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The Official Publication of the National Defense Transportation Association

August 2018

Infrastructure in America PLUS The State of the Maritime Administration


| Defense Transportation Journal | AUGUST 2018 |


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NDTA 50 South Pickett Street, Suite 220 Alexandria, VA 22304-7296 703-751-5011 • F 703-823-8761


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An Interview with The Honorable Mark H. Buzby, Maritime Administrator




Report on America’s Infrastructure Port Infrastructure Funding Dialogue on Highway Automation Working Through Aviation Infrastructure

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DEPARTMENTS Defense Transportation Journal (ISSN 0011-7625) is published bimonthly by the National Defense Transportation Association (NDTA), a non-profit research and educational organization; 50 South Pickett Street, Suite 220, Alexandria, VA 22304-7296, 703-751-5011. Copyright by NDTA. Periodicals postage paid at Alexandria, Virginia, and at additional mailing offices. SUBSCRIPTION RATES: One year (six issues) $40. Two years, $60. Three years, $75. To foreign post offices, $45. Single copies, $6 plus postage. The DTJ is free to members. For details on membership, visit POSTMASTER: Send address changes to: Defense Transportation Journal 50 South Pickett Street, Suite 220 Alexandria, VA 22304-7296

COUNTDOWN TO 75 | Lori Leffler & COL Dennis Edwards, USA (Ret.)............................. 8 PRESIDENT’S CORNER | VADM William A. Brown, USN (Ret.)....................................... 9 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT | Irvin Varkonyi......................................................23 CHAIRMAN’S CIRCLE.......................................................................................28 HONOR ROLL..................................................................................................29 NDTA NEWS | Lucas Hackmann...........................................................................30 INDEX OF ADVERTISERS.................................................................................... 30 We encourage contributions to the DTJ and our online publication, The Conduit. To submit an article or story idea, please see our guidelines at

NDTA Headquarters Staff


VADM William A. Brown, USN (Ret.) President & CEO COL Jim Veditz, USA (Ret.) Senior VP Operations Patty Casidy VP Finance


Lee Matthews VP Marketing and Corporate Development Leah Ashe Manager, Database Kimberly Huth Director of Public Relations



Rebecca Jones Executive Assistant to the President For a listing of current Committee Chairpersons, Government Liaisons, and Chapter & Regional Presidents, please visit the Association website at EDITORIAL OBJECTIVES The editorial objectives of the Defense Transportation Journal are to advance knowledge and science in defense logistics and transportation and the partnership between the commercial transportation industry and the government transporter. DTJ stimulates thought and effort in the areas of defense transportation, logistics, and distribution by providing readers with: • News and information about defense logistics and transportation issues • New theories or techniques • Information on research programs • Creative views and syntheses of new concepts • Articles in subject areas that have significant current impact on thought and practice in defense logistics and transportation • Reports on NDTA Chapters EDITORIAL POLICY The Defense Transportation Journal is designed as a forum for current research, opinion, and identification of trends in defense transportation and logistics. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily of the Editors, the Editorial Review Board, or NDTA. EDITORIAL CONTENT Archives are available to members on Sharon Lo, Managing Editor, DTJ NDTA 50 South Pickett Street, Suite 220 Alexandria, VA 22304-7296 703-751-5011 • F 703-823-8761


| Defense Transportation Journal | AUGUST 2018


The Association Gets Organized By Lori Leffler, Chair, NDTA Special Projects Committee and COL Dennis Edwards, USA (Ret.), NDTA Life Member

Founded in 1944, NDTA will be celebrating its 75th Anniversary in 2019. To commemorate this milestone event, we will be publishing a series of articles selected from our archives that will highlight important events in our Association’s history.


nce the Association’s official incorporation documents were signed on 11 October 1944, the founders immediately set out on the myriad of tasks necessary to breath real life into the Army Transportation Association (ATA). One of the most important decisions was to find a home for the headquarters. They chose an impressive brownstone former bank located just blocks from the US Capitol located at 930 F Street NW, Washington, DC, which served as ATA’s home for its first nine years. Also important in those first few months after incorporation was to adopt a suitable crest that would be easily recognized in the transportation industry. The seeds of the Association were already rooted in the US Army’s Transportation Corps, and its emblem provided the basis for the Association’s crest. The Transportation Corps’ design included representations of each major mode of transportation superimposed over a large spear with the slogan “Spearhead of Logistics” inscribed on a banner across the bottom. The modes used in both designs were: • RAIL represented by a flanged, steel wheel on a rail • AIR represented by a wing added to the wheel • LAND symbolized by a shield used as standard US Highway markers • WATER indicated by a ship’s steering wheel Next, on February 1, 1945, the Army Transportation Journal was established. Initially a monthly publication, it soon became apparent that to serve the burgeoning growth of the Association, costs would have to be reduced and income would have to be increased. The first problem was solved by reducing the Journal from a monthly publication to a bi-monthly one. To address the latter issue, the board voted to accept paid advertising in the Journal. Meanwhile another major project was underway—producing the ATA’s first National Convention in Chicago, scheduled for November 13 and 14, 1946 at the Palmer House See 75th Anniversary pg. 27

PRESIDENT’S CORNER Infrastructure’s Critical Role VADM William A. Brown, USN (Ret.) NDTA President & CEO


ransporters and logisticians know how crucial the nation’s infrastructure—the collection of roads, bridges, ports, waterways, railroads, ship building/ repair yards and airports—is to delivering high-quality service and meeting national security needs. In addition, these capabilities have both commercial and government operational complexities. Likewise, there are unique qualities of each! For instance, aside from the physical infrastructure, the “human factor,” the workforce, is a critical element acting as the glue that operates the intermodal machine we have become accustomed to in America.

