

Coch

ck St

BRUNSWICK VILLA

Wisteria Av

Whitlo

end

ns Tow

Bream St

Trout St

in St

Dolph

CALVARY

dman Dr

Rd Mimosa

Player St

n St

HOMESITE

MONTPELIER

Springdal

St Hunter

King

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vd

Jr Bl ow St Bart

Lee

St

Ellis St

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rst St Amhe

St

et Ln

ACT District boundary TOWN COMMONS ACT - Phase 1 Wolfe

re ich St

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Norw

Stre

St

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John

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Av

Carrie St

Hopkins

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Lincoln Park

NEW TOWN

MONTPELIER

Mar

Norw

ACT District: Altama Avenue Corridor

e Rd

Rd

Kaiser Av Evergreen

Risley Early College Academy (Future)

Hill Pl

Harold J Frie

rst St

Amhe

CHERRY PLAZA RISLEY PARK LINCOLN PARK

Maple Rd

Kaufma

St

First

500

PERRY PARK

1,000 Feet Alba

St

ny St

Union

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War de St

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St

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Lee

Gordo

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St

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Data source: Glynn County GIS Department Fanning Institute, University of Georgia, 2011

page 5 Introduction | The ACT District - Phase 1

Warde Ln

MARITIME

L.D. ROBERTS


ALTAMA COMMUNITY TRANSFORMATION Transit


Transit | Inventory Understanding existing circulation patterns is an important part of the site survey and will aid in understanding connectivity in the ACT district. An inventory of the circulation system of the ACT district area begins with research. This includes a photographic inventory of existing transit conditions and infrastructure, a recent (March 2010) traffic study which assessed existing and future traffic conditions on Altama Avenue, and GIS spatial data provided by Glynn County GIS department and the City of Brunswick planning department. These resources were used in conjunction with comments delivered at the ACT design committee meetings to gather a comprehensive inventory of vehicle, pedestrian and bicycle movement along the corridor.

1

4

5

3) typical street light 4) lack of shade along sidewalk

5) pedestrian controlled signalized intersection

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7

9

10

6) no defined area for cyclist 7) lack of safety for cyclist on Altama Ave. 8) painted crosswalk at major intersection

11

9) native species of shade tree along Altama Ave. 10) ADA compliant pedestrian crossing 11) typical string mounted traffic signals 12) crossing without ADA compliance

Transit | Inventory

1) bicyclist crossing Community Road 2) ROW without pedestrian facilities

8

page 9

3

2

1

12


Pedestrian Transit Network The image to the right shows existing sidewalks in the corridor and provides an important reference for understanding pedestrian movement in the area.

= sidewalks

Vehicular Transit Network The image to the left indicates traffic volume and movement in the corridor and also provides vital information for understanding transit opportunities and constraints in the corridor. The relative size of the line is indicative of the volume of traffic experienced on the road

= Private road = Residential collector = Major Artery

University of Georgia | Public Service and Outreach


Transit | Inventory

This image indicates the location of sidewalks along the Altama Corridor as well those intersections that lack ADA ramps that are important because they allow disabled individuals to travel safely along sidewalks.

Legend no ADA ramp sidewalk

page 11

Transit | Inventory


Transit | Altama Ave Exisiting Right-of-Way

3’

12’

12’

12’

14’

12’

12’

12’

3’

The Right-of -Way(ROW) is that area of land used for a road and the area along the side of the roadway. It is also a thoroughfare or path established for public use. This includes the vehicular travel lanes, the median and the sidewalks. The image above illustrates how the Altama Avenue ROW is currently configured with four 12’ vehicle travel lanes, a 14’ wide median, and in some areas, an additional 12’ wide lane on either side.The ROW also includes the sidewalk, which is 3’ wide with a grass strip of various widths

University of Georgia | Public Service and Outreach


Transit | Analysis With the data collected in the inventory, opportunities and constraints for improvement were identified. This analysis is the basis for the designs presented later in this chapter. Lack of accessible ramps prohibit safe crossings at select Intersections on the Altama corridor, these however may be converted to enhance mobility, safety and visual appeal.

An extra lane along parts of Altama with inconsistent marking, causes confusion, but provides good opportunity for expanding pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure.

The lack of bike lanes creates chaotic and dangerous movement in the corridor. With some simple interventions this situation can be greatly improved.

The presence of some user controlled, signalized intersections that are clearly marked provides a good base of pedestrian infrastructure to build upon.

page 13

Transit | Analysis


Transit | Analysis Pedestrian Transit Network

With a good stock of existing sidewalks, the extension of the sidewalk from 4th street to the College of Costal Georgia would improve pedestrian circulation. The existing sidewalk requires more regular maintenance but provides a great opportunity to improve overall connectivity in the ACT.

= existing sidewalks = new sidewalks

Vehicular Transit Network Private roads could become valuable thoroughfares for infill designs in the commercial node and could improve connectivity in the educational node. = private roads

University of Georgia | Public Service and Outreach


Transit | Altama Ave Configurations Right of Way Configuration A Altama can be restriped to include a 5 foot bike lane with a 6 foot on-street buffer. This simple design is safe, inexpensive and effective. The inclusion of site furnishings along the corridor such as bike racks and street trees further support pedestrian and bicycle travel.

