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Postgraduate Master programmesMaHS MaUSP Master of Human Settlements Master of Urbanism and Strategic Planning Thesis submitted to obtain the degree 'Master of Human Settlements'

Urban Design Strategies for Mumbai Mumbai, India Formal / Informal: An interdependent equilibrium? promoter: Kelly Shannon reader 1: Bruno De Meulder reader 2: Paola Viganò

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Faculty of Engineering Department of Architecture, Urbanism and Planning Kasteelpark Arenberg 1 3001 Heverlee Belgium

Student: Marco Degaetano, MaHs 2006/2007


Urban Design Strategies for Mumbai, India Formal / Informal: An interdependent equilibrium? Mumbai unbalanced city Seven island Mumbai Mumbai: Boombai / Slumbai S From a fast economical growth to A disperse Slum

Horizontal density Spatial morphological analysis

Mixed use par excellence Differences like an opportunity

Informality: a convenient truth Informal economy as a resource

Up-grading possibilities? Evaluation of international precedents

Lessons from Design Studio “Mumbai Studio�, spring 2007, Kuleuven

Conclusion


Slums on the railway land Photo: Author

1_ Mumbai Unbalanced City


Rapidly densifying Migration from the hinterland

Growing Vertically Shanghai as the model image for the city

Spreading Horizontally Proliferation of new informal settlements. The problem remains for the lower class, the poor stratum of the population who are neglected in the process to create a new city, to transform Mumbai into a world-class city.

Is it possible for Mumbai to find a solution to its unbalanced development? Photo: Author

Challenges


2_ Seven island Mumbai


1670 Image from: Di Pauline Rohatgi, Bombay to Mumbai: Changing Perspectives, Architecture, Marg Publications, 1997

1933 Image from: www.crit.org.in

2007 Image from: “Mubai Studio” 2007 KULeuven

• Between 1817 and 1845, the city was physically transformed by an enormous land reclamation process • In 1853, the city achieved the possibility to build its first passenger railway line • A number of fishing villages have been transformed into slums and all the available land within the city has been occupied by new dwellers – the net result being that Mumbai is one of the world world’s s cities with the largest concentration of slums.

From village to Slum


3_ Mumbai: Boombai/Slumbai


Transportation of goods from the hinterland

The city of Mumbai is located on the Salsette Island and due to its optimum sea approach it has was once the largest port on the Indian Ocean [S.M. Dossal, 1991].

Photo: Author Satellite Image: www.wikimapia.org

Fishing market

Port activities offer many job opportunities


- Mumbai’s Gross City production is approximately 55.000 Rs. per capita (1.000 euro) - The Gross City product of Mumbai in 2003 was 6.73.53.99.00.000 Rs. (12.246.180.000 euro) 2 4% of the national economy (1) - GCP Equivalent to 2.4% Photo: Author

(1) [UDRI, 2006:10-11]

New trends of the Private Property Development Market

Fast growing city


- Local trains, during the peak hours, carry eight times more the load they are designed for. - 6.5 million of people cross Mumbai every day.

- Mumbai is the most populous city in India with approximately 13 million inhabitants (1) - The whole Greater Mumbai metropolitan region has a population of 25 million - Annual growth rate : 2.2% 2 2% (2)

Mumbai is estimated to have more than 3000 informal settlements or 6.5 million of slums inhabitants , which translates to 54% of the total population. [P.Joshi, UDRI, 2006: 154]

Photo: Author (1) [http://www.demographia.com/db-worldua2015.pdf Demographia World Urban Areas: 2005 Population & 2015 Projection] (2) [World Gazzetteer]

Population


Boombai A fast economical g growth Formality Order

Slumbai A disperse p Slum Informality Disorder

“Disorder is often an order that we are not able to understand. Th equilibrium The ilib i off di disorder d and d order d iis th the fifirstt kkey tto understand d t d IIndian di cities” iti ” (1)

Photo: Author (1)

[A.Petruccioli, 1986: 123-124]


