JIALU TAN 2010-2016
PUBLIC LIFE HANDBOOK APPLYING FOR CDD MASTER OF CITY PLANNING MIT
JIALU TAN, B.Arch, Candidate of M.U.P. School of Architecture, Tsinghua University Beijing, P. R. China Tel: 86-15201524759 Email: email@example.com
CONTENTS Chapter 1 [Tradition] of traditional courtyards in Xian 1 Rennovation urban and architectural design/ Xi'an, Shaanxi/ 2016 2
Two-Pole Guming Village
rural planning/ Nanning, Guangxi/ 2015
Chapter 2 [Modern] Fall in Love!' - a love theme park 3 'Let's landscape and urban design/ Dahongmen, Beijing/ 2013 4
The Blending Xingping
urban design and planning/ Guilin, Guangxi/ 2014
Chapter 3 [Future] Car Exhibition Place 5 Adaptable parametric design/ T2 airport, Beijing/ 2013 This por tfolio discusses how public space plays its positive part in solving urban problems. Public space, either in architecture or in urban planning, helps renovate dilapidating communities, hold vacant villages together, connect isolated populations, or help mix different people. It could be in the form of inserted point, â€„ twopole structure, linear space or networks. The three chapters of tradition, modern and future probe into different situations.
Imitation Game - a museum about future architectural design/ Guomao, Beijing/ 2016
The Evolution and Optimization of Public Space within Xi'an City Wall research/ Xi'an, Shaanxi/ 2016
role of public space [ Inserted point ] promoting surrounding [ Two-pole ] centripedal force
[ linear ] suturing [ network ] blending
[ interactive space ] customizing [ open roof ] sharing
CHAPTER 1 [ TRADITION ] 1 Renovation of Traditional Xi'an courtyards type: resesarch design, individual work size: 2600 mÂ˛ Tutor: Prof. Wan Liu Duration: 2016.3-2016.9
[ Inserted Point] This porject inserts a public space into a traditional community. The inserted pocket garden and hostel industry could serve as a starting point and finally helps renovate the whole area.
Site Context: Historical Conservation Block
Status Quo Building State in the Block: mixture of traditional dwellings and modern buildings
mixed-up texture of traditonal and modern building
poor quality of traditional courtyards
self-conducted extensional building damage the landscape
Surrounding Environment: Xiyangshi Street commercial to residential from east to west
local residents visitors Traditional Community and Life: mosque-centered
Population: a blending tendency of the Hui and the Han Population Ratio
Ratio of Hui to Han at different age
Han nationality 1
Hui Nationality 2.7
The Hui nationality inhabits in the region, and the ration of Hui (the muslims) to Han (the main nationality in China) is about 2.7 to 1. Different nationalities are gradually blending together, especially among younger population, which means the region is getting more open.
Main Problems Extentional Consruction without control
houses surrouding the mosque
- Mosque-centered living pattern disappeared - Lack of open space in the region due to high buidling density
Extentional Building one-storey 27% three-storey and above 42%
Self-conducted Extentional Construction
Strategy - community
Strategy - courtyard te priva
ate priv c
1 Reduce Building Height to Bring Mosques in Sight
Restore the traditional landscape which is mosque-centered community. Reduce building height allows people see the important spots in the region. te
3. Dig Down
-expland living space -underground public space
2 Change over-constructed courtyards to open space Due to a lack of open space , use these courtyards which are beyong restoring to original pattern as pocket gardens.
1. Pocket Garden -green penetrating to surrounding buildings
ate priv c publi
ate priv c
4. Add Second Floor Platforms
-better view of the historical area -connecting second floors in different houses
2. Repair Texture - Preserve original traditional dwellings. - Remove extentional buildings, and complete with traditional ones
5. Implant Modernized Units -expand space -modern facillity
I'd love to live in a quieter space.. The Infill Courtyard: guest A
I'd love to be more connected with other guests. The Balcony Courtyard: guest B
Community Center: nearby residents, guests
local residents visitors W residential
E Industry structure others 16.8%
handicraft 3.7% food processing 7.3%
3 Insert Homestay Hostel Hotel service industry in the region is relatively lack. Using idle living space as hostels increases income of the local families and also encourages mixing of different nationalities.
Welcome to my home! And we need more space for the family... The Dig Courtyard: local residents Tea House
local residents, guests, tourists
6. Create Communication Between Different Groups Encourage communication among local residents, homestay guests and tourists by inserting public space.