At NDTA, through our military and industry members, we remain committed to supporting not only the strength of day-to-day operations in commercial and organic logistics, but also our nation’s ability to surge our industrial base writ large. Protecting our infrastructure, making it resilient to direct or “gray” attacks has become a daily responsibility of all involved. Our ability to sustain our forces at home and around the world will depend on our success as a nation in setting the course for the next several decades. We live in a continuum somewhere between all-out conflict and peace. We are


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somewhere in the middle, but must be prepared for head-to-head conflict. We all need to be vigilant for policies and programmatic barriers to effective logistics support in a contested environment. The August 2018 DTJ examines the challenges, progress and innovations made by the organizations that maintain, regulate and make use of US infrastructure. As a special See Pres Corner pg. 27

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The State of the Maritime Administration AN INTERVIEW WITH The Honorable Mark H. Buzby, Maritime Administrator By Kimberly Huth, Director of Public Relations, NDTA


he Maritime Administration (MARAD) is the agency within the US Department of Transportation that oversees waterborne transportation. Its programs promote the use of waterborne transportation and its seamless integration with other segments of the transportation system. MARAD works in many areas involving ships and shipping, shipbuilding, port operations, vessel operations, national security, environment, and safety. MARAD is also charged with maintaining the health and viability of the merchant marine, since commercial mariners, vessels, and intermodal facilities are vital for supporting national security.1 Rear Admiral Mark “Buz” Buzby, USN (Ret.), Administrator of the Maritime Administration, is approaching the end of his first year in this position. He is committed to finding ways to enhance cargo op-

portunities, while also building the US flag fleet. Currently, he is focused on promoting the development and maintenance of an adequate, well-balanced United States merchant marine, sufficient to carry the Nation’s domestic waterborne commerce and a substantial portion of its foreign waterborne commerce, and capable of service as a naval and military auxiliary in time of war or national emergency. The current state of MARAD is of great concern to Buzby. In the following interview, he highlights his concerns, discusses developing MARAD’s functionality and kick-starting its strategic initiatives. The conversation has been edited for length and clarity. DTJ: Thank you for taking time to sit and talk with us today. It only takes about five minutes observing you

RADM Mark H. Buzby, USN (Ret.) was appointed by President Donald Trump and sworn in as Maritime Administrator in August 2017. (Maritime Administration photo/Released). |


The SS John W. Brown, one of only two remaining operational World War II Liberty Ships, sails up the Elizabeth River. (US Navy photo by Bill Mesta/Released).

Ready Reserve Force (RFF) The RFF was established as a subset of MARAD’s National Defense Reserve Fleet (NDRF) to support the rapid worldwide deployment of US military forces. As a key element of US Department of Defense strategic sealift, the RRF primarily transports Army and Marine Corps unit equipment, combat support equipment, and initial resupply during the critical surge period before commercial ships can be marshaled.

to completely understand your love for the maritime industry, can you tell us where it all started and what keeps your head and heart attached to the sea? Administrator Buzby: When I was 14 years old, I put on my very first set of dress blues; 12

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I’ve known no other life. It has been my center for as long as I can remember. As I think about my life, I wouldn’t have chosen to be anywhere else. I often think of what I would tell the future generations of young men or women considering the maritime career field. It is an opportunity to make a meaningful, significant contribution to the service of their nation. It will put them in touch with natural elements at sea. It allows a great deal of pride in their ability and candidly their inability to do it. They will be entrusted with large machinery and sailors who depend on them. It requires a methodical process, that requires patience and trust. It demands that a sailor knows the ship well and be alert to when she is not operating appropriately. In fact, I got underway on a 70-year-old Liberty ship, [SS] John W. Brown this past weekend from Baltimore, the kind of ship that won WWII. There are two of them still active, one in Baltimore and one in California. I was down in the engine room, up on the bridge steering just like a merchant sailor; it was great! I was totally in my element, like returning home

after a bit too much time away. She has been preserved for historic purposes. She is one of 2,000 ships that were built to answer the shortage of merchant ships. My predecessor, Jerry Land, was directed by President Roosevelt to build a merchant marine. We had no ships to transport our troops or vital supplies. Ships were being built in months versus years. DTJ: Can you expand on your recent comments concerning the readiness of the Ready Reserve Force (RRF) and the fleet’s ability to respond to a contested or uncontested environment? Administrator Buzby: The condition of our RRF worries me, I had to call General McDew [Gen Darren McDew, Commander US Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM)], and tell him that I have ships I can’t provide to him anymore that he’s counting on. In fact, Admiral Mewbourne, [Rear Adm Dee Mewbourne, Commander Military Sealift Command (MSC)] is supporting this assessment and telling his boss

Registration is now open for the 6th annual NDTA-USTRANSCOM Fall Meeting, scheduled October 22-25, 2018 at the beautiful Gaylord National Harbor in Washington, DC. This year’s theme is Delivering Readiness and Resiliency in an Unpredictable World. During the Meeting, we’ll look closely at the challenges that face the defense logistics enterprise in the current security environment. The Fall Meeting provides the forum to foster our critical public and private partnership in defense transportation through frank discussion about new policies, technologies and best practices. Additional information and registration is open at – reserve your spot now! |


that he has ships that he is sending up to me that are no longer able to operate. The readiness decline is demanding hard decisions. The fleet ships can be fixed, but they are wearing out at a higher rate and the cost to fix them is outrageous; do we really want to dump that money into a 50-year-old ship? What we are talking about is typically steel

Our merchant marine is so cyclic, we build it up, then crisis is over and we start from the bottom. The solution to any contingency must include a multi modal capability. As General McDew likes to say, ‘if you want it there tonight, airlift is absolutely the best option. However, if you want a decisive combat force, it must come on a ship.’ replacement, as these ships rust from inside out. The skill to replace the rusted inside, as well as the cost of steel make it a risk versus reward decision very tough. DTJ: During the recent NDTA Board of Directors meeting, we discussed the ports that are struggling to remain in business. As business dissolves, how do the shipyards preserve the talent required to meet the current and future needs of the fleet? Administrator Buzby: Recently the Philly Shipyard laid off laborers and is struggling to keep the experienced talent they have. The work force is forced to look for employment elsewhere and if they do find it, they are forced to start at the bottom and often relocate their family to follow the work. The fear is that we will lose the talent and they will find other trades. DTJ: Where do you think we can apply the lessons learned from past mistakes to the Maritime Administration? Administrator Buzby: Probably after the first Gulf War, we realized ships were WWII vintage and were barely making it or breaking down. So in response we built the Large Medium Speed Roll-On/Roll-Off [LMSR], but that was 20 years ago. Our merchant marine is so cyclic, we build it up, then crisis is over and we start from the bottom. The solution to any contingency must include a multi modal capability. As 14