Ratiatra, religious procession Photo: Author

4_ Horizontal Density


Water

Marshland

Canal Slum

Formal tissue

Railway

Satellite image: www.wikimapia. org

Tissue ingredients


Satellite images: www.wikimapia. org

Vacant land, near potential work


Satellite images: www.wikimapia. org

Vacant land, near potential work


Tissue analysis. Dimension: 400x400 meters Location: intersection between Dharavi (so-called (so called biggest slum in South Asia) western railway Mithi River

Satellite images: www.wikimapia. org

400x400


0

50

100

200 m

0

50

100

200 m

Figure ground

Reverse Figure ground

The informal tissue is dense and compact. compact High contrast with the formal tissue.

Open space are rare and fragmented in the Slum. Slum The Mithi river is an open area which can be filled with new informal housing.

Drawings: Author


0

50

100

200 m

0

50

100

200 m

Circulation

Building Functions

The railway and the main road are barrier in the city. Dharavi is framed by big infrastructures: the railway (western and central lines) and the main road.

The formal city around the slum has predominantly a residential character. An hospital and a mosque are the only exception.

Main road Local streets

Slum Residential

R il Railway

M Mosque

Drawings: Author


0

50

100

200 m

0

50

100

200 m

Green Area

Satellite Image.

The Mithi river is an important natural element in the city tissue and it’s also a possible site where new informal settlement can appear. In the Slum, the green area is fragmented and rare.

It s possible to distinguish two different kind of informal tissue: It’s • on the right of the railway, the “industrial area” of Dharavi, has a particular pattern. Large access for take out goods, big open spaces for special kind of work, particular building typologies. • on the left of the railway, the grain is small and dense. It can be the residential area, where the high density is the only driving factor.

Drawings: Author Satellite Image: www.wikimapia.org


0

50 100

200 m

Figure Ground

0

50 100

Circulation

0

50 100

200 m

Reverse Figure Ground

200 m

0

50 100

200 m

Building Functions

Main road Local streets

Slum Residential

Railway

Mosque

50 100

0

200 m

Green G ee Area ea

0

50 100

200 m

Satellite Drawings: Author Satellite Image: www.wikimapia.org


Live and Work Photo: Author

5_ Mixed use par excellence


A

B

Upper class (10% of the total population) For them, the road is a physical link between two places to cover in i th the shortest h t t time, ti without ith t much h concern off th the world ld iin between. (1)

Daily traffic jam jam. Street as a Tube

Flyovers try to decongest the city centre Photo: Author (1) [Rewati Prabhu, 2002; 95-101]

Street User


A

B

Upper class (10% of the total population) For them, the road is a physical link between two places to cover in i th the shortest h t t time, ti without ith t much h concern off th the world ld iin between. (1)

Home

Work

Mixed activities in the bazar Middle class (30% of the total population). For them, the street is an extension of their house and of their living customs customs. It is a place for social interaction interaction, to eat eat, celebrate and sometimes also to relax. (2)

Tea time Photo: Author (1) (2) [Rewati Prabhu, 2002; 95-101]

Street User


A

B

Upper class (10% of the total population) For them, the road is a physical link between two places to cover in i th the shortest h t t time, ti without ith t much h concern off th the world ld iin between. (1)

Home

Work

The street space p is their house‌ Middle class (30% of the total population). For them, the street is an extension of their house and of their living customs customs. It is a place for social interaction interaction, to eat eat, celebrate and sometimes also to relax. (2)

Home W k Work

Lower income group (60% of the population) Unskilled workers, slum dwellers, unemployed poor people. Their relation with the street is instinctive and is that if a primary need due to fact that their work, their house and all the rest of their daily activities take place on or near the road. (3)

‌and more! Photo: Author (1) (2) (3) [Rewati Prabhu, 2002; 95-101]

Street User


Street Landscape The 35% of the road space has been occupied by different kind of obstacle: (1) -Linear Slums Remove?