Traditional Art Exhibition Corridor
The previous problem faced by local residents in the Hui community is that the living space is limited and can't fulfill modern requirements. Therefore, the design develops underground space in the traditional courtyards. What's more, due to the complicate situation in personal properties of these dwellings, every house holds a independent family. So, each house is design to be shared by a complete unique family.
The Dig Courtyard: Local Residents
0 5 10 15
The Balcony Courtyard: Homestay Guests Platforms in the Air
Underground Public Space
Morning! Where do you guys go today?
Hey there! !
underground space Wow! It's the mosque! The garden is so beautiful...
A modern unit is inserted in the courtyard and thus makes full use of the transportation space.
Platform next to the garden allows vistors to enjoy a good sightview.
A white wall is called 'Liubai' in Chinese, which means the blank. It serves as a background to set off scenery in front of it. A glass pool lets sunlight pass through and thus provide light for the underground public space. Platform on the roof enables those who are interested in historical Xi'an to gain a birdview on the important architechtures in the district.
Pocket Garden: a regional public space with traditional identity Local residents, Homestay Guests & Tourists
Overall: Plan & Section of the whole courtyard
Xi'an is the birth place of shadow plays, and local residents love this folk art. The pocket garden, serving as the public space for nearby residents, guests in the hostel and also visitors, should display the traditional and regional culture. Therefore, the garden uses the element of light and shadow to reinforce its cultural identity.
traditional shadow play
gallery with transmitting cloth first floor plan
section from north to south
The homestay courtyard on the traditional lantern festival.
2 Two-Pole Guming Village type: rural planning, design competition, individual work size: 7.2 kmÂ˛ Tutor: Prof. Deyin Luo Duration: 2015.11-2015.12
[ Two-Pole Structure ] In this design, I rebuild the traditional two-pole structure of Zhuang nationality village. The two ends of the village are the threshing ground and the sacred woods, one serving for important festivals and ceremonies, the other for religious functions, such as worshipping gods. The mudane end marks the lower boundary of the village, and the sacred end marks the upper boundary. The two ends with their important emotional links to the villagers hold people together and thus are vital to the renovation of traditional villages in Zhuang community.
What Makes Zhuang Unique? - Local Culture Study
Revitalizing Guming Village
Select a number of Zhuang villages in Guangxi and study the spatial form of these villages. Found that Zhuang villages are usually situated on gentle slopes, with woods behind on the top of the mountain and farming fields on both sides, also facing a river or lake.
Spatial Form of Zhuang Village N
A perfect self-sustained loop of village and natural elements. Zhuang values the harmony between human being and nature very much.
Threshing Ground & the Sacred Tree the two-pole structure of Zhuang village
The Threshing Ground Depending mostly on agriculture, the Zhuang is closely related to nature. They awe for nature, so the sacred woods is a special place for them to pray to the gods.
fields & crops
The threshing ground is used for celebrating festivals and holding ceremonies for important events, such as marriage. It's a place crucial to Zhuang's public life.
cultural spots, silversmith's house
Present Problems of Guming village
The Sacred Woods
Rebuild the two poles.
Design routes linking the cultural spots, such as dyehouses, to attract tourists. Form a mixed community.
Sectorization & Function
A Village in Nature
establish public space network
dredge water network
landscape of farmland
agricultural education area
m useu m se m ool useu g m rth hou ge sch n o s ua ea folk lang med ram huang et Z stre cial mer threshing ground com st h
guest house area core cultural area
riverside park commercial street
local cloth workshop
traditional house show
guest house area
tourist service zone wedding custom show
place of worship
sacriface culture museum
A Way Out for Local Rammed Earth House
A core corridor is designed to surround the core teaching place, which can be used as a mini gallery for showing Zhuang language heritage. Glass, steel and wooden bars are used in the new house to improve problems that used to appear in traditional ones, and also help the traditional houses blend into the present architecture style.
Tr a d i t i o n a l r a m m e d ear th house is damp, poorly ventilated and has poor lighting. New materials like steel and glass help enlarge the windows and remove cer tain thick walls to release space. T h i s h o u s e i s transformed into a Zhuang language school for both local children and also tourists who are interested in Zhuang culture. Zhuang language is the best preserved heritage of Zhuang people now.
section A 1:200
north elevation 1:200
section B 1:200
west elevation 1:200
roof plan 1:200 plan 1:200
CHAPTER 2 [ MODERN ] 3 'Let's fall in love!'
