Tactical Gear 2017 DEFENSE STANDARD
BUILT TOUGH BATTLE HARDENED
We designed the new DeltaPoint Pro® to be the best reflex sight on the market. The lower profile and larger viewing window ensure you see more of what you need and less of what you don’t. That translates to faster target acquisition for any situation where split seconds count.
DEFENSE STANDARD Tactical Gear 2017
© 2015 Leupold + Stevens, Inc.
The versatile Mark 6 1-6x20mm: For when it counts. With a 34mm maintube, daylight bright illumination and a CMR-W reticle, this scope is made for the world’s best warriors.
© 2015 Leupold + Stevens, Inc.
Tactical Gear 2017 DEFENSE STANDARD
Driving the Ballistic Helmet Industry towards Lighter and Stronger AS‐505 Light Weight Advanced
Combat Helmet (spec. ARPD 10‐02) ArmorSource LLC, the leading and largest manufacturer of basic and advanced ballistic helmets in the United States, pushed benchmarks higher in 2016 as it began delivering the Army’s Light Weight Advance Combat Helmets (LWACH) and the Advanced Combat Vehicle Crewman Helmet (ACVC-H). The LWACH delivers improved ballistic performance and is approximately 10% lighter than the ACH while the ACVC-H is designed to provide equal ballistic protection for those in the armored vehicle arena. Milestone achievements impacted International arenas due to ArmorSource’s 5-year Foreign Military Sales (FMS) USASAC contract (2015-2020) and its continued support of our allies in the Middle East, Africa, Latin America, and Europe. ArmorSource also moved forward in the DoD providing DLA with Light Weight Marine Corps helmets further expanding ArmorSource’s ballistic head protection product line.
ArmorSource continues to motivate the ballistic head protection industry away from bolted retention systems as it prepares to deliver 18,000 helmets for the Chilean Army in a full-cut and high-cut style using the ArmorSource boltless solution [pictured below right]. AS‐770 Advanced Combat Vehicle Crewman Helmet (spec. ARPD 12‐03)
ArmorSource’s 120,000 s/f facility is one the most impressive combat helmet production operations in the U.S. with non-stop operations supporting the ongoing demand from DoD, local Law Enforcement agencies (SWAT and State Police) and federal agencies alike (State Department, Marshal Service, FBI, DEA, ICE). This demand has pushed ArmorSource to further enhance its AS-501 Ultra-Lightweight ACH [left] in support of both DoD and international performance requirements. Requirement reflected in the U.S. Army’s Generation II ACH (GEN II-ACH) solicitation which focuses on significantly reducing the combat helmet weight while maintaining ballistic performance. The Army is expected to determine an awardee and begin production of the GEN II in 2017.
AS‐501 Ultra‐Light Weight ACH (spec. IIIA and greater – 30% weight reduction over legacy ACH)
ArmorSource is determined to lead the global market into an era where Law Enforcement, Soldiers, Sailors, and Airmen are protected by the very best in Quality, Ballistic Protection, and Comfort (email USG@armorsource.com for more information).
DEFENSE STANDARD Tactical Gear 2017
AS‐500‐CH Boltless Helmet (NIJ level IIIA)
ADVANCED & LEADING DESIGNS SUPPORTING -
SPEC OPS – AS 501 HC
BOLTLESS RAILS & RETENTION SYSTEMS UNMATCHED DELIVERY SCHEDULES CUSTOM CONFIGURATIONS ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT SOLUTIONS
LIGHT/HIGH PERFORMANCE (AS 501–2.4 lbs)
HIGHEST BALLISTIC PROTECTION AVAILABLE
RIFLE HELMET (AS 600-3.3 lbs)
DELIVERING THE NEW LIGHTWEIGHT ADVANCED COMBAT HELMET TO THE U.S. ARMY - (LWACH)
Tactical Gear 2017 DEFENSE STANDARD
DEFENSE STANDARD Tactical Gear 2017
THE PRAETORIAN STANDARD Praetorian Standard, Inc. began in 2010 with a single contract. It was a contract that began with a handshake in a war-torn city; it was a contract that highlighted the need for a solid company willing to do hard things in what most would consider to be very difficult places. As government and commercial clients began to understand the mission statement and the scope of its capabilities and with the vision clear: to meet the challenges that arise for organizations — military, government or commercial —doing business in difficult environments worldwide, PSI began to grow. The unique company leadership and broad range of expertise well positioned the company to deliver on that vision and mission. By late 2011, PSI was receiving some domestic attention for their operational and emergency risk management operations overseas. Team members were hired as consultants to deliver risk assessments on critical infrastructure for U.S. transportation entities, such as Amtrak. Thus began the company’s broadened objective of providing strategic support in our homeland and to other commercial entities. PSI’s domestic work was expanded further when the Department of Justice and the Department of Homeland Security required risk management consultants, tactical and strategic support and information technology expertise. At the same time, the company’s work in the Middle East has continued to grow and PSI remains hard at work as an international logistics company, providing critical life support services worldwide. By exposing a “One Team” philosophy with our clients and maintaining high ethical and moral standards, PSI creates close working relationships with clients fostering solid solutions with consistent outstanding results. PSI is uniquely qualified to conduct business in Afghanistan. Having been in-country working with the Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Geological Society (USGS) on mining projects since 2010, the company’s logistics, security management skills and the situational analysis tools employed assist organizations overcame educational and training challenges to build trusting, respectful relationships with Afghan local, regional and national business and government leaders. PSI takes those same skills and capabilities into less stable countries in the North African and Trans-African regions.