Æ new Slums somewhere else Æ far from their work Æ overload the public transport

Linear Slums occupy the whole sidewalk. The relation with the street is total.

Photo: Author (1) [Rewati Prabhu, 2002; 95-101]

Street ingredients


Street Landscape The 35% of the road space has been occupied by different kind of obstacle: (1) -Linear Slums Remove?

- Informal Worker Prevent?

Æ new Slums somewhere else Æ far from their work Æ overload the public transport Æ work for people? Æ high economic interest

B k seller Book ll

Transportation of goods along the roads Photo: Author (1) [Rewati Prabhu, 2002; 95-101]

Street ingredients


Street Landscape The 35% of the road space has been occupied by different kind of obstacle: (1) -Linear Slums Remove?

- Informal Worker Prevent? -Religion Deny?

Æ new Slums somewhere else Æ far from their work Æ overload the public transport Æ work for people? Æ high economic interest Æ Ceremonies Æ Marriage Æ Holy processions

Ratiatra, Religious procession.

Photo: Author (1) [Rewati Prabhu, 2002; 95-101]

Street ingredients


Street Landscape The 35% of the road space has been occupied by different kind of obstacle: (1) -Linear Slums Remove?

- Informal Worker Prevent? -Religion Deny?

Æ new Slums somewhere else Æ far from their work Æ overload the public transport Æ work for people? Æ high economic interest Æ Ceremonies Æ Marriage Æ Holy processions

-Street signs, cycle, rickshaw animals Reorganize? Æ need of adequate policy Æ wider streets

Photo: Author (1) [Rewati Prabhu, 2002; 95-101]

The intersection between streets become an extraordinary attractor of activities (markets, tea seller) which can bee seen as a big problem for the traffic.

Street ingredients


Street Landscape The 35% of the road space has been occupied by different kind of obstacle: (1) -Linear Slums Remove?

- Informal Worker Prevent? -Religion Deny?

Æ new Slums somewhere else Æ far from their work Æ overload the public transport Æ work for people? Æ high economic interest Æ Ceremonies Æ Marriage Æ Holy processions

-Street signs, cycle, rickshaw animals Reorganize? Æ need of adequate policy Æ wider streets

Cohabitation is the power of the street, but at the same time its collapse reason. This is an extraordinary interdependent equilibrium difficult to understand as much to solve, granted if it’s considered a p problem,, and compose p the characteristic and unique Mumbai’s urban landscape.

Photo: Author (1) [Rewati Prabhu, 2002; 95-101]

Street Landscape


6_ Informality: a convenient truth


Informality The 90% of the urban employment is in the informal sector. (1)

- Solo workers temporary bazaar selling any kind of goods goods. Shoe shining, tea, books, prostitute, many modern electronic instruments, road side food, domestic help (2)

Shoe-shining on the street.

Selling fish in the Slum.

Child labour.

Photos: Author (1) [UDRI, 2006: 11] (2) [Rewati Prabhu, 2002; 95-101]

Street workers


Informality The 90% of the urban employment is in the informal sector. (1)

- Solo workers temporary bazaar selling any kind of goods goods. Shoe shining, tea, books, prostitute, many modern electronic instruments, road side food, domestic help (2) Women in the fish market

- Private sector Industries, private companies (3)

Fish export.

Workers in construction sites.

Photos: Author (1) [UDRI, 2006: 11] (2)(3) [Rewati Prabhu, 2002; 95-101]

Enterprises worker


Informality The 90% of the urban employment is in the informal sector. (1)

- Solo workers temporary bazaar selling any kind of goods goods. Shoe shining, tea, books, prostitute, many modern electronic instruments, road side food, domestic help (2)

- Private sector Industries, private companies (3) Washing slum

- City’s Cit ’s ser services ices pro provider ider Washing Recycling (4)

Every square meter E t off Dharavi Dh i is i used d ffor productive d ti activity. (5) It’s a combination of free enterprises not restricted by any law and itit’ss possible to see child labour labour, small dangerous industries, adulteration. (6)

The production reaches 11 crore Rs Rs. (110 (110.000.000 000 000 Rs Rs.)) per hectare per year of profit, too high interests for stop it “only” because of human rights (7) R Recycling li slum l

Photos: Author (1) [UDRI, 2006: 11] (2)(3)(4) [Rewati Prabhu, 2002; 95-101] (5)(6)(7)[K. Sharma, 2000: 73; UDRI, 2006: 277]

Slum workers


Vertical Slum? Photo: Author

7_ Upgrading opportunities?