5’

BIke Lane Buffer Designated Bike Lane

page 15

Transit | Altama Ave Configurations

6’

12’

12’

14’

12’

12’

6’

5’


Right of Way Configuration B This image shows Altama Ave with a 5 foot bike lane separated and protected from vehicular traffic by a 2 foot curb. This redesign includes sidewalks widened and improved with street trees and other site furnishings such as benches and bike racks. Trees in the median enhance the visual character of the corridor and serve to calm traffic and lower ambient temperatures. 13’

6’

12’ 14’

12’

14’

12’

12’

14’

14’

14’

14’

6’

University of Georgia | Public Service and Outreach

13’


Right of Way Configuration C In this configuration the median is expanded to 36 feet and includes a central multi-use path with native plantings, benches, pedestrian scale lighting, water fountains and trash bins, transforming the center median into a linear park connecting the corridor in a unified and visually appealing package. This configuration can also easily accommodate bus stops, a trolley car, LRT(light rail) or BRT(bus rapid transit).

10’

12’

12’

22’ 36’

22’ wide Multi-Use Path

page 17

Transit | Altama Ave Configurations

12’

12’

10’


Transit | Pedestrian Crossing

This image depicts a typical mid-block crossing. This type of crossing can be used in any of the suggested right of way options

The aerial view illustrates important features such as lighting, signals, and contrasting paving material

This image shows a T-intersection, similar to the one in front of the high school with cross walks and bus stops.

University of Georgia | Public Service and Outreach


Altama Ave

Community Road

page 19

Transit | Intersection Safety

street tree buffer bike path sidewalk

12’ travel lane

12’ travel lane

planted median

12’ travel lane

This image depicts how the intersection of Community Road at Altama Ave could look with bike lanes and improved pedestrian facilities.

12’ travel lane

The built environment is a complex array of infrastructure. The design of the transportation infrastructure is an important determinant of site planning decisions. The existing ROW can be reconfigured in several different ways to provide alternative transportation facilities, improve access management to nearby businesses and improve visual character.

sidewalk bike path street tree buffer

Transit | Intersection Safety


This image is an enlargement of the southeast corner of Altama Ave at Community Road, as it could looked redesigned according to ROW configuration B. This image illustrates how pedestrian and bike facilities could be improved for safety, including better pavement marking, curbs separating vehicular, bike, and pedestrian traffic, and a small “bump out� curb to reduce dangerous interaction between cars, bikes and pedestrians.

Clearly marked pedestrian crosswalk

Community Road

Bump Out

ADA access ramp

Altama Ave

Clearly marked bike lane

University of Georgia | Public Service and Outreach


Transit | Altama Ave Streetscape This image depicts the streetscape of right of way option A, with shade trees and bike racks.

This image depicts the streetscape of right of way option B with a protected bike lane and benches.

This image depicts the streetscape of right of way option C, with the median converted to a linear park.

page 21

Transit | Altama Ave Streetscapes


Transit | Bus Stops

The image above shows a typical bus stop with amenties such as trash bins, bike racks, signage and a shelter.

The image above illustrates the bus stops located at a T-intersection, such as the entrance to the College of Coastal Georgia.

University of Georgia | Public Service and Outreach


ALTAMA COMMUNITY TRANSFORMATION Green Infrastructure


Green Infrastructure | Inventory Green Infrastructure includes strategically planned infrastructure that helps reduce human impact on local and regional ecosystems. This can include utilizing natural and man made systems. Examples of green infrastructure are: green roofs, vegetated bioswales, street trees, permeable paving systems and rain water harvesting cisterns. A photographic site inventory was used to asses the potential incorporation of green infrastructure within the ACT District. The site inventory primarily focuses on the amount and types of vegetation planted throughout the corridor and the existing storm water management systems. The combination of the photographic inventory, GIS data from Glynn County and the comments and suggestions from the ACT community design committee meetings provide a complete overview for the inventory. The information gathered from the inventory allows for a comprehensive, thorough analysis of the site’s infrastructure and possible solutions. Together, the inventory and analysis are used to begin the design process and discover possibilities for incorporating economically feasible and environmentally friendly suggestions for green infrastructure in the ACT District.

1.

2.

1. Bioswale on CCGA Campus 2. Prefered parking at CCGA 3. Signage at park 4. Lack of sidewalk in neighborhoods

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

9.

10.

5. New trees in plaza 6. Tree canopy at CCGA 1b) 7. Hospital benches 8. Hospital plantings 9. Liter control on 4th Street

page 25 Green Infrastructure | Inventory page 3 Green Infrastructure- Inventory

8.

11.

10. Right of way on 4th Street 11. Exisiting storm water management swale 12. Dead end near Paula Park

12.