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US service members and civilian mariners conduct a replenishment-at-sea aboard the USNS Mercy. Concerns about shortages of mariners and other transportation workers is being felt across the modes. (US Navy photo by Seaman Harley K. Sarmiento/Released). |


General McDew likes to say, ‘if you want it there tonight, airlift is absolutely the best option. However, if you want a decisive combat force, it must come on a ship.’ DTJ: NDTA Committee Chairs have shared concerns about pilot, truck driver and mariner shortages. What do you attribute this to, and what do you believe is the collective solution? Administrator Buzby: The common thread across all modes is the work requires reoccurring and long durations of time away from home and family. It entails an enormous commitment, a low level of pay for the amount of work done and that may not be commensurate to what people perceive as easier and allowing less time away from home. Additionally, these fields have a perceived decrease in the normal comforts of life—lack of connectivity to family and friends, and predictable time off. It has always been that way, but this generation places a higher value on those things. And they are a bit less willing to sacrifice those things. When I was at MSC, going on a ship and not knowing the exact day when you can walk ashore to attend very important life-events, like weddings or the birth of your child, was very important and we worked hard to improve the predictability. They want more predictability, and a bit more control of their scheduled time off. DTJ: In addition to the predictability and more time with family, the community also feels the administrative burden has increased and can often seem to be a tipping point when deciding on a long-term career. Does this affect your mariners? Administrator Buzby: We have reduced the crew size to reduce the cost, while increasing the administrative burden. Being a captain on a ship today requires doing work that three people used to do. In addition to the enormous responsibility of commanding a ship at sea, they also are responsible payroll, purser, manifest, or the doctor. It is not just standing on the bridge anymore. DTJ: Where are your efforts focused? Administrator Buzby: We must ensure the policies in place make it viable for US companies to use US flag ships to trade internationally and at a profit. The current 16

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business case does not support flying under the US flag because it supplies slivers compared to doing business internationally—the table is tilted so far against them. There is almost a $6-7 million dollar difference per-ship per-year operating cost between a US flag ship on a run and a foreign flag ship. One can only be patriotic so long with that kind of delta. If we didn’t have the Maritime Security Program paying out five-million dollars a year for those ships to stay under the US flag, which still does not cover all the delta, they would be flagging out at a much higher rate. We have about 12 ships under the US flag fleet left trading internationally that are somehow making it today. Some are under charter to MSC who are still getting paid by the government a lot of money, probably more than they would if doing it on the open market.

Maritime Security Program (MSP) The MSP provides financial assistance to operators of US flag vessels that meet certain qualifications. Participating operators are required to make their ships and commercial transportation resources available upon request by the Secretary of Defense during times of war or national emergency.

DTJ: You’ve mentioned your concern about our fleet’s readiness. Tell us more about that. Administrator Buzby: The average age of my RRF ships is 46 years old, some are older. If you draw a line in the sand and say 60-year-old ships are as old as we are going operate a ship—which can be done technically, but at an enormous cost—each year gets more expensive, so we are only supplying a short-term solution to a long-term problem. For instance, the SS Flickertail State, that I had to take off line; we planned on doing $2 million worth of repairs this year which has been what it has cost to keep her going. Based on the current cost of steel, we would have had to double that to allow her to go do her mission. Money does not exist in my budget right now. The US Navy gives me $289 million a year to

operate those 46 ships. That is with nine people working long, strenuous days and they are still not able to keep up. I have had to make some very tough decisions. This year I have five ships that I must dry dock because the US Coast Guard requires me to do so to stay in class. The amount of work required to keep those ships in service is double what I have in my checkbook. I had to take one off to keep the other four going. That is exactly what I said recently in my letter to General McDew: I informed him that he can’t count on that ship anymore. You ask where the root of my readiness concern lays, it is there. If a large dust up happens tomorrow and we must mobilize all the sealift ships, well I couldn’t in good conscience send that one to sea. We would have to potentially go on the open market and get a foreign flag ship to try and carry some of our stuff. DTJ: Thank you for the interview. We sure miss you at NDTA, however, we are incredibly proud and will remain a strong partner! As our former President and CEO, we want you to know we stand ready to assist and appreciate the continued relationship. How can we help? Administrator Buzby: Ahh thank you. NDTA is the connective tissue between the Maritime Administration and industry, and the government and industry. There isn’t a chain of command like there is in the military, there is almost a dotted line between the Maritime Administration and USTRANSCOM. We don’t work for them, but very closely with them. Our connectivity to industry and defense is through NDTA. You all help facilitate the conversation and help get word back and forth. NDTA enhances the maritime industry through engagements. We are doing a lot of work with the whole of industry, not just the Defense Department. NDTA ensures our collective industries stay in tune. I found the greatest attribute NDTA offers is when it is uncomfortable for one side or the other to take a stand, that should be NDTA talking. If there is hesitation whether to approach the other side, then NDTA is a valuable vehicle that ensures both sides get together. DTJ

1 Dept. of Transportation Maritime Administration About Us, Retrieved June 29, 2018 from https://

Infrastructure in America The nation’s infrastructure—the collection of roads, bridges, ports, waterways, railroads and airports—is critical to delivering high-quality service and meeting national security needs. |


Report on America’s Infrastructure By Sharon Lo, Managing Editor, DTJ

ASCE Report Card Grading Criteria CAPACITY Does the infrastructure’s capacity meet current and future demands? CONDITION What is the infrastructure’s existing and near-future physical condition? FUNDING What is the current level of funding from all levels of government for the infrastructure category as compared to the estimated funding need? FUTURE NEED What is the cost to improve the infrastructure? Will future funding prospects address the need? OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE


very four years, the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) releases its report card on America’s infrastructure which examines current conditions and needs, assigns grades and makes recommendations to raise them. An assessment of the nation’s 16 major infrastructure categories, the report card is a useful benchmark to track the progress of US infrastructure and serves as a periodic reminder to everyone just how important infrastructure is to the nation. The 16 categories are aviation, bridges, dams, drinking water, energy, hazardous waste, inland waterways, levees, ports, public parks, rail, roads, schools, solid waste, transit, and waste water. The most recent report card came out more than a year ago in March of 2017 with America’s overall Grade Point Average (GPA) a dismal D+. With President Trump’s focus on infrastructure and Congress seeming to agree that infrastructure was indeed a priority, it felt more likely than other years that we would see progress on areas ASCE identified as deficient. But thus far there has been little real action, though that may soon change as the Senate just recently and overwhelmingly passed legislation that would provide $1 billion in infrastructure grants. These grants, known as the Better Utilizing Investments to Leverage Development (BUILD) Transportation Discretionary Grants program, have been implemented by the Department of Transportation (DOT) to replace the pre-existing Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER) grant program. BUILD grants are intended for investments in surface transportation infrastructure and are to be awarded on