Love Theme Park in Red Gate District Type: social-eco-reconstruction design studio, cooperative work Size: 50000 mÂ˛ Tutor: Prof. Rong Zhou Collaborators: Jasmine Lam, Qianli Zheng Duration: 2013.2-2013.4 My work: team leader, concept, site research and survey, design of the bridge, overall form of the park, render drawing, hand drawing
[ Linear ] This project design a love themed park on the river bank of Liangshui River. The bridge not only separates vehicles and pedestrains, but more importantly, it connects isolated male and female workers on each side of the river and provides a place where they could socialize. The Red Gate District is famous for cloth-wholesale industry, so it stimulates a gathering of cargo transportation industry. In the main two industries, gender is imbalancedly distributed, which causes the present situation of young migrant workers having difficulty in socializing.
cargo transportation companies
clothing wholesale malls
Grass-root class struggling for life
Famous tained river - Liangshui river
female male A B C D E F G
OME -INC W O L
A - Moring Market B - Red Gate Mall C - Malls near Red Gate D - Jingcheng Mall E - Logistics Company F - Retails on streets G - Randomly picked people
r Wk H
12h + 10-12h 8-10h 8h below A B C D E F G
Transportation to Work
within 1km 1-2km 2-4km 4km above
married in relationship single
A B C D E F G
Distance from Home to Work
8000 rmb above 5000-8000 rmb 3000-5000 rmb 3000 rmb below A B C D E F G
40 above 30-40 20-30 20 below A
Frequency of going to park
Local clothing wholesale and transportation industry leads to an imbalanced distribution of different genders.
hardly twice a month twice a week often
walk bicycle bus / MRT drive
A B C D E F G
Red Gate is a traditional Beijing clothing wholesale industrial district, with wholesale and cargo transportation composing the main industries in the area. According to 100 questionnaires, here are some facts about local population:
Liangshui River is a notorious polluted river in Red Gate District. Because of lack of public spaces, residence nearby do sports on roads, or on the smelly river bank. Besides, the river is fenced, so people have to climb over to get near to the river.
- extreme young population: most are below 30. - severe imbalance of gender in different industries, mainly male for transportation, female for cloth selling. - non-marriage rate far above average. - long hour work, and low income - due to the lack of park nearby, most people seldom go to parks.
Wenli, 23, single, a typical saleswoman in Dahongmen Shopping Mall, comes from Zhejiang Province to Beijing to seek a living. Most of her colleges are girls from different places.
Guoqiang, 25, single, works in a nearby transportation company which tends hire male for their strength. He comes from Henan Province. Like many of his colleges, he doesn't have much oppor tunity to socialize, especially with women.
clothing wholesale malls
residence (mostly nearby practioners)
cargo transportation companies
1:12000 site plan
• A giant stone • A boat • Banquet tables • Wooden deck
• Two birdges tangling together
A Love Theme Park site plan
Due to the long working hour and heavy labour, grass-root class hardly has time to socialize. Besides, there is no public space in Red Gate district. Therefore, creating a park where they can use when on the way to work or having lunch is the only feasible solution to help them encounter, socialize and relax, as well as not to take up so much time. This is why we designed a bridge connecting the subway station and their working place and also places they can sit and have lunch.
• Skateboard ground • Tire playground • Swings under bridge • Lovers' bench
• Wave awning • Wooden and asphalt pavement • Seats • Show stage • Greening
'Flipped' Sports Ground • Basketball ground in the air • Exhibition gallery on ground
• Multifunctional steps • Greening • Food-selling vendors • Lawn
Floating Stage • Short-cut bridge seperated from vehicles • Stage under bridge • Red Gate landmark
Fall in Love
Places a romance might start
Bridge and 'Love'
Separation of pedestrian and vehicles
The original bridge over Liangshui River is mixed with pedestrians and vehicles, which makes walking on the bridge quite a danerous thing. Therefore, separate pedestrian bridge from the original one, which not only shortens the distance from subway station to working places, but also creates a sightseeing experience on the way to work.
1. basketball court
In traditional Chinese Legend, the cowherd and the waving maid meet each other once a year through a bridge composed by magpies. Bridge has always been associated with love.