Green Infrastructure | Inventory Hydrology Below is a map of the existing hydrology of the ACT District. This map includes lakes, ponds, streams, wetlands and storm water canals. By identifying the existing locations of hydrology within the site, we begin to better understand the drainage of the site. The highest point within the district is 21 feet above sea level and the lowest point of the site is 2 feet below sea level. Within the site, the elevation ranges mostly from 12 to 16 feet above sea level, showing that the site is mostly flat.

14 HP 21.0’

Vegetation

16 LP -2’ 16 14

The map above show cases the existing tree canopy withint he ACT nodes. Southern half of the site has dense tree canopy coverage; however, the northern portion, the commerical district, shows almost no tree coverage. Also, the corridor of Altama Avenue shows a lack of vegetative cover.

16 LEGEND HP - High Point LP - Low Point - Spot Elevation LP -2’

University of Georgia | Public Service and Outreach


Green Infrastructure | Analysis With the data collected in the inventory opportunities and constraints for improvement were identified. This analysis is the basis for the designs presented later in this chapter.

Opportunities exist throughout the ACT District to use utility easements to support a greenway network.

1a)

This drainage easement through the neighborhood is an opportunity for greenway connections.

1b)

The existing greenspaces throughout the park provide many opportunities to incorporate important points of interest along a connected greenway system.

Amentities like this baseball field at Paula Park are available to limited users due to their location and lack of pedestrian connectivity.

page 27 Green Infrastructure | Analysis page 3 Green Infrastructure- Inventory


Green Infrastructure | Analysis Commercial Node

Hydrology Understanding the location of existing large storm water right of ways allows for the evaluating the best locations for greenways and bioswales throughout the site.

14 Vegetation

HP- 21’

16 LP -2’ 16 14

16

LP -2’

The commercial node of the corridor is lacking in vegetation. This area would be most postively impacted by the installation of street trees, bioswales, rain gardens and planting beds. Large shade trees, in particular, make it more comfortable for pedestrians to circulate throughout the corridor. Including vegetation throughout the entirety of the site helps provide habitat for wildlife and at the same time, reduces the heat island affect. LEGEND HP - High Point LP - Low Point - Spot Elevation

University of Georgia | Public Service and Outreach


Green Infrastructure | Greenway Network A greenway is a corridor or path that connects greenspaces like city parks or natural forests in order to create a protected area for wildlife and human recreation. Greenways often follow natural water ways, like streams, or man made paths like abandoned railroads.

Connection to Coastal GA Greenway To Savannah

To St. Simons

I-95

US 17 To Jekyll The Brunswick Greenway will connect to the Coastal Georgia Greenway Trail which is intended to connect six contiguous coastal Georgia counties with a continuous green corridor for joggers, bicyclists and nature enthusiasts. The Coastal Georgia Greenway is estimated to attract nearly a quarter of a million visitors by 2020, generating revenue for local businesses and creating jobs for construction and maintenance. The Coastal Georgia Greenway will become part of the East Coast Greenway, eventually running from Florida to Maine.

Legend Cypress Mill Trail Head Neighborhood Trail 4th Street Trail Paula Park Trail Head CCGA Trail Coastal GA Greenway Primary Collector Paths Secondary Local Paths Tertiary Local Paths ACT District ACT - Phase 1 Points of Interest

page 29

Brunswick Greenway Master Plan

Glynn Plaza

Cypress Mill Mall

High School College

Paula Park

Hospital

Green Infrastructure University |ofGreenway Georgia * Network Public Service and Outreach * Athens, Georgia 30601


Trail Head Entrance The silhouette to the right shows a typical section of an entrance to a primary local path within the Brunswick Greenway. Primary local paths should range from 12-16 feet in width, allowing room for multiple pedestrians and bikers to utilize the trail. On each side, the trail is lined with at least 5 foot wide native planting bed or vegetated bioswales.

The image to the right shows a conceptual visualization of the trail head behind the Cypress Mill Mall. The buildings in the background show the proposed infill, creating an inviting downtown feel. The trail is easily accessible from the shops and restaurants and provides visitors of the trail plenty of dining and retail options.

An over head trail entrance sign creates a sense of entry.

1b)

University of Georgia | Public Service and Outreach


Green Infrastructure | Greenway Network Secondary Local Path The silhouette to the right shows a typical section of a secondary local path within the Brunswick Greenway. Secondary local paths should range from 10-12 feet in width, allowing room for pedestrians and bikers to simultaneously access the trail. A bioswale with native coastal plantings borders the path, providing habitat for wildlife and shade and visual interest for trail users.

The image to the right shows conceptual visualization of 4th Street near the secondary entrance to College of Coastal Georgia. The path would safely and comfortably connect students and the neighborhood with the businesses along the Altama Corridor. The blue arrows highlight a storm drain that allows runoff water from the street to move under the sidewalk, flowing into the bioswale. The water then slowly infiltrates into the soil, lessening the impact of stormwater on the local sewer system, cleansing the water and recharging local aquifers.

page 31

Green Infastructure | Greenway Network

1a)

Below: Pedestrian and vehicular scale lighting fixtures. The light should be focused down; light reflected into the night sky causes unnecessary light pollution and disrupts nocturnal creatures’ activity.