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What is the owners’ ability to operate and maintain the infrastructure properly? Is the infrastructure in compliance with government regulations? PUBLIC SAFETY To what extent is the public’s safety jeopardized by the condition of the infrastructure and what could be the consequences of failure? RESILIENCE What is the infrastructure system’s capability to prevent or protect against significant multi-hazard threats and incidents? How able is it to quickly recover and reconstitute critical services with minimum consequences for public safety and health, the economy, and national security? INNOVATION What new and innovative techniques, materials, technologies, and delivery methods are being implemented to improve the infrastructure?

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a competitive basis for projects that will have a significant local or regional impact. The funding can support roads, bridges, transit, rail, ports or intermodal transportation, with projects evaluated on safety, economic competitiveness, quality of life, environmental protection, state of good repair, innovation, partnership, and additional non-Federal revenue for future transportation infrastructure investments. Being an association of transportation and logistics professionals, you may already be asking ‘so how is our commercial transportation infrastructure doing?’ That’s a bit of a mixed bag. The rail industry fares the best, holding the highest grade on the entire report card at a B. This should not be entirely surprising to anyone who tracks (no pun intended) the rail industry’s continuous investments in its infrastructure. A majority of the nation’s rail infrastructure is owned by the rail industry, a fact that may help to explain why it receives greater care and investments than other infrastructure categories. Ports were not far behind rail with a C+ grade. The main concerns facing ports are congestion, and the need to modernize and expand to accommodate larger ships. Bridges also earned a C+ grade. Just over nine percent of the nation’s bridges are considered deficient—a number which is actually on the decline. However, the average age of US bridges is increasing and many are reaching the end of their design life. Inland waterways are experiencing a similar story, with most locks and dams already past their design life. This results in significant delays along the system and is the reason for them earning a D grade. Also, earning D grades and rounding out the major commercial transportation categories are roads and aviation. Roads’ grade is a result of congestion, traffic and poor conditions. Growing congestion is also the culprit behind the aviation industry’s low grade. But Aviation may soon see its situation improve, as US Transportation Secretary Elaine L. Chao recently announced the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will award $616.9 million in airport infrastructure grants, as part of the total $3.18 billion in Airport Improvement Program (AIP) funding for airports across the US. 20

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America’s 2017 Report Card Aviation






Drinking Water




Hazardous Waste


Inland Waterways






Public Parks








Solid Waste




Waste Water


Cumulative GPA


State of the States In addition to the national infrastructure report, ASCE creates rolling reports on each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Find out how your state is doing by visiting:

The overall D+ GPA remained unchanged from the 2013 report card indicating no progress during those four years. According to the White House, the major hindrance to making progress is red tape such as Federal regulations and lengthy review processes which they say can take as long as seven years. Hopefully, recent actions by the US Senate and Secretary

Chao are signs of changes to come—and changes to come before we receive our next report card. You can read more on America’s 2017 Report Card, including reports on each of the 16 categories of infrastructure, at

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Port Infrastructure Funding


nfrastructure investments in America’s seaports and their intermodal connections— both on the land and in the water—provide opportunities to bolster our economy, create and sustain jobs, enhance our international competitiveness and pay annual dividends. Yet, despite the national significance of ports most port-related investments are limited to state or local appropriations. If there are multiple ports within a state, they often compete for the same funding resources if any funding programs exist at all. Grants, like the Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER) competitive grant program, have represented the primary source of federal port investment. The Fixing America’s Surface Transportation (FAST) Act of 2015 created a national freight program with a $4.5 billion competitive grant program to fund eligible port-related projects. The Water Resources Reform and Development Act (WRRDA) of 2014 also authorized port-related projects, however authorized projects were often left unappropriated in the federal appropriations cycle. The federal Harbor Maintenance Trust Fund (HMTF), designed to pay for dredging in harbors collects its revenue through a user fee on the value of the cargo in imported containers. Despite the significant dredging needs at the majority of US ports, the fund’s balance has often been used for other purposes including federal deficit offsets and as a result has not been appropriated for its designated purpose. 22

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Despite the significant dredging needs at the majority of US ports, the fund’s balance has often been used for other purposes including federal deficit offsets and as a result has not been appropriated for its designated purpose.

To provide adequate resources for three key federal programs that help fund multimodal port-related infrastructure in the US, the American Association of Port Authorities (AAPA) recently sent a letter to the leadership of both the House and Senate Appropriations Committees’ Subcommittee on Transportation, Housing, and Urban Development and Related Agencies (THUD) advocating for dedicated funding for port infrastructure in the final Fiscal Year (FY) 2019 US Department of Transportation (DOT) Spending Bill. The letter commends the subcommittees’ leadership on their commitment to fund multimodal port infrastructure, such as the first/last mile connections such as roads, rails, bridges, tunnels and waterways with America’s seaports. It also strongly recommends they adopt the House provision that a third of the funding for the portion