3. Serenity Plaza
use the cloth as an inspiration
4. Chance Square The stairs can be used as sitting places for workers around to have lunch, or to view performances on the square. The square is used for vendors providing local cheap food.
south elevation 1:1000
new facade of the shopping mall
bridge section 1:150 gallery
Two bridges are intertwined together as flying butterflies. serendipity plaza
floating stage & short-cut bridge
new landmark of Dahongmen
1. Father gives bride away to the groom
2. Together rolling a boat to the alter on an island. ('the water is wide/ give me a boat that both shall row/ my love and I')
3. Vow on a giant stone. ( Chinese ancient poetry, ' love shall be enduring as rocks) the special wedding ceremony
The love theme park not only provides recreational places for nearby residents, but more importantly, it can be used as outdoor marriage venues, or places for taking wedding photos. In this way, a new industrythe wedding industry- will be very likely emerging, which makes the integration and upgrading of local industries possible.
new facade of the shopping mall places for family recreation
Serendipity Plaza playing space under bridge board walk Lovers' bridge sandbar Liangshui River
IN 5 YEARS
river bank 'love theme park' environment improved places to socialize and relax the park can be used for marriage ceremony or taking wedding pictures
âˆš âˆš âˆš
low cloth-wholesale industry grassroots class
surrounding malls: 'wholesale mall' to 'bridal shops' 'clothing mall' to 'wedding costume mall' wedding photo studios emerging
IN 10 YEARS
a new industrial chain: love and wedding industry
local industry upgrading!!!
grassroots class start their own business
local population quality improving!!!
the region become revived
creative culture industry
upgraded wedding industry creative cultural industry enterpreneurs, designers, & models
4 The Blending Xingping
Master Urban Design
This project introduces a new network of sojourn people into Xingping to help improve the original tourist system and resident system, and also help these people blend.
XINGPING is located in the northeast of Guangxi Zhuang nationality autonomous region, in the upper reaches of the Lijiang river, between Guilin and Yangshuo. Local architectures are mainly 4-to5-storey buildings and surrounding scenery features the typical Karst formations, which makes Xingping a famous tourism spot.
Guangxi Guangdong China
Guangxi & surrounding Porvinces
Developing Tendency: tourism & urbanization
2010 landuse planning
Tourism In year of 2025, the amount of annual tourists of Xing Town will reach 7,810,000 to 10,920,000. Total revenue will be 1.3billion to1.8billion. Besides, the newly built high-speed railway from Guiling to Guiyang sets Xingping as an important station.
2025 landuse planning
Urbanization According to the overall planning of Xingping, landuse expands sharply from 2010 to meet the requirements of developing tourism and growing local population. Urbanization is inevitable and stands for the need of local residents.
Problems of Present Tourist System And Local Residents System 1. imbalanced tourism resources TOURIST SYSTEM
[ Network ]
surrounding scenery Guizhou Prov
2. imbalalnced public service
3. limited choice of transportation 1. Xingping has rich siteseeing spots in different types, but distributed imbalancely.
Rich along Lijiang
2. public service distributes imbalancely, rich along the river, but poor among villages.
1. living: expansion of construction RESIDENTS SYSTEM
My work: team leader, concept, site research and survey, planning and design, plan drawing
Poor in the valley
3. transportation rely on one road for tourists to get from the riverside into the villages.
2. production: fragmented land
3. ecology: rich network 1. Construction expands quickly along roads due to modern needs. These change destroyed the original texture of the site.
Dayuan River Lijiang River
spatial structure of the two systems: Separated Population and Space
Type: graduate design studio, cooperative work Size: 1.5 kmÂ˛ Tutor: Prof. Lanchun Bian Collaborators: Bing Han, Chang Shu Duration: 2015.2-2015.6
2. Due to the expansion of villages, lands of different use are scattered. 3. The region has a rich network of rivers and mountains .
02 Strategy - Improve Tourism System
Overall Strategy - bring tourists from the riverside into the valley separated
Pulling In! 02-1 Exploring New Viewing Spots to Balance Tourism Development in The Region To balance the uneven development of tourism in the region, which is mature along the Lijing River but poorly developed in the valley, we explore the possible resources that could be developed as sightseeing spots and category them into 4 lists to meet the requirement of different people.
02-2 Increase Tourism Service The riverside is developed in service, but it is in the protected area which limits its further development. Therefore, developing the valley area becomes important. We increase tourism services in key towns to support the new viewing spots. The balanced structure of service would appeal to tourists and pull people into the valley, and thus stimulate the development of those villages.