The Favela-Bairro project, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (planners: Jorge Mario Jauregui Architects)

• Survey of slum

Æ

understand the problems

• Qualities of the Slum

Æ Æ Æ

location Heritage Activities

• Integration

Æ Æ Æ

city activities in the slum work on the limits Connection of the interventions

• Results

Æ Æ Æ

self upgrading People proud i t integration ti

Æ Æ Æ

community participation local identity local management

Keywords

This project shows that is possible to look to the slums like a potential site rich of energy that belongs to that specific community. That is what can make this project work! It already happens in some specialized slums (washing, recycling, and manufacture) in Mumbai, but it is only used for the benefit of a few people. Can be interesting to take advantage of the labours skills and see how those potentialities can became real.

Photo and info form the book: Machado Rodolfo (Ed.), The Favela-Bairro Project. Jorge Mario Jáuregui Architects, Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2003.


The Favela-Bairro project, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (planners: Jorge Mario Jauregui Architects)

• Survey of slum

Æ

understand the problems

• Qualities of the Slum

Æ Æ Æ

location Heritage Activities

• Integration

Æ Æ Æ

city activities in the slum work on the limits Connection of the interventions

• Results

Æ Æ Æ

self upgrading People proud i t integration ti

Æ Æ Æ

community participation local identity local management

Keywords

This project shows that is possible to look to the slums like a potential site rich of energy that belongs to that specific community. That is what can make this project work! It already happens in some specialized slums (washing, recycling, and manufacture) in Mumbai, but it is only used for the benefit of a few people. Can be interesting to take advantage of the labours skills and see how those potentialities can became real.

Photo and info form the book: Machado Rodolfo (Ed.), The Favela-Bairro Project. Jorge Mario Jáuregui Architects, Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2003.


Kampung Improvement programme. Jakarta, Indonesia Client: Jakarta City Government, Ali Sadikin, Former Governor Planners: KIP technical unit, Mr.Darrundono, chief; Pik Mulyadi, Vice Governor of Jakarta, former Head of Regional Planning Office; People of the Kampungs Kampungs. Date: 1969 and ongoing. 1. Government previous actions: - relocate the people for decongest the area. - from low rise to high rise (cost of the land). - locate new vacant land and provide low cost minimal infrastructure and serviced plots 2. The genius of the KIP was to adapt this approach to the existing urban kampungs - Importance to stay near their work. - Feel to be integrated and accepted in the community - understand from kampung to kampung the existing situation 3. in the beginning the design standards were general for all kampungs (certain amount per hectare) - roadways - footpaths - sanitary facilities - public water tabs 4. but it was not good - no consideration to the exiting infrastructure - in some parts facilities were duplicated - no equal benefit for who is far from the 5. so they set minimum infrastructure per household instead per hectare - max distance from paved footpath - facilities (school, hospital, cultural) every a sort amount of people -max distance for children from the school (safety) 3. Administrative program (people participation) - independent technical unit of Jakarta’s city government - district committee 4 It has been crated a list of the kamungs and classified on the base of their needs of rehabilitation. 4. KIP Unit Jakarta “Kampung Improvement Program�, Aga Khan Award for Architecture, 1980 http://archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.tcl?site_id=63

Photo: www.wikimapia.org Drawing: Afshar / Paulos, Kampung improvement programme, june 1980