of the National Infrastructure Investment Program focusing on multimodal BUILD/ TIGER-style projects be dedicated to port infrastructure projects. “Because dedicated multimodal infrastructure funding for ports is one of AAPA’s top priorities, we particularly appreciate House THUD Subcommittee Chairman Mario Díaz-Balart making it a priority in his bill,” said AAPA President and CEO Kurt Nagle. “AAPA members have consistently advocated for increased BUILD/TIGER funding levels. We heartily supported Chairman Díaz-Balart when he successfully championed 33 percent funding for port infrastructure projects in the House USDOT appropriations bill, and we hope to see that funding level in the final compromise bill.” AAPA is advocating that the fiscal 2019 BUILD (Better Utilizing Investments to Leverage Development) program adopt the Senate funding level of $1 billion, or if possible, the fiscal 2018 level of $1.5 billion. AAPA members have identified $32 billion in needed federal investments in port landside connections and facility infrastructure. For the Marine Highway Program, AAPA strongly supports the $7 million of funding in the Senate bill because the program provides US ports and communities an important option for using ocean and inland waterways to reduce highway congestion. The third program identified as a priority in AAPA’s letter is the Consolidated Rail Infrastructure and Safety Improvements (CRISI) program. AAPA recommends the House funding level of $300 million for CRISI grants because of the port rail access eligibilities the program provides and the opportunities it offers for strong rail and port partnerships. Cargo activities at America’s seaports are significant drivers of the US economy, supporting more than 23 million American jobs and generating over $320 billion in annual federal, state and local taxes. All but one percent of the nation’s overseas trade moves through its maritime facilities, and US seaport cargo activities account for more than one-quarter of the nation’s Gross Domestic Product. As such an important driver of the economy, ensuring the funding of port infrastructure projects should be a priority for all.

Dialogue on Highway Automation By the Federal Highway Administration, Office of Public Affairs


utomated vehicles have the potential to significantly transform the nation’s roadways. They offer potential safety benefits but also introduce uncertainty for the agencies responsible for the planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the roadway infrastructure. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has initiated a national conversation with partners and stakeholders, as well as the public atlarge, to receive broad input on key areas of interest and prepare FHWA programs and policies to incorporate automation considerations. The National Dialogue on Highway Automation is a series of meetings held across the country to facilitate information sharing, identify key issues, and support the transportation community to safely and efficiently integrate automated vehicles into the road network. Input received during the National Dialogue will help inform FHWA research, policies, and programs. This National Dialogue engages an expanded set of stakeholders—beyond FHWA’s typical stakeholders—in order to ensure that this issue receives broad input. Stakeholders include, but are not limited to, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), technology suppliers, transportation network companies (TNCs), associations, State and local agencies, and public sector partners. “Cutting-edge technologies, like automated vehicles, have the potential to dramatically change the nation’s use of highways,” said Acting Federal Highway Administrator Brandye L. Hendrickson. “Without hampering innovation in our federal role, we need to fully understand such advances so we can inform our state and local transportation partners and anticipate their needs.” The National Dialogue meetings are designed to support significant interaction among participants and are being held in different locations across the country through the end of this calendar year. Workshops will include discussions with govern-

ment and industry leaders, breakout sessions, listening sessions and opportunities to collaborate with meeting participants. MEETING OBJECTIVES

1. Listen: Gather detailed input from a diverse group of stakeholders regarding opportunities and challenges on highway automation, such as infrastructure readiness, traffic operations, policy, planning, and other areas. 2. Engage: Facilitate information sharing among industry, public agencies and others to understand the current state of automated vehicle technologies and inform FHWA actions. 3. Inform: Raise awareness of FHWA and USDOT initiatives in automation, serving as a resource for the transportation community. 4. Evolve: Update institutional structures for working with existing and new stakeholders to develop new partnerships and strengthen coordination channels. FOCUS AREAS

The FHWA National Dialogue on Highway Automation workshops will address the following focus areas as they represent key categories of interest to the highway community. 1. Planning and Policy: Considers issues relevant for the planning and policy community, such as how automation impacts travel demand, land use, infrastructure investment, right of way use, policy barriers, and other topics. 2. Digital Infrastructure and Data: Explores the data opportunities and challenges regarding highway automation. Will identify new partnerships and collaboration between public agencies and industry to enable data exchange. 3. Freight: Explores truck platooning applications and truck automation, as well as implications for traffic operations and infrastructure.

4. Operations: Addresses the range of operations questions with respect to automation, such as traffic incident management and system efficiency. Will initiate a discussion on further research needed to understand these types of challenges. 5. Infrastructure Design and Safety: Discusses infrastructure design and standardization needs to facilitate automation. Will highlight areas where automation technology developers and public agencies need discussion and collaboration to address where the roadway infrastructure, design, condition, and environment could lead to potential safety challenges. With the future of transportation on the horizon, our infrastructure simply cannot be stuck in the past. Transportation and infrastructure are inextricably linked to one another and that link will only expand with the adoption of autonomous vehicles.

The National Dialogue meetings are designed to support significant interaction among participants and are being held in different locations across the country through the end of this calendar year. Workshops will include discussions with government and industry leaders, breakout sessions, listening sessions and opportunities to collaborate with meeting participants.

In order to make true advancements in transportation, infrastructure must keep up to support innovation and ensure long term functionality. Proper planning and funding will be critical components of providing for the future of infrastructure— and these dialogues will be an important step toward FHWA and other stakeholders being able to meet future needs. |


Working Through Aviation Infrastructure By Charlie Elliott, Freeman Holdings


ilots from all over the country are looking for a safe place to land their aircraft and an FBO—Fixed-Base Operator (FBO)—provides that. An FBO is an organization granted the right by an airport to operate at the airport and provide aeronautical services such as fueling, hangaring, tie-down and parking, aircraft rental, aircraft maintenance, flight instruction, and similar services. Freeman Holding Group and their Million Air FBOs provide services to both commercial industry and military flights around the US. With that experience comes first hand knowledge on how infrastructure impacts air customers. Most of the Freeman Million Airs are co-located with or across the tarmac from commercial terminals. Services provided to these commercial flights include fueling, de-icing, cleaning of aircraft and other services as requested. Military aircraft are provided similar service, but FHG also loads and unloads military cargo, loads and unloads soldiers and their baggage, provides meal services, transport to sleeping facilities and other services as required. Balancing the workload between military and civilian customers is a must, but is not always an easy task. An FBO 24

| Defense Transportation Journal | AUGUST 2018

Balancing the workload between military and civilian customers is a must, but is not always an easy task. An FBO with a mixture of commercial and military aircraft on the ground for servicing requires close scrutiny. It cannot always be first-in, first out.

with a mixture of commercial and military aircraft on the ground for servicing requires close scrutiny. It cannot always be first-in, first out. Analysis of the missions to include priorities, destinations and tarmac space is a must. Customer satisfaction and mission success is always the end product. Use and forecasting of infrastructure is a routine step in implementing the support process. Our thought process is inclusive of a broad range of processes such as: 1. Access for personnel and cargo (the FBO is the center of the spoke—the hub for air, rail, truck and port.)

