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The University of Melbourne By Dejun Xiang_349329


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CCOONNTTEENN Part A The Case For Innovation W1

1.1.1 Architecture as discourse 1.1.2 Personal Experience & Interests 1.1.3 Previous Studio Work 1.1.4 Two Favorite Architectures


1.2.1 Computers in Architectural Design 1.2.2 Computer Aid Design 1.2.3 Computational Design In Architecture


1.3.1 Parametric Design

Part B Cut project

Part C Gateway Project



3.9.1 So Far


3.10.1 Exploring Form & Unit


3.11.1 Combination & New Idea


3.12.1 Final Design Establishment 3.12.2 Just Watch


3.13.1 Conclusion

2.4.1 Back Looking & Evaluate 2.4.2 Grouping and Interests 2.4.3 CASE STUDY 1.O


2.5.1 CASE STUDY 2.0 2.5.2 CASE STUDY 2.0 (2)


2.6.1 CASE STUDY 2.0 Development 2.6.2 Matrix


2.7.1 EOI Preparation & Model Fabrication


2.8.1 EOI Presentation

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1.1.1 Architecture as discourse

The way of judging the performance of an arhitecture varies with time progressing, with changes of the composition of architects and with the change of the way how people see architectures. Basically, architecture is seen through art, spatial experience and symbolisation. It has been quite common that thinking the seniority of whether an architecture is good or bad is those professors’ exclusive right, other than the public, probably saying they do not understand the intention of architect or the cultural context behind back. The architecture has some nature of art, and that has been accepted by a lot of people including me, before I read this week article, which also made me be hesitive in studying architecture for a while. However, architecture is a kind of gigantic, expensive, heavy production and needs tremendous human and material resource and time to produce, and, it is built for people to live or use for a long period. It need social patronage and there are lots of customers using it. As a product, the experience of customer is an essential

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element in evaluation, and architecture does not only just about facade and outlook, but also about planing the space indoor, which, meanwhile, arranges the way of living and probably people’s luck. Besides, architecture also has to be interracted with surrouding environmental, which will contribute to the city development as well. It means these architectures compose the plan of city, which will , furthermore, establishes social order in some degree, and the architectures that designed and built under that context in the city may become a symble of that period, region or the people living the city, which is the way how architecture speaks as discourse


1.1.2 Personal Experience & Interests I am Dejun Xiang, but I prefer Derek, which is my name in Australia. I am doing Bechelor of Environment in the University of Melbourne majored in Architecture. I come from China, so, with some occasionally cause, FengShui theory pops into my eyes which is a branch of Chinese metaphysices. I am keen on ancient Chinese culture especially metaphysics, which is about how our behaiour and our surroundings affect our living condition. Therefore, I usually pay more attention on how the surrouding environments and the building itself influences people so that it could be more possible to find a way to give people a better living experience. Furthermore, philosopgy is also one of my interests, and I always wonder how to demonstrate those concept into architectucture design.

Digital Design Experience As for the digital design experience of mine, it is not a long story. The first design software is skethup, when I did the visual environment. I just learned how to desigin a physical model by using computer software, so here, as you can see, computer is just a tool in model making. Then, I design a building in the water studio, which actually is a combination of some geometry graphs, by using the Rhino, which is my first time to touch Rhino. I found it much more usefull than the skethup, because it has three views to work, which makes design more essay and efficient and there are more organic surfaces can be built, compared to the sketchup. Also, other assesory software such as illustrato and photoshop has been brought to my design process more or less. Basically, what I found is that those tools I used are, in fact, kinds of tools to hepl me to convert my thoughts to a 2d plan or a physical model. However, the software we are going to study is to change the way of design, so definitly, l am looking forward to studying it.

..., w h i c h i s j u s t t h e

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t i p o f t h e i c e b e r g.


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1.1.3 Previous Studio Work


This is a design of a boathouse from Water Studio, which was located in Yarra Bend park next to the river. The aim of this practice is to study from a master which is Frank Lloyd Wright for my case. Therefore, by following his later design principle, which has more organic and circular shapes, I used three circular shape units with different heights and size, and two of them on the sides made of concrete with glass wall as exterior boundary, and the middle serving core building is covered by glass bassicaly, but supported by

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concrete. Moreover, I also reshape the landscape there. Through building a circle-like road from high spot, where cars goes across under a waterfall, where people can enjoy the views in 360 degree, and people also can walk or go riding to access the building through the entrance on the top floor or from the path on the bottom. This create several circles on the site, which gives the landscape, building, a same architectural language to make them more coherent.


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1.1.4 Two of Favorite Architectures

The Falling Water is one of my favorite architecture, which is designed by Frank Loyd Wright, who is an architect in the period between modernism and classicalism. Therefore, a lot of classical style can be found in his design, which is what I like. He is not only a architect, but also a good landscape designer. Especially in terms of the Falling Water, It really fits the natural environment vary well. In particular, the little river flowing in front of the building , and the surrounding trees interacting with the building make the architecture have a friendly relationship with the envionment, no matther what season it is on. What’s more, the overlapping roof and ground provide more level of spacial experience, and the yellow colour also makes the concrete warmer. The

The Falling Water Journal

tile stone plays a role of tansition between the ground and building, which make it more natral. Overall, I like its locality and how it connects to the surrounding encironment. Standing where a river flowing in front and lush plants will bring people who live in the house good luck.