Tertiary Local Path

The silhouette on the right shows a typical section of a tertiary local path, the narrowest trail, that primarily runs through neighborhoods, and to the Brunswick Greenway. Tertiary local paths should range from 6-8 feet in width, allowing room for mostly pedestrians to access the trail. A narrow strip of grass acts as a visual buffer from the street, making visitors feel safer. This image shows a conceptual visualization of a tertiary path that follows the stormwater easement between Blain Street and Colson Street. The Brunswick Greenway trail could turn this unused piece of land into a neighborhood amenity.

1a)

Provide plenty of seating along the trail

Include pedestrian scale signage to create a sense of place along the greenway

Storm drains allows water to flow directly into the bioswale and slowly infiltrate into the soil

1b)

University of Georgia | Public Service and Outreach


Green Infrastructure | Greenway Network A greenway trail head entrance sign allows park visitors know they are entering the Brunswick Greenway.

The eixisting stormwater easement is converted into an attractive, wildlife-friendly bioswale. A bridge provides the neighborhood residents with access to the park.

page 33

Green Infrastructure | Inventory

Maintain and reuse existing strucutres for concession stand and dugout.

Site features like benches and lighting provide park users with a comfortable, safe and inviting environment, while creating a unique identity for the park.

A shaded family picnic area provides a cool place for park visitors or residents of the neighborhood to relax and watch the game.


Green Infrastructure | Bioswale A prepared mixture of sand, rocks and native soils in the bed of the bioswale allows for maximum infiltration of stormwater runoff.

Storm drain cuts along streets allow water to be piped into the bioswale and slowly infiltrate into the soil. The slow infiltration process helps clean the storm water while it gradually seeps into the soil and recharges underlying aquifiers.

Porous or permeable paving also permits water to slowly infiltrate into the soil. Using porous concrete along for sidewalks can help reduce the pressure of local stormwater systems, and in the long run can save municipalities money. An under drain prevents the bioswale from flooding in rare heavy rain storms. The perforated drain is connected to the local storm water system.

University of Georgia | Public Service and Outreach


Green Infrastructure | Bioswale in Cypress Mill Mall Parking Lot The map below shows the addition of proposed street trees within the commerical node of the ACT District

Existing Conditions

Improved Conditions Storm drain cuts along the curb allow water to enter the bioswale page 35

Green Infrastructure | Inventory


Native Plants to Consider

When choosing plants it is important to consider many factors including, the local climate, light requirements, soil types, heat tolerability, and moisture. The following list includes plants that are suited for Brunswick’s hot coastal climate. Although these plants are native to the Georgia coast, plants must be selected for the specific location. By carefully selecting native plants that thrive in the conditions of this south Georgia region, plantings will require less maintenance and attract native wildlife while creating an attractive coastal landscape. Texture is another important element to consider. Selecting plants with contrasting textures creates an interesting component in the landscape. The following plants have been selected from a comprehensive list from the University of Georgia Marine Extension Service at www.marex.uga.edu.

Botanical Name

Common Name Trees

Acer rubrun Amelanchier arborea Betula nigra Cercis canadensis Chioanthus virginicus Cyrilla racemiflora Hamamelis virginiana Ilex opaca Juniperus virginiana Liquidambar styracilua Liriodendron tulipifera Magnolia virginiana Nyssa sylvatica

Red Maple Common Serviceberry River Birch Eastern Redbud White Fringe Tree Swamp Titi American Witchhazel American Holly Eastern Red Cedar Sweetgum Tuliptree Sweetbay Magnolia Blackgum Shrubs

Aesculus pavia Aesculus parviflora Callicarpa americana Calycanthus floridus Clethra alnifolia 1a) Cornus florida Hydrangea quercifolia Ilex glabra Ilex vomitoria Illicium floridanum Morella cerifera Rhododendron viscosum Rosa palustris Sabal minor

Red Buckeye Bottlebrush Buckeye American Beautyberry Eastern Sweetshrub Summersweet Clethra Flowering Dogwood Oakleaf Hydrangaea Inkberry Yaupon Holly Florida Anisetree Wax Myrtle Swamp Azalea Swamp Rose Dwarf Palmetto Vines

Bignonia capreolata Lonicera sempervirens 1b) Wisteria frutescens

Andropogon gerardii Andropogon virginicus Chasmanthium latifolium Juncus spp. Muhlenbergia capillaris Muhlenbergia filipes Panicum virgatum Schizachyrium scoparium Spartina bakeri

Crossvine Trumpet Honeysuckle American Wisteria Ornamental Grasses Big Bluestem Broomsedge Bluestem Inland Sea Oats Common Rush Hairawn Muhly Gulf Hairawn Muhly Panic Grass Little Bluestem Sand Cordgrass

Athyrium filix-femina ssp. Asplendoides Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Woodwardia areolata

Asclepias tuberosa Baptisia alba Canna flaccida Coreopsis gladiata Coreopsis verticillata Echinacea purpurea Eupatorium pupureum Iris fulva Iris virginica Lysimachia lanceolata Rudbeckia fulgida Solidago sempervirens