2. Facilities are managed to take advantage of existing and potential support systems for hangars, cargo and many other uses. 3. Continuous improvement of runways, lighting, radar and other support systems peculiar to maintenance of aircraft support. 4. Modernization of fuel storage and systems (receiving and dispensing.) Economical and efficiency of trucks, hydrants and other fueling supply systems with safety constantly monitored and systems upgraded. 5. Prompt and clean, different of fuel types delivered to storage systems, fuelers and aircraft. 6. Handling of specialty cargo such as hazardous cargo, customs, international trash and military supplies and sensitive items. 7. Maintenance of infrastructure, funding, hiring and training qualified crews. 8. Continuous updating of short, medium and long-range planning in every area of airport operations. 9. Availability and appropriate training and supervision of area specialists. 10. Access, loading and unloading all delivery methods (aircraft, truck, rail and port). Availability and maintenance of MHE, fuel, storage and timely links to subsequent transportation methods. 11. Variety of support systems for air, rail, truck and port. Funding for all methods must be included in all plans and budget such as Maximum On Ground (MOG), movements by rail, trucks and port requiring staging areas and depth of water ways for ports. 12. Must always keep in mind a plethora of safety and hazardous activities. There are many additional activities, equipment and other systems to keep the planners very busy. Planners are infamous to always point out that there are a lot of balls to balance when keeping up with a growing and aging infrastructure. You just have to pay constant attention and not drop the glass balls. Fact is, they are all glass. DTJ


Choosing Topic Tracks for Your Professional Development Irvin Varkonyi, President, SCOPE Consulting


he NDTA-USTRANSCOM Fall Meeting’s 2018 Transportation Academy will feature some seventy breakout sessions, broken into several tracks: • Acquisition & Finance • Combatant Command Logistics Challenges • Commercial Logistics Supporting the Warfighter • Cyber • Department of Defense (DOD) Global Transportation & Logistics • Innovation, Technology, & Analytics • Intro to Transportation Modes, Processes, and Enablers • Legislation and Policy • US Infrastructure & Asset Deployment


The challenges faced by Combatant Commands are always among the priorities dealt with by USTRANSCOM. This track is expected to feature presenters from the USTRANSCOM, Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC), Air Mobility Command (AMC), among others. COMMERCIAL LOGISTICS SUPPORTING THE WARFIGHTER

The track will feature Industry updates


This track will be an exploration of opportunities and threats in the cyber sphere that impact logistics stakeholders. The cyber world provides the capabilities that immeasurably enhance capabilities in all transportation modes, while cyber threats expose vulnerabilities in these systems. The US Department of Transportation’s Volpe Transportation Center will offer a session on cyber threats in transportation, “Cyber Attacks: How to Reduce Your Risks and Be Cyber Resilient.” Transportation systems are becoming more connected and automated,

Transportation Academy will take place over three-days, from 23-25 October. Attendees have the opportunity stay within a track or to attend a mix of sessions from different tracks. The Fall Meeting website,, provides descriptions of the courses in each track, along with instructor bios and class abstracts. Here is a little more on what you can expect from each track: ACQUISITION AND FINANCE

Government and industry representatives will provide updates on acquisition processes as they impact large and small businesses. One of the track courses, “From Requirements to Acquisition at DLA [Defense Logistics Agency] & USTRANSCOM,” will be a panel session moderated by Sean Caulfield of Caulfield Consulting, and the Armed Forces and Communications and Electronics Association, Northern Virginia Chapter (AFCEA NOVA). This course will address the process associated with awarding a government contract at USTRANSCOM and DLA. It will define the government’s common process of requirements gathering, market research, business case analysis, contracting vehicle selection, and the acquisition process.

on logistics support for DOD missions. A popular session from the 2017 Transportation Academy, “Cargo Movement Operations System (CMOS I2P) Conversion Update to Global Freight Management (GFM) Small Package Express (SPE),” will be repeated with panelists John Mannino (GFM) and Bernard Crosby(CMOS). Senior NDTA leaders are also expected to offer classes in this track focusing on aviation and maritime modes.

and have been disrupted by serious cyber attacks. This course will describe cyber attacks in transportation, and will recommend ways to make you and your organization more secure and resilient to cyber-attacks. DOD GLOBAL TRANSPORTATION AND LOGISTICS

This track will offer perspectives from government and industry on a variety of topics including freight payments, IT systems, |


General Services Administration (GSA) Auditing, and Ammunitions and Munitions Safety. Representatives from SDDC, GSA and NDTA Household Goods (HHG) carriers will be among the session instructors. INNOVATION, TECHNOLOGY AND ANALYTICS

What are current developments for increasingly complex demands to support DOD Logistics today and tomorrow? What is the role of big data? Representatives from the Transportation Blockchain Alliance will offer a class on blockchain technology, which is on the precipice of becoming a major disruptor in the transportation industry. From smart contracts to improved tracking and recordkeeping, blockchain will dramatically increase efficiencies along the entire supply chain. USTRANSCOM’s Analysis Center (TCAC) will offer a session about data science and how enterprise data science capability is being established, integrated, and employed in USTRANSCOM. This datadriven scientific methodology leverages the organization’s analytical architecture and tools to reveal insights, provide understanding, and recommend direction.


from disruptive events. Government and industry perspectives will be offered. Additionally, representatives of the Transportation Research Board’s Military Transportation Committee will discuss the assets available to the military for domestic deployment along with infrastructure challenges for such deployments.