The Bird’s Nest As Chinese national stadium, Bird’s Nest indeed fully demonstrates the inclusive nature of Chinese culture, harmony generous traditional and eclectic. To bigin with, the concept is very warm. Bird’s nest represents home, hope, and any other object that can make people comfortable. Moreover, it is just designed by a simple nest shape, compact but not dull, which, inversely looks magnificent, and the steel ‘nest skin’ looks extremly dynanmic and morden. Furthermore, the semiopen roof welcomes sunshine, which makes the ‘nest’ more like the one in the nature, and the spetacular scale of this stadium, which is capable of containing about 100,000people, giving people an significantly impressive view, and that can also encourage the sportsman to perform best. I love it not only because it is a landmarker architecture in BeiJing, which conveys peace, warmth,happiness etc, but it also achieves a high level in on matter in the area of art, spacial experience or sybolism

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Chinese National Stadium

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1.2.1 Computers In Architectual Design

In the history of the role played by computer in design field, the computer appears by two main forms, ie. computerized and computational tools. In terms of the former one, it was the first application of computer in design, which acts as a tool that help human to present what in his/ her mind. In another word, it plays a role just like the pen and ruler in the past. Nevertherless, as for the computational use, it actually helps human in the the way how people design rather than acting as a tool. The nature of design process can be divided into two actions which are analysis and creativity, which both are what human is capable of. However, human tends to make mistakes, especially, while analysing complex problem, and the more complex, the more possibilities of making mistakes. This shortage has been made up by computer technology, since last few years, as the computers are superb analytical engines, which means it will run quickly following the program , as long as people tells the computer

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what to do,when meeting what kinds of issue are. Nevertheless, computer does not have the ability of being creative, which has been studies in past decades, but still not make it. Therefore, in terms of design process, human does the creative part, which the computer is not capable of , and computer will help to do all the rational analysises as much as it can. That will form a powerful system, which is changing the way how people design architecture in recent few years.

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1.2.2 Computer Aid Design Effects on various aspects The advance in the technology in computer has a radical influence in a lot of fields. It varies the way how people explore geometry, which means instead of only playing around with the Platonic geometry, which are those convential geometry such as square, circle, trangular etc. the more organic geometry like Euclidean geometry or non-Eclidean geometry like what is named by Grey Lynn as ‘folding’ geometry, which is questioning ‘the existing notion of built space, its aesthetics and utility’ as asserted by Branko (2003: 5). That, in some extent, brings a revolution in design of industry, especially like the design of electric and machanical product, ie. phones, camera, even the outlook of cars, and the changes in the design of ships is significantly influenced by the advances in computer techonology. Moreover, architects also get tremendous inspiration from ship building industral, as there both have lots of subcontractors to produce and assemble a big amount of components. To achieve this kind of complex huge project, constructing according to a three dimensional model and calculating the amount of the material, area, angle of some folding surface are essential, and the computer will play an extremely important

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role on the calculation and the capability of calculating and demonstrating digital model, which is far more easier to see the outcome and modification before construction in reality, and the unconventional geometries are able to be created on the computer, otherwise, the traditional way of design constrains the shape within the Platonic solid, and the difficulty of making experiment on physical model also block the way to explore more intrersting and perfect outcome.

Torus House The Torus House, named after by the design attempt, designed by Preston Scott is a successful aproach on combining seemingly incompatible geometric languages to provide a new living experience by computer technology. Actually, this design saw an development in the CAD software, because it is how the two-dimentional plan can be draw out. Furthermore, this kind of experiment on a digital stage indeed help people to see all of the possible outcome and modify the direction to fullfill the design approach.

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1.2.3 Computational Design In Architecture With computational technology, some new forms of architecture emerges,because this type of technology allows architects to establish a system to generate a design which just follows a specific norm, which suggests the designer may not predict what is going to be create. Those technology includes parametric, datascapes, metamorphosis, genetics and performative design etc.

Performative Design This kind of design is taking one or more of performance of building as a principal guid, and adopt those characteristics into the design, which could be the environment and the form of the city etc. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is mainly used to analyse the airflow around a building. In addition to that, it also can analyse how the air flow through thermal mass and the heat transformation. Therefore, the building generated will fulfill all of those requirement.

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The City Hall in London designed by Foster and Partner is designed by this mathod, but the approach is different. Its principle is to optimizing its energy performance by minimising the area exposed by direct sun light. Moreover, the top which is the place where absorbs the most sun light is covered by solar panel, which will improve the energy performance of the building. In conventional design mathod, it is no way to design a building “manualy� to achieve those requirement. If you can, there will be tremendous calculation and trial to be done before really figure out the shape. However, we can have an idea to have some direction or approach to head, and computer isn’t able to have this creativity, but it has a remarkably powerful capaility of calculation. So, the combination of both sides can make a big difference on the new forms of design.