Ferns Asplenium Ladyfern Eastern Marsh Fern Netted Chainfern

Perennials Butterfly Milkweed White False Indigo Bandanna of the Everglades Coastal Plain Tickseed Whorled Tickseed Eastern Purple Coneflower Joe Pye Weed Copper Iris Virginia Iris Lanceleaf Loosestrife Orange Coneflower Seaside Goldenrod

University of Georgia | Public Servce and Outreach


Green Infastructure | Definitions Aquifer- the underground layer of water-soaked sand and rock that acts as a water source for a well Bioswale- landscape elements designed to remove silt and pollution from surface runoff water. They consist of a swaled drainage course with gently sloped sides (less than six percent) and filled with vegetation, compost and/or riprap. The water's flow path, along with the wide and shallow ditch, is designed to maximize the time water spends in the swale, which aids the trapping of pollutants and silt. Depending upon the geometry of land available, a bioswale may have a meandering or almost straight channel alignment. Biological factors also contribute to the breakdown of certain pollutants. Green Roofs- a green roof is a conventional roof covered with a layer of vegetation, also known as “living roofs�. Green roofs serve several purposes for a building, such as absorbing rainwater, providing 1a) insulation, creating a wildlife habitat and helping to lower urban air temperatures and combat the urban heat island effect. A green roof replaces traditional roofing with a lightweight, living system of soil, compost, and plants. Green roofs help cool cities, manage storm water, clean the air and build habitat. There are two types of green roofs: intensive roofs, which are thicker and can support a wider variety of plants but heavy and require ongoing maintenance, and extensive roofs, which are covered in a light layer of vegetation and are lighter than an intensive green roof. Invasive Plants- An introduced (non-native) plant that disrupts the local ecosystem and is not 1b) checked by climate, grazing, or other natural means. Heat Island Effect- elevated temperatures over an urban area caused by structural and pavement heat fluxes, and pollutant emissions. Vegetation and light colored surfaces can reduce the heat island effect. Infiltration- the process in which surface water seeps into the soil system below. Native Plants- Plants that are native to a specific region or location. Using native plants often requires less maintenance because the plants have evolved for the specific climate to the region. Porous Paving/Permeable Paving- A paving system that allows water to infiltrate through the paving into the soil below. Types of porous or permeable paving consist of porous concrete or open grid unit pavers. Rain Garden- Similar to a bioswale in that both promote infiltration of surface water and reduce runoff. Rain gardens typically contain water in a smaller area for longer periods of time, where as bioswales are usually slightly sloped, forcing the water to flow along the length of the bioswale. Stormwater Runoff- water that is unable to infiltrate into the soil during a rain event. Stormwater runoff increases with the amount of impermeable surfaces, like asphalt and building roofs. In the event of a heavy rain, the amount of stormwater runoff can cause problems like flooding.

page 37 Green Infrastructure | Definitions


ALTAMA COMMUNITY TRANSFORMATION Character of Place


Character | Inventory

The character of a place can be defined by physical, biological, and cultural attributes that make up an area. Historical, legal, aesthetic, and other socially significant attributes are all supporting elements to the character of place. A site visit and photographic inventory of Altama Avenue, specifically the Cypress Mill and Glynn Plaza shopping centers, were vital in understanding current conditions of the area. Understanding cultural features of the area help to give a clearer vision of opportunities and constraints presently found.

2

1

1) existing plants in parking lot 2) unutilized commercial space 3) live oaks in median entering Cypress Mill 4) large asphalt parking lot

3

6

2 4

5

7

5) palm tree growing in asphalt 6) entrance of Cypress Mill 7) retail stores set back from street 8) old sign and drainage ditch behind business

8

9) large abandoned signs on Cypress Mill Road 10) tall overhead lights in parking lot 11) maintained landscaping in front of business 12) picnic table under tree in parking lot

page page

41

Character | Inventory

9

10

11

12


Inventory | Land Use

The above chart depicts current land use in the ACT district. Land use is an important element for determining the suitability of different types of development.

.

University of Georgia | Public Service and Outreach


Character | Inventory

Legend parking lot

curb cut

This map shows where parking is located in the corridor. The majority of the parking is located in the northern commercial area. The College of Coastal Georgia and hospital also have large areas of asphalt parking.

page 43

Character | Inventory

In addition to showing parking the map also indicates where curb cuts are located. This is where traffic turns on or off of Altama Avenue from parking lots or business, not other streets. Like the parking most of these curb cuts are concentrated in the commercial area.


Legend traffic signal caution signal pedestrian crosswalks overhead vehicular lights trash can bench

Here is an inventory of the current site furnishings. These furnishings include, traffic signals, caution signals, pedestrian crosswalks with signals, single and double overhead vehicular lighting, trash cans, and benches. By identifying what site furnishings are currently in place we may begin to understanding how the area is being used and what areas are in need of site furnishings.

University Georgia* |Athens, Public Georgia Service and Outreach University of Georgia * Public Service andof Outreach 30601


Character | Analysis

After the inventory of the site has been completed the next step is to study the information. This analysis will guide decisions made during the design phase and other steps in the project.