02-3 Add Transportation Choices 02-3
01 Strategy - Introduce in The Sojourn System to Integrate Tourism and Residence
Seizing the opportunity brought by the newly-constructed high-speed rail, add roads to the railway station to connect Xingping with the direction where most visitors will come in the future. Thus, there would be more choices for tourists to go to Xingping instead of the traditional waterway alone.
03 Strategy - Improve Residence System
construct space sequence Permanent Residence Produce Brief Stop, No Production - sightseeing tourists holiday type tourists
- farmers, inn owners, restaurant owners integrate different population Long-Time Residence Produce - migrating people, painters, photographers
What Is A Sojourn System?
01-1 Implant New Types of Industry
Introducing a sojourn system helps improve the imbalanced distribution of resources and services and also helps tourists and local residents blend.
By implanting new types of industry - like tourist real estate, vacation clubs - and integrating local industries , we can improve the previous space sequence, encourage different population to blend, and upgrade industries.
03-1 Living: Limit Spread of Villages, Strengthen Network Among Villages The fast expansion of construction is harming the traditional texture, which in turn will vitiate tourism. So we limit the spread of villages in the core scenic area of Lijing River, and expand urban network along the road network among villages.
For resident and sojourner For tourist The mix of tourist and resident
03-2 Production: Integrate Present Industry and Upgrade By introducing New Ones First, integrate the fragmented woodland and farmland. Second, according to the development of tourism, upgrade the traditional agriculture industry by developing 1.5 industries and the derivative industry of tourism industry, such as sightseeing agriculture.
01-2 Distribute The New Sojourn Population
01-3 Implant Multiple Public Space
Then we search for places to distribute the new population, which would bring toursits into the valley and encourage local development to the greatest degree.
Introducing a sojourn system helps improve the imbalanced distribution of resources and services and also helps tourists and local residents blend.
03-3 Ecology: Construct Ecological Corridors 03-3
Xingping is famous for its beautiful scenic, so protecting the ecological envrionment is crucial. We limit the spread of construction land in the tourist protection zone. Second, form the ecological corridor along rivers and roads, combining mountains by the woodland.
Three Levels of Design: Overall, Main District, & Key Area
01 Overall Design - Semi-Ring in The Valley spatial structure
02 Main District Design
In the main district, including the township of Xingping, Shujiabao village, after analyzing the transportation and topography, we preserve the traditional old town and also select suitable places to insert sojourn clusters to help different populations to blend. Transportation
03 Key Area Design - Township
In the township, present status is chaotic due the mixture of traditional architecture and newly constructed ones. While preserving the traditional houses, we design new riverside public spaces for modern requirements and make them blend with the context. Zoning
Corridor in Woods Architecture Design Public Space
Big Banyan Square
Natural Topography Building Status
Bars Along The River
CHAPTER 3 [ FUTURE ] 5 Adaptable Car-Exhibition Space Computer Programming & Parametric Design Type: parametric design studio, cooperative work Size: 120 mÂ˛ Tutor: Prof. Weixin Huang, Prof. Weiguo Xu Collaborators: Yutian Dang, Shang Xiang Duration: 2013.6-2013.7 My work: concept, programming, rhino modeling, rendering
[ Interactive Space ] The exhibition stage is adjustable according to different position of visitors. The interactive space shows how people could influence space and space could answer to the specific visitors.
Generating Form The Stage: we suggest the number of cars for exhibition is three, and thus we have three affecting points. Using the three points and adjust their position carefully, we tried several times to get different forms of the stage and finally chose one that suits best.
The Pillars: First we generate a set of random numbers as the coordinates of people, and use the coordinates as affecting points to control the length and diameter of pillars. The graphic below shows space affected by different positions of people.
Design Logic: space affected by people's position The studio is aimed to design a booth for car exhibition in the T2 airport of Beijing. Traditional exhibition booths are usually designed first and keep solid during exhibitions. Space influences people, but people cannot influence space. Can we design a new booth changing according to the visitors and thus creating the specific space and viewing experience for the visitors?
Programming Rule The design logic is quite simple: using people's position as affecting points, and the scalable pillars changing their length to create the void space for viewing. When people walk near the booth, the pillars close to them will contract. Based on the logic, we used grasshopper to program and generate the form of the booth. Take the position of car and people as two affecting factors, and use random number as the coordinate of people.