The company provides international logistics solutions to branches of the U.S. government, particularly the United States Special Operation Command (SOCOM), the United States Africa Command (AFRICOM) and the United States Southern Command (SOUTHCOM). In this capacity, PSI sponsors counter-drug and counter-terrorism exercises, assists in the development of human rights policies, provides training, international logistics solutions and intelligence support and supplies nonlethal equipment. With unique capabilities and an intimate knowledge of international markets and cultures, the company provides logistics services to foreign governments and U.S. citizens working abroad. PSI is known for intelligence coordination, protection management and situational analyses, which can include transportation and protection services, highly specialized expertise, operational risk management, aircraft maintenance and security. Closer to home, PSI supports homeland security efforts and provides emergency management services to government entities and corporate partners. A key domestic focus is on software engineering, systems administration, quality assurance and testing/evaluation. PSI also conducts risk assessments for transportation systems and compiles best-practices libraries for advanced homeland security and emergency management responses. The team is led by Richard “Dick” Davis, who brings decades of military and commercial experience to the team. His boots-on-the-ground training overseas gives him a unique perspective that allows PSI to seamlessly integrate with operations abroad. His project management success affords PSI the opportunity to compete for the most highly sought-after contracts, which are then staffed, managed and executed expertly. The PSI leadership is rounded out by an executive team with a combined 60+ years in the military and nearly 100 combined years of corporate management experience. As you delve deeper into the corporate structure, you will find leaders in the field at every level of management and program execution. PSI isn’t afraid to go where others fear, and it isn’t afraid to accept projects that carry with them inherent risk. Their promise? To deliver exceptional results regardless of the scope of work. PSI is your partner in providing logistical, operational and security support to government and corporate clients throughout the world. Tactical Gear 2017 DEFENSE STANDARD
DEFENSE STANDARD Tactical Gear 2017
Tactical Gear 2017 DEFENSE STANDARD
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MODULAR ACCESSORY LOCKING SYSTEM M-LOK is a modular locking mounting system for direct attachment of accessories. Designed by Magpul Industries as an evolution of their MOE slot system used since 2007. ®
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©2015 Magpul Industries Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Magpul holds a Trademark on all of its product names and logos. The following products are trademarks of Magpul Industries Corporation, registered in the U.S. and other countries: Magpul, MOE & M-LOK.
SOF Survivability SPEAR sharpens special operatorsâ€™ protective edge in battle By Julie Bird
Special Forces, Special Tools Technology provides an edge when failure is not an option By Rich Tuttle
LOUDER THAN WORDS 38
Tactical Photo Gallery
ON THE COVER
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NEW for 2017:
4.5-18x44, First Focal Plane (MIL/MIL), Precision Rifle Scope
Over the years we have had several requests for a first focal plane, Mil reticle optic that has Mil turrets. Like always, we listen to our customers. LUCID Optics is proud to introduce, NEW for 2017 the MLX 4.5-18x44 Precision rifle scope. This optic is specifically designed to offer a high level of performance with crystal clear glass built in a extremly durable 30mm chassis, offered at at a value driven price that is nearly unheard of in the market toiday. The MLX offers an abundant 10 Mils of elevation and 5 Mils of hold under in the reticle on 18x with an additional 10 Mils of adjustment either side of the center in turret travel. The turrets adjust with a, â€œLift, Adjust, Press down to lock, Lift higher to re-zeroâ€?, mechanism designed to keep all of the adjustments intensional and secure. Give the NEW MLX 4.5-18x44 a look, when you have questions let us know.
www.mylucidgear.com | 307-463-2633 | firstname.lastname@example.org 16 DEFENSE STANDARD Tactical Gear 2017
Kicking the preverbal tires on a NEW Optic from LUCID Optics. I was able to get my hands on the NEW for 2017 LUCID Optics MLX rifle scope recently. After receiving the package that came a few days earlier than expected I found what seemed to be a very well built and thought out rifle scope in my hands. The NEW MLX from LUCID Optics is a (4.5x - 18x44) Mil Based, First focal plane rifle scope that is compact in size at just a little under 14” long and weighing in at a well balanced 26oz. The MLX is built on a one piece, 30mm tube, a fast focus 34mm ocular and a 44mm objective. In my first look through this glass I noticed that the image is incredibly clear and showed outstanding color accuracy and bright sharp resolution through out the entire magnification range. Now, the MLX is a front focal plane optic so it has a clean and nicely designed reticle that does grow and shrinking in tandem with the magnification changes made. There is a parallax adjustment on the left side providing an adjustment in the ranges of 15yds to infinity. I also noticed that the eye relief on this optic was quite generous, maybe that was the way I was holding it, as the optic had not been mounted to the test platform firearm just yet. I was simply to excited to wait to look through it. So, attempting to remain objective, I set the optic down even though I did not want to, and gathered my mounting system and test fire arm on the bench and began the process of setting the optic on the firearm. All in all, the MLX appears to be well thought out and has a LOT of features that I am sure will prove themselves on the range in the coming days. Mounted and Finally Range Day with the LUCID Optics MLX With the NEW MLX 4.5x - 18x44 from LUCID Optics mounted on the test platform firearm, for this I use a Savage 10 Action, Chambered in 6.5 Creedmor set in a MPA Chassis with a Schillen Barrel. Finally it was time to send some projectiles down range and see just how the LUCID Optics MLX performs. With a really easy zero it was time to go to work, the optic was only off 3/10’s of a Mil in windage and 7/10 of a Mil in elevation. I found the turrets a bit different, they lift up, for access to making the adjustment and lift even further to re-zero the markings on the turret with the index dots on the scope body. I like this feature, just new to me. With any First Focal Plane optic designed specifically for the PRS market, the acid test in precision is a “box test”. Does the optic track properly? I like to do these at 50 yards as this provides the most travel requirements from a normal sized target and eliminates most of the “shooter error”, that can be introduced at further distances.