Kampung Improvement programme. Jakarta, Indonesia Client: Jakarta City Government, Ali Sadikin, Former Governor Planners: KIP technical unit, Mr.Darrundono, chief; Pik Mulyadi, Vice Governor of Jakarta, former Head of Regional Planning Office; People of the Kampungs Kampungs. Date: 1969 and ongoing. 1. Government previous actions: - relocate the people for decongest the area. - from low rise to high rise (cost of the land). - locate new vacant land and provide low cost minimal infrastructure and serviced plots 2. The genius of the KIP was to adapt this approach to the existing urban kampungs - Importance to stay near their work. - Feel to be integrated and accepted in the community - understand from kampung to kampung the existing situation 3. in the beginning the design standards were general for all kampungs (certain amount per hectare) - roadways - footpaths - sanitary facilities - public water tabs

Drainage canal and footpath. Before and after the intervention.

4. but it was not good - no consideration to the exiting infrastructure - in some parts facilities were duplicated - no equal benefit for who is far from the 5. so they set minimum infrastructure per household instead per hectare - max distance from paved footpath - facilities (school, hospital, cultural) every a sort amount of people -max distance for children from the school (safety) 3. Administrative program (people participation) - independent technical unit of Jakarta’s city government - district committee 4 It has been crated a list of the kamungs and classified on the base of their needs of rehabilitation. 4. KIP Unit Jakarta “Kampung Improvement Program�, Aga Khan Award for Architecture, 1980 http://archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.tcl?site_id=63

Photo: http://archnet.org/library/files/one-file.tcl?file_id=164


Kampung Improvement programme. Jakarta, Indonesia Client: Jakarta City Government, Ali Sadikin, Former Governor Planners: KIP technical unit, Mr.Darrundono, chief; Pik Mulyadi, Vice Governor of Jakarta, former Head of Regional Planning Office; People of the Kampungs Kampungs. Date: 1969 and ongoing. 1. Government previous actions: - relocate the people for decongest the area. - from low rise to high rise (cost of the land). - locate new vacant land and provide low cost minimal infrastructure and serviced plots 2. The genius of the KIP was to adapt this approach to the existing urban kampungs - Importance to stay near their work. - Feel to be integrated and accepted in the community - understand from kampung to kampung the existing situation 3. in the beginning the design standards were general for all kampungs (certain amount per hectare) - roadways - footpaths - sanitary facilities - public water tabs

Human waste disposal facilities. Before intervention

4. but it was not good - no consideration to the exiting infrastructure - in some parts facilities were duplicated - no equal benefit for who is far from the 5. so they set minimum infrastructure per household instead per hectare - max distance from paved footpath - facilities (school, hospital, cultural) every a sort amount of people -max distance for children from the school (safety) 3. Administrative program (people participation) - independent technical unit of Jakarta’s city government - district committee 4 It has been crated a list of the kamungs and classified on the base of their needs of 4. KIP Unit Jakarta “Kampung Improvement Program”, Aga Khan Award for Architecture, 1980 http://archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.tcl?site_id=63\

Public toilet with 12– seat capacity and washing facilities to serve an area of 11 ha. After intervention. rehabilitation.

Photo: http://archnet.org/library/files/one-file.tcl?file_id=164


Slum Networking of Indore City. Indore, India Client: Planner: Date:

Indore Development Authority; Himanshu Parrikh, civil engineer; 1989 and ongoing ongoing.

Slum has been seen as an opportunity to improve the whole city. The concept was to create an infrastructure path for sewage, water and storm drainage at the city scale following the natural courses of Indore’s Indore s two small rivers in the heart of the city city. Indore extends on 3,218 sq. km and has a total population of 1,400,000 (1995), 28 percent of whom live in the slums.

Survey y Æ understand the p problems Æ common p point with the city y Long term lease Æ self upgrading Many of them had paid for built their own private toilets ( at an average cost of 10.000 Rs. or US$ 260) and d washrooms h instead i t d off create t common public bli toilets t il t where h many crimes i iin th the past has occurred. •The rivers have been cleaned, •the streets paved, •new street lights added, y halls built •community •houses upgraded. •Public facilities and activities are implemented in strategic points of the city

Before improvement: inadequate amenities, unhygienic conditions, unplanned layouts, poor accessibility, dilapidated housing.