As in past Fall Meetings, this track offers classes of interest to transportation novices, along with experienced transporters. Sessions will offer panels on rail, maritime, aviation and trucking modes. Representatives from the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) and USTRANSCOM will offer sessions updating attendees on current transportation policy. Adam Yearwood from OSD Transportation Policy will speak on the key factors that lead to policy changes through an overview of the steps and processes for DOD transportation policy creation and revision. Coordination with both government and industry stakeholders will be conveyed to understand the many steps of the collaborative process. US INFRASTRUCTURE AND ASSET DEPLOYMENT

This track will look at the expanding role of DOD in protecting US infrastructure

Stay up to date with additions and changes to these tracks by visiting www.ndtahq. com. Shortly before the Fall Meeting, room assignments and final schedules will be confirmed. Remember that as attendees of the NDTA Fall Meeting, you will be entitled to earn 2.8 CEUs through NDTA’s partnership with Northern Virginia Community College. An additional fee is due those who seek these CEUs during the registration process. A CEU form will be available online. DTJ For further information, please contact


The Trans Global Group is a NVOCC, Freight Forwarder, and CHB with over 35 years of experience. We provide innovative international logistics services for the U.S. Military and commercial customers. US HQ (972) 602-1670 EUR HQ (+49) 6134-6016119 UK (+44) (0) 1638-515714


| Defense Transportation Journal | AUGUST 2018

The Trans Global Group provides tailor made solutions for planning, coordinating the transit, customs, ocean freight, port operations, and warehousing. The Trans Global Group utilizes the best Ocean Carriers, Truckers, Terminals, and World Wide Agents who are specialists in the field of logistics to ensure only the highest level of professionalism.

75th Anniversary cont’d from pg. 8 Hotel. The Honorable Robert P. Patterson, Secretary of War, was the principal speaker. Registration for the two-day event was a whopping $10! By all accounts, the first convention was an overwhelming success. It was also during these organizational years that the association’s most prestigious award, The National Transportation Award, was established. It was to honor the one individual, organization or company that had contributed the most to military transportation. Early winners were Igor Sikorsky, who invented the helicopter; Donald Douglas, Douglas Aircraft for development of the iconic series of aircraft the DC-1 to the DC-10; and William Francis Gibbs, who designed the passenger Superliner, SS United States (still the world’s fastest ocean passenger liner afloat). The National Transportation Award continues being given today. Initially the Association had eight Chapters; 10,000 members; and 15 corporate members. Within five years those numbers had increased to 60 chapters including student and overseas chapters; 15,000 members and 58 corporate members. Individual dues had increased from $5 to $7.50. Also in the first few years, the Board of Directors William Francis Gibbs established four standing committees: Membership, Publications/Advertising, Finance, and Programs/Activities. It was in the midst of all of these organizational tasks, that the young Association received a particularly gratifying letter from the Commander-in-Chief:

“ …It is reassuring to know that those best able to meet the challenges of our transportation function in this global war and in the peace to follow are united in their aims and purposes…I would like to extend my congratulations to the Army Transportation Association and to extend my best wishes for its continued success…Very sincerely yours, Harry Truman” DTJ

Donald Douglas

Igor Sikorsky


President’s Corner, cont’d from pg. 9 addition, this issue features a conversation with Maritime Administrator RADM Mark H. Buzby, USN (Ret.) If you are interested in hearing more on the subject of infrastructure, join us for this year’s NDTA-USTRANSCOM Fall Meeting. One Transportation Academy track is focused on US Infrastructure and Asset Deployment. Read more about this and other tracks in the Professional Development inside this issue. With a 74-year heritage and unique co-sponsorship with US Transportation Command, the Fall Meeting is the authoritative voice in defense transportation. There’s no better time or place to meet colleagues from every segment of the military and private sector. My staff remains focused on creating a one-of-a-kind experience for all who attend—including you—and we look forward to seeing you there. DTJ +1 281 885 3500 |



These corporations are a distinctive group of NDTA Members who, through their generous support of the Association, have dedicated themselves to supporting an expansion of NDTA programs to benefit our members and defense transportation preparedness.

AAR CORP. + PLUS Agility Defense & Government Services + PLUS AIT Worldwide Logistics, Inc. + PLUS American President Lines, LLC + PLUS American Roll-on Roll-off Carrier + PLUS Amtrak + PLUS Atlas Air Worldwide Holdings + PLUS Bennett Motor Express, LLC + PLUS Boyle Transportation, Inc. + PLUS Crane Worldwide Logistics, LLC + PLUS Crowley Maritime Corp. + PLUS Deloitte + PLUS FedEx + PLUS Final Mile Logistics + PLUS Freeman Holdings Group + PLUS Goldratt Consulting North America LLC + PLUS Hapag-Lloyd USA, LLC + PLUS International Auto Logistics + PLUS Landstar System, Inc. + PLUS Liberty Global Logistics-Liberty Maritime + PLUS Maersk Line, Limited + PLUS National Air Cargo + PLUS Omni Air International + PLUS Panalpina World Transport Ltd. + PLUS SAP Concur + PLUS Schuyler Line Navigation Company LLC + PLUS TOTE, Inc. + PLUS Tri-State + PLUS United Airlines + PLUS US Ocean + PLUS Western Global Airlines + PLUS AeroCapital, LLC Anacostia Rail Holdings BNSF Railway Bristol Associates Central Gulf Lines CEVA Logistics Choice Hotels International CSX Transportation CWTSatoTravel 28

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DHL Express Echo Global Logistics, Inc. Global Logistics Providers LLC JM Ship, LLC KGL Holding La Quinta Inns & Suites Matson National Air Carrier Association

Norfolk Southern Corporation SAIC Sealift, Inc. The Pasha Group Toll Global Forwarding Transportation Institute U.S. Bank Freight Payment Union Pacific Railroad UPS





SUSTAINING MEMBERS 1-800-PACK-RAT AAT Carriers, Inc. Accenture Federal Services Admiral Merchants Motor Freight, Inc. Advantage Rent A Car Air Transport International, Inc. Airlines for America Al-Hamd International Container Terminal American Maritime Officers American Moving & Storage Association American Trucking Associations ArcBest Army & Air Force Exchange Service Arven Freight Forwarding Arven Services, LLC Associated Global Systems Atlas World Group International ATS Specialized, Inc. Avis Budget Group aVolt Incorporated Baggett Transportation Company Benchmarking Partners, Inc. Best Western International Boeing Company C.L. Services, Inc. Chalich Trucking, Inc. Club Quarters Hotels Daybreak Express

REGIONAL PATRONS ACME Truck Line, Inc. Agile Defense, Inc. Amyx Bollore Logistics C5T Corporation CakeBoxx Technologies Cartwright International Cavalier Logistics Chassis King, Inc. Columbia Helicopters, Inc. Dalko Resources, Inc. DB Schenker