Judging by the target, I mean, see for your self LUCID Optics MLX performed Very Well. In this review the MLX seemed to take ALL I could dish out and smile. Any of the anomalies in shot placement are obvious shooter error, no complaints from me on the performance of the MLX so far. Once through the Box test and with a confirmed re-zero at 100yds, I wanted to run the reticle out a bit and see where it actually held in contrast to my proven ballistic data. So I referenced my ballistic app, STRELOK and set the reticle on the 600yd target with the magnification on 18x, held the 4MIL line and squeezed. The strike on the steel was unmistakable. So I backed the magnification off to 10x and sent another. It stacked right on top of the previous one. No shift in magnification and the reticle is measured properly. I could not help myself I engaged steel out to 1200yds and as close as 100yds. The crystal clear performance of the LUCID Optics MLX made it almost like cheating. Time spent with this optic was an absolute pleasure. Final Thoughts Ok, I have to be honest, I am truly impressed especially since this thing has a MSRP of $649. If you are looking for a high quality glass with more features and benefits than many other optics out there, well over $1000 more,, get your hands on one of the LUCID Optics MLX 4.518x44, and use the left over budget for ammo. Now the only issue I have is finding out what it is going to take to get the good folks at LUCID Optics to let me keep this one. - Dee Zimmerman Avid Shooter
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SOF Survivability SPEAR sharpens Special Operators protective edge in battle
pecial Operations missions aren’t like other kinds of military missions. Small, stealthy, highly mobile units operate in often harsh environments, without vehicles, perhaps without traditional support, for what could be days at a time. So it’s no surprise that much of their personal gear is as specialized as their missions. Special Operations Forces (SOF) gear has to meet requirements for all the services, since each branch has its own special operators. It also has to meet unique Special Operations requirements, including many that conventional forces would rarely need to deal with. Take maritime or amphibious operations. Gear has to survive being submerged, for example, utilizing coatings and materials that not only stand up to exposure to water but are able to operate at specific depths. This stuff is special, all right.
by Julie Bird U.S. Special Operations Command established the Special Operations Forces (SOF) Soldier Protection and Survival Systems program in fiscal 2009 to fund ongoing development of specialized personal gear for its personnel. Resources were shifted from another ongoing program element called Special Operations Tactical Systems Development, and from Weapon Systems Advanced Development. The gear is part of the SOF Personal Equipment Advanced Requirements, or SPEAR, consisting of the equipment worn or carried by SOF operators – body armor, helmets, load carriage systems, protective combat uniforms and communications headsets, to name a few. The products are designed as an integrated modular system, says Ken McGraw, a command spokesman. Continued on page 20
SPEAR Equipment SOF Personal Equipment Advanced Requirements (SPEAR) equipment, excluding service-common equipment, includes: Integrated Ballistic Communication Helmet Visual augmentation system mounts Special Operations eye protection Modular body armor Load carriage systems Backpacks Lightweight Environmental Protection and Combat Uniform Modular Glove System
Navy Seaman Theo Shively observes a stellar view from the flight deck aboard the USS Carl Vinson in the Pacific Ocean.
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PHOTO: Seaman Daniel P. Jackson Norgart
THE FUTURE OF SILENCE
EXTREME DUTY SUPPRESSORS
www.gemtech.com/EXD © GEMTECH 2015. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Lightweight, titanium built with extra heavy duty inconel blast baffles. Designed and tested to the toughest standards in the industry. Built to withstand the SOCOM test. Used by war fighters around the globe, this top-tier technology from Gemtech will not disappoint.