Community participation Æ local management This project shows how with some small rapid interventions is possible to strength people’s right to pretend basic necessity for a better human dignity, make them feel part of the community owning a “home” and also the land on which they live. The slums have successfully integrated into the urban fabric. Also in Mumbai could be an important point the idea of the long term leasing for the slum dwellers in some particular locations. That can give to the people the certainty to be part of the community without the fear to be reallocated somewhere else any time. Hence, self-upgrading process can take place with the help of the government in providing primary facilities like water and sewage systems.

•Parikh Himanshu, Slum Network of Indore city, Aga Khan Award for Architecture, http://archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.tcl?site_id=1645

Physical improvements: roads and footpaths, storm drainage, sanitation and sewerage system, water supply, landscaping, solid waste management.

Photo: http://archnet.org/library/files/one-file.tcl?file_id=536


Slum Networking of Indore City. Indore, India Client: Planner: Date:

Indore Development Authority; Himanshu Parrikh, civil engineer; 1989 and ongoing ongoing.

Slum has been seen as an opportunity to improve the whole city. The concept was to create an infrastructure path for sewage, water and storm drainage at the city scale following the natural courses of Indore’s Indore s two small rivers in the heart of the city city. Indore extends on 3,218 sq. km and has a total population of 1,400,000 (1995), 28 percent of whom live in the slums.

Survey y Æ understand the p problems Æ common p point with the city y Long term lease Æ self upgrading Many of them had paid for built their own private toilets ( at an average cost of 10.000 Rs. or US$ 260) and d washrooms h instead i t d off create t common public bli toilets t il t where h many crimes i iin th the past has occurred. •The rivers have been cleaned, •the streets paved, •new street lights added, y halls built •community •houses upgraded. •Public facilities and activities are implemented in strategic points of the city

Community participation Æ local management This project shows how with some small rapid interventions is possible to strength people’s right to pretend basic necessity for a better human dignity, make them feel part of the community owning a “home” and also the land on which they live. The slums have successfully integrated into the urban fabric. Also in Mumbai could be an important point the idea of the long term leasing for the slum dwellers in some particular locations. That can give to the people the certainty to be part of the community without the fear to be reallocated somewhere else any time. Hence, self-upgrading process can take place with the help of the government in providing primary facilities like water and sewage systems.

•Parikh Himanshu, Slum Network of Indore city, Aga Khan Award for Architecture, http://archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.tcl?site_id=1645

New footpath on the river bank

Photo: Ram Rahman , 1998, Aga Khan Visual Archive, MIT http://archnet.org/library/images/one-image.tcl?location_id=3036&image_id=13639&start=1&limit=9


“Mumbai Studio” spring 2007, Postgraduate Master programmes MaHS MaUSP “Master in Human Settlements”, KuLeuven, STUDIO INSTRUCTORS SHANNON Kelly (Belgium) AG-UKRIKUL Chotima (Thailand) STUDENTS AGUILERA DIAZ DEL PILAR Adriana (Colombia) BEJA DA COSTA Ana (Portugal) CAMPOS Luciana (Argentina) CHEN Ying Ching (Taiwan) DEGAETANO Marco (Italy) FAVARO Sabina (Italy) GJOKLAJ Elisabeta (Albania) GOSSEYE Janina (Belgium) SI Min Jin (China) TIRANISHTI Julian (Albania) WEN Pei Chun (Taiwan)

(photo: GJOKLAJ Elisabeta )

8_ Lessons from Design Studio


The studio wanted to generate new relations between landscape infrastructure and urbanization investigating on multiple scales the possibility to discover potential sites for intervention where to locate and distribute social infrastructure based on the needs of the inhabitants. A particular attention has been given to the informal settlements without aiming to any kind of upgrading process, which for sure needs more serious and deep analysis and professional work. Here the studio has indirectly worked on their confines, providing social infrastructures like schools, hospital or social care centre in particular where more slums are located.