GLA Headquater

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1.3.1 Parametric Design Parametric design, which is suggested by its name, is a design method refferencing parameter no matter it is lines, depth, width, surfaces, or connection between components. The way of working is like a formula. With different requirement, we may take different number of elements as parameters into a function, and the principal of the function can be changed. Therefore, through adjusting the parameters and the rule of the function, computer will provide a range of outcomes, which means it is a kind of “bottom to up� approach, as once we change a unit or some details, the whole design will change immediately, which opens a universe for design field.

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However, like all the other things existing in the world, the parametric also have its advantages and dis advantages. Firstly, there is no doubt that parametric design is remarkably more flexible compared to conventional design, regarding to modifying the whole design outcome, since the design will change and transform immediately with the changes in a parameter, unlike the conventional way by which we may need to change all of the pieces on by one. Conversely, because usually, there are some specific connection between elements,so if we change an indivisual component, it will affect others,

but with the conventional way, we can easily modify an indivisual element without bothering other components. What can be seen here is the unflexibility of parametric design, but if we simply just use traditional technic, potentially, there will be a possibility to start over agian, maybe, again.

is moreproper. They can work parallel to obtain the advantages of both sides. The Beijing National Aquatics Centre, which is well known as the Water Cube, and are two key examples of using both parametric and conventional design method.

Nevertheless, with parametric design, we are able to test a number of outcomes, which is very important and convenient for architectural design, and the conventional method is still useful and widely accepted. As far as I found, a large-scale design usually dont just apply parametric design method. A kind of combination of those twe technic

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Water Cube The landmarker architecture Water Cube , which is designed by an international team, which includes PTW Architects, Arup , CSCEC and CCDI, which an be descriped as a parametric design, but meanwhile, the traditional design method is also put into use, as the ‘cube’ form is generated by the CSCEC (Chinese Team)based on local culture. The texure on the surface is built by a ‘soap bobble like’ structure, which is designed by parametric software. The soap bobble spreads with the rulre of nature, which can be redemonstrated by paramatric design, which also can generate the pattern by a similar rule, which could be said a biomimic approach as well, so it really looks natural and dynamic.However, for a conventional form of building, parametric way is kind of constrained on decoration or the purpose on achieving some specific performance of the building. Moreover, the construction may bring some difficulties, as the patterns are too organic.

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2.4.1 Back Looking & Evaluate So far: After three weeks of studying into the context of design itself, the footprint of the evolution of design method and the new forms of design ie. parametric design, I have a brand new view on the design world. Parametric design indeed help me to open a window to another universe, which I have never known. The more I study, the more interesting I think it is, because I love math since I was a child, and now I like create things, so the parametric design is knd of a combination of mathmatic parts and design, even more or less more about math, which is like creating by numbers. However, honestly, because I haven’t done or even just try to design something, I still quite not sure how to work out a thoughts by grasshopper. Sometimes, although we are studying a parametric tool, the way I think is still conventional. For instance, if I want to work out a basic shape of a building, the first thing I consider is still to think about the form, rather than haveing a ‘bottom to up’ way of thinking. Probably I just have not been accustomed to think this way, which I may need to changes and improve.

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For the grasshopper, they are cool and seems very useful, but I find it can not really be used too widly, because it is not good at arrangement of space. As far as my own experience, more people woulf prefer conventional spatial feeling, which means for example, a triangular ceilling decorated with lots of pentagons is not that comfotable for living. Maybe that is because I havent touched those field, so I will keep digging the potential of parametric design. Although it has con constraints, I still believe it is the right direction where the innovation of architectural design is heading.

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2.4.2 Grouping and Interests This week, Matis, Roman and I form a biomimicry group, in order to work for the gataway project, because we all think studying from the nature will come out with some intersting idea.

Biomimic Parametric:

Biomimicry, “the study of nature’s best ideas and then imitates these designs and processes to solve human problems.”, literally ‘life-imitating’. Naturally many ancient or modern inventions came from natural inspiration. Like columns from trees and plants, and radar from bats.

Back to Nature: Nature offer a great range of opportunities. We think that biomimic results are attractive to people, therefore it can well perform as a site of attraction which will grandly welcome people on their way. Life has been evolving far earlier than human civilization. There are a lot to learn from nature since it has a long history, and the resilience to face changes. Growing cities are dynamic places; characterized by virtual and literal movement, growth and decay, times and

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areas of dormant(ness) and vitality. It is like the seasonal cycle of nature: winter to summer, life cycle of living things, chain reaction... Objects inspired from nature may be blended into landscape, but it is not always the case. Many public sculptures and displays come from nature. It is flexible, as the way to represent that are limitless. It can be pattern, structure, scale, dynamic process, responsive, and so on! More importantly, most natural objects are based on certain laws or rules. For instance, sunflower faces toward the sun, algorithms, fractal geometies, crystallization based on chemical properties of the compound, etc. These patterns are valuable features for biomimicy in parametric design. The rules of nature are parameters. Lastly, nature itself is sustainable, and sustainability is now a big consideration in the world. Biomimic design may provoke this idea. This should be appreciated by road user, the council, and everyone.