Pedestrian safety precautions like crosswalk signals found on Community Road should be added along the corridor to encourage pedestrian traffic.

1a)

The city, county, college, hospital, and businesses all have signs unique to them. A unified wayfindnig signage system can reduce confusion become more appealing.

A mixture of paving textures adds to the richness of the built environment. Examples below are photos of different paving patterns from downtown Brunswick.

Trash cans are only found in the parks along the corridor.

page 45

Character | Analysis


1a)

Large parking lots and continuous building facades can be intimidating to pedestrians. In addition to being set away from sidewalks and the street, there are no trees that provide relief from the heat for foot traffic or for cars parked in this area. A straight building front without variation will have the feel of being long and daunting. This leads to shoppers driving across parking lots instead of walking from store to store like is done in a downtown. Singled colored buildings with little change in height, materials, or fenestrations also discourage shoppers from walking.

University of Georgia | Public Service and Outreach


Character | Infill Development Plan Infill Development phased over four periods will provide opportunities for controlled economical growth, focusing the new development within an existing commercial area.

Cypr

Altam

a Ave

ess M ill Rd

ď ¨ N

Current Conditions Large parking lot with retail set away from street.

Current Conditions

The Cypress Mill Mall is located on the south east corner of Altama Avenue and Cypress Mill Road. This is a high traffic area and Cypress Mill Mall has prime access to the large number of travelers that use Altama Avenue and Cypress Mill Road each day. Infill development is a technique used to take what is already in place and build around it in a way that will revitalize the area and spawn new growth. This phased approach to growth brings about positive change in gradual steps that can be better monitored and managed.

Phase 1 Introduce a defined series of interior streets and locate new buildings along perimeter.

Phase 2 Further infill of buildings between existing and Phase 1 buildings. This creates parking in the interior of the new buildings, keeping it hidden from the street.

page 47

Character | Infill


Commercial Infill On Street Parking

3 Story Parking Deck

Interior Parking Lot

Mill Rd

Altam a

Ave

Cypress

Phase 3 New retail opportunities are created in the existing buildings and connections are made from the front to the rear by creating new streets that link the entire site.

N

Proposed Infill Development Street Trees

Residential Infill

Existing Retail Commercial Infill

The plan shows what the site would look like after all phases have been completed. The addition of on-street parking will help to control traffic speeds and will allow shoppers to park near the desired shops. Street trees provide shade and help to beautify the area. Having store fronts on all of the streets engaes pedestrains and encourages shoppers to walk and remain in the area. Cypress Mill Mall has the potential to be a wonderful shopping district.

Phase 4 In the final phase, additional retail space is added along with residential apartments.

Shown is a renovated facade on the existing buildings that gives it more of an “in town” feel. Variations in height and materials of the buildings further add to the character of the area. Having awnings, window sizes, and colors change from store to store reenforce the feel of shopping in a downtown.

University of Georgia | Public Service and Outreach


Character | Infill Current Conditions

Co

mm

uni

ty R d

Altam a Ave

Walgreens

McDonalds

ď ¨ N

Glynn Plaza is located across Altama Avenue from Cypress Mill Mall. Two strong business, McDonalds and Walgreens, are located on Altama Avenue in front Cypress Mill Mall but patrons of these establishments rarely go beyond them and into the mall area. Because of the existing successful businesses near by and the large expanse of parking lot Glynn Plaza is an ideal location for infill development.

Current Conditions Large parking lot with retail set away from street.

page 49

Character | Infill

Phase 1 New streets are defined, creating store fronts in the existing buildings. New retail is built near the edges.

Phase 2 Two more buildings are added that could be used as office, retail, or a mixture of the two.


Overflow parking in rear to meet peak demands

Store fronts Traffic calming created by new circle street

Proposed Infill Development Plan

Comm

unity R d

a Av e

Office Infill

Altam

Walgreens

Mcdonalds Street Trees Mixed Use Infill On Street Parking

ď ¨

N

The above proposed infill development shows how the completed design would look. Onstreet parking and a traffic circle are used to control the flow and speed of movement as well as add visual appeal. Street trees cool sidewalks for shoppers as the walk from one shop to the next. Like the Cypress Mill Mall infill development plan a phased approach is proposed, allowing for gradual transition from under utilized space to a fully functional retail center. University of Georgia | Public Service and Outreach


Character | Infill CYPRESS MILL MALL TRANSFORMATION

CATEGORIES Site acreage sq. Total building footprint, sq.ft. Total building area, sq. ft. Total retail area, sq. sq.ft. Total office area, sq. ft. Total residen residential, sq ft. Total number of residen residential units Total parking spaces Parking spaces per sq. ft. of retail Parking spaces per sq. ft. of office Parking spaces per un units of residential

BEFORE 18.8 154,105 154,105 154,105 0 0 0 1098 1/140 0 0

AFTER 18.8 255,336 439,058 376,808 43,200 85,500 36 828 1/400 - 1/250 1/450 1.5

1.Total building footprint comprises all building footprints, regardless of use. 2.Total building area comprises all building square footage. Parking decks included. 3.Retail parking figures show 1 space per 400 gross sq.ft. for the first 9600 sq.ft. floor area. 1 space per 250 gross sq.ft. for the area excess of 9600 sq.ft. of total gross floor area. 4.An additional 1 guest space per 15 residential units.