6 'Imitation Game' A Museum about Future
Type: museum design studio, cooperative work Size: 6500 mÂ˛ Collaborators: Yuning WU Duration: 2016.6-2016.8 My work: concept, design, architectural expression
[ Open Roof ] This projects probes into the question of how will interaction between people be like in the future. To answer the question, the architecture invites public to participate in the space. It is built right on a subway station and the first floor is open to public. Besides, the roof of this architecture is for public use. By introducing people into the architecture, they could help fulfill one of the path's experience- the real interaction between people. Seeing people interacting, visitors would reflect on the relationship between people, and thus the aim of the museum is achieved.
How will communication be carried out in the future? virtual / real? As technology advancing, computer is used more and more widely, which leads to the tendency of virtual communication replacing traditional face-to-face communication. Will the traditional way of communicating disappear, or will people strengthen face-to-face interaction in realizing its importance? The museum serves as an imitation of two situations in the futurecomplete virtual communication and multiple real interaction. Visitors need to give their own answer to this question and then choose a path to experience.
'virtual' visior flow
ev lin on l ua
ir t n
Middle Rd of Dongsanhuan
c ra te in
n io ct ra te in ce -fa -to ce fa
Guomao Subway Station
REAL 'real' visior flow site plan 1:5000
AY SUBW RANCE T EN
VIRTUAL / REAL? SI
VI R TO E NT
START Entrance of museum
Imitation Game: flows in the museum master plan 1:1000 to SUBWAY
The Real / Virtual Experience
viewing scenery of nature
activities involving sharing feelings: mini cinema, book review, etc. dazzling, exploding information
warm interaction with different people
see some hope
THE ILLUSORY VIRTUAL WORLD
THE VIBRANT REAL WORLD
find yourself still alone at a loss in the illusory world
vivid everyday life and street culture
spatial experience assoicated with 'real' and 'virtual' visitors' reception center; also the starting point
a pool on the second floor allows light to come through and also generates certain feelings in visitors at the exit.
next to the entrance of the 'real' path is a piece of walkable glass, which enables visitors see the daily flow of people in the subway.
to imitate the illusory vitrtual world, the black path uses spindly linear windows allowing dim light to come in.
people doing activities on the roof becomes a scenery for the 'real' path visitors
a void core serves as a gallery of displaying the illusion the vore gets light only of virtual world, with everyone standing in one of the from the roof, which creates platforms, seeing each other but failing to touch. a dim dreamy environment
slope could be used as mini cinemas or indoor stages for performances, where people could share their emotions
the vore gets light only from the roof, which creates a dim dreamy environment
the repeating walls create a seemingly endless space, stimulating a feeling of tireness and loneliness in visitors.
gallery & viewing nature
when visitors come out from a long dark corridor finally, what they see is just a wall with water in front, which might stimulates a deep loneliness and thus a deeper reflection on the role of virtual communication.
plans at different heights 1:800
r ito vis ller
ng ati flo and isl nce
ble lka wa ass l g
l tua e vir tranc en
y wa e sub tranc n e
An Achitecture Invites Public To Be Part of It
The museum is built right on the subway station. The fisrt floor and most of its roofs are open to public as places for outdoor sports and performances, which expresses the attitude of welcoming public life to blend in with the architecture and together form a multiple and vibrant experience of visiting.
x al e
1. Connection With The Subway The daily flow of poeple into the subway station stimulates visitors reflection on face-to-face interaction among people.
A piece of walkable glass on the ground next to the entrance of the 'real' path is placed right above the subway stationâ€˜s waiting hall. It allows people on the ground to view the flow.
MUSEUM SHOP OPEN CORRIDOR
The entrance of subway is on the ground floor of the museum, and most of the ground floor is open to public.
SPACE FOR VENDORS
Behind the entrance of subway is a place for vendors to suply food for people, which invites street culture into the building.
2. Open Roof For Multiple Public Use excercising place
h= 35m h= 32m
h= 14m h= 12m
visitors of 'virtual' path visitors of 'real' path people from subway or nearby
SECTION B 1:400
The roof of the museum provides a vibrant place for nearby residents to do multiple activities, such as excercising, watching outdoor performances, viewing the skyline of the city's most flourishing district.