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2.4.3 CASE STUDY 1.O The Facade of MacCormick Tribune Campers Center by OMA The first case study is to tinker with a parametric definition of grasshopper used in creation of the facade of MacCormick Tribune. From a distance, the portraites look like being printed on the panels, but when zoom in the portraits are, in fact, composed of ‘pixel’ of differenct figures with varing size, so, the portraits are formed by the specific size and density of different little figures. As consequences, the objective of this technique of this case is to redefine the picture as pixels and associate the figures in different sizes according to the grade, contrast or brightness of the picture.

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The givin definition is pretty much straight forward. The pre-drawn figure is laid on a surface. This is clear and simple that one can changes these the number of u and v dirction of the frame and the image inside to get the outcomes we pursue

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2.5.1 CASE STUDY 2.0 Yorkshire Diamond Pavilion by Various Architects This is ‘an innovative Mobile Perormance Venue’. Just like its name, this pavilion is inspired by the stucture of carbon in diamond, which is the strongest carbon structure in the world. The whole structure of this building the a collection of numerous atomic structure in a cube form basically. From the perspective of visual experience, the diamond pavilion is quite remarkable as this kind of unique structure will provide different views with people moving, which makes it vety dynamic.

First guessing... According to the real construction process, we guess in order to achieve this design in grasshopper, we need to have several flat grid parallel to each other and though connecting the specific points, we will get this kind of structure. But, Fact told us that was a wrong way to head, since it was too complex to define which point to connect which, and even if we can make it, it doesn’t seem to be a parametric design

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2.5.2 CASE STUDY 2.0 Second Attempt:

The second attempt is to find the basic unit of this structure and refference it into grasshopper, which will allow us to repeat adn array the basic unit in x, y and z direction, which forms a cube. Besides, we also should be able to manipulate the size of the basic unit.

Don’t stack

To Find the Basic Unit: To find the basic unit which means the repetition of units should be capable of connecting each other no matter it is up, under or beside them.

Can’t connect

However, several attemps don’t work because of different reasons Then we look back to the building, and do some research on how the atom of carbon connect to each other. We found it always connect to four of other atom, and in this case, it connect like the image below, which is like two tick, 180 degree oposite to each other. Based on that, finally we found the basic unit

... ... ... ...

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Strange outcome

The next problem we met was that we couldn’t adjust the distance between units, which makes the form messy, which was not what we expected. So, we brought a new component-bounding boxand the vectors which were generated by the apex of bounding box. By that way, we can adjust the distance between unites to be the length of their sides, which means it looks connected to each other But actually they don’t, which would become a constraint of this parametric design in the following design. Nevertheless, it works in this case.

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2.6.1 CASE STUDY 2.0 Development Transformation: Firstly, we did some linear and curve transformation, which is just simply having a serise of unit with gradually changed scale, in order to represent the concept growth.

However, it seems right, but in fact the units don’t connect to each other, which means they are independent, so this will be a problem if we want to build this up, and futhermore, the changes in density is not dynamic enough. Therefore, we were trying to figure out another way to go, and what we fould was a component called graphmapping and a clever way to using twisted box. By those two components, we can connect units even though the line they are sitting changes, and there are several graphy we can use to generate more range of density of the units on different position of the line.

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In order to vary our outcome, we create five different units which are natural geomety.


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2.6.2 Matrix


S=18 Line

S=18 Line

S=9 Line

S=18 Sine

S=9 Sine

The results look amazing. Although it seems very complicated, but in fact, the behind logic is quite simple, which is just makeing repetition of units run along different curves. For our matrix, the curve are those can be expressed through mathmatic functions. Moreover, the form of units are taken from natural objects: particular mineral structure but also spatial occupation of cells and behaviour of animals. We found the mineral structure is good but probably weak in representing trend, which may be achieved by the density and amount of the group of units.

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S=18 Bezier

S=9 Bezier

S=9 Line

S=9 Sine

S=9 Bezier

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2.7.1 EOI Preparation & Model Fabrication Trying to present all of our content within five minites is a challenge for us , because there are a lots of stuff there. Meanwhile, Because our model is quite complex to fabricate, so it indeed takes us a lot of time working on it. Before printing, we figure out a way to do experiement, which is to test on our physical model, by cutting simple geometry and nurom cell shape, to see what kind of shape will more fit the context of our approach-Growth.

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2.8.1 EOI Presentation

Matias Hon Pong Lao_396076 Roman Aizengendler_356921 Dejun Xiang_349329 Journal 47

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-Repetition, scaling and deformation of the base element will be used reach the conceptural goals of our design. -A skin derived from the shape of a cell will be used to reinforece an aesthetic of the natural, as well as act as the prominant mediator of light. -An element of interaction with the sculpture and site will be achieved through a subtle transformation of form as the user drives around the sculpture.