The three nodal cities in the Eastern part of the Maharashtra State, Mumbai Pune and Nasik, form the so-called “golden triangle� along which the urbanization is experiencing an incredible growth, spreading along the infrastructure which connect those cities. Mumbai represent the critical node of this triangle becoming an incredible magnet for investments, industries and therefore also for urbanization and new migrants.

THE GOLDEN TRIANGLE Mumbai, Pune, Nasik

(Drawings: Studio)


Mumbai Metropolitan Region 0

5 10

20 Km

Salsette Island 0

2.5

5

10 Km

LANDSCAPE Water, marshland, mountains, urban open spaces, topography (7 islands)

Island City 0

1

2

5 Km

(Drawings: Studio)


Mumbai Metropolitan Region 0

5 10

20 Km

INFRASTRUCTURE Landscape, railway, roads, ferry

Salsette Island 0

2.5

5

10 Km

Island City 0

1

2

5 Km


Mumbai Metropolitan Region 0

5 10

Salsette Island 0

20 Km

URBANIZATION Landscape, railway, roads, urbanization

SEZ

2.5

Slums

5

10 Km

Island City 0

1

2

Private mills NTC mills Slums

5 Km

DE-URBANIZATION Railway land, dock land, mill land


Mumbai Metropolitan Region 0

5 10

0

20 Km

PROPOSAL

Salsette Island

Special economi Zone Social Infrastructure

2.5

5

Island City 0

10 Km

New greenery Slum

Landscape, infrastructure, urbanization, new ferry, new urbanization

Public open Spaces Social infrastructure

1

2

New greenery Slum

5 Km

Public open Spaces Social infrastructure Land for the private market


Section A: existing situation Section B: possible scenario without any intervention (the urbanization will take over the already weak marshland) Section C: possible scenario with the studio proposal (the new urbanization is located in the hinterland)

Section A

Section B

Section C

SECTION Now, without, with

0

5

10

20 Km


Existing situation

Possible scenario without any intervention

Possible scenario with the studio proposal water slum green area social infrastructure private development railway

SECTION Now, without, with

0

500 m

1Km

2 Km


Thinking about it Photo: Author

9_ Conclusions


Housing Demand of 85.000 units annually in the period between 1991 and 2001 ((4)) p

Photo: Author (4)(5) [P.

Joshi, UDRI, 2006:154-163].

annual supply of housing by the private and public sector has reached only the amount of 65.000 units. (5)

What happen to the other people?


Housing Demand of 85.000 units annually in the period between 1991 and 2001 ((4)) p

annual supply of housing by the private and public sector has reached only the amount of 65.000 units. (5)

What happen to the other people?

New apartment's blocks?

What happen to the their works?

Photo: Author (4)(5) [P.

Joshi, UDRI, 2006:154-163].


Housing Demand of 85.000 units annually in the period between 1991 and 2001 ((4)) p

annual supply of housing by the private and public sector has reached only the amount of 65.000 units. (5)

What happen to the other people?

New apartment's blocks?

What happen to the their works?

S i providers Service id

Is it convenient for the city?

Photo: Author (4)(5) [P.

Joshi, UDRI, 2006:154-163].


Is it possible for Mumbai to find a solution to its unbalanced development? pp to the other p people? p What happen

What happen to the their works? Is it convenient for the city?

Is this formal/informal equilibrium really so intrinsic in people behaviour that it will ever be part of Mumbai reality?

The intention here is not to give an answer to this questions; neither the studio project is “the solution” for the numerous social problems that Mumbai is facing nowadays, but for sure can be considered as a provocative suggestion to the local institutions, for a possible development of Mumbai which can take in consideration the interests of all the social classes for a sustainable and balanced re-urbanization process. p

To “Formalize” is maybe not a solution, neither it’s is a dream . Give people an opportunity to improve their life is an unquestionable human right.