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Continued from page 18
The Program Executive Officer for SOF Warrior Systems has overall responsibility for the program. Program management is handled by the program manager for SOF Survival, Support and Equipment Systems at the U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering (RD&E) Center in Natick, Mass. The program structure is modular in the sense that each capability area is pursued on a separate acquisition path, according to a Natick document explaining the early stages of SPEAR. The idea was to make the products compatible and interoperable with current equipment as much as possible, with contingency stocks and emergency spares available through a depot or on order through production contracts. Lighter, faster, stronger and safer are key goals for SPEAR equipment. “Examples include a ballistic plate that is lighter with greater capability, a helmet designed for increased survivability, or a communications headset that is more reliable under extreme conditions,” according to the SOF Warrior Systems Program Executive Office at MacDill Air Force Base, Fla. The services’ research and development commands work on SOF-specific development needs when requested,
but most of the SOF gear is modified government-offthe-shelf or modified commercial-off-the-shelf items, the PEO said in written responses to questions. Modifying off-the-shelf items allows the SPEAR program to leverage technological investments by services and industry, reduce cycle times, insert new technology more quickly, lower lifecycle costs and create greater reliability and availability, the PEO says. “The command is always looking for stronger, lighter, multipurpose soldier protection and individual equipment items.” SPEAR equipment, the PEO continues, “is developed with complete emphasis on Special Operations personnel and mission profiles, including operations in extreme airborne and amphibious environments.” New equipment is developed only as a last option. SPEAR objectives are stated in terms of thresholds and objectives, and used as part of the competitive source selection process for awarding contracts. If a user determines that a requirement has increased, the threshold is adjusted. “One of the most influential (lessons) is the importance of user assessments as part of the down select and source Continued on page 22
A paratrooper moves to assault an objective during Spartan Cerberus, an exercise, at Fort Greely, Alaska.
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PHOTO: Spc. Donald Williams
FIELD TESTED. COMBAT PROVEN. PROUD SUPPLIER TO USSOCOM
100% MADE IN THE U.S.A
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Continued from page 20
selection process. Through user assessments, a piece of equipment can be evaluated for true form, fit, function and user acceptance. User assessments can expedite the fielding of SPEAR equipment and the identification of necessary improvements.â€? Overall, SPEAR focuses on improving three areas in personal equipment to produce a modular equipment system allowing mission-tailoring, enhanced survivability, and enhanced mobility while reducing weight, bulk and heat stress, according to the RD&E Center at Natick. Body Armor / Load Carriage Systems, known by the acronym BALCS, are one of four major research and development priorities. The goal is to provide better protection against present and future enemy ammunition, buoyancy and load-carrying capacity. The focus for the load carriage system is to provide modular options tailorable to different kinds of missions. So-called spiral development allows continuous improvements throughout the long development and acquisition cycle. In essence, the U.S. Special Operations Command continues defining its requirements during the development process, using feedback from the field,
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for example, or adapting the requirements based on evolving mission needs. Another R&D priority is SPEAR Environmental Protection, intended to allow forces to operate effectively in cold weather, steamy jungle environments, mountains, at sea, and anywhere else the environment tends to be harsh and difficult. The ability to transition seamlessly from one condition to another is considered critical. Part of the environmental protection package is called Protective Combat Uniform Extremity Protection, including the Modular Glove System. Another section of the Protective Combat Uniform program addresses product improvements, including for flame resistance and reduction of weight and bulk. Next-generation helmet communications headsets are intended to allow reliable, seamless communication through a variety of networks, both SOF-specific and ones used by conventional troops across the services. It allows internal communication systems used by a SOF team from insertion through extraction. The helmet communication equipment was to utilize commercial offthe-shelf technology with modifications for SOF use.
precisionreflex.com MANUFACTURER OF TACTICAL SHOOTING PRODUCTS Tactical Gear 2017 DEFENSE STANDARD 23
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TECHNOLOGY PROVIDES AN EDGE WHEN FAILURE IS NOT AN OPTION by Rich Tuttle
Tech. Sgt. Stephen Upton shoots an M-16 rifle at a firing range near Kabul, Afghanistan. Upton is assigned to the Train, Advise, Assist Command-Air as a personal security detail member. PHOTO: Staff Sgt. Corey Hook
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.S. Special Operations Command uses the latest technology in just about every aspect of personal equipment for its small, clandestine teams, from headsets and gloves to backpacks, vision augmentation systems and body armor. The sophistication of such systems allows an operator “to ignore threats or dangers or encumbrances that somebody not so equipped is constantly aware of,” says Dakota L. Wood, a senior fellow at the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, a think tank in Washington, D.C. They “make it possible to do things much more easily and effectively than their enemy is able to,” says Wood, a retired Marine Corps lieutenant colonel studying the operational challenges of irregular warfare. A headset developed by 3M, for instance, integrates communications and hearing protection using a technology the company calls Talk-Through. With 3M’s Comtac Advanced Communication Headset, loud noises like gunfire and explosions are transmitted to the ear at safe levels while softer sounds like whispers or rustling leaves are amplified, says Tom Lavalle, a business development specialist at 3M’s Military Marketing Center in Indianapolis, Ind. 3M also makes hearing protectors for soldiers who don’t use a radio. One, called the Combat Arms Earplug, kicks in protection only when it’s needed. It uses a patented filter
that allows a soldier to hear things like conversations and footsteps but dampens a loud noise the instant it occurs, according to Doug Moses, a 3M business development specialist and marketing manager. A “modular glove system” from Outdoor Research of Seattle, Wash., is a set of five gloves that can be worn in layers in extreme cold weather, or separately for a variety of other conditions. “It’s a collection,” says Mike Christian, director of government sales for OR. “You can take them from the desert floor in Afghanistan all the way to the highest peak there.” One layer is fire-resistant in response to the threat of roadside bombs. “We certainly knew how to make good, dexterous, tight-fitting, durable gloves, but were certainly introduced to some new materials,” including Nomex and Kevlar, to make the fire-resistant layer, Christian says.