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2.8.2 Feedback—why us? Compare to most of other groups, the most obvious characteristic of our group is that we can fulfill the requirment of the design. We establish a clear argument with the context of this site, and by sticking to this argument, we successfully work out a solution by a parametric way. Moreover, we are able to put the majority of our founding into five minutes presentation, which is significantly differing from other group. All of above suggests that we always stick to what we are after, so we are more likely to achieve the original goal, instead of working out something else. But Yeah, there is a ‘but’, our lack of this design is not too ‘biomimic’, which is what we will improve and explore in the following design.

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PART C: The Gateway Project

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3.9.1 So Far... Before getting into the final boss, lets look back to see what do we have until now.

Concept / Goal Biomimicry - imitate or apply the form or the principal of nature, which could be the structure of atom, the cellular tissue, the trend of growth of groups erc.

- Biomimicry Design

Goal - to present the imprtant characterisc of the city of Wyndham, which is a high speed growth. - Melbourne Urban Sprawl

Technique -

Direction This is based on our goal and technique. Because of our technique, the actual elements that can changes are just the arrangement of the curves and the unit. Therefore, how to apply those two elements to present ‘Growth‘ as best as we can is the issue we need to figure out.

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Grasshopper - able to make a transformation of a specific structure of object along a curve by repeating a unit, and the degree of change is decided by mathematical funture and graph mapper.

The Outline We wanted to try as many possible solution as we can, so serveral new outline of the form were discussed. One of relatively mature is to make it look like fungi or Ginza, with individual unit of different heights growing toward the city, whose outline from sides was the outline of Melbourne CBD. However, it seems too literal and uninteresing, and if we went fot it, a new grasshopper definition would need to be developed, which went in mutiple directions rather than one. So, we headed to other areas.

- Group of mushroom

- Egyption Giza Pyramid Group

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3.10.1Exploring the Form & Unit Form In order to demonstrate the growth of population, we thought the demographics of the city will be useful, so we found some statistics onto our approaches. The numbers would give us a clue of what certain degree of population grew with, and how that would have influence on the physical form of our design. That the city was growing was obvious a fact. The population is increasing but when we look at the statistics things get interesting. The most intense growth is still the CBD and its surrounding, but in terms of grow rate outer suburbs win. Even in Wyndham different location have different predictions. Like Taniet is expected to hit 80000 in 2031, and Point Cook will get steady since 2021. We though the patterns of regional difference are interesting and wanted to use these data into our design. Therefore we extract the data and create formulate in Excel spreadsheets. There are the polynomial equations which depict the numbers graphically. Each equations shows how the population change in the 4 locations-Point Cook, Tarniet, Truganina, Williams Landing. There are here because these are the places with the most significant changes. We also decided that the head of our lines with point towards those locations to signify our concept, therefore there will be more than 1 string.

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- Growth rate of different rigions of Melbourne

Function 0.0922*x^4-0.5883*x^3-4.956*x^2+44.425*x-24.264 -0.3172*x^4+5.0198*x^3-27.283*x^2+69.938*x-39.721

The Unit With our current technique, no matter how we varify the results, there are only basically three elements can be changed - The line - The Shape - The unit

- Zeolite Structure

By putting the functions into grasshopper definition, we can generate the line and scaling factors of the string. So, what we still need to find out is the shape of the unit. As agreed the shape of the unit had to be developed from a mineral structure like diamond example. We had looked at various mineral type, some of them were overly simple while some were too complex. Even though we can build it in Thino it may or may not be compatible to our rules of the unit, which the touching points had to be the same opposite surface. Successful examples including the simple quatz structure, which has 6 tetrahedral pyramid forms a hexagonal bend and the top and bottom surfaces and flat. Another is more complex, a mineral called zeolite which have cubes and octagons interlocking on a multi-surface solid. Both were suitable for our definition.

- Quartz Structure

- Extracted Structure

- Extracted Skeleton

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3.11.1 Combination & New Idea Put Unit Into Strings Combine different variables, which include the equation, the curve, numbers and mininer structure as the ingredients. Then, several possible results were discussed. Those could be straignt linear, but we didn’t want it too straignt, we thought about curves, but couldn’t find a proper reason for that, except from the perspective of aesthetics, which is not a convictive reason, as it was too subjective. Additional, we had also tried other weird configurations, like 4 strings surrounding a sphere, strings intersecting each other etc.

However, there were some issues found. The joints were extremely difficult to deal with, because the scaling of each branch is different and overlapping happenned somewhere, which made it even more complex. We tried to scale it up but it got ridiculously enormous. We neeed to found out how they were supported. The form of the unit were fair but the zeolite one looked so regular and dull, and the quartz deformed so great that it would be hard to make a physical model.

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In order to tackle that issue, we need to simplify our unit or the arrangement of curves--the path.

New Idea About GrowthMeanwhile, a new idea was also popped into our mind. As our conept is growth, it is good that if the structure can literally “growth“. Expansion, change of shape along time would impossible and unrealistic so we focused on material change. The material employed would probably change over time and perhaps we can create condition for “real“ life to grow, such as plants and animals

This is our final goal for this project. The design needs to reflect growth through a series of linear tansformations, which will also change with time progressing. We through plants are good source of inspiration so the design should based on plants forms. We worked on mineral structure and though it is suitable to create complex and interesting geometry and spatial effect. Therefore, finally, the design will be reclaimed by nature, this symbolizes the end of the life cycle of the scupture but also provide new opportunities for wild life.