Answers?


People in Slum Photo: Author

...


Drawings: • All the drawings signed with “Studio” are taken from: “Mumbai Studio” spring 2007, Postgraduate Master programmes MaHS MaUSP ; “Master in Human Settlements”, KuLeuven, STUDIO INSTRUCTORS SHANNON Kelly (Belgium) AG-UKRIKUL Chotima (Thailand)

STUDENTS AGUILERA DIAZ DEL PILAR Adriana (Colombia) BEJA DA COSTA Ana (Portugal) CAMPOS Luciana (Argentina) CHEN Ying Ching (Taiwan) DEGAETANO Marco (Italy) FAVARO Sabina (Italy) GJOKLAJ Elisabeta (Albania) GOSSEYE Janina (Belgium) SI Min Jin (China) TIRANISHTI Julian (Albania) WEN Pei Chun (Taiwan)

• Drawings without reference are realized by the author. Books and articles: • Davis D i Mik Mike ((scholar):Planet h l ) Pl t off Slums Sl L d London, N New Y York k 2006 ISBN 1 1-84467-022-8 84467 022 8 • Di Pauline Rohatgi, Bombay to Mumbai: Changing Perspectives, Architecture, Marg Publications, 1997, ISBN 8185026378 • Dossal See Mariam, Imperial Designs and Indian Realities. The Planning of Bombay City 1845–1875, (Delhi: Oxford University Press), 1991 • Jakobson Mark, Dharavi, Mumbai’s shadow city, National Geographic May 2007, vol.211 no.5, pages 68-93. • Machado Rodolfo (Ed.), The Favela-Bairro Project. Jorge Mario Jáuregui Architects, Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2003. • Navarra Enrico, Seguin Patrik, The permanent emergency, Marseille, France, 2002, article 1 written by Rewati Prabhu Prabhu, The pavements of Bombay; pag. pag 95 95-101 101 article 2 written by Gandaghar Gadgil, Vitality and degeneration; pag. 102-108 • Petruccioli Attilio, Modelli culturali nell’impianto e nelle trasformazioni di Old Delhi, Storia della Città, n°31-32, pp. 123-124, Electa, 1986 • Sharma K., rediscovering Dharavi, Penguin Books, New Delhi, India, 2000 • UDRI, R.Mehrotra, P. Joshi, P. Shetty, B Menezes, Mumbai reader, UDRI, Mumbai, 2006 Websites: • Demographia World Urban Areas: 2005 Population & 2015 Projection, http://www.demographia.com/db-worldua2015.pdf • Government of Maharashtra, Department of Relief and rehabilitation, http://mdmu.maharashtra.gov.in/pages/Mumbai/mumbaiplanShow.php • KIP Unit Jakarta “Kampung Improvement Program”, Aga Khan Award for Architecture, 1980 http://archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.tcl?site_id=63 • Parikh Himanshu, Slum Network of Indore city, Aga Khan Award for Architecture, http://archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.tcl?site_id=1645 • Risbud Neelima, The case of Mumbai, India, http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu- projects/Global_Report/cities/mumbai.htm • Taino Danilo, Baraccopoli, raddoppia la popolazione. Corriere della Sera, 15 Sept 2004 http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baraccopoli • UN-Habitat (2003) Global Report on Human Settlements 2003, The Challenge of Slums, Earthscan, London; Part IV: 'Summary of City Case Studies' • Xavier Helia Nacif, Fernanda Megalhaes, The case of Rio de Janeiro, http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Rio.pdf • http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumbai • World Gazetteer Pictures: • All pictures i t without ith t reference f are taken t k by b the th author. th

10_ Bibliography

Mumbai: Formal and informal equilibrium  

Final thesis of the Master in Human settlement in Leuven (Belgium) concerning Urban Design Strategies for the informal settlements in Mumbai...