Delta Air Lines Enterprise Holdings Erickson Incorporated Estes Forwarding Worldwide, LLC Europcar Car & Truck Rental Eurpac Evanhoe & Associates, Inc. Extended Stay America Hotels Fast Air & Sea Transport FEDITC FlightSafety International GeoDecisions Getac Greatwide Truckload Management Green Valley Transportation Corp. Hanjin Intermodal America, Inc. Hertz Corporation Hilton Worldwide IBM Intercomp Company Intermodal Association of North America (IANA) International Association of Movers International Longshoremen’s Association (ILA), AFL-CIO International Organization of Masters, Mates & Pilots Interstate Moving | Relocation | Logistics Keystone Shipping Co. KROWN1 FZC Kuehne + Nagel, Inc. Leidos

LMI Marine Engineers’ Beneficial Association Marriott International Martin Logistics Incorporated Mayflower Transit McCollister’s Transportation Systems, Inc. Mercer Transportation Company Meridian Global Consulting LLC National Motor Freight Traffic Association, Inc. National Van Lines, Inc. Northern Air Cargo Inc. Northern Neck Transfer Inc. Oakwood Worldwide Omega World Travel Omnitracs, LLC One Network Enterprises, Inc. Oracle ORBCOMM Perimeter Global Logistics (PGL) Pilot Freight Services PODS Port of Beaumont Port of San Diego Ports America Portus Preferred Systems Solutions, Inc. Prestera Trucking, Inc. Priority Solutions International Priority Worldwide PTS Worldwide

Radiant Global Logistics Radisson Hotel Group Ramar Transportation, Inc. Roadrunner Transportation Systems Sabre Travel Network Savi Seafarers International Union of NA , AGLIW Skylease 1, Inc. Southwest Airlines St. Louis Union Station Hotel a Curio Hotel Collection by Hilton The Parking Spot TMM, Inc. Transcor Transportation Intermediaries Assn. (TIA) Travelport TSA Transportation LLC TTX Company Tucker Company Worldwide, Inc. United Van Lines, Inc. Universal Logistics Holdings, Inc. USA Jet Airlines Vetcom Logistics Volga Dnepr Airlines Wally Park Wapack Labs Corporation Women In Trucking Association, Inc. XPO Logistics YRC Freight

Enterprise Management Systems Erudite Company HLI Government Services JAS Forwarding John D. Odegard School of Aerospace Sciences Kalitta Charters, LLC Kansas City Southern Lineage Logistics LMJ International Logistics, LLC Lynden, Inc. MacGregor USA, Inc. Madison Hospitality mLINQS

Move One Logistics NFI NovaVision Inc. Overdrive Logistics, Inc. Owner-Operator Independent Drivers Association Patriot Contract Services, LLC Philadelphia Regional Port Authority PITT OHIO Port Canaveral Port of Port Arthur Seatac Marine Services TechGuard Security Trans Global Logistics Europe GmbH

UNIVERSITY McKendree University University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign |


NDTA NEWS My Journey to NDTA HQ By Lucas Hackmann NDTA Member


s someone who had not traveled much outside of the US, I wanted to experience the diverse cultures and civilizations that encompass the world we live in. Being a student in my sophomore year at Western Kentucky University, it was an opportune time to do so. Unlike other study abroad courses, I chose a program that equipped me with the opportunity to do this. Semester at Sea, a non-profit organization, offers a truly global experience each fall and spring. The Voyages on the MV World Odyssey are 100+ days, explore the world, and allow students to earn 12-15 academic credits from Colorado State University. On my four-month adventure, I studied and sailed across three oceans, stepped on four continents, visited 16 countries, saw 30+ cities, totaled 22,806 nautical miles, and

connected with more people around the world than most will meet in their lifetime. I wanted to be in a setting where I could connect genuinely with people while disconnecting from the technological distractions that consume the lives of many millennials, including myself. As we disconnected, I found time to reflect on the massive undertaking it must involve to supply or resupply the floating city I was on. While eating lunch one afternoon, I pondered to myself how all of this food, water, medical supplies, and other amenities are able to resupply for us 800 voyagers on this journey. From every water bottle I drank to every peanut butter sandwich I made, the ingredients were mysteriously transported to keep us living comfortably. Our ship was just the beginning of this idea though. What about a larger cruise ship? A shipping vessel? Or even an aircraft carrier? These thoughts led me to think about the brave American soldiers defending our freedom away from the United States and the supply lines needed to support them

wherever they may be. This is when I discovered NDTA. As I was researching the organization, I got ahold of the headquarters and decided to visit the office to learn more about the mission of the organization. I was fascinated to hear the logistics and details required to run the Association successfully. I was able to apply my recently acquired knowledge from traveling on Semester at Sea to the work of an NDTA member. In return, I received a rewarding and educational experience that I will never forget. DTJ

DTJ INDEX OF ADVERTISERS American President Lines, Ltd......................31 American Roll-on Roll-off Carrier (ARC)..........2 Avis Budget Group.......................................30 Bennett Motor Express, LLC...........................3 Farrell Lines...................................................4 FedEx Government Services.........................32 Landstar Transportation Logistics, Inc............5 Maersk Line, Limited...................................10 Matson Navigation Company Inc....................6 Port of Beaumont.........................................19 Port of Port Arthur..........................................9 Port of San Diego.........................................21 Trans Global Logistics Europe GmbH............26 U.S. Ocean, LLC...........................................27

Adventure awaits. When it’s time to get away, get moving with more savings and rewards with Budget. No matter the destination, get more out of every trip. Save up to 25% always with BCD # V053905 For reservations and more deals, go to or call 1-800-527-0700.

Š 2015 Budget Rent A Car System, Inc.


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Thank you for your courage We thank the men and women in uniform who sacrifice for our country and display bravery daily. It’s an honor to serve them in any way we can — around the world.


| Defense Transportation Journal | AUGUST 2018

Profile for Defense Transportation Journal

Defense Transportation Journal  

Defense Transportation Journal (ISSN 0011-7625) is published bimonthly by the National Defense Transportation Association (NDTA), a non-prof...

Defense Transportation Journal  

Defense Transportation Journal (ISSN 0011-7625) is published bimonthly by the National Defense Transportation Association (NDTA), a non-prof...