- Nature reclaiming artifacts

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3.12.1 Final Design Establishment Unit Settles down We had gone through many different types of mineral, and finally settled on Kaolinite - a clay mineral that is stable in physical sense due to its planar geometry. And planarity meansitis suitable to be employed in our definition and easier to add surfaces so we choose this structure for our unit. We first constructed the basic skeleton, and found it a bit too ordinary so we went with its atomic linkages. After the final skeleton was done we started to add surface in order to build it. Whhile we were adding surface we tried to create spaces and pockets which would allow plants growing in the unit.

A6 A7

With the growth conept, we wanted to make it grow from the earth like a plant, which,importantly, also deal with the conjunction issue, since the joints parts didn’t need to be shown on the ground, which actually happenned underground. Because the five branches pointed at four suburbs and the Wednhem CIty, the outline from sides came from the population prediction of them, which would emphased the growth.

Ground - Top View

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- Section

Orientation In detail, in terms of the 5 strings, 4 will grow from one main stem. The largest one represents the city as a whole, whilethe other four four represent the suburb as discussed. The head will point towards to their assigned location, and the scaling factors are controlled by the population

Material, Growth & Decay To demonstrate growth by material, we search for a lot of them. All material will change over time. For that case, we choose materials which change their appearances particularly quick and obvious. Metals are favourable for this concept as they are subject to erosion, oxidation, react to salt and organic content. To avoid total collapse in a relatively short period of time the more structural, big components will use metals which remain their integrity even when expose to chemical erosion. Corten steel and coated steel are suitable for this purpose. On the other hand we want some of the panels actually disintegrate over time due to corrosion of metals with other irons. Copper can achieve this quite easily with the contact of exposed steel.

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Plants Plants is another important aspect in this design. The growth of wild plants like glass, clover and small trees would enhance the temporal changes of the structure. The geometry of the unit allows the sculpture naturally catches seeds, dirt and water so it is ideally for the plants to occupy the sculpture eventually. Moreover, as plants exists, insects, followed by small animals, would come and make the gateway as their habitat

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Site Plan As the result that plants and animal will grow on this site, we don’t want it to be too close to the highway. And we want people to see and experience how gateway will change. we put the design on a hill and the highest point of it will be 12 metres above the ground

Construction Because the whole load will be irregular along the strings, pile footing was chosen as the support of the design.

Transportation Since the design is made of metal panels, so there can be assembled by welding and transported piece by piece, and conbine on site quickly.

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Fabrication After long time working, finally we come to the hardest stage, which in fact take almost more than anything else. There are 5main strings and around 30 deforemed units in total. We were able to unroll each unit into maximus 11 individual pieces. Therefore, there were 270 single pieces to be printed and assembled, which were 10 A1 sheets.






We used black thin paper, because it was much easy to fold comparing to card board, which we used last time. The model making is not that hard, since every unit has the same shape, but the end of each string is very difficult to fold as it becomes too small and the transformation at that part happens a lot, so it take us a really long time to build. But the outcome is kind of amazing, and through making physical model from digital model piece by piece, I acknowledge how it will be constructed if it will be build out, and I can feel the life of the design, which lets my experience that a lot more in 3d perspective.

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3.12.2 Just Watch! Three days working gave birth to this. The black looks quite elegant, and the grass and soil really provided a feeling of liveness. We were all quite happy with the outcome. just the base was too rough compared to the model itself, because we didn’t have any more time, which is also the reason why we counldn’t make the presentation l lot better. but There you go! Just watch please

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Using the growth of plants as a analogy, through repetition of one single unit which transforms with scale and density to represent grow of the city. Material will represnet the impact of time and which complete the life cycle of the sculpture.

By studying the trend of growth of Wyndham City the form is used to to reflect city growth. The trend is a factor of the scale and the lines represent directions. Several minerals structure are tested as mineral can represent growth in a geometrical pattern while gives complex looking shape. Kaolinite is selected to inspire the structure of the base unit.

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The structure will be supported by pile footings. While smaller units can be prefabricated and transported to site, the structure can be transported in panals and assemble on site. Soil can be use to fill the pocket to allow growth of wild plants.

Once constructed, nature will start to reclaim the place and this is allowed. Metals will change its colour due to oxidation and will eventually dissappear due to chemical reaction, before that plants and animal will occupy the sculpture. The changes represent the concept of growth and the power of nature.

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Today we’ll be presenting our proposal for the Gateway Design project for Wyndham City, which we developed with biomimicry and parametric manipulation as key guiding processes. We’re interested in representing some conceptual concerns of the council and surrounding area, primarily population growth, the development of the city and the physical transformation of landscape due to unprecedented growth in the area. We have taken inspiration from the natural realm at an atomic scale; and our design consists of a unit based on a mineral atom. As such, the structural

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properties of our design are directly influenced by a natural element and the aesthetic of the piece is a result of the assembly and structural rationality of panels forming individual components.