Open Space in Ancient Times
The Evolution And Opitimization of Public Space Inside Xi'an City Wall Type: research for master degree in urban planning, individual work, based on the urban design studio by Chang Zong, Wei Zhang, Yuan Li, Qianli Zheng, etc. Advisor: Prof. Wan Liu Duration: 2015.9-2016.10
Xi'an is the most ancient city in China, being the capital of the greatest dynasties like Qin, Han, and Tang for more than a thousand years. Public life is well extended from traditional times and mostly centered within the city wall, where cultural relics are most abundant and traditional customs are still vibrant. Born and grown up in this city, I feel deeply proud of my home town. However, as a local resident, I have seen the heartrending change that has happened within the city wall. After rounds of demolition and reconstruction for modern needs, the most traditional part of Xi'an is finally losing its identity. I love the traditional public life and I do understand why the traditional space doesn't work for modern times, which is why I've based my master research on the public space within the city wall. This research analyzes the evolution of public space from ancient times to nowadays, and bring forward a possible solution to opitimize the system.
Evolution of Public Space In The City Wall of Xi'an
Change in Spatial Pattern of Xi'an City Xi'an was the capital of thirteen dynasties in Chinese history, including Zhou, Qin, Han, Tang, the peaks of feudal dynasties. These dynasties built their capitals on the plain of Weishui River, north of Qinling Mountains. Ancient Chinese architects believed in 'Fengshui' and built cities according to astronomy. The Zhou Dynasty chose the river bank of Feng River, and then Qin dynasty moved the capital northward along the Weishui River and build Xianyang City according to the positions of stars. Tang Dynasty constructed the greatest capital than ever in the orderly grid pattern, which becomes the prototype of present day Xi'an. Later, after the perishment of Tang, Chang'an (the past name of Xi'an) shrank to 1/16 of what it used to be, mainly on the place of former government. Lastly, rulers in Ming Dynasty expanded Xi'an northward and eastward, and constructed new city walls which forms the present region of Xi'an center city. Therefore, the area within the present city wall is based on overlays since 618 A.D..
Daming Palace Mingguang Palace
Changle Palace Weiyang Palace
present city wall
Xingqing Palace east market
2000 - now
Ancient Chinese Architects usually built cities with two markets in the east and west. Such arrangement was the paradigm of an ideal city. In Han dynasty, besides the palaces, there were two of such markets in the city of Chang'an. Gardens, such as Taiye Pool, served as a recreational place only for the royal, and Ancestral Temple was the place where the emperor used to pray for national prosperity. In Tang dynasty, business was still restricted in the west and east market, and ordinary people still had no access to royal gardens, such as the Furong Garden. Not untill Ming and Qing dynasty did commerce become flourishing and finally breaking the walls of restricted markets. Business was so developed that streets with specific commercial types emerged. Besides, gardens for public use began to appear, such as the Lotus Pool. Provincial guilds were constructed in large numbers as lodges for national examination, which gradually became a vibrant place for people from the same province to socialize. In short word, open space, such as gardens and squares usually served for national function or for the ruling class. Traditional Chinese public spaces, different from the western cities, were mainly markets and commercial streets.
Construction of Public Space in Xi'an Since 1911 Since 1911, the perishment of Qing Dynasty, Xi'an started the construction of modern city and modern public space. 1911(the foundation of ROC) -1949 (the foundation of PRC): railway was constructed and Manchu City was demolished, so the main construction focused in the northeast part of Xi'an. The road straight to railway station became the new commercial street. Ancient imperial mansions were transformed to the office of new government. 1949-1978 (end of Great Culture Revolution): During this period, the new gover nment focused on broadening traditional narrow roads and changing t ra d i t i o n a l o p e n s p a ce i nto m o d e r n gardens. 1978 (start of Chinese Economic Reform and Opening) -1990: The government constructed the famous citywall garden for public recreation. And a gradually emerging concern for protecting historical district started. 1990 (start of Market Economic Reformation) -2000: At this time, market economy influenced all fields deeply, which led to large development of land. Therefore, most traditional dwelling were demolished and replaced by new modern apartments.
2000 (China entered WTO) - present: After China joined WTO and the 2008 Beijing Olympic, it's been more widely accepted that traditional culture plays a vital role in the soft power of a country. So, since 2000, Xi'an has emphasized the protection of cultural relics, especially traditional space. Besides, influenced by a trend in the nation of constructing pedestrain commercial roads, Xi'an also has transformed the traditional commercial streets into modern ones displaying its culture as the mean time, such as the Luoma Street. What's more, the quality of public space is more concerned than ever. The west of city-wall park is such an example of upgraded public space. In conclusion, social change has closely intertwined with and influenced the construction of public space. We need to be aware of the fact that though decisions are made in short period, the impact is long-term. Therefore, cultural and traditional space requires to be treated carefully. What's more, the evolution of Xi'an public space reveals the fact that public and open space, though may adjust its form and function a little bit in different times, doesn't actually change intrinsically. New ones grow from the old, and the context extends through times. So, respecting the original space is crucial.