ight sights, rifle sights, thermal sights and imageintensification goggles are all made for Special Forces by L-3 Communications’ Warrior Systems unit. The unit was formed after L-3’s acquisition of Insight Technology Corp., a long-time supplier of night-vision and electro-optical equipment with close links to the Special Operations community. Laser targeting and acquisition markers come from Northrop Grumman. “Lightweight laser-designator rangefinders that we make are probably, outside of night-vision goggles, the most high-tech piece of equipment that a Specops operator carries all the time. It’s starting to become as common as your water bottle,” says Paul Cabellon, a Northrop Grumman spokesman. Continued on page 28
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Continued from page 27
SOCOM’s Body Armor Load Carriage System (BALCS) to develop and acquire the lighter, more durable and more is supplied by Mystery Ranch, a backpack-maker in technically advanced gear demanded by high-risk, highBozeman, Mont. BALCS features the latest fitting and payoff missions. stability technology, according to the company. Mystery Navy SEALs thus have ready access to gear more resistant Ranch, formed in 2000 primarily to work with the Navy than normal to corrosion, while Army special operators get SEAL community, has since worked with every tier of lighter, more capable personal gear. If rifles and sidearms Special Ops, according to Mark must be souped up, it happens Seacat, director of marketing. “We quickly. Instead of a standard-issue SUCH NICHE CAPABILITIES create everything, from light-carry 9mm Beretta pistol, for instance, three-day assault packs, which is Special Forces operators may prefer AREN’T USUALLY GIVEN TO probably our most popular pack, to a Colt .45 with modifications like ALL U.S. FORCES BECAUSE concealed sniper rifle packs.” The a unique trigger -- and have no THEY ARE NOT REQUIRED, Rapid Access Trauma System, or problem getting it in a hurry. AND BECAUSE THEY’RE RATS, pack uses Velcro and colorThe service components within coding to allow a medic to quickly Special Operations Forces do NOT CHEAP. pull out just what is needed. make the greatest possible use Ceramic body armor is of equipment provided by their produced by Ceradyne Inc., of Costa Mesa, Calif. The parent services, but “the unique nature of SOF missions armor is made of boron carbide, which Ceradyne describes frequently drives different materiel solutions” among the as “the lightest technical ceramic material ... as well as the services, Air Force Maj. Wes Ticer, a USSOCOM spokesman, hardest,” second only to diamonds. says in an email response to questions. He doesn’t address individual equipment, but does say pecial Forces have almost always had special gear, that “in the mobility area, the service-provided High Mobility but the level of sophistication grew after 1987, when Multi-Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWV) and Mine Resistant USSOCOM was formed. One reason is that with all Ambush Protected Vehicles (MRAP) are often outfitted with the money in one bucket instead of being spread around specific command, control, communication and computer to special units in the individual services, it has been easier intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance suites to support
Airmen pull security and establish a line of communication on Kunsan Air Base, South Korea.
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specific SOF service-component branch requirements.” Such niche capabilities aren’t usually given to all U.S. forces because they are not required, and because they’re not cheap. The SOF community is willing to pay the price of high-tech individual gear because the mission is so important, Wood says. “They have to succeed, and you want to be able to bring everybody back.”
OCOM is putting some serious money into individual equipment. The command’s acquisition and logistics arm has several program executive offices, or PEOs, to handle procurement -- fixed wing, maritime systems, a support activity, rotary wing, special reconnaissance and SOF Warrior. PEO-SOF Warrior’s job is to “enhance lethality, mobility and survivability” in ground activities, according to the command. One of its responsibilities is the SOF Personal Equipment Advanced Requirements (SPEAR) program, which covers body armor, helmets, load carriage systems, backpacks, gloves, eye protection and communications headsets. All are “designed and developed to provide an integrated modular system for the SOF Warrior,” the command says. Another SOF Warrior individual equipment responsibility is the Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) program, aimed at providing life-saving first aid in tactical situations. SOCOM’s combined fiscal 2011 budget request for
SPEAR and TCCC was expected to be about $52 million, Ticer says. PEO-SOF Warrior, he says, fielded more than 29,000 items of SPEAR individual equipment during fiscal 2010 as well as nearly 3,000 TCCC operator kits and 400 TCCC medic kits. SOF operators are able cover a range of missions with their individual gear because it is both interoperable and modular, Ticer says. “This tailored-ability enables SOF operators to rapidly reconfigure their equipment and execute assigned missions in remote locations.” Because SOF operate in rugged environments, equipment reliability and maintainability is critical, he says, along with the ability to tailor equipment training and maintenance to those operational realities. Meanwhile, a range of research and development efforts are under way within PEO-SOF Warrior: adapting digital multispectral technologies to improve night-vision capabilities; reducing weapon signatures; seeking lighter weight, more protective body armor; improving crew situational awareness by integrating sensors into mobility platforms; and reducing the weight of vehicle armor to improve mobility. A big reason for the emphasis on new technology is that adversaries are constantly on the lookout for ways to offset systems in the Special Operations arsenal. Technologies of all kinds proliferate over time, meaning that “more actors get access to them,” says CSBA’s Wood. Technologies that Continued on page 30
PHOTO: Senior Airman Colville McFee
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Continued from page 29
give U.S. forces an advantage can find their way into the hands of groups like Hezbollah and Latin American drug traffickers. “If you’ve got cash you can buy just about anything these days, including high-end weapon systems,” Wood says.