GLYNN PLAZA TRANSFORMATION

CATEGORIES Site acreage sq. Total building footprint, sq.ft. Total building area, sq. ft. sq. Total retail area, sq.ft. Total o office area, sq. ft. residen Total residential, sq ft. residen units Total number of residential Total parking spaces Parking spaces per sq. ft. of retail Parking spaces per sq. ft. of office Parking spaces per units of residential r

BEFORE 11.6 86,040 86,040 86,040 0 0 0 322 1/267 0 0

AFTER 11.6 90,039 181,842 99,186 82,656 85,500 0 281 1/352 1/234 0

1.Total building footprint comprises all building footprints, regardless of use. 2.Total building area comprises all building square footage. Parking decks included. 3.Retail parking figures show 1 space per 400 gross sq.ft. for the first 9600 sq.ft. floor area. 1 space per 250 gross sq.ft. for the area excess of 9600 sq.ft. of total gross floor area.

page 51

Character | Infill


Character | Architectural Examples

The facades of downtown Brunswick shops having varying colors, heights, and ornamentations. The fenestrations change from shop to shop making it a comfortable and pleasant place to walk and shop. These attributes could be mimicked in the facades of the proposed infill development.

The buildings on the campus of The College of Coastal Georgia can influence future infill development with similar proportions and use of stucco materials. Doing this would give the commercial and educational nodes a unified feel and make students more comfortable when traveling off campus.

The style of architecture of condominiums in and around Brunswick could serve as an example for future development. Varying colors and materials coupled with recessed facades make it unimposing to pedestrians.

University of Georgia | Public Service and Outreach


Character | Infill Here is an example of infill along Altama Avenue. Currently a business is set back from the street with parking between the street and business. The addition of buildings in the front will engage the street and make it more pedestrian friendly. The addition of green roofs to existing buildings will help make them more environmental friendly and help reduce the heat island effect. In this proposal, no buildings would be demolished and additional buildings would create more of a downtown feel that is often desired by pedestrians.

extensive green roof

maintain existing building

maintain parking

zero setback

1b)

Altama Ave

street trees

page 53

Character | Infill

new entrance

green screen of trees


Here is an another example of mixed-use infill development along Altama Ave. The new road configuration supports infill opportunities that highlight architecture of civic prominence. On-street parking is incorporated to slow traffic for pedestrians safety. Development is pushed to the sidewalk to engage Altama Ave while supporting density. Community park space along the corridor could host a variety of programs like the Memorial garden shown here.

increase circulation

street trees

new intersections

zero setback

memorial garden

University Georgia* |Athens, Public Georgia Service and Outreach University of Georgia * Public Service andof Outreach 30601


Character | Wayfinding Signage Wayfinding is a unified sign program that informs and visually knits together an area. Successful wayfinding signage allows people to determine where they are, what their destination is and how to get there. Illustrated are three different options for wayfinding signage for the ACT. Each option shows different sizes of signs which would be used at different points in the corridor depending if they were meant to be read by vehicular traffic, pedestrians, or both. Option A is a basic design but is easily readable and has hints that remind you that you are near the coast of Georgia. Option B is more direct in its coastal imagery. The large sign is shaped like a sail boat with the other signs having sail like elements. Option C is designed to have the look and feel of signage you would see in a downtown.

(A)

(B)

e Altama Av

(C) page 55

Character | Wayfinding Signage


Character | Site Furnishings

Adding benches along the corridor is a basic way to make it more pedestrian friendly. Benches give people a place to rest, wait for friends, or relax in the shade.

Large signs provide information for vehicular traffic as well as people walking through the corridor. Placing trash cans throughout the corridor is an easy and efficient way to reduce litter and debris from the ACT.

Emergency call boxes and pedestrian scale lighting located in the area will increase safety and encourage use during the day and night.

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Character | Definitions ADA - Americans with Disabilities Act Facade - any side of a building facing a public way or space and finished accordingly Fenestration - the design and disposition of windows and other exterior openings of a building Green Roof - conventional roof covered with vegetation, also known as “living roofs�. Green roofs serve several purposes for a building, such as absorbing of rainwater, providing insulation, creating a wildlife habitat and helping lower urban air temperatures and combat the urban heat island effect. There are two types of green roofs: intensive roofs, which are thicker and can support a wider variety of plants but heavy and require ongoing maintance, and extensive roofs, which are covered in a light layer of vegetation and are lighter than an intensive green roof. Infill - the planned conversion of empty lots, underused or rundown buildings, and other available space in a densely built up urban and suburban areas for use as sites for commercial buildings and housing, frequently as an alternative to underdevelopment of rural areas. Smart Growth - building urban, suburban and rural communities with housing and transportation choices near jobs, shops and schools

page 57

Character | Definitions


ALTAMA COMMUNITY TRANSFORMATION Next Steps


Next Steps | Street Trees and Native Seeding

Streetscape Tree Farm The planting of large trees shade trees along the Altama Corridor can be an expensive and a laborious process. To mitigate these costs a Streetscape Tree Farm could be initiated. This process would involve the planting of small, inexpensive, and easy to manage hardwood trees in large open, park-like areas. Once the trees reach a certain age, they could relocated to the corridor. The planting of smaller, easier to manage hardwood trees like live oaks, could provide the future of the Altama Corridor with shade and cooler temperatures.

Native Seeding Vegetative swales can be much more than maintained grass. Time, energy, and resources can be saved if the planting in these areas transition to drought resistant native grass mixes. Additionally, mowing heights could be adjusted according the distance to the road or sidewalk. For example, grasses closer to high traffic areas could be shorter in height and cut more often. Conversely, grasses in the bottom of vegetative swales could be cut at higher height and less often. These measures are an effective way to increase stormwater infiltration capabilities and reduce the maintenance costs.

page 61 Next Steps | Street Trees & Native Seeding


Next Steps | Curb Cut Remdiation Excessive curb cuts can be problematic for pedestrian circulation. Curb cuts along Altama Ave pose as four way intersections for pedestrians to maneuver. The patching of curb cuts through design modifications to entries and exits can alleviate the number of curb cuts needed to serve the respective businesses along Altama Ave.

perspective of patched curb cut

existing condition

1a)

curb cut remediation

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Next Steps | Utilizing Greenspace

The greenspaces throughout the Altama Corridor are under utilized, but have great opportunities for communual gatherings and activities. This large concrete pad in Goodyear Park, for example, could host a weekly farmer’s market or community festivals. Events like these would bring together members throughout the neighborhoods, creating a greater sense of community.

Goodyear Park

Before

This space could also be used as a basketball court with the simple installation of two basketball goals. In addtion, painting lines on the pavement could encourage neighborhood kids to play games like four square or hop scotch. These games could stimulate community gatherings, as well as promote healthy outdoor activities. Each of these suggestions are inexpensive, quick solutions to encourage community involvement and build a healthier community. These versatile ideas may be implmented throughout any of the greenspaces within the ACT District. After

page 63 Next Steps | Utilizing Greenspace


Next Steps | ADA Accessibility Many places along the Altama corridor have sidewalks but lack ADA compliant ramps that allow people with disabilities to safely cross intersections. People in wheel chairs or other forms of alternate forms of transportation may have to travel in to the street to cross. This is a danger not only to those crossing but also to drivers. Modifying existing crosswalks to account for disabled people is an easy way to make the corridor safe and accessible to all pedestrians.

Before

After

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Sources | Transit

NYC Bicycle Master Plan, New York City DOT City of Chicago Bike Lane Design Guide, Chicago DOT Guide to Development of Bicycle Faclities, AASHTO 2010 Traffic Impact Analysis for Altama Ave & 4th Street Area, Stantec Consulting Services Inc. LaGro Jr., J. 2008. Site Analysis. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Green Infrastructure

Coastal Georgia Greenway. www.coastalgeorgiagreenway.org. June 2011. Coastal Georgia NEMO Biroetention. http://www.uga.edu/coastalnemo/Documents/Fact%20Sheets/ Bioretention.pdf. June 2011 Coastal Georgia NEMO Rain Gardens. http://www.uga.edu/coastalnemo/Documents/Fact%20sheets/ RainGardens.pdf. June 2011. College of Coastal Georgia Stategic Master Plan Proposed Design Concepts. February 2009. Perkins Eastman. East Coast Greenway. www.greenway.org. June 2011. Prospect Park-Ocean Parkway-Greenway Park. NYC Dept of City Planning. July 2009. Terms and Definitions. www.echowho.com. June 2011 University of Georgia Marine Extension Service CoastScape. Georgia Coastal Plain for Rain Gardens Pages 1-12. June 2011.

Character of Place

Parking Regulations. http://qcode.us/codes/sacramento/view.php?topic=17-iii-17_64-17_64_020 &frames=pn. June 2011. Parking Regulations. http://library2.municode.com/default-now/DOCVIEW/14810/1/10.pdf. June 2011 Sprawl Repair Manual. Tachieve, Galina. Island Press. 2010

page 65 Sources


Conclusion We hope that this document can serve as a guide for future growth for all of Brunswick, not just the Altama Corridor. The techniques and designs are only a few of the many possibilities that could be implemented in the area. Our research, analysis and design is just the beginning of the transformation of the Altama Corridor. We have not done an in depth housing study of the area. Because of this we do not offer any suggestions on where future residential growth should take place or how it should look. As Brunswick and Glynn County grow there will be many challenges that will need to be addressed, we hope that our work will help in overcoming these challenges.

University of Georgia | Public Service and Outreach

Altama Community Transformation  

The Altama Community Transformation report was the effort of three University of Georgia landscape architecture students under the direction...

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