Optimization of Public Space within the City Wall The main problems of space within the wall are as followings: the historical pattern and context has been obscured due to the modern layer of buildings; the central city is losing its competitiveness compared with newly developed public space in Xi'an for its unclear orientation; though the spatial scale is in comfortable scale, the space is fragmented. In a short word, the problems could be categorized into three aspects, the historical network, the recreational network, and the living network. These problems match the three main kinds of people in the central city, which are visitors coming to Xi'an for sightseeing, citizens from other district coming to the central part for recreation, and residents living inside the city wall craving for improvement in living quality. Therefore, the opitimization of public space in the city wall is based on the three networks and the three kinds of people.
Historical Network Tang Route Song & Yuang Route Ming & Qing Route Modern Route
Public Recreational Network The main reason of central city losing attraction to citizens is its vague orientation and featureless identity. Therefore, to revitalize the traditional city, firstly we need to analyze the main public space and their types in the city. Then, finding supplementary spaces near the core public space which could together form a system providing comprehensive functions. Thirdly, define different districts according to the mutual feature the space shares, and strengthen that feature. Seven districts are designated after research, and are named as 'Hui Nationality District' where the Hui inhabits, 'Public I m a g e D i s t r i c t ' w h e re i s t h e s e a t o f governments, 'East Street Commercial District', 'Beilin Historical District' which is centered on the famous relic- forest of steles, 'Themed Bar District', 'Xi'an in Modern Times District', and the city wall area serving as a stage for displaying folk customs.
Residential Network To solve the conflict between preserving traditional space and providing modern facilities, the present public service in the city is analyzed. Then I found some parts are not covered by the facilities. Therefore, a residential network is constructed to bring more equally distributed service for local residents. Secondly, categorize the streets according to their function (commercial or residential, or mixed) and texture ( traditional or modern), which consists of six types. Then, give advice to each kind of streets and improve their space quality accordingly.
Select Starting Point
To optimize public space in the historical aspect, the main strategy is to first explore oblivious cultural relics and city skeleton in past layers, second mark out these spots to reveal the patterns of Xi'an in different dynasties, and third link these resources to set up a network for sightseeing and also for further improvement. In the picture above, the city pattern of Tang, Song, Ming, Qing dynasties are marked in dash lines. Places where famous historical figures lived, important gates of demolished palaces, existing cultural relics, historical Yamen( government offices) and etc. areexplored and valued as important spots. Four routes are designed according to the different themes and times, which are 'The Prosperous Chang'an of Tang Dynasty', 'The Cultural Track of Song and Yuan Dynasty', ' The Diverse Religions of Ming and Qing Dynasty' and 'The Modern Development of Xi'an'. Through these routes, cultural relics are linked in a more systemetic network, and measures like controlling visual corridor could be carried out on this network.
Thoroughly analyzing the possible sites for starting the opitimization, I find there are mainly seven types of opitimization ways. As follows: 1. Using cultural ceremony to integrate public space in an area. 2. Introduce certain kind of service to revitalize surrounding places. 3. Using landmarks to showing the historical axis. 4. Through the renovation of street scenery to reveal the patterns of city. 5. Increase the openness of public space to lead the promotion of community residential quality. 6. In the central city where land is deficient, inserting small green lands is useful. 7. Using the city moat as the waterway of sightseeing to provide a rich experience.
Other Works Academic Work
Survey & Drawing of Ancient Chinese Architecture Guangsheng Temple, Hongtong, Shanxi province, two-week studio, 2013
Forever Sunlight, competition, The Architect Magazine / TEAMZERO Award, 2015
The Scroll of Ji Village, strategic planning, graduate studio, 2014
Drawings sketch & water color, 2015
Photography Nanchang Commercial Complex, intern project, Three-month Internship in CPG, Singapre, 2014
Night Markets in Taiwan & Kaohsiung Stadium, 2016
Graphic Design Bridge House in Cambodia, ecological architecture design, undergruate academic studio, 2013
'Tsinghua less than 1m', magazine cover & poster, while being the head of Tsinghua Student Vision Center, 2015