GROWTH repetition of a single unit (inspired by the structure of a Kaolinite atom) overall form resembles the sinuous lines of plant or tendril growth representing the growth of Wyndham and its 4 major towns (Point Cook, Truganina, Tarneit, Williams Landing) form, density and scaling alluding to the cities’ growth a juxtaposition of natural and constructed landscapes

Our aim with this design is first to create an interesting but bold form to sit within an otherwise baron landscape. We’ve used a structure derived from nature to reinforce our goals of representing artificial and natural growth and create an overall abstract piece to allude to the changes occurring within the area. Site A has been chosen as the location for the piece to maximise visibility to drivers travelling in both directions along the Princes Freeway Though the structure is derived from a distorted kaolinite atom lattice, the layout of four strings stemming from a central stalk resembles the organic form of tendril growth. The strings sprout from a single point, growing in scale towards the Wyndham cities. Each of the four strings

signify the four major towns in Wyndham county, and allude to the natural growth of plants through sinuous curves. A transition in density and size creates a dialogue between the piece and greater setting. The small tail end of the sculpture is embedded under ground level, erupting to a large mass towards the direction of Wyndham. As each of the strings independently emerge from underground towards Wyndham, an element of user engagement introduces an affective quality to the site. As drivers appear closer to the piece, the strings appear to emerge from the ground at greater velocity.

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GROWTH The development of a city: landscape and population Influence of nature - structural - aesthetic Complex form for greater light and shadow outcomes Representing the social, political and physical growth of Wyndham A comment on the continuing growth of outer Melbourne An aesthetic representative of the structure

The second, and equally important stage of our design is the transformation that the art piece will exalt over time. Taking into consideration the outstanding fact that Wyndham has experienced the largest and fastest growth of all Victorian local governments and almost 3500 children have been born in the local area in the past year, the primary development of the council has occurred to us as a fundamental concern. 30% of the local population are under the age of 10, and the emergence of the piece on site reflects the growth of these individuals, and their town.

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We have chosen to emphasise this growth and development through the use of changing materials and locally prevalent flora. As communities grow and the children age, the landscape of the site will develop, and eventually be overrun with plant life.

Growth transformation over time fastest growth of all Victorian local governments 3,500 children born in the past year, almost 50,000 more expected in the next 10 years material change over time, reflecting community growth triangulated surface treatment contrasts the site, and natural growth within the structure (

We have chosen four metals for the piece, two of which will distinctly develop a rustic aesthetic, and two to maintain structural integrity. Most of the panels will be coated and protected black steel. These are not expected to change material properties too much over time. CORTEN steel panels have been used to allude to the future aesthetic of the design. Though darkening slightly over time, the weathered steel will maintain structural integrity. Uncoated steel has been used on panels that bear no structural necessity. Over time, weathering of this material will

decay and transform the aesthetic of the sculpture. Copper has also been used for a similar reason. Oxidation of the material will slowly transform the reflective gold texture to a charming blue patina. Sections exposed to prolonged moisture will be more rapidly affected than others, creating an almost random and elements driven colour assembly. The blue patina expected to develop soon after installation will act as a protective barrier, and will not be negatively impacted by proximity of the other metals.

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slight darkening over time

uncoated steel

rusting and corrosion over extended periods of time


protective blue patina over time

This irregular weathering of materials will be accelerated by pockets formed by the triangulated panels of the structure. The panelling of the base unit allows for sections of the piece to collect rainwater, soil and seedlings dispersed by local fauna. As such the sculpture is incorporated, and will eventually be enveloped by the growing natural surroundings. According to Alan Weisman, within 6 months small animals will colonise the area, within a year plants will inhabit the local area. Grasses, large grasses, small plants and later large plants will root on and around the structure. Approximately 5 years later large plants will grow around the site.

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We developed our design by looking at conceptual and real growths within the area. The analogy of plant growth is represented through the curved forms emerging from the ground, and is coupled with the artificial growth of population, households and infrastructure within the area. Using biomimicry as a main influence we looked to a variety of chemical and mineral for inspiration, but chose kaolinite due to its ability to form a suitable string of components. The skeleton also allowed for panelled pockets which can capture water and soil over time whilst creating a complex and interesting overall shape. We fine tuned

the lengths, curves and directions of sections of the design to better suit the landscape and the site, and scaled the piece appropriately to roughly allude to population growths within the area.

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We believe our piece showcases an interesting dialogue between the futurist aesthetic of complicated panelling and the natural realm. We have taken inspiration from the Yorkshire diamond in developing a structure based on the natural. Though we did not use the same atomic makeup, our piece represents the interesting form that can be created by panelling a chemical compound. The temporary pavilion used a repeated volumetric unit to create mass, with an aesthetic that expressed this concept.

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repetition of a single unit (based on the structure of a diamond atom) aesthetic consequential to the structural arrangement great flexibility in design as a result of lattice design an insight into the organic for a modern and practical outcome

define geometry of atom unit

create series of atom unit along 2D plane

We also looked to the aging of materials for characteristics that would enhance the unique quality of certain architectures. Though not necessarily a new concept in architecture, the Hawke Building as part of the University of South Australia incorporates copper panelling as part of an otherwise modernist concrete faรงade. Assumed to form an aqua patina over time, residue from the copper also stains the plain concrete, alluding to the progress of time, and the impact of the natural on materials, and on architecture. We have decided to use and emphasise

stack plan vertically (2 planes)

crop excess beams and surface interior

this transition over time to allude to the growth of the natural and artificial realms.

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HAWKE BUILDING John Wardle Architects

copper panelling as part of the modern aesthetic aqua patina on copper over time indicate age and act as a protective skin development of facade through patina growth and wall staining

Though we admit the appearance of our proposal looks rather complicated, our design is compiled of 40 similar components, many of which can be assembled off site and easily transported. Only the largest sections will have to be bonded in situ, a process made easy due to the consistent use of metal and allowing for welding. Cavities within adjoining panels can be perforated to allow for water flow to maintain healthy root systems. Depending on the type of vegetation introduced to the piece over time, drilling through the metal sheets allows for

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greater adaptability. The structure will be anchored to the ground and stabilised with pile footing. Selected panels of our sculpture will rest on pile caps located just under ground level. This will allow for easy erection of the piece with minimal damage to the current site.


Our proposal is cited immediately southwest of the centre of Wyndham city, on the large medium strip. This will maximise views to individuals travelling to and from Geelong, Melbourne and Wyndham. Those travelling from Geelong will experience the growth of the piece through a steady increase in elevation.

Partially burying the piece underground will add structural integrity whilst maintaining a uniform aesthetic. The piece will grow to a maximum height of 12 metres along a 60 metre long stretch of grass and up a small slope.

The five strings are orientated towards Wyndham and the council’s fastest growing four towns, each emerging out of the ground, and each other at various rates to allude to the inter-related nature of development of the towns.

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Though we admit the appearance of our proposal looks rather complicated, our design is compiled of 40 similar components, many of which can be assembled off site and easily transported. Only the largest sections will have to be bonded in situ, a process made easy due to the consistent use of metal and allowing for welding. Cavities within adjoining panels can be perforated to allow for water flow to maintain healthy root systems. Depending on the type of vegetation introduced to the piece over time, drilling through the metal sheets allows for greater adaptability. The structure will be anchored to the ground and stabilised with pile footing. Selected panels of our sculpture will rest on pile caps located just under ground level. This will allow for easy erection of the piece with minimal damage to the current site.


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Organic or inorganic patterns on each face will be changed along the body and create interesting shadow effects on the ground that further enhance the visual experience and promote the city as an icon. Through a series of transformation the overall geometry creates an unpredictable, dramatic transformation along a curve that is clearly shown in the model. The dynamic body would represent the trend of urban growth by changing sizes and density of the unit. It also indicates the direction and the starting and ending point of growth as well. The complex geometry will create distinctive visual experience from different views. Say when people are moving around, the sizes of openings of each unit will change depending on where people are. The pattern on each unit is an experimentation of different approaches. It can be a reflection of natural objects like cells or atoms or just simple geometries based on any theme.

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3.13.1 Conclusion What I like -

What I dislike -

The result is very niece to me, especially its complex shape. The amazing part is that it comes form a very simple orgnization, which are strings and repeated units. It shows how flexible parametric design can be, and this indeed opens a new universe for me Because I really like the process converting logic to geometry and forms.

The time is too tight for us. We only have three days to finish the model and presentation lastly, and agian, it is why the slides doesn’s have the same level quality with the design.

Also, the concept about changing over time is cool, because it organicly connects a sculpture with natural environment. With the erosion, or death, we say, of the sculpture, the animal and plants will demonstrate a new life of that site, which demonstrate the tension of life, and, again, the growth concept. The physical model is fantastic as well, because it indeed shows what we were doing in the last four weeks, and the quality is not bad, because of our hardwork The presentation runs quite smoothy, although we got some critics about the layout of our presentation slide, but it, actually, is a matter of time. If we can have more time working on it, it could have been much better.

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Moreover, although the growth is really strong for now, but the outline of the design from the side view is not that satisfied for me. I mean if people can have a look at that on a helicopter, there will be much fun, comparing seeing it on the side. So, as far as my personal concern, thinking more about the people who are going to use or see, propbably, is more important, but sometimes, what we designer care more about is to appoach our argument, rather than the real goodness of the need of the people. Some people would say their design changes the way of living, just like apple, or changes the appreciation of beauty of people. I admit that it could happen, but personally, I would like to care more about the contomers, because we need to be responsible of the design built for them. Also, long-term of model making will drive people crazy...

Future Potential For the future, in my opinion, parametric will be more powerful. It doesn’t only because it is a cutting-edge tech, and just shows up in two decades, but also, it will cooperate with the development of 3D printing. So far, one of the main reason why parametric design hasn’t spread through significantly is because it is usually more complex than people’s imagination, which makes the design very difficult to build or produce. But if we can have a much much more powerful 3d printing technique, it will fix this problem. So, go for paramatric design!!

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Final Journal Submission_Dejun Xiang