and nape band, and body armor. Not least of all, says 3M’s Lavalle, it must fit. “How can you ensure that any soldier -- man, woman, big head, small head -- can put this on and it works? It’s not an easy task.” And there are some problems that can’t be easily solved. Headsets, for example, will be hot in the desert. pecial Forces gear is keyed The relatively small size of the A BIG REASON FOR THE to work with low signatures, Special Operations Forces – just EMPHASIS ON NEW and “darkness itself works 12,000 are deployed around the to our advantage in general,” world on an average day, according TECHNOLOGY IS THAT says one industry executive. “We to the command – and their ADVERSARIES ARE try to provide gear that gives us hallmark individuality is a natural CONSTANTLY ON THE the night as the edge, and a lot fit with the small entrepreneurial of it you’ll find strapped to their companies that supply much of the LOOKOUT FOR WAYS TO helmets or onto their rifles. ... Part SOF gear. “We invite these groups OFFSET SYSTEMS IN THE of the whole trick is to try to do it in and they bring their entire kit SPECIAL OPERATIONS in a manner that allows them to that they need to carry, and we’ll ARSENAL. do their primary jobs as if it were design an alpha prototype in during the daytime.” A related usually three to five days,” says focus is “to make these things Mystery Ranch’s Seacat. “We really, really lightweight” and able to run for long periods either send it with them, or have it meet them back home, off small batteries. and then they go out and test it” and give feedback. At the same time, each supplier has to understand how Mystery Ranch also gets “satellite phone calls directly its system or device fits with those of other suppliers. 3M’s from Afghanistan,” Seacat says. “They’re usually calling communication headset, for instance, not only has to plug to say, ‘Hey, thanks a lot, this is amazing stuff; other into a variety of sources -- aircraft intercom, ground vehicles, members of our group have seen it; we need to buy portable radios -- but it must as easily as possible be worn six more of these packs, like now.’ And then we send it with things like a respiratory mask, combat eyewear, helmet straight to Afghanistan.”
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PHOTO: Senior Airman Michael Cossaboom
Airman 1st Class Kyle Denzine, a 20th Operations Support Squadron aircrew flight equipment specialist, checks the seal of his gas mask at Shaw Air Force Base, S.C. Denzine, along with other AFE Airmen, practiced the actions they would take in the event a pilot needs to be decontaminated upon his return to base.
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Transforming Precision Lase it. Range it. Engage it. Wilcox introduces the RAPTAR™ the next generation in laser and rangefinder technology.
ilcox Industries is a leading innovator in the tactical equipment sector, creating unique products with unmatched performance, durability and value. With over 30 years of manufacturing experience, we have created products that directly impact the safety of service members. Decades of Innovation Wilcox pioneered the introduction of laser aiming devices for small arms with our first US patent for a laser device attached to a handgun in 1994 known as the Night Stalker. The Night Stalker offered an IR and visible marker, pulse feature to pulse the laser beam as well as a straight red laser. As a safety feature, the Night Stalker would turn off when the rounds were completely expended from the weapon. Using 2 AAAA batteries, the Night Stalker would offer the operator 10 hours of continuous
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By Adrienne Irizarry, Wilcox Industries use. Since 1994, we have amassed numerous patents – many have defined today’s small arms fire control and laser aiming technologies. One step in our product evolution was the Power Grip. At the time of release, the Power Grip brought high performance to a new level incorporating multi-functional aiming lasers and a SureFire® tactical flashlight together in a compact package. The laser module offered three laser selections, a programmable LCD interface and could be operated on the Power Grip Multi-Aiming Device (MAD) or mounted directly onto a MIL-STD-1913 weapon rail. The flashlight module delivered a xenon bulb for visible flood illumination. It also offered a removable IR filter cover to provide instant IR flood illumination. The innovation of the Power Grip led to advances that inspired
Sponsored Content the creation of the Day/Night Sight. Operators were having difficulty with accuracy during night time combat. The Day/Night mount increased the hit probability and accuracy for both day and night shooting with 40mm M203 and M203 Q.D. grenade launchers. It mounted directly to the barrel to provide increased accuracy. The mount easily attached and detached from the grenade launcher to enhance mission flexibility. When the device was not in use, it stored in a collapsed position to protect the unit and retain sight settings. The Day/ Night sight was the beginning of Wilcox’s presence in the arena of fire control systems.
The system mounts, without the use of special tools, onto MIL-STD-1913 rails with the Wilcox Cam-Lock Mounting System™. There were 3,800 RAAMs purchased through the FIST program and are NATO codified.
The Day/Night Sight evolved into the LAW Trajectory Mount (LTM.) The unique design of the LTM secured to the LAW by means of a tube clamp and ratchetable strap for ease of mounting and removal when not in use. The LTM incorporated a digital display indicating the distance to target and ergonomically adjustable control of the firing mechanism. This revolutionary unit overcame obstacles that operators were facing at the time as well as providing cost savings. The device offered a shrouded release button preventing accidental release of the LTM from the LAW.
We specialize in a holistic systems approach to what we offer and strive to set new industry standards in quality and workmanship, providing you the toughest, most effective tactical gear you need to do your job without compromise.
The advancements developed to bring RAAM to fruition became the template for developing RAPTAR and the series of RAPTAR systems, which like their predecessors, are pioneers in laser rangefinding technology. Why Wilcox?
From precision manufacturing to precision range finders, you can trust that Wilcox hits the mark. Gone are the days where you throw away a unit when the red laser burns out. The RAPTAR systems are all built in the same housing for integrated
RAPTAR-Lite™ is ideal for close quarter combat scenarios.
Between the rigorous quality testing and user feedback during the products’ evolution, significant advances were made to our technology and were the foundation we used to develop the Rapid Acquisition Aiming Module (RAAM™.) This was the first time a laser and a rangefinder were packaged together into one device. The RAAM is a fire control system specifically designed for underslung grenade launchers. It uses an internal ballistic computer and data from sensors as well as a laser rangefinder to calculate the trajectory of a round. The motorized gimbal features a visible red laser for boresighting and low light engagement as well as an IR laser for nighttime. All the displays dim and can be viewed using night vision goggles.
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Intuitive controls on the pressure pad adjust laser intensity from 1 to 7 with ease.
logistic service (ILS.) What does that mean for you? Repairable. If a component of your system stops working the unit is serviceable and this extends the life of your investment.
allow for dexterous adjustments of laser intensity, going from 1 to 7 on the fly, putting the control back in your hands and not dictated by equipment limitations.
The family of RAPTAR systems all offer a laser safety key. This safety feature means a trained person, like an armor, can use a key and turn the intensity of the laser up and down based on the operatorâ€™s training to prevent injury. In a mission scenario, the last thing an operator wants to worry about is if they are pressing the right buttons to get their equipment to perform as they intend. The intuitive controls on the pressure pad
Equipped for Excellence
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Wilcoxâ€™s engineering and manufacturing teams work hard to extend the capabilities of our laser ranging and aiming products. We do extensive testing for beam quality, beam divergence, laser co-alignment bore-sight retention and distance for our rangefinders.
Sponsored Content Beam Quality Our near IR adjustable divergence illuminator for the RAPTAR projects a uniform spot down range from 1mrad to 105 mrad. This illuminator, co-aligned along with the aiming laser, mitigates the ability of the laser to be seen by the unaided eye. When using night vision goggles our laser/ illuminators greatly enhance an operator’s acuity at night. This vision enhancement is especially valuable at extended ranges. Our illuminator, in concert with NVGs, increases situational awareness, dramatically reduces target acquisition times and allows target discrimination and reduction of a halo effect, maximizing the engagement distance of the effective range of the weapon.
1550nm wavelength and is not detectable with currently fielded I2 night vision equipment. Our rangefinder has a maximum range of 5km. It has repeatable 1-meter measurement accuracy, against standard NATO targets at 2,000 meters. RAPTAR rangefinder technology permits stealthy and rapid target engagements, day or night, at extended ranges. RAPTAR™
Beam Divergence We have designed and built unique optical trains, with selected lenses and components, which allow precise beam control of our aiming lasers. We specify a 0.5 mrad maximum divergence angle. With this precision, our aiming lasers for man sized targets are tactically effective to 1,000 meters. Laser Co-Alignment We designed and built custom optical alignment devices and test stations, with enhanced CMOS cameras and state-of-the-art analytic software, to streamline the checkout processes. Our equipment quickly verifies laser power, beam quality, divergence and alignment. Our coalignment specifications for our laser, illuminator, and rangefinder ensure that our products will perform to the most stringent customer requirements. Bore-Sight Retention Accuracy and repeatability are the most important performance aspects of our laser aiming devices when mounted to a weapon. We guarantee accuracy of our laser devices to 1mrad or less, from bore-sight zero. Performance demands of our weapon mounted systems continue to evolve. Rangefinder Our compact laser optical bench operates at
RAPTAR-S™ brings long distances in range. With a stateof-the-art ballistic solver, this unit is designed for optimal performance and accuracy.)
Wilcox’s Rapid Targeting and Ranging module (RAPTAR™) boasts a lightweight, integrated technology system. The RAPTAR is designed to be mounted to a wide variety of weapon platforms with MIL-STD-1913 RIS/RAS and STANAG-4694 rails. The RAPTAR offers an Infra-Red (IR) laser, visible laser, IR flood and laser range finder (LRF) in one compact, rugged, all weather package. Equipped with precision windage and elevation adjustors, the entire laser suite is controlled as one is less than 0.3 MRAD. Unlike any current system in the field, the RAPTAR can be repaired, upgraded and expanded with emerging technology maintaining its edge over for the life of the product. The RAPTAR is available in a high power version Tactical Gear 2017 DEFENSE STANDARD 35
Sponsored Content designed for military application as well as an eye safe version using a low power Class 1 IR laser that features a <0.7mw rating which is eye safe and not restricted for civilian use by the FDA. It is progressive technology for combat operations. RAPTAR-Lite™ The RAPTAR-Lite™ is an exceptional value offering both visible and IR aiming lasers, a variable focus IR Illuminator all precisely controlled with adjustors for each plane - azimuth and elevation. Like the RAPTAR, all lasers are co-aligned within 0.3 MRAD and the entire laser suite moves as one. Built to withstand the demands of your mission, this compact, all-weather package is complete with a 300 lumen SureFire® Flashlight. The RAPTAR-Lite is available in three versions with different laser options for military, law enforcement and civilian use in mind. The eye safe version uses a low power Class 1 IR laser with a <0.7mw rating. With a flashlight adjustment range of 30 lumen up to full power of 300 lumen, this system offers versatility of use in close quarter combat situations. RAPTAR-S™ The RAPTAR- Saber (RAPTAR-S™) takes our RAPTAR family of laser rangefinders to the next level. Offering all the proven technology of the original RAPTAR system, the RAPTAR-S features an applied ballistic solver for precise accuracy at extremely long ranges. Our partner nVisti has been instrumental bringing this state-of-the-art ballistic solver to fruition. nVisti Tactical Innovation is comprised of industry leaders in the field of small arms fire control systems with expertise in laser range finders, ballistics, wind measurement and digital imaging. Through nVisti’s partnership with Applied Ballistics and Accuracy 1st, the company has been responsible for the development and integration of the ballistics, firmware and software for our RAPTAR-S weapon-mounted laser range finder. Applied Ballistics developed its core solver to address the need for a universal ballistics core to act as a common baseline ballistic solution for systems integrators, analytics, and tactical applications. The solver is designed for optimal performance and 36 DEFENSE STANDARD Tactical Gear 2017
accuracy. The computations achieve nearly the accuracy of a full 6 degree of freedom model using a three degree of freedom (3DOF) modified point mass numerical solver considering all environmental conditions including average cross-wind or a crosswind profile. The solver calculates accurate fire control solutions for long range rifle shooting. It accounts for all major and minor trajectory variables including the use of measured G7 BC’s and even the option to use custom drag curves for over 400 bullets. The output is shown in MILs, MOAs, or even an ACOG BDC reticle. Included within the system is a ballistic calibration feature allows user to ‘train’ the software to match a specific rifle based on observed impacts at long range. Combined with the over 400 custom measured bullet drag curves (available for syncing via Android or PC), shooters have everything the need to make a much more precise trajectory calculation than any other software available. Included within the RAPTAR-S, the Applied Ballistics solver measures temperature, pressure, humidity, inclination, cant, heading to the target, and GPS coordinates. By using these sensor readings and the custom drag curves, the solver is capable of producing ballistic solutions that are accurate to within 0.1 mils through the subsonic range of the bullet’s flight. Our intuitive fire control system accounts for all contributing environmental variables including Coriolis, spin drift and aerodynamic jump. The system is expandable with emerging technology producing cost savings throughout the life of the system. The data this system is capable of is easily accessible with an intuitive user interface taking all the guess work out of long range applications. Wilcox has a proud heritage of innovative thinking that provides state-of-the-art technological solutions to meet the needs of servicemen and women. We are proud to offer small arms systems that enhance the use of a weapon. Every feature of our products are designed with the end user in mind. Our small arms systems are compact. We provide intuitive laser systems that give you superior aiming control and are built to withstand the most grueling weather and combat conditions. Your mission is our mission.
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The best of both worlds.
Because your next patient might be your partner. The TP-C and TR-C exams are the benchmarks for validating competency in the austere and hostile environments of tactical medicine. The TP-C exam is focused on paramedic-level care and the new TR-C exam measures the TEMS knowledge of the BLS providers on the team.
Specialty Certifications are a voluntary credentialing process designed to validate essential knowledge and judgment required for safe and competent practice. The Certified Tactical Paramedic and Certifed Tactical Responder are the standards to validate the essential knowledge and critical thinking of both the ALS & BLS tactical medic.
For more information or to register for an exam go to www.bcctpc.org or call 770.978.4400 38 DEFENSE STANDARD Tactical Gear 2017
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An ICE agent conducts surveillance work at dusk near the San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge.
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Canto, a military working do, jumps toward Army Pfc. Patterson, who plays the role of an aggressor during a military working dog demonstration at Fort Meade, Md.
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Army 2nd Lt. Davis Hayden emerges from an obstacle during the 2016 European Best Warrior Competition at the 7th Army Training Commandâ€™s Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany. Candidates compete in field and administrative tasks testing their soldier skills, stamina, endurance, ingenuity and problem-solving abilities.
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PHOTO: Pfc. Emily Houdershieldt
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A member of Operation Enduring Warrior carries a teammateâ€™s prosthetic leg as they move from one obstacle to another during a Spartan Sprint Race at Fort Bragg, N.C.
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PHOTO: Staff Sgt. