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Contents 12





Letter from the Publisher

Procurement and Operations



Humvee Recapitalization Contractors await request for proposal for $1 billion Humvee upgrade program


Remembering the Thirty We honor the sailors, soldiers and airmen killed in the August crash of a Chinook in Afghanistan


By John Pulley


Defense Logistics Agency Highlights of the agency’s Director’s Guidance for 2012

Fallen Sentinel Did Iran score an intelligence coup with the secret U.S. drone, or get stuck with a dud? By Rich Tuttle


The Lifeline Home A ride along with an aeromedical evacuation mission shows how operations have changed since Sept. 11, 2001 By James Kitfield

Military Education Resource Guide 45

Colleges and universities help military members advance their education, in the field and at home

Wi n t e r 2 0 11 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D



D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D S p r i n g 2 0 1 0

Contents 69




‘12 Procurement preview 67

Air Force: Smart Fuzes By Sara Michael


Army: Going Green By Sara Michael


On the Homefront 74

Border Patrol Agents wage a daily battle to keep drugs from crossing the border with Mexico

Marine Corps: Battle Gear

By Elaine S. Povich

By Bryan Mitchell


Navy: Green Fleet By Tony Mecia

Louder than Words 82





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Copyright 2011-2012. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part is prohibited. The opinions expressed within this publication do not necessarily represent the views of the publisher. Defense Standard LLC assumes no responsibilites for the advertisements or any representations made in this publication. Defense Standard LLC in unable to accept, or hereby expressly disclaims, any liability for the consequences of inaccuracies or omissions of such information occurring during the publishing of such information for publication. Disclaimer: Neither the Department of Defense nor any other United States Government agency has approved, endorsed or authorized this publication in any form. No such inference is suggested, promoted or communicated in any manner.



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Publisher’s Note


alk about challenges. With nearly $500 billion in cuts certain and another half-trillion likely if Congress moves forward with deficit-reduction plans, this is surely a difficult time to be a Pentagon budget officer. It must be a difficult time to be a Pentagon planner, as well, with the administration rethinking how much wartime capability the nation can afford – all this while troops continue fighting and dying in Afghanistan. In this issue of DEFENSE STANDARD, we remember and honor the sacrifice of 30 sailors, soldiers and airmen and a military dog killed in the single deadliest incident of the war in Afghanistan. Their lives were cut short last August in the crash of a Chinook helicopter, apparently downed by the Taliban. Among the dead were 17 members of the elite SEAL Team 6, which just months earlier snagged the biggest coup of the war when they apprehended and killed Osama bin Laden. It is a reminder that a war isn’t over until all of our troops are home. Even then, we must never forget their sacrifice. We also ride along with the Air Force on an aeromedical evacuation mission from Afghanistan’s Bagram Air Base to a military hospital in Germany, the first stop for most of our returning wounded. James Kitfield talks to the medical personnel about their mission, and examines how the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq changed the way the Defense Department treats and transports its war wounded. On the breaking news front, Rich Tuttle reports on the loss of a secret RQ-170 Sentinel drone and the potential damage to U.S. intelligence-gathering efforts now that the drone is in the hands of the Iranians. The Pentagon has been largely mum on the early December incident, but Tuttle rounds up several experts who say the damage might not be as severe as one would think, and explain why.

On the procurement front, John Pulley looks inside the proposed Humvee upgrade program, envisioned as a way to correct some of the weight, power and maneuverability problems created by up-armoring the vehicles to protect against roadside bombs in Iraq and Afghanistan. A number of contractors are expected to submit proposals for the program, anticipated to cost more than $1 billion, to retrofit more than 5,000 of the ubiquitous Humvees. “Everybody is in a wait-andsee mode,” as one contractor says, “but everybody wants to play.” We also present highlights of the Defense Logistics Agency’s Director’s Guidance for 2012. Their job is as big as any in this coming year, and the guidance describes the agency’s plans for supporting warfighters and major internal programs. This issue also includes the Military Education Resource Guide, presented with the support of several of our valued advertisers and friends. Finally, please accept our wishes for a successful and prosperous 2012. As for DEFENSE STANDARD, we remain, as always, focused on the warfighter.

David Peabody PUBLISHER

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Petty Officer 1st Class Darrik C. Benson, 28, Angwin, Calif., SEAL; Chief Petty Officer Brian R. Bill, 31, Stamford, Conn., SEAL; Petty Officer 1st Class Christopher G. Campbell, 36, Jacksonville, N.C., SEAL / Parachutist; Petty Officer 1st Class Jared W. Day, 28, Taylorsville, Utah, Information Systems Technician / Freefall Parachutist; Petty Officer 1st Class John Douangdara, 26, South Sioux City, Neb., Master-at-Arms; Chief Petty Officer John W. Faas, 31, Minneapolis, SEAL; Chief Petty Officer Kevin A. Houston, 35, West Hyannisport, Mass., SEAL; Lt. Cmdr. Jonas B. Kelsall, 32, Shreveport, La., SEAL; Chief Petty Officer Louis J. Langlais, 44, Santa Barbara, Calif., SEAL; Chief Petty Officer Matthew D. Mason, 37, Kansas City, Mo., SEAL; Chief Petty Officer Stephen M. Mills, 35, Fort Worth,

Lives cut short, but not forgotten Texas, SEAL; Chief Petty Officer Nicholas H. Null, 30, Washington, W.Va., Explosive Ordnance Technician / Freefall Parachutist / Diver; Petty Officer 1st Class Jesse D. Pittman, 27, Ukiah, Calif., SEAL; Senior Chief Petty Officer Thomas A. Ratzlaff, 34, Green Forest, Ark., SEAL; Chief Petty Officer Robert J. Reeves, 32, Shreveport, La., SEAL; Chief Petty Officer Heath M. Robinson, 34, Detroit, SEAL; Petty Officer 2nd Class Nicholas P. Spehar, 24, St. Paul, Minn., SEAL; Petty Officer 1st Class Michael J. Strange, 25, Philadelphia, Pa., cryptologist technician / expeditionary warfare specialist; Petty Officer Jon T. Tumilson, 35, Rockford, Iowa, SEAL / Enlisted Surface Warfare Specialist; Petty Officer 1st Class Aaron C. Vaughn, 30, Stuart, Fla., SEAL;  Senior Chief Petty Officer Kraig M. Vickers, 36, Kokomo, Hawaii, explosive ordnance disposal technician / expeditionary warfare specialist / freefall parachutist; Petty Officer 1st Class Jason R. Workman, 32, Blanding, Utah, SEAL.           

U.S. army

U.S. air force

Tech. Sgt. John W. Brown, 33, Tallahassee, Fla., pararescueman; Staff Sgt. Andrew W. Harvell, 26, Long Beach, Calif., combat controller; and Tech. Sgt. Daniel L. Zerbe, 28, York, Pa., pararescueman; all of the 24th Special Tactics Squadron, Pope Field, N.C.


D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D Wi n t e r 2 0 11

ILLUSTRATION: Samantha Gibbons

Sgt. Alexander J. Bennett, 24, Tacoma, Wash.; Spec. Spencer C. Duncan, 21,​​ Olathe, Kansas; Chief Warrant Officer Bryan J. Nichols, 31, Hays, Kansas, all of the 7th Battalion, 158th Aviation Regiment. Chief Warrant Officer David R. Carter, 47, Centennial, Colo.; Staff Sgt. Patrick D. Hamburger, 30, Lincoln, Neb., both of the 2nd Battalion, 135th Aviation Regiment.




merica’s elite military forces took one of their biggest hits in history on Aug. 6 when Afghan insurgents managed to down an Army Chinook helicopter, claiming the lives of 30 special operators. It was the worst one-day casualty rate in the 10 years since U.S. and NATO troops launched the fight against terror in Afghanistan following the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on New York and Washington. Among those killed were 17 members of Navy SEAL Team 6, which killed Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden in May during a daring night raid in Pakistan, and five other Navy special operations personnel. Five Army and three Air Force special operators also lost their lives, along with seven Afghan commandos. “Their deaths are a reminder of the extraordinary sacrifices made by the men and women of our military and their families, including all who have served in Afghanistan,” President Barack Obama said in a statement. Today, we remember and honor the 30 Americans who made the ultimate sacrifice.

S p r i n g 2 0 11 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D


What makes a nation’s pillars high And its foundations strong?

Sgt. Alexander J. Bennett

Petty Officer 1st Class Darrik C. Benson

Chief Petty Officer Brian R. Bill

Not gold but only men can make

Petty Officer 1st Class Jared W. Day

Petty Officer 1st Class John Douangdara

Spec. Spencer C. Duncan

Men who for truth and honor’s sake

Chief Petty Officer Kevin A. Houston

Lt. Cmdr. Jonas B. Kelsall

Chief Petty Officer Louis J. Langlais

brave men who work while others sleep,

Chief Petty Officer Nicholas H. Null

Petty Officer 1st Class Jesse D. Pittman

Senior Chief Petty Officer Thomas A. Ratzlaff

Petty Officer 1st Class Jon T. Tumilson

Petty Officer 1st Class Aaron C. Vaughn

they build a nation’s pillars deep

Petty Officer 1st Class Michael J. Strange 14

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D Wi n t e r 2 0 11

What makes it mighty to defy The foes that round it throng?

Tech. Sgt. John W. Brown

Petty Officer 1st Class Christopher G. Campbell

Chief Warrant Officer David R. Carter

A people great and strong;

Chief Petty Officer John W. Faas

Staff Sgt. Patrick D. Hamburger

Staff Sgt. Andrew W. Harvell

stand fast and suffer long.

Chief Petty Officer Matthew D. Mason

Chief Petty Officer Stephen M. Mills

Chief Warrant Officer Bryan J. Nichols

who dare while others fly...

Chief Petty Officer Robert J. Reeves

Chief Petty Officer Heath M. Robinson

Petty Officer 2nd Class Nicholas P. Spehar

and lift them to the sky.

Senior Chief Petty Officer Kraig M. Vickers Poem: “A Nation’s Strength” by Ralph Waldo Emerson

Petty Officer 1st Class Jason R. Workman

Tech. Sgt. Daniel L. Zerbe Wi n t e r 2 0 11 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D




Just how much damage is wrought by a highly classified surveillance drone landing in Iranian hands? By Rich Tuttle

The U.S. and Iran have been adversaries for some 30 years, but Tehran’s recent push for what Washington says is a nuclear weapon has spurred the U.S. to glean as much information about this and other Iranian programs as possible. Unmanned aerial vehicles like the stealthy Lockheed Martin RQ-170 Sentinel that fell into Iranian hands after an early December flight have played a key role in that mission, but neither the mission nor the specifics of the UAVs’ participation have been widely known.  Iran claims to have downed a number of U.S. UAVs, but the RQ-170 is the first stealthy variant known to be in this category and is therefore being touted by Iran as a prize. It wasn’t clear how serious the loss was. But it was clear Iran, and perhaps China and Russia, were scrutinizing its capabilities. Published reports claimed Iran used knowledge gleaned from previously downed U.S. drones, as well as its own techniques, to reconfigure the vehicle’s GPS coordinates to make it land at what it thought was its home base in Afghanistan. “The GPS navigation is the weakest point,” an Iranian engineer told the Christian Science Monitor. “By 16

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D Wi n t e r 2 0 11

putting noise [jamming] on the communications, you force the bird into autopilot. That is where the bird loses its brain,” said the engineer, who was not identified. He was quoted as saying Iran’s technique made the RQ-170 “land on its own where we wanted it to, without having to crack the remotecontrol signals and communications” from a U.S. control center. That seems plausible to one former U.S. intelligence officer, who says Iran might have used GPS jammers it received from Russia. Cedric Leighton, who retired in 2010 as an Air Force colonel after 26 years in intelligence, says Russia gave similar devices to Iraq in the run-up to the 2003 U.S. invasion. The U.S. knew this and quickly destroyed them. The American and the Iranian Gen. Lance Lord, former flags are seen behind the RQcommander of Air Force Space 170, which is operated by the Command, said in a 2003 30th Reconnaissance Squadron speech that the U.S. attacked of the Air Force’s Air Combat Command 57th Operations the jammers with GPS-guided Group, which was formed in bombs dropped by B-1B and 2005.

PHOTO: David Cenciotti


he loss of a classified U.S. surveillance drone over Iran lifted the veil on a covert war between the two countries and, assuming it yields useful information to parties hostile to the U.S., could speed the advent of a robot war.

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PHOTO: David Cenciotti

The grill over the engine inlet is reminiscent of the F-117, and the overall shape recalls the B-2 -- two indications that the RQ-170 was quickly developed, as the Air Force acknowledges.

F-117 aircraft. It was the first time for such an attack. The U.S. can’t attack such jammers in Iran today because the two countries aren’t technically at war, Leighton says in an interview. Lord said in his 2003 address that the use of stealth and GPS against Iraqi targets – the first time they had been used together – was an example of the asymmetric advantage the U.S. has in space. He also said the advantage couldn’t be maintained forever, and that it was important to get on with GPS modernization. ​The implication of the drone incident, in the view of some, is that it’s risky to put so much reliance on space assets such as GPS. But others say that merely spoofing GPS signals might not have been enough to fool the RQ-170. It, like other military aircraft, might have used dual- or triple-redundant navigation, according to Ty Rogoway of AviationIntel.com. He writes that if one system begins to deliver information that doesn’t square with the other two, the others take over. He was among those who doubted the veracity of the Iranian engineer’s account, although he says it is not necessarily impossible. The magnitude of the incident, he says, is such that the truth will ultimately emerge. n any case, now that the vehicle is in Iranian hands – and it apparently is the real thing -- they presumably will study its radar-negating shape and materials. That could include carbon fiber composite, ideal for stealth because it doesn’t reflect radar, and already well understood by the world’s aircraft makers. On the other hand, the composite material blocks an aircraft’s own electronic transmissions, says Greg Elfering of 3D Systems in Rock Hill, S.C., which specializes in rapid prototyping using various high-tech materials. Elfering wasn’t talking about the RQ-170 -- which itself, according to the Air Force, was rapidly developed -- but he did say the transmission-blocking characteristic



D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D Wi n t e r 2 0 11

of carbon fiber has prompted UAV designers and engineers to use plastics to make the covers for satellitelink and other antennas. These can be fabricated by a process known as laser sintering, which allows small parts such as antenna covers to be made with extreme accuracy -- vital for a stealthy vehicle because the covers can be tightly fitted to surrounding structure to keep radar signatures low. The RQ-170’s antennas presumably were on top of the vehicle. If so, they would have been difficult to jam or spoof. Laser sintering is well known in the global UAV community and might have been used to fabricate other parts of the RQ-170, such as fuel tanks and sensor gimbals. “Every UAV out there has a component of sintered nature,” says Jeffrey Jakubowski of Solid Concepts Inc., a Valencia, Calif.-based supplier of rapid prototyping and digital manufacturing services. He, too, was talking about UAVs in general and not the RQ170. Laser sintering machines are in wide use. Most are supplied by 3D Systems and EOS of Munich, Germany.   part from the insatiable curiosity of engineers, I don’t necessarily know that [Iran is] going to learn that much from this,” says John Pike of GlobalSecurity.org, a defense-oriented consulting operation in Alexandria, Va. Others say some components of the vehicle may have been dumbed down in anticipation of a loss. And the fact that the UAV was first spotted in 2007 taxiing in daylight at Kandahar International Airport in Afghanistan indicates it might not have been considered particularly sensitive – which could help explain why it apparently contained no selfdestruction mechanism. It reportedly also has been deployed to South Korea, possibly to monitor North Korean nuclear and missile activities. A dozen or so are thought to be in service. The vehicle’s surveillance payloads will undoubtedly


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PHOTO: David Cenciotti

The large humps apparently contain satellite communications equipment and sensors. An RQ-170 is thought to have been involved in the raid to kill Osama bin Laden.

be examined, and may be more sensitive than the vehicle itself. “This is extremely damaging because ​this drone had thermal imaging cameras. The resolution on the photography is very, very good,” Robert Baer, a former intelligence official, told CNN. Says Leighton, “They might be able to understand something about how our sensors operate, especially the cameras, what kind of optics they use, and potentially how the images are transmitted from the platform to the exploitation centers that we use.” But, he adds, this is “also the most difficult part.” Exploitation centers could include the worldwide sites of the Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS), which is used by the Army, Navy, Air Force and intelligence agencies. Air Force DCGS sites produce intelligence information collected by the manned U-2 aircraft and the unmanned Global Hawk, Reaper and Predator aircraft, according to an Air Force fact sheet, which doesn’t mention the RQ-170. Main contractors include Raytheon Co., Lockheed Martin Corp., L-3 Communications Corp., Northrop Grumman Corp., Hughes and Goodrich Corp. Israel could be privy to information from the RQ-170, but this couldn’t be confirmed. It may have had a hand in other aspects of the covert war, like assassinations of Iranian nuclear engineers, Baer says. Israel and the U.S. cooperated in development of the Stuxnet worm that was targeted at Iranian nuclear projects, according to the BBC. Time.com also reported that Israel may have been responsible for a massive explosion at a depot outside Tehran in November.


eighton says the loss of the RQ-170 is not irrecoverable, but that Iran is nevertheless now “up close and personal with one of our most advanced UAVs,” and can try to reverse-engineer various components. “In some cases they will be successful.” At 20

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D Wi n t e r 2 0 11

the same time, he says, “when it comes to the actual meat and potatoes of architecture that connects the RQ-170 with sensors and with the whole system, then it’s going to be a lot more difficult for them.” He doubts a public statement by an Iranian official that all the UAV’s data had been downloaded. Most intelligence systems today don’t store much, if any, data, says Leighton, whose last assignment before retiring in 2010 was deputy training director for the National Security Agency. He is now president of Cedric Leighton Associates, a Washington, D.C.,-area strategic and risk management consultancy. Others note that any transmissions from the stealthy vehicle would have increased the possibility of detection. At the same time, “It’s very different from the old days” -- even as recently as 2001 when a U.S. Navy EP-3E electronic reconnaissance aircraft was forced down by China, Leighton says. The Chinese got a lot of material the crew wasn’t able to destroy. In the case of the RQ-170, he says, “I don’t think [it had] a system with that kind of vulnerability.” A 2008 study by the Pentagon’s Defense Science Board said the intelligence loss from the EP-3E incident was “significant.” It also said mission planners “didn’t understand the risk calculus” of sending the plane on an electronic surveillance mission near China. No such evaluation of the RQ-170 mission has been made public. But one c​ onclusion of a comparison with the mission to kill Osama bin Laden, in which an RQ170 is understood to have been involved, is that because the December flight was probably one of a number that have been flown over Iran in recent years, it didn’t have the same top-level interest as the bin Laden plans. It therefore might not have benefitted from efforts to ensure that every conceivable measure was taken to avoid mishaps. Still, Leighton says, any covert mission over a hostile

country gets a lot of attention. “Whenever you fly over denied territory, and this goes for everything from the Francis Gary Powers’ U-2 mission [over the Soviet Union in 1960] to the present day, is specifically when you should be dotting your i’s and crossing your t’s.” At the same time, although not casting aspersions about the RQ-170 mission, he says that if you don’t think something can go wrong, it just may go wrong. “And that is always the weakness of any kind of mission that we set up, because there are a lot of players in this.” One problem with the December flight, he says, might have been communication among players. It was “basically a joint Central Intelligence Agency-Air Force mission, and obviously that involves a lot of coordination between that military service and the CIA, and those kinds of things are always fraught with some degree of peril -- a lot of times unintentional just because they speak different bureaucratic languages.” omputer and communication technologies are pointing more and more to a future in which information will be passed from machine to machine, possibly reducing the effect of such differences. Evolving technologies also might soon give small units the ability to mount complex operations like the bin Laden raid. It might ultimately be possible to do that kind of raid “with a strike team and 10 guys,” Air Force Col. Joe McDonald of the now disestablished Joint Forces Command said last May at the annual Empire Challenge demonstration at Fort Huachuca, Ariz. Pike of GlobalSecurity.org said the RQ-170 and other UAVs are “basically commentaries on [the effect of] Moore’s law,” which is that “equal-cost computing power doubles every 18 months.” The intelligence community, he says, “has just gotten totally swept up by Moore’s law.”



D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D Wi n t e r 2 0 11

PHOTO: David Cenciotti

Iranian officers inspect an RQ-170 unmanned aerial vehicle. Iran said it prompted the vehicle to land in Iranian territory.

One concern is that if China gains access to the RQ170, it will use it to bolster its own UAV technology. It already has borrowed from the design of the U.S. Reaper UAV to develop its own unmanned aircraft called China Dragon which, at least outwardly, is almost a dead ringer. Richard Bejtlich of the computer security firm Mandiant says this is an example of how China closely follows U.S. technological paths via cyber intrusions, among other things, and presses ahead only with those that the U.S. finds fruitful, saving time and money on its own research and development. “Their level of indigenous innovation is probably linked to ours.” In the worst case of fallout from the RQ-170 incident, Leighton says, the U.S. will someday be confronted on the battlefield with sensitive technology gained from the UAV. The RQ-170 event “could accelerate the development of a robotic-inspired war, and that could happen in the not-too-distant future now.” ​“There are so many aspects to this that we probably can’t guess at right now,” he continues, “but the implications for the future of warfare are definitely there in this particular incident, and could result in, if we’re not careful, some surprises from our potential adversaries in the future.” J



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lifeline home

Aeromedical evacuation and combat care evolve to reflect changing battlefield


By James Kitfield AGRAM AIR BASE, Afghanistan -- The wounded return home from war much the way they left, largely invisible to a distracted nation. In this instance the long journey begins on a darkened, wind-swept flightline at Bagram Air Base, a sprawling airfield that sits in a wide valley surrounded by mountains. An old flight control tower dates back to the Soviet occupation of this Afghan air base in the 1980s. In a familiar choreography rendered silent by the constant backwash of jet engines, a bus bearing a red cross parks next to the open rear door of a C-17 Globemaster III. Ambulatory service members shuffle their way up the ramp to webbed seats lining the aircraft’s cavernous hold, followed by stretchers carrying the more seriously wounded and ill, which are lashed bunk-bed style to metal stanchions running down the center of the plane’s cargo bay. Finally, two critically wounded troopers tethered to gurneys and nearly invisible beneath an emergency room’s worth of medi-

cal equipment are hoisted into the back of the aircraft. Another aeromedical evacuation flight is collecting the wounded from America’s longest war. Though they operate out of sight on restricted military air bases, aeromedical evacuation flights are helping to revolutionize combat medical care. Since Sept. 11, 2001, the Air Force’s Air Mobility Command has flown more than 35,600 medical evacuation sorties, transporting more than 177,000 wounded or ill service members. A U.S. trooper wounded in Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan tomorrow likely will reach Landstuhl Regional Medical Center in Germany in about 30 hours, and arrive at a U.S. medical facility in an average of three days. In 1991, troops wounded in Operation Desert Storm reached home in about 10 days. During Vietnam the whole journey took on average of 45 days. Combined with advances in combat medicine and body armor, the rapid air evacuation system has resulted in a historically low lethality rate compared with other U.S. wars. Service members

PHOTO: James Kitfield

Aeromedical teams have treated and transported more than 177,000 sick or wounded military members since the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks.


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wounded on a battlefield today have a remarkable 98 percent chance of survival. As a recent trip aboard one such flight underscores, however, behind every fatality lies a long roll call of the wounded and maimed.


he air and medical crews on this 10th Expeditionary Aeromedical Evacuation Flight were cobbled together from various active-duty, Air Guard and Air Force Reserve units, which is typical. Though they represent the ultimate “pick-up team,” the crews mesh easily after years of conducting this type of mission. “We blend active-duty and reserve pretty seamlessly on these missions, because all of us are trained to the same standards and procedures, and like me most of the team have been doing this quite a while,” says Tech Sgt. Mike Malone, a reservist with the 360th Aeromedical Evacuation Squadron out of Pope Air Force Base, N.C. A former Marine, Malone works in his civilian job as an emergency medical technician. “This mission is different from my work as an EMT, which usually involves moving one or two injured patients a short distance. Here we pick up a whole planefull of injured, and move them halfway around the world. I also like that we are the ones who get to bring these wounded troops home.” That is an oft-repeated sentiment for aeromedical evacuation team members. “This is an especially challenging mission, but we

all do it for those guys in the stretchers,” said Capt. Chris Lane, a National Guardsman and flight nurse who runs an emergency room in Fort Worth, Texas, in his civilian life. “It’s important that those soldiers and Marines understand that if they get injured, they’ll get outstanding care from the time they are hurt until we can get them home, whether it’s on the ground or at 30,000 feet. We owe it to them.”


he rapid air evacuation of wounded troops and the new model in combat medical care was largely dictated by the nature of the counter-insurgency conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq over the past decade. Fighting multiple wars with very dispersed and fluid front lines and no safe rear areas, the U.S. military did not have the luxury of having huge field hospitals near the fighting as in past wars. That forced the Pentagon to embrace an entirely new approach to combat medical care that emphasized quickly stabilizing wounded warriors on the ground and then flying them back to the United States for definitive care as rapidly as possible. That model has the added benefit of reuniting wounded soldiers with their families and loved ones as soon as possible. The result of rapid aeromedical evacuation that transports the wounded to definitive care within a “golden” 72-hour window, coupled with advances in combat medical care and body armor, dramatically diminished the lethality of the conflicts in Iraq and


D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D Wi n t e r 2 0 11

PHOTO: Master Sgt. Adrian Cadiz

Members of the 451st Expeditionary Aeromedical Evacuation Squadron load a wounded Marine onto an ambulance at Camp Bastion, Afghanistan.

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Afghanistan. According to Dr. Ronald Glasser, a Vietnam-era Army surgeon and author of the recent book, “Broken Bodies, Shattered Minds: A Medical Odyssey from Vietnam to Afghanistan,” for every battlefield death in the past decade, 16 U.S. service members have survived their wounds. The ratio in Vietnam, he said, was 2.4 wounded for every death. In the Civil War, the ratio was less than 1-to-1, with few soldiers surviving battlefield wounds. The result of that revolution in combat medicine, however, has been that the past decade of war has produced a surfeit of service members with serious, and in some cases catastrophic, wounds. According to the Pentagon, 168,000 service members wounded or injured in these wars are graded 60 percent disabled or higher. Department of Veterans Affairs hospitals and medical centers have already treated 508,000 veterans of today’s wars. As war dragged on in Iraq and Afghanistan over the past decade, with tactics and geography shifting, those transporting and treating the injured noticed that the pathology of the wounds also mutated over time. Early on in Afghanistan, for instance, small arms caused many injuries. A few years into the fighting – as insurgent bombs got bigger and the armor on U.S. military vehicles got thicker – troops increasingly absorbed blast waves through their seats, causing a spike in spinal cord injuries, concussions and

PHOTO: Master Sgt. Adrian Cadiz

Members of the 451st Expeditionary Aeromedical Evacuation Squadron direct an ambulance bus into place prior to loading injured service members onto a C-130 Hercules at Camp Bastion, Afghanistan.


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brain trauma. Over the last 18 months in Afghanistan, the profile of wounds has changed again. “As Afghanistan has turned primarily into a war of dismounted infantry, our polytrauma wards have seen a huge influx of troops with really massive injuries from absorbing blasts while on foot patrol, including multiple amputations, really severe brain injury, and the emotional wounds that go with all of that,” says Dr. Shane McNamee, the chief of physical medicine and rehabilitation at the VA’s Polytrauma Rehabilitation Center in Richmond, Va. “In the past five years, I can’t tell you how many times we have re-geared to tailor our care delivery to subsequent waves of service members with different kinds of wounds.”


uring the flight from Afghanistan to Germany one of the two critically wounded soldiers nearly flat-lines, and the onboard Critical Care Transport Team consisting of a doctor, a critical-care nurse and a technician works frantically to save him. Eventually, the emergency medical physician, Lt. Col. George Dockendorf, is able to stabilize the patient. The soldier on the gurney next to him has lost both legs, and never moves throughout the emergency. Afterward, Maj. Kathy Miller, a critical-care flight nurse

and reservist out of Luke Air Force Base, Ariz., explains the challenges of treating critically injured patients at more than 35,000 feet. “Being at this altitude affects everything, because you can’t hear alarms from the equipment, reactions to medicine are different, and even the flow of vital fluids through tubing is impacted,” she says. The austerity of the operating environment also puts a premium on careful preparation, she says, because there is no running down the hall to the supply room for additional equipment or medicine to handle unexpected emergencies. Despite those challenges, however, Miller prefers aeromedical evacuation missions to her civilian work in a hospital emergency room. “I’d much rather be taking care of these soldiers,” Miller says. “Honestly, this is the most rewarding job I’ve ever had. I would do it full time if I could.” The severity of the wounds to the two critically injured troops underscores another toxic byproduct of these wars. The enemy’s weapon of choice in both Afghanistan and Iraq has been the improvised explosive device (IED), and their signature wounds account for the more than 1,300 amputees among U.S. service members, numerous burn victims and unknown numbers of troopers suffering from traumatic brain injury. According to the advocacy group Veterans for Common Sense, more than 190,000 troops have suffered a concussion or brain

injury from operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. There is also growing evidence of links between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD. According to a 2008 survey by the Rand Corp. think tank, one in five veterans from these wars – some 320,000 service members – has experienced TBI, and an estimated 300,000 are suffering either from severe depression or PTSD. “Both TBI and PTSD injure similar areas of the brain and exhibit similar symptoms,” says the VA’s McNamee. “The lines between them are pretty gray.” In the back of the C-17, Sgt. Edward Pheifer speaks directly to the gray area of war and its toxic impact. A military dog handler who typically spends his days searching for IEDs and mines, Pheifer is flying his German shepherd, Alf, to the Daniel E. Holland Military Working Dog Hospital at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas. He strongly suspects that Alf is part of the roughly 5 percent of military dogs deployed with U.S. combat forces that have developed canine PTSD. Making Alf more proof, if anyone needed it, that war is hazardous to all living things. “I think Alf does have PTSD, because he just doesn’t want to work any more,” says Pheifer. When asked if Alf’s work in Afghanistan had been that stressful, Pheifer doesn’t hesitate. “It’s stressful on everybody,” he says. J

PHOTO: James Kitfield

Lt. Col. George Dockendorf and a nurse, both of the Critical Care Transport Team, attend to a critically wounded military member during the evacuation flight.


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PHOTO: Courtesy of Oshkosh Defense

Sputtering under the load of antiblast armor and other short-term modifications, Humvees are set for a billion-dollar makeover By John Pulley

Oshkosh Defense will use a modular, scalable protection system for the Humvee recap program that accepts bolt-on armor to adapt to a spectrum of mission profiles and its TAK-4 suspension to meet the program’s rigorous off-road mobility requirements.


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rmy Spec. David Emmanuel Hickman, believed to be the final U.S. casualty in the Iraq war, died the same way as six out of 10 of the nearly 4,500 military men and women who perished there – of injuries sustained in a blast from an improvised explosive device. A member of the 82nd Airborne Division, Hickman had been riding in an armored truck that was mangled by a roadside bomb. Now, with the last American troops crossing the border into Kuwait – and with tens of thousands of others still in Afghanistan -- the Defense Department is seeking to improve the safety of its High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), better known as the Humvee. Despite their utility as rugged off-road vehicles, Humvees are vulnerable to catastrophic damage and loss of life when blasted by IEDs and other explosive devices. In addition, soldiers have drowned and died in rollovers that jam doors and make escape impossible. The military is readying its final request for proposal (RFP), which it will use to select a contractor to retool a larger, more robust version of the Humvee called the Expanded Capacity Vehicle. The modernization and recapitalization, or “recap,” program will be known as the Modernized Expanded Capacity Vehicle (MECV). The final RFP for the MECV had been expected in November, but was delayed.

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Built by AM General, based in South Bend, Ind., the iconic, lightly armored vehicles are as ubiquitous in war zones today as Jeeps were in World War II. The competitive program seeks to reengineer major Humvee systems to make them safer, restore payload capacity, restore drivability and mobility performance, and meet current operational needs, according to a draft RFP. A number of contractors including AM General are expected to compete for the project, which anticipates refurbishing 5,750 vehicles at a maximum cost of $180,000 each, for a total value of approximately $1.035 billion. The value of follow-on contracts could approach $18 billion, however, should the winning bidder get the opportunity to retool an estimated 100,000 Humvees in service, including 60,000 Army and 18,000 Marine vehicles. “Everybody is in a wait-and-see mode, but everybody wants to play,” says Elissa Koc, communications manager at Navistar Defense, a division of Navistar Inc., based in Lisle, Ill.


he impetus for the Humvee recap program, says Adnan Hiros, program director for London-based BAE Systems, is a systemic imbalance in vehicles that occurred as a result of stop-gap measures taken to counter the enemy’s use of IEDs, which have proven effective at disabling light armored vehicles. The short-term solution, bolting-on armored plates to enhance protection, added weight that stressed the vehicle’s other components. A new Humvee M1151, the model to be modernized during phase 1 of the recap program, for example, weighs less than 12,000 pounds when it rolls off the assembly line. An up-armored version can weigh close to 17,000 pounds, says Hiros. “They’ve been failing,” he says. “The vehicle has mobility issues. They’ve been overloaded and breaking down. You can be in hostile territory and break down. That is not safe at all.” 34

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PHOTO: BAE Systems Global Tactical Systems

BAE Systems has developed a lightweight Humvee recap solution called the Integrated Smart V. The V-shaped underbody encapsulates the crew, providing protection from all sides and significantly boosting underbody blast protection.

The list of components that have succumbed to the weight of extra armor includes tires and wheels, transfer cases and transmissions. “They’re devastated to the point that when [military drivers] press the gas pedal, the vehicles wouldn’t go,” Hiros says. “For any vehicle, if you overload [total weight] by 50 percent, it will break.” Despite the added weight, though, the underbellies of up-armored vehicles remained vulnerable to road bombs. The aim of the recap program is to restore the harmony of the three P’s extolled by the U.S. Army Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command (TACOM): performance, protection and payload. “To create a proper balance in those P’s, you need to take a completely different approach to create a vehicle to satisfy all their requirements,” Hiros says. “We’ve taken a systems engineering approach.” To that end, BAE has focused on three distinct yet integrated sections and the way those components accommodate TACOM’s primary goals. “The crew compartment is all about protection during the initial impact of an IED and the ability to escape. The front section is all about performance and boosting performance through the power train,” he says. Reengineering the back of the vehicle will allow the vehicle to carry more. Seeking to balance weight and cost requirements, BAE has opted to use non-exotic, readily available metallic components in lieu of costly titanium and composite materials. BAE developed software to simulate different kinds of explosions and determine how steel components of various configurations dispel blast energy. The company also performed blast-fire tests. To help Humvee occupants escape disabled vehicles, BAE is proposing a window escape hatch developed with an unnamed supplier. The company would include lighting systems that direct trapped soldiers and Marines to the safest point of egress.

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Navistar developed the International Saratoga to fill the gap between the Joint Light Tactical Wheeled (JLTV) program and the HMMWV MECV programs. The company plans to apply Saratoga’s innovations to the Humvee recap program.


uring an industry day event attended by contractors who intend to pursue the MECV program, military representatives made clear that the IED threat that emerged in Afghanistan’s Operation Enduring Freedom had severely curtailed the usefulness of Humvees in hostile territory. “‘I need to take light tactical vehicles outside the wire,’” a military member declared that day, recalls John Bryant, vice president and general manager for Marine Corps programs at Oshkosh Defense, based in Oshkosh, Wis. “The aging Humvee fleet simply no longer provides the protected mobility needed for today’s battlefields and military operations,” Bryant says. “The customer needs a lightweight mobile platform that is robust underneath and perimeter-protected for occupants. … What’s called for is a whole-system approach to a protected mobility solution.” The proposal to be submitted by Oshkosh will emphasize its more than 90 years in the defense business, including delivery of almost 100,000 heavy, medium, light and MRAP (mine-resistant ambush-protected) vehicles, Bryant says. “We’ve already recapped 1,000 heavy, medium and tactical vehicles for the Army and Marine Corps.” In particular, Oshkosh intends to leverage “survivability solutions” developed for its M-ATV, an MRAP vehicle. “We’ve designed a modular scalable protection system for the Humvee that accepts bolt-on armor that adapts to a wide spectrum of mission profiles.” The company’s Humvee recap proposal also includes an upgraded suspension system and power train that is more robust despite weighing less than the standard power train. “We’ve developed those components in a way that when the warfighter adds the various protection kits that are available, the vehicles are still capable of handling the weight,” Bryant says.


avistar’s bid to win the Humvee recap competition will rely heavily on technology developed for its new International Saratoga, a lightweight, mobile multipurpose vehicle designed to enhance crew survivability. Navistar built the Saratoga, which it unveiled in October, to fill the gap between the military’s joint light tactical vehicle program and the Humvee recap initiative. The Saratoga base vehicle, which can be modified for multiple uses, joins the International Workstar and International Paystar platforms that have been the “bread and butter” of Navistar’s defense portfolio, Koc says. At $250,000 for an armored B Kit, the Saratoga could compete for the JLTV program, which the military envisions as costing between $230,000 and $270,000 per vehicle. However, the future of the JLTV program 36

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PHOTO: Courtesy of Oshkosh Defense

This photo illustrates Humvees with and without Oshkosh Defense’s TAK-4 suspension system.

is uncertain because of budgetary challenges. Regardless, the Saratoga will serve as a something of a R&D prototype for recapitalizing under-armored Humvees. Components of the Saratoga’s hull and the shape of those materials depart from and improve on the traditional v-shaped hull, providing what Navistar says are advances in survivability. “For the first time, we’ve created and developed our own blast solution,” Koc says. “That is our homegrown solution. We are very proud of what we have come up with.” Depending on requirements in the final RFP for the Humvee recap program, Navistar could propose integrating components from different vehicles. For example, Navistar could take the crew cab from the company’s Maxxpro MRAP vehicle and mount it on a new chassis with independent, upgraded suspension. “We are a manufacturing expert,” Koc says. “We’ve been doing this for a long time.” Among other contractors planning to bid on the recap contract is a team from Textron Marine & Land Systems of New Orleans and Granite Tactical Vehicles Inc. of Mount Airy, N.C., which in 2010 won a contract to deliver three upgraded Humvees to the U.S. Marine Corps Warfighting Lab for testing. The companies declined to discuss their pending bid. Textron Marine & Land Systems makes the Army’s Armored Security Vehicle. Meanwhile, AM General says it has tested, refined and re-tested systems that can “dramatically improve crew protection, boost performance, raise fuel efficiency and maximize commonality with existing [Humvee] parts and components,” but declined to discuss specifics or directly confirm it intends to submit a bid for the recap program. It did say in a statement that “AM General is well prepared to meet the currently envisioned MECV objectives, and to offer additional capabilities to serve the needs of our military forces for decades to come.” The government will select a contractor to overhaul Humvees in a phased competition. In part one, contractors will submit designs for recapping the M1151 armaments carrier version of the vehicle. Data for the M1152 shelter carrier will be included in the evaluation process, as well. As many as three Phase 1 winners will submit four “production representative” vehicles to the military for blast testing. The result of those evaluations will determine the Phase 2 outcome. The winner will recap 5,750 vehicles at a rate of three to four per day. In addition to the M1151 and M1152 models, the modernization program will also recap M1165 command and control vehicles and M1167 TOW carriers. J Wi n t e r 2 0 11 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D


That’s Logistics Defense Logistics Agency maps out its priorities and goals for 2012


ith nearly 27,000 military and civilian personnel operating a global logistics enterprise worth more than $40 billion in 28 countries, managing nearly 5 million items in eight supply chains, the Defense Logistics Agency has plenty of issues to manage throughout the year. Here we present highlights of the Director’s Guidance 2012, the document that steers the agency’s decision-making through complex challenges throughout the year. We are a country at war, dealing with multiple security interests worldwide in an evolving and increasingly complex economic and political environment. Defense Logistics Agency customers face numerous issues related to these factors, including emerging resource constraints and the need to reconstitute key assets that were heavily used over the past decade. The DLA just reached 50 years of providing increasingly

expansive supply and distribution services, both across the Defense Department and to select customers outside the department. We expect significant change in our environment in the coming year and will use this guidance to steer our preparations and measure our progress in three main focus areas: Workforce Development, Stewardship Excellence and Warfighter Support.

Assess and improve hiring and selection policies and practices to ensure a diverse, high-performing workforce. Review current policies on selection authorities across the agency and implement appropriate changes. Identify and implement best practices that support improvement in participation rates among key underrepresented groups. Assess Equal Employment Opportunity complaints and findings to facilitate changes to hiring and selection practices. Use targeted recruitment to increase the diversity of the applicant supply. Enhance training provided to hiring managers and selecting officials. 38

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Assess and refine development practices. 50 Years



Improve DLA’s organizational performance management practices.




Implement refresher training on all aspects of the performance management process for supervisors and managers. Review rewards and recognition policies and practices to ensure alignment of organizational performance, individual achievement and employee recognition. Use the beneficial suggestion program and performance management process to increase employees’ focus on achieving possible process improvements and cost reductions.

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FOCUS: Workforce Development

FOCUS: Warfighter Support Support operational requirements and force actions and processes. Conduct annual survey of customers and other drawdown / equipment reset processes in the stakeholders to pursue additional performance Southwest Asia theater. improvements. In Afghanistan: ◗◗ Meet current and emergent critical weapons systems readiness requirements. ◗◗ Optimize DLA’s use of the Northern Distribution Network (NDN). ◗◗ Support the “South Caucasus/Central and South Asian States First” policy for acquisition of supplies in theater. ◗◗ Enhance outcomes at Defense Depot Kandahar, Afghanistan, and through the Theater Consolidation and Shipping Point (TCSP) initiative. ◗◗ Sustain forward disposal support. Establish the foundation for controlled and expeditious redistribution and retrograde of materiel aligned to troop employment in Afghanistan for FY 2012. Support operations in Iraq that include responsible drawdown in the Iraqi theater and the in-country transitioning effort from Defense Department to State Department Provide right-sized logistics support in areas adjacent to Iraq.

Improve DLA’s support performance at service industrial sites and prepare to meet additional equipment reset-driven requirements. Pursue improvement in key customer-oriented metrics to reflect DLA’s role in logistics support of industrial maintenance. Implement Inventory Management and Stock Positioning, Distribution Standard System and associated process improvements at industrial sites to support enhanced operations. Participate directly in planning for and supporting service asset reset actions at industrial sites (retrograde, reset and redistribution).

Engage with customers and external stakeholders to drive additional DLA support improvements worldwide. Energize the DLA customer relationship management process. Continue development of DLA’s role and outreach in the whole of government logistics support process in humanitarian crises and other situations. Effectively leverage observations from the 2010 Joint Staff Combat Support Agency Review Team to enhance COCOM support. Continue involvement in Joint Staff J4 (Logistics) efforts to enhance coordination of joint supply 40

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D Wi n t e r 2 0 11

Provide a portfolio of best-value product support strategies. Develop cross-service opportunities to apply performance-based logistics and DLA organic solutions to provide best-value support. Engage with acquisition weapons system programs to ensure DLA participation in their product support strategies. Align DLA’s processes and leverage DLA’s capabilities to better support customer outcomes in performance-based logistics and other contractor support logistics scenarios.

Support the Defense Department’s operational energy strategy to enhance warfighter agility. Support DoD efforts in alternative fuel policy development and supply chain integration. Support the Title III Biorefinery Development initiative co-led by the departments of the Navy, Energy and Agriculture. Provide acquisition support for the 2012 Navy Green Fleet local operations demonstration.

Enhance DLA Strategic Materials program to meet emerging support requirements. Complete the implementation plan for transformation of the DLA Strategic Materials program and obtain congressional approval to streamline select National Defense Stockpile processes. Complete the rare earth study to identify critical items warranting strategic inventory support. Partner with other departments and agencies to address additional strategic materials issues and develop risk-mitigation strategies.

Continue efforts in partnership with the military services to upgrade the technical data exchange process to enhance weapon systems support processes. Enhance technical data exchange practices and finalize related functional requirements for initial prototyping with the Army’s TACOM Life Cycle Management Command. Incorporate technical data exchange system requirements into planning for the Product Development Management Initiative upgrade project.

FOCUS: Stewardship Excellence Implement comprehensive cost analysis capabilities that Identify and implement improved acquisition execution help drive improved resource utilization for major internal DLA practices across all DLA supply chains. cost drivers. Extend the DLA financial metric scorecard pilot across the agency to improve awareness of related metrics and determine strategies for potential cost reductions. Implement a DLA-developed “financial impact on performance model” to support key decision steps regarding significant resource investments in the program budget review 14 process. Implement an enhanced business case analysis capability – which comprehensively ensures that investment alternatives include all applicable end-to-end costs – to enable the most effective investment decisions.

Achieve significant price reductions across DLA’s materiel and services acquisitions. Focus engagements with industry partners. Apply innovative acquisition approaches, such as optimizing the use of reverse auctions across DLA.

Implement a more efficient and effective global supply support network for storage and distribution across all materiel classes of supply. Reduce dormant or unserviceable materiel levels, optimize DLA’s related storage posture, and coordinate disposition of surplus facilities with the host activity in areas such as: ◗◗ Departmental process and policy assessments regarding retention stocks, war reserves and reimbursable support pricing for related storage. ◗◗ Alternative approaches to ensure adequate supply availability via contracting for related capabilities, host-nation support and other techniques as applicable to the particular class of supply. Capitalize on synergies between DLA’s disposal, distribution and strategic material storage processes and facilities. Synchronize above actions with related ongoing strategic initiatives such as: ◗◗ DLA’s strategic network optimization project. ◗◗ The U.S. Transportation Command and DLA-led, Joint Staff-sponsored Consolidated Materiel Response Program.

Implement DLA-driven post-Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) support efficiencies at the service industrial sites. Define and baseline existing service and DLA processes. Define opportunities for optimization in collaboration with stakeholders, both in functional realignments and process improvements. Identify and execute “quick-win” opportunities for early implementation. Develop a plan of actions and milestones to pursue longer-term optimization efforts. 42

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Complete a comprehensive analysis of recent audit findings, establish plans, and address deficiencies in priority order. Improve acquisition execution accountability standards, practices and outcomes across the agency. Identify and implement training needed to improve acquisition practices. Assess potential expansion of the Joint Contingency Acquisition Support Office role in contingency and other forward support environments. Achieve small-business objectives in support of departmental goals and related customer benefits.

Implement information technology enhancements to facilitate improved customer support and process efficiency. Deploy enterprise applications to include e-procurement, energy convergence, reutilization initiative and supply, storage and distribution inventory process optimization in accordance with negotiated schedules. Continue the sustained focus on preventing cybersecurity issues while including expanded mobile devices into the inventory. Standardize and integrate sustainment processes and management tools to ensure minimal disruption when implementing new capabilities. Identify and execute continuous process improvement projects to reduce lead times required to implement key system change requests.

Mitigate significant known or potential risks to mission accomplishment and efficiency. Execute DLA’s annual enterprise risk management process to help identify significant risks and influence related planning for audits, attestations, crime vulnerability assessments, and various other management reviews. Continue focused vulnerability mitigation efforts in areas such as: ◗◗ Pursue additional tools and techniques to identify and prevent receipt of nonconforming or counterfeit parts, to include using additional sampling techniques and DNA marking. ◗◗ Sustain heightened cybersecurity awareness and issue prevention. ◗◗ Capitalize on various review processes to prevent potential procurement fraud and other risks to effective acquisition performance. ◗◗ Implement enhanced planning processes to improve investment decisions. ◗◗ Include appropriate consideration of warfighter risks associated with infrastructure and inventory reductions. Leverage DLA Inspector General capabilities in support of enhanced risk management and mission outcomes. J

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From a new kind of research university comes a fresh perspective on defense and security. Today it is more critical than ever to connect concept with action quickly and effectively. By focusing tightly on solving issues facing our nation within the broad areas of homeland and global security, several initiatives at James Madison University are doing just that.

The National Academy of Sciences hosts Madison research symposium on homeland security The Institute for Infrastructure and Informational Assurance at JMU holds yearly homeland security research symposia at the National Academy of Sciences. Formerly with USAMRID (U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases), JMU biotechnology professor Dr. Ron Raab delivers his expert analysis on the threat of bioterrorism.

✱ For more information, check www.jmu.edu/iiia. Other resources at James Madison University include the Center for International Stabilization and Recovery/Mine Action Information Center at http://maic.jmu.edu/ and the Institute for National Security Analysis at www.jmu.edu/insa.

Media calls on JMU’s Gulf of Aden expert Dr. J. Peter Pham

James Madison University named for father of the U.S. Constitution James Madison said that liberty and learning rely on each other for mutual support. James Madison University graduates citizens who understand this relationship and their place in a world facing challenges like never before.

Dr. J. Peter Pham is one of the most widely quoted experts on security issues facing the horn of Africa. Dr. Pham directs the Nelson Institute for International and Public Affairs at JMU and his analysis of piracy in the Gulf of Aden is featured in this issue of Defense Standard. Check www.jmu.edu/nelsoninstitute for more on Dr. Pham’s important perspective.


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Wi n t e r 2 0 11 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D


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distance LEARNING On-the-go degrees for on-the-go troops

By Nick Adde


hen asked why they joined the military, most service members offer two reasons: patriotism, and help paying for an education. Both also are equally high on the list of reasons they continue their military careers. But the deployments, permanent changes of station, and heavy workloads that come with a military career all too often left service members with scores of college credits but nothing to show for it. “Some had way beyond 120 hours, but didn’t even have an associate’s degree,” says Donna Myers of Troy University in Alabama. She manages the school’s GoArmyEd program in Columbus, Ga., near Fort Benning.  Thanks to the evolution of distance-learning curricula -- offered through the Internet, on CDROM, or in traditional correspondence-school format -- service members can lock into a specific academic discipline, offered by one institution rather than many, and earn that coveted college degree. Tuition assistance, available through base education offices, can pick up much of the tuition tab. “There are so many opportunities now for our deployed [service members] to get their degrees,” says Lori Popp, who works in the education office at Camp Lejeune, N.C. “It really is an exciting time to be going to school.” In the Army, soldiers can take care of nearly all their distance-learning needs at goarmyed.com. 52

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“Students can find everything they want – degree progress, student agreements, grades – without having to go to the [base] education center,” says Myers. Each branch of the armed services offers comparable programs. Base education offices, or service branch websites, can provide more details. But those who entertain ideas of pursuing degrees through distance learning should go in with eyes open, clear goals, and a strong self-starter instinct.  “It’s no cakewalk,” says Navy Chief Fire Controlman Troy Lottman, 39, an instructor at the Center for Surface Combat Systems, Damneck Annex, at Naval Air Station Oceana, Va. Lottman pursued a bachelor’s degree in general engineering technology with a minor in engineering management from Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Va.  Still, Lottman describes the experience as “awesome.” Lottman began taking distancelearning classes while at sea in 1991. He completed most of his lower-level requirement courses while at sea, finally earning an associate degree from Tidewater Community College in Virginia, he says. Time and duty demands compelled Lottman to delay taking upper-level coursework until he returned to shore. He continued at ODU, taking classes exclusively by CD-ROM from his laptop at home. Distance learning provides “the S P E C I A L A D V E RT I S I N G S E C T I O N

PHOTOS: Courtesy of Univ. of West Florida and Courtesy of AMU

Members of the military find time to hit the books during deployments.

opportunity to be able to study and do classes and courses on my time. If I have an hour a day here, or two there, I work my schedule to get study in when I need to.” Even though Lottman planned to use his degree to build a new career after the Navy, he says his command offered nothing but encouragement. “The command is very, very​ supportive of education and distance learning, in general,” he says. “They believe if you’re on shore duty and have the time, they’ll support you the whole way.” Lottman says distance learning allows plenty of interaction. With some classes, completing required assignments was doable with little contact with instructors, he says. But during one particularly difficult electronic engineering course, he had to tap his teacher for advice on numerous occasions. Tuition assistance covered fees for Lottman’s courses. He paid for textbooks out of pocket, but saved money buying them online. It stands to reason that military educational institutions would be in lock step with civilian schools in embracing distance learning. In the Air Force, for example, distance learning has brought the classroom to officers, enlisted members and civilian employees who have no chance to take courses in traditional settings. To that end, the Air University and Air Command and General Staff College at Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala., have offered master’s degree programs to qualified officers through distance learning since 2007. Recently 900 majors, major selectees, and civilian equivalents were taking the eight-week courses, taught by civilian professors and retired officers familiar with online-based education. S P E C I A L A D V E RT I S I N G S E C T I O N

“Before this was available, those who didn’t get in-residence opportunities would take traditional correspondence courses,” says Bart Kessler, dean of distance learning at Air Command and General Staff College. Now, he says, the college has students in Afghanistan, Europe, Korea and the continental U.S. The college uses blackboard.com, a website that has emerged as a nationwide standard for civilian education, to replicate what would happen in the classroom, Kessler says. Students engage in discussions with each other and their teachers in an online environment similar to a resident seminar, while completing assigned readings, papers and other coursework. For example, an instructor poses a question. Students post responses to that question, as well as responses to two of their classmates’ responses. “The key is to use their personal experiences to illuminate that curriculum, to make that discussion engaging,” Kessler says. One husband-and-wife couple who together recently completed their Air University masters’ degrees in military operational arts and sciences say they couldn’t have done it without distance learning. Paul and Nikki Nader went through the curriculum together beginning in 2007. At the time, their daughter, Raiyah, was two months old. Paul Nader spent some of the time deployed to London. “She wouldn’t have been able to get through without me,” says Paul Nader, executive officer with the 11th Operations Group at Bolling Air Force Base. “I mean that tongue-in-cheek, but in reality, because we both knew what we were going through, we understood the strain [the other was] feeling.” Both had “robust” full-time jobs at the time, Wi n t e r 2 0 11 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D


PHOTO: Cpl. Michael Curvin

Deployed Marines hit the books during their down time “CAMP LEATHERNECK, Helmand province.

says Nikki Nader, the executive officer for the Air Force Chief of Safety at the Pentagon. “I’d take our child to church one Sunday while she studied; I’d study the other Sunday while she took her to church,” Paul Nader says. Both believe they are now better officers for having earned the degree through distance learning. “It was better than anything I experienced as an undergraduate,” says Paul ​Nader. “When you’re an undergraduate in a classroom, you’re there for an hour with 50 other students. Many people would have good points [regarding] what you are talking about, but you never get to hear them because of time constraints.” Because the Naders were linked with their classmates through the Internet and not constrained by time, the back-and-forth dialogue proved to be more detailed and beneficial, they say. “When you’re in it, you just want to graduate,” Paul Nader says. “But when you do, you look back and realize it was hard but you learned a lot. Now I have a whole bunch of time on my hands and I don’t know what to do with it.” Not everyone is entirely pleased with their distance-learning experience. While Air Force Senior Master Sgt. Scott Sippel hails the “flexibility of distance learning and the fact that I’m not tied to a set schedule,” he says online instruction distracts from “the human side of learning.” Self-discipline can be a problem, he says. “If a person is not disciplined, or their schedule gets busier than normal during the week, class work will be pushed off.” Courses would be better if they included a weekly chat-room arrangement, perhaps using Web cameras, to cover major sections of material, Sippel suggests. “This would give the class time to interact with each other,” he says, allowing the instructor “to ensure everyone learns at the same rate and receives the same clarifying messages as questions arise.” Such growing pains should be expected, some military education program managers believe. Distance-learning has exploded, says Mary Redd-Clary, director of the Navy Voluntary Education Program. As such, Redd-Clary and her counterparts with the other services say, the number of degrees, academic disciplines, and participating schools is constantly evolving – as are the classes themselves. Redd-Clary says Navy counselors help steer sailors when they choose distance-learning programs – explaining, for example, that while they are free to take all kinds of classes, their time and tuition assistance money would be put to better use if they focused on a degree in one academic discipline. J 54

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D Wi n t e r 2 0 11


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bending over BACKWARD Colleges get creative to help military members achieve their educational goals By Arthur O. Murray


hese are strange days for military recruiters. With troops deployed to still-bloody conflicts, enticing young men and women to enlist or stay in the service should be difficult. But high unemployment has changed the game. The quality of new members also exceeded targets, from their education level to their performance on the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT), part of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery, or ASVAB. ​The proportion of recruits with a high-school diploma is particularly important. Studies show that about 80 percent of service members with high-school diplomas complete their initial term of service. Beth Asch, a senior economist specializing in military-manpower studies at the government-funded Rand Corp., says the economy has much to do with the improvement in the quantity and quality of recruits. With jobs scarce, the military offers a promising career. But the poor economy isn’t the only reason more young people are signing up for military tours. She says education benefits also play a strong role in recruiting -- and retention, particularly with the Post 9/11 GI Bill, which was signed into law June 30, 2008. “What my research shows is that educational benefits are a cost-effective recruiting resource for the government. They have a modest effect relative to pay and bonuses. The reason is because they induce people to complete at least a good chunk of their enlistment term,” Asch says. That’s because they require a service requirement, which pushes recruits to push 58

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past the first few months of their enlistment. “Most of the attrition occurs then.” The other reason the benefit has been cost-effective is because some service members don’t use it, or don’t use the full amount, Asch says. Education benefits also tend to pump up the reserves. “What some military members will do is leave active duty and go into the reserves to go to college.” It presents a contradiction, she says. “The funny thing is that the same thing that induces people who are college-bound to enter the military also induces them to leave.” But not all personnel leave the military for college. Many continue their education while they serve. The University of Maryland long has been recognized as a military-friendly university, and many other colleges are jumping in. One that has stepped up its outreach to military personnel is the University of North Carolina at Wilmington -- about an hour from Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune and Marine Corps Air Station New River, and about 90 minutes from Fort Bragg. Anne Marie Beall, UNC Wilmington’s associate director of transfer admissions, says the military outreach effort started in January 2009 after she proposed the university expand its definition of transfer students to accommodate military personnel and dependents. She explains that many normally wouldn’t qualify for general admission because they had GEDs rather than high-school diplomas, or had low grades or test scores. But as transfer students, they could clear those S P E C I A L A D V E RT I S I N G S E C T I O N

PHOTOS: Sgt. 1st Class Ron Burke; iStock image; Courtesy of UNC Wilmington

New incentives pull more men and women into the military even in a tough economy.

hurdles and get course credit for their military training -- allowing many to begin their college experience with 10-12 hours of transfer credit. “We look at the whole student and, in these cases, allow their life experience and what they’ve done for o​ ur country to weigh in and make them a better candidate.” For example, she says, “Basic training could give two hours of elective credit and an hour of health credit. A lot of them get credit that’s businessoriented because of their service. There is a leadership elective credit that a lot of gunnery sergeants can take advantage of. Hospital corpsmen get biology elective credits.” The college set up a special military-admissions website -www. uncw.edu/military -- and it waived the application fee for military students. Once admitted, service personnel continue to receive support, Beall says. “The support services include a student veteran organization, the Seahawk Perch. Each department has a point of contact -- someone who has experience with military personnel, someone who speaks the language.” Beall took the effort a step further. Even with the concessions for military service, she says, some students couldn’t be admitted. So the university formed a partnership with two local community colleges. It signs a contract with the service members guaranteeing them admission if they complete a year at community college and meets specific academic goals. “We maintain contact with them because we want them to feel like they’re still involved with UNCW.” Beth Barton, UNCW military liaison in Onslow County, home of Camp Lejeune, says that the university policies toward military students have a common goal, to ensure all policies and procedures “are really accommodating to the military.” She points to the school’s policy on service members who must deploy. “NorS P E C I A L A D V E RT I S I N G S E C T I O N

mally, if students leave the university, they have to reapply. If military students deploy, they can come back and resume their work.” ​Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, which has its main campus in Daytona Beach, Fla., also has embraced military students. Its Yellow Ribbon Program, in concert with the Post-9/11 GI Bill, allows up to 20,350 eligible veterans to attend the university at virtually no cost. It already was home to more than 7,400 service members, veterans and their dependents. The school also operates more than 170 Embry-Riddle Worldwide centers around the globe, where more than 26,000 military students are enrolled. It also gives students college credits for military service. The Rand Corp.’s Asch believes more universities will aggressively court military students. “There’s certainly an incentive for them to do so. A small private college often has an endowment it uses to provide help to students. Military students who come in with their own aid can be very attractive to these schools. It allows them to use their resources better.” Still, Asch says, education benefits have only a “subtle” effect on reenlistment because many who stay in the military tend not to use them. The Post 9/11 GI Bill could change all that. It pays tuition and fees not to exceed the cost of the most-expensive state institution, a $1,000 stipend for books and a monthly housing allowance. “One of the key features is that if you agree to stay after 10 years, you can transfer the benefit to spouse or child,” she says. But even those who don’t use the education benefit understand the importance of it, she says. “People see education in general as a pathway to succeed in the military. It drives promotions, and tuition assistance helps with that.” J Wi n t e r 2 0 11 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D




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Realistic scenarios and state-of-the-art simulation technology help troops train -- safely -- for the real thing By Tony Mecia


D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D Wi n t e r 2 0 11

as driving tanks on black ice or up narrow mountain passes. Virtual training will never replace live training, Fierko says, but it offers plenty of advantages.   ilitary trainers talk of three main kinds of training: live training (real soldiers, real environment); virtual training (real soldiers, simulated environment); and constructive training (simulated soldiers, simulated environment – often for commanders to game out scenarios). Live training dates to the ancient Egyptians, and the idea of wargaming has been around for centuries, but the middle category – virtual training – didn’t exist until computers became widely available in the 1970s and ’80s. And after Vietnam, notions of what constituted effective live training changed, too. “Back then, it was very flat – you were basically engaging little green pop-up silhouettes as you laid on your stomach,” says Ken Murray, author of Training at the Speed of Life: The Definitive Textbook for Military and Law Enforcement Training. “What’s the point in lying on your stomach s​hooting for marksmanship when marksmanship and gunfighting are two separate skills?” ​At the time, the U.S. was focused on a different kind of enemy, too. Much of the training emphasized the movement of tanks and troops in a conventional war, since the major threat was seen as Soviet expansion into Europe. After the Sept. 11 attacks, though, it was clear that the enemy had changed. The focus switched to training units as small as squads or platoons, with only a few dozen soldiers, instead of hundreds at a time. And their missions are more likely to require an understanding of communications and cultural awareness as opposed to simply raw force. “In the last five to eight years, a lot of the training focus and



PHOTOS: Courtesy of PEO-STI


here’s no substitute for battlefield experience. But those who design the training for today’s military say they’re getting closer. By harnessing new technologies, trainers say they’re much better able to simulate the stresses of war before actually placing fighting men and women into the field. The result, they say, is a better-prepared fighting force more likely to survive their first firefights, the deadliest time for any soldier. At the Army’s National Training Center at Fort Irwin, Calif., soldiers role-play through a mock Iraqi village called Medina Wasl, firing weapons filled with blanks and equipped with lightweight lasers. They know when they’ve been “hit” because they wear laser detectors. At Fort Benning, Ga., tank gunners and drivers can practice in a virtual Bradley Fighting Vehicle, surrounded by a 360-degree video screen. Some of the simulators have images that look like videogames, which look increasingly more realistic. But there’s a key difference. “Some people refer to what we do as just playing games, but we are not playing games,” says Fran Fierko, who oversees virtual training for the Army’s Program Executive Office for Simulation, Training & Instrumentation (PEO STRI) in Orlando, Fla. “We have soldiers’ lives in the balance.” Sure, some of the virtual training might look like souped-up videogames, and indeed, the military in some cases has adapted commercially available games for military use. But Fierko says the armed forces place a much greater emphasis on reviewing the performance during a training exercise, to learn from mistakes and acknowledge successes. And the situations that the technology can simulate often can’t be safely replicated in live training, such

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PHOTOS: Courtesy of PEO-STI

Sophisticated simulation technology allows military members to train realistically for real-world scenarios.

investment has been based more on the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, which is a less sophisticated enemy but a very demanding environment,” says Michael L. Kelly, vice president of business development and strategy for Cubic Corp., a San Diego-based military contractor that supplies training systems. At the same time, Kelly says, technology was improving because of advances in computing power and graphics. As a result, training systems like Cubic’s Engagement Skills Trainer 2000 (EST 2000) are now able to greatly help a soldier’s judgment and marksmanship because they can replicate the weapons’ performance, and advances in graphics can provide more realistic scenarios. The system includes a high-resolution projection screen and can be programmed for a nearly endless variety of scenarios for multiple trainees to work on marksmanship and shoot/don’t shoot exercises. And the company’s MILES system – the lasers and laser-recognition devices in the fake Iraqi town at Fort Irwin – are far more advanced than the systems of a decade or two ago. “Nothing is as intense or stressful as real combat, but in general, these rigorous training regimens are preparing these guys when they go overseas into these environments,” he says. “The training environment is designed to put them under stress.” And while virtual training was once viewed skeptically, it’s now widely embraced by top officers. In some cases it even can be superior to live training, says David Rees, senior vice president and director of special projects for SAIC Corp., a McLean, Va., company that makes simulators for the military. “There are certain things that can be better done in virtual than in live, because in virtual, you can push to the limits of nonsurvivability,” he says. “There is no replacement for the hot, sweaty, muddy discomfort of being deployed in the field. But what the training does is makes sure that when you hit the ground in the field, you are better prepared and are getting much more out of the training than 20 years ago.” Not all the advancements are for dangerous work. Los Angelesbased Alelo Inc. has developed a 3D game to help improve language skills. Players who communicate correctly and appropriately earn the trust of the avatars and gain information to help them advance; players who make mistakes will find the locals  uncooperative and will not receive the information they need. 64

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ilitary spending on training systems has become a big market for contractors. More than 200 competitors offer military simulation training, according to a market research report by Frost & Sullivan. While some of the companies winning the biggest share of the contracts are ​big defense contractors such as Lockheed Martin Corp. and Northrop Grumman Corp., plenty of smaller players also are vying for a piece of the simulation training market that Frost & Sullivan estimates at $6 billion a year. Soldiers who deploy to Iraq or Afghanistan will have been trained on at least one – and maybe as many as 10 – different systems developed by PEO STRI, Fierko says. Going forward, one of the biggest focuses will be on integrating individual simulators together. Over the years, a lot of simulators were “stovepipe,” or isolated, systems unable to talk to one another, says Pete Marion, PEO STRI’s customer support executive. Now, platforms are being developed to allow soldiers in different places and on different systems to train with one another. That might mean that a tank crew in front of a projection screen at Fort Hood, Texas, could see a tank doing live training at Fort Irwin, Calif., and that a brigade commander at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, could direct them both as part of a training exercise. “I hesitate to say we’re seamless, but we’re a lot closer than we’ve ever been before,” Marion says. “…We are clearly training new tasks, and we’re doing that well, and we’re training traditional tasks better.” Other hot areas include rifle marksmanship, medical training and cultural awareness training. Training medics in particular has traditionally been difficult because there’s been no easy way to replicate major injuries. Now, though, the Army uses Emergency Care Simulators (ECS) – mannequins that can be programmed with a variety of illnesses and injuries and can “live” or “die” depending on the care received. The simulators are in rooms that can be programmed to blare gunfire and release smoke to replicate a realworld battleground. Overall, Marion says he sees technology continuing to advance in ways that help soldiers be better prepared to ship out to those crucial first firefights. “The more realistic we can create the training environment, the more we can prepare them to encounter that,” he says, “the better.” J S P E C I A L A D V E RT I S I N G S E C T I O N


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’12 AIR FORCE Preview

FMU-152 BOMB SYSTEM New fuzes allow precision detonation


By Sara Michael

PHOTO: Capt. Teresa Sullivan)

for additional fuzes, likely to be defter successfully complet- number of time-delays.” Legacy fuzes, on the other hand, livered in 2012, according to Kaman. ing testing, the Air Force’s Joint Programmable Fuze can’t be reprogrammed once they “The JPF has proven to provide the (JPF) program is fully developed and are inserted into the weapon and the high reliability and operational flexin production, with contractor Kaman weapon is loaded onto the aircraft. ibility that is critical to the U.S. and Corp. of Bloomfield, Conn., at the That adds flexibility and effective- allied militaries around the world today,” Gregory Steiner, Kaman Aeroness, the Air Force says. helm. space Group The arming president, says fuze is inserted in a statement. in a weapon, Kaman is allowing the the sole providdevice to deterer of JPF, also mine the proper known as the time to detoFMU-152A/B nate the warbomb system, head. according to “One of the the company. fuze’s most The contract important feawas originally tures is safing, issued to DSE, which prevents Dayron in 1998, the weapon which Kaman from detonatacquired in July ing without 2002. completing the The fuze proper chain system passed of events,” first article acaccording to Staff Sgt. Donald Buono fuzes a guided bomb. The Air Force’s joint programmable fuzes ceptance testing written re- allow a pilot to reprogram the settings and ensure accurate detonation. The Air Force in mid-2004, sponses from recently awarded a follow-on order to Kaman Corp. for more fuzes. and production Air Force delivery began spokesman Lt. “In combination with the JDAM in 2005, according to Kenneth Kelly, Col. Wesley P. Miller IV. “Process and product improvement initiatives are (Joint Direct Attack Munition) tail director of business development for continuously implemented, increasing kit and a bomb body the JPF becomes Kaman Precision Products. The syspart of a weapon of choice for the tems are being manufactured in Orthe fuze’s operational reliability.” What makes JPF unique com- warfighter,” Miller says. JDAM is a lando, Fla., and Middletown, Conn. pared with legacy fuzes is the ability weapons guidance system developed Kaman can deliver more than 2,500 to change the settings. JPF is “the Air for the Air Force and the Navy that systems a month. The JPF is used with a number of Force’s only fuze that can be repro- converts freefall bombs into “smart” weapons on aircraft including the F-15 grammed by the pilot in the cockpit munitions. In September 2010, Kaman Corp.’s Eagle and F-15E Strike Eagle, F-16 to change its initiation settings,” according to Miller. “The initiation set- aerospace division was awarded a fol- Fighting Falcon, F-22 Raptor, B-52 ting can be instantaneous or any of a low-on purchase order for $36 million Stratofortress and the MQ-9 UAV. J

Wi n t e r 2 0 11 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D


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’12 ARMY Preview

Army Green

Service plans to win the war against waste


By Sara Michael

PHOTO: U.S. Army

he Army is shooting to have without its challenges, among them each quarter. Some changes already are under all of its installations pro- hefty up-front investments. But through duce at least as much energy unique funding structures and partner- way, such as phasing out energy-eating as they use, part of its “net-zero” initia- ships with developers, the Army is able incandescent light bulbs. By opting for more efficient compact florescent bulbs, tive pursued in partnership with the En- to share the cost. “Because of the appropriated money the Army can use as much as 75 percent vironmental Protection Agency. “We are really talking about our re- we get, there really isn’t a new funding less electricity and reduce waste by buying fewer bulbs. sponsibility to the At Fort Irwin, environment and the Army partthe resources we nered with Clark have available,” Energy Group of says Katherine Arlington, Va., Hammack, assisand Acciona Solar tant secretary for Power of Henderinstallations, enson, Nev., through ergy and the envian enhanced-use ronment. land lease to build Army officials a 500-megawatt want to have five solar power plant. installations meet The first phase is a the net-zero goal 20-megawatt plant, by 2020, with anexpected to handle other 25 of the much of the base’s more than 150 28-megawatt power installations on needs. board by 2030. Similarly, the Water and waste This 2-megawatt solar photovoltaic power generation array at Fort Carson, Colo., one Army has partnered reduction goals of the first in the Army, generated more than 2 percent of the installation’s energy shortly with developer Acwill be included. after its installation. It was one of the first solar-power projects under the service’s net-zero tus Lend Lease to “Our broad vision initiative, which emphasizes use of renewable energy and savings in energy and water build green homes is that when it’s usage. A 500-megawatt solar power plant for Fort Irwin, Calif., was in the works. on military installafully implemented, tions, including two it will be a model of sustainability and quality of life and stream in the Army or Defense Depart- zero-energy homes at Fort Campbell, ment” to go green, says Alan King, the Ky. The company will be comparing an example to the nation,” she says. How each installation achieves the Army’s director of energy partnerships. the energy use to that of two traditional net-zero goal depends on the base. Some Some projects, like a solar power initia- homes, says Bruce Anderson, an execuposts are working with local universi- tive at Fort Irwin, Calif., can cost up to tive general manager for Actus Lend ties, utility companies and innovators to $2 billion. “We wouldn’t have the ex- Lease. The goal is 54 percent less enpertise to maintain and operate it, or the ergy consumption. find the right strategy, Hammack says. The government “starts the program That means measuring the suc- base operations funding to keep it up.” The idea was to develop a plan to correctly,” Anderson says. “Then [it’s a cess of the program — and the budget — will depend on each project at the solicit the private sector for at least one matter of bringing] in private assets and various bases. The ambitious plan isn’t or two renewable energy opportunities private dollars to really push it.” J

Wi n t e r 2 0 11 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D


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’12 MARINE CORPS Preview


Seeking the “full spectrum” of protection


By Bryan Mitchell

PHOTO: U.S. Marine Corps

Now the kit is worn by the Fleet hen elite Marines communication. The vest is designed forces conduct covert with a swimmer’s cut for amphibious Anti-Terrorism Teams (FAST) as operations, they turn to operations, and the ballistics package well as Marine Expeditionary Unit helicopter assault companies and the Full Spectrum Battle Equipment is water-sealed. It also comes with an emergency- explosive ordnance disposal units. concealable vest for protection. With a three- to five-year shelf “They might have to do something only SEA MK II breathing bottle device life, most of the FSBEs are similar to what you see in coming to the end of their Black Hawk Down where usefulness. “We are always the guy is behind enemy looking for better equipment lines in civilian attire,” to field on our Marines. says Marine Corps Maj. It’s going to be a constant Luis Lara, the armor and evolution going out and load bearing program looking for better items,” manager at the Quantico, Lara says. “It’s not just the Va.-based Marine Corps FSBE but across the entire Systems Command. family of ballistics.” “Although that is a little The FSBE is not your Hollywoodesque, that normal piece of military is how they can use the hardware supplied through concealable vest.” a traditional vendor. Most of The Marine Corps the components are off-theSystems Command has shelf National Stock Number been looking for the pieces of gear collected to latest and greatest gear to The Corps has been considering upgrades and replacements for its form the kit. possibly supplant pieces popular Full Spectrum Battle Equipment package. Most of the kit’s components are available off-the-shelf. The assembly and roughly of the wildly popular half of the manufacturing – Full Spectrum Battle Equipment, possibly translating into that provides a submerged Marine primarily pouches – are conducted by a opportunities for suppliers to shop with a limited supply of oxygen as New York-based nonprofit agency that new helmets, vests, holsters and a host well as gloves and pouches for ammo, employs blind and severely disabled workers. of other support gear included in the communication gear and knives. The Resource Center has been What separates the FSBE from 85-piece kit. The FSBE was introduced in 2000 similar mission kits is the unit’s single- supplying the military with gear since to replace the Close Quarter Battle point, single-pull release allowing a 1977 under a program known as Ability Marine to quickly shed the gear in a One. The program dictates a certain Equipment. With approximately 85 pieces, it’s tight spot. “In the case of an emergency, percentage of government purchases difficult to list every last pouch in the you’re able to get out of your vest as must be contracted through nonprofit agencies that employ the disabled. FSBE, but some of the most crucial soon as possible,” Lara says. TRC supplies the Defense Initially, only force recon and items include the MSA MICH helmet special operations units were supplied Department as well as the Food and and a Rhodesian tactical vest. The helmet is a modular integrated with the FSBE. But demand for the kit Drug Administration and the General communications helmet (MICH) surged and the Corps reacted in 2003 Services Administration, according popular across the special operations by upping its required number of kits to the firm’s business development manager, Gregory Bender. J community that allows for hands-free from 1,500 to 8,200.

Wi n t e r 2 0 11 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D


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’12 NAVY Preview

Buying Green

Sustainability goals fuel environmental push


By Tony Mecia

PHOTO: Courtesy of Lockheed Martin

The Navy cites several examples of t Kings Bay Naval Submarine Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of successes, from using nontoxic solvents Base in Georgia, the base’s the Navy (Environment). The Navy’s green purchasing program to clean weapons in Hawaii to ditching water pipes had been showing their age and routinely bursting. Tiring of applies to all naval operations except Styrofoam in favor of biodegradable cups at replacing sections piecemeal, the base’s tactical vehicles and equipment. In general, a dining facility in Bethesda, Md. That green focus leadership worked with translates into more a vendor to replace opportunities for the entire line with companies such as new energy-efficient STARA Technology, thermal piping, a small Arizona ensuring that water engineering firm that could reliably reach has produced military restrooms and galleys gadgets for years. – and in the long run, Last year it won a save money. $23 million contract “We’ve been from the Naval Air looking at what we Warfare Center can do to improve the Aircraft Division to environment and still develop a solar- and make it an operating wind-powered trailer base,” said Kings Bay that can charge a spokesman Ed Buczek. surveillance system Throughout the Electric vehicles like this one could soon become commonplace on Navy installations at forward operating Navy, efforts like Kings as the sea service moves forward with its Green Procurement Program, which calls bases. Bay’s to be mindful for purchasing green products whenever feasible, as long as costs aren’t significantly It’s the of the environment higher than for nonsustainable options. company’s first foray are creating new opportunities for contractors. In some the Navy does not buy green items that into alternative energy, says spokesman cases, longtime vendors are positioning cost substantially more than nongreen Doug Powell, and he predicts more to come: “There’s a lot of room for expanding their products as environmentally sensitive, alternatives. One of the major challenges, Walker in different directions using solar and wind.” and in others, new companies with an Walker says contractors should keep in environmental focus are finding military says, is educating every member of the Navy who buys something – not just mind that “green procurement rules do not applications for their work. The Navy’s push for environmentally procurement personnel – on the importance relieve us of the obligation to purchase items that are cost-competitive, meet the required friendly contracting gained steam when of purchasing green products. The Green Procurement Program is part specifications, and are available in time to the Naval Supply Systems Command’s Naval Inventory Control Point (NAVICP) of the Navy’s larger effort to demonstrate meet our needs. In other words, to succeed, and Marine Corps Headquarters released leadership in environmentally friendly you must be green and still be competitive a 140-page implementation guide for the practices and energy conservation. Energy- in terms of price and performance.” Contractors should also be sure that department’s Green Procurement Program. saving goals for the Navy and Marines in “By purchasing green products, the the next decade include the planned launch their green products are available through Navy is increasing its role as a responsible of a “green” strike group that includes normal federal and DoD supply systems, environmental steward,” says Amy Walker, biofuel-powered aircraft and hybrid-power she says. “If we can’t find it in our systems, it is difficult if not impossible to buy it.” J sustainment and technology liaison with the surface ships.

Wi n t e r 2 0 11 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D


U.S. ramps up border interdiction efforts to stop the drug scourge at its source By Elaine S. Povich


D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D Wi n t e r 2 0 11


ig a little deeper, beyond the smart uniform and the always-searching eyes of a U.S. Border Patrol agent, and you’ll find a law enforcement professional who just might be part Native American Indian tracker and part electronic science geek. It’s the combination of ancient skills and modern equipment that makes Border Patrol agents, and their affiliated agency, such aces at tracking down illegal drugs and drug dealers on the border with Mexico. The two nations have significantly ramped up drug interdiction and border security efforts over the past two years, beginning with the Southwest Border Initiative, which doubled the size of the Border Patrol to more than 20,700 agents – double the number of agents in 2004. In addition, a special $600 million appropriation approved by Congress last summer added new agents, new communications and, especially, new equipment. Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano says the increased emphasis on the border serves as a blunt warning to Mexican drug cartels: “Don’t even think about bringing your violence and tactics across this border. You will be met by an overwhelming response,” she said in a speech in El Paso, Texas. “And that message extends to anyone considering coming across that border illegally – whether a smuggler, a human trafficker, or an unlawful immigrant seeking work. There are more Border Patrol agents on that border than ever before. There are more customs

PHOTOS: Courtesy of U.S. Border Patrol

LEFT: Agents working the Border Patrol’s Tucson Sector patrol 262 miles of largely open desert terrain. RIGHT: The Tucson Sector covers approximately 262 miles of the U.S./Mexico Border. New infrastructure along the border makes smuggling more difficult.

officials. There is more technology. Do not throw in your lot with the cartels or the criminal organizations – because the likelihood of getting caught -- and the consequences of doing so -- are higher than ever before,” she said. That ramped-up activity includes more Immigration and Customs Enforcement agents, a doubling of personnel assigned to Border Enforcement Security Task Forces, and an increase by a factor of five the number of border liaison officers to work with Mexican agents in a coordinated effort. Despite all that, the border is a very dangerous place. Early in 2011, ICE Agent Jaime Zapata was killed and his partner Victor Avila wounded in an attack in the northern Mexico state of San Luis Potosi. U.S. and Mexican law enforcement officials, working together, arrested several Mexican drug gang members in the killing – another example of the cross-border teamwork.


n many cases, drug interdiction is more a matter of sleuthing than gunfire, and can start out with something as simple as flattened grass or overturned rocks. And sometimes, the interdiction relies on sophisticated sensors and cameras mounted on a custom-modified pickup truck, making it look like a cross between a television satellite truck and a rolling police command center. “We do a lot of driving and looking at the sand,” says Border Patrol Agent Jason Rheinfrank of Tucson, Ariz., noting that ancient Indian tracking methods are incorporated into the patrol’s search techniques. “We are looking for foot signs or anything out of the ordinary that shouldn’t be there. If a rock is kicked over, you can see the 76

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D Wi n t e r 2 0 11

dirt stuck to the bottom of the rock; you can still see the moistness of it from the dew. All those disturbances in the environment – they are going to smash the grass down,” he says. “I’ve seen them (drug smugglers) take rolls of carpet and put them on the bottom of their shoes” to try to mask their movements. It doesn’t work, he says. “They leave no footprints, but they leave foot signs.” On the other end of the technology spectrum is the integrated Mobile Surveillance System. Mounted on a flatbed or a pickup truck, the MSS includes a night-vision laboratory, Advanced Radio Surveillance Systems ground surveillance radar, a nightvision camera and a day-vision camera, all mounted on a panand-tilt system. The cameras move independently of the radar and look at individual targets while the radar is doing its own job. On the kit itself, no matter where it is mounted, a mast raises and lowers the cameras. In addition, the system includes a generator, battery system and computers for command and control. The whole collection can go on a trailer, pickup truck or on the ground. If it’s in a truck, the vehicle is turned into a command and control center with a passenger seat that rotates and faces toward the rear. Dual screens show day and night imaging and the radar map. If the operator clicks on the map, the cameras swing around to zoom in on the area. A laser designator can paint the images, without the targets ever noticing they are being electronically followed. “The other advantage it has is to detect whether they (the smugglers) have weapons,” says Bobby Brown, vice president for business development at Telephonics, the company that developed the MSS.

LEFT: Among the Border Patrol’s tools is the Telephonics MSC Integrated Command Center, which uses the company’s ThreatSTALKER C2 software.

PHOTOS: Courtesy of U.S. Border Patrol

RIGHT: The MSS can survey a 180-degree swath of land in about 10 seconds and detect a border incursion more than 10 miles away.


or Border Patrol agents, whether the group is carrying weapons can determine how they make their approach to apprehend the drug smugglers. It’s sometimes a better method than relying on individual trackers following smugglers on foot. “I tracked a group one day for 14 hours,” says Rheinfrank, recalling his efforts to run down smugglers. “I ran out of water. I called a helicopter crew in the town nearby and asked for water. I had to climb up on the top of a mountain to get the water. The helo dropped the water and told me there was a group two or three hundred yards ahead of me – that was my group.” Rheinfrank and his fellow agents like the variation in their days – “every day is different” he says, particularly with the increased activity on the border. In a single day last February, Border Patrol agents in California arrested a man wanted for sexual assault and stopped a woman from smuggling cocaine with an estimated value of $800,000. The sexual assault arrest came when Juan Carlos Orozco, 32, was stopped at the border trying to get into the U.S. without immigration documents. When he was identified, the computer matched him with an arrest warrant in Los Angeles for sexual assault on a minor. Later that same day, Border Patrol agents stopped a red Nissan Sentra driven by a 24-year-old woman, a U.S. citizen. A canine team sniffed the vehicle and alerted agents to possible drugs inside. A search found cocaine. “It’s not uncommon. We do catch sex offenders and drug offenders, not on a daily basis but for the most part on a weekly basis,” says Jonathan Creiglow, public affairs officer for the Border Patrol sector that includes Calexico and El Centro, Calif. “We do catch illegals every day. We process them, fingerprint them, and hand them over to the proper authorities,” whether that is Immigration and Customs Enforcement, the Drug Enforcement Administration or the FBI. All in a day’s work, he says, when patrolling an area with beefed 78

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D Wi n t e r 2 0 11

up surveillance, border fence, vehicle barriers and other equipment used to monitor the border.


BP officials work on land, sea, and air and have disparate missions. In El Paso last February, CBP agents working the port of entry made seven marijuana seizures during one weekend, stopping approximately $2.2 million worth of the drug. In addition to the mobile surveillance units, remote video surveillance cameras, mounted on tall towers right on the border, watch out for disturbances around the clock. “The reason you have seen so much success in the past 10 years is because we have more personnel on the line than we did 10 years ago – more agents, more fencing, and on top of the fencing we have technology,” says Rheinfrank. “There are sensors all over the place.” There are also Predator drones that continuously patrol the border. “They can get a good visual and if they see any illegal activity, we can respond,” he adds. But while the high-tech devices are snagging dozens of drug smugglers and illegal immigrants on a daily basis, it’s still sometimes the low-tech “Indian tracker” methods that result in apprehensions. Agents relate tales of drug smugglers rigging up a zip line with fishing line from a baseball field’s lights into a house. Then there’s the tale of the sewer scuba diver drug smuggler. An agent Rheinfrank knew from the Border Patrol Academy was on bicycle patrol when he stopped over a manhole cover. He heard noise coming from below, reached down with his baton and pried the cover off. “He looked down and there was a guy in scuba gear pulling bundles of marijuana through the sewer system,” says Rheinfrank, who was teamed with the agent that day. “I showed up and said, ‘You’ve got to be kidding me.’” The scuba smuggler was promptly arrested. J


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Sgt. 1st Class Justin Hathaway braves a sandstorm at Al Asad Air Base, Iraq, not long before the final U.S. troop withdrawal at year’s end following nearly nine years of occupation. PHOTO: Master Sgt. Cecilio Ricardo


D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D Wi n t e r 2 0 11


2011 Winter Edition  

Focused on the Warfighter

2011 Winter Edition  

Focused on the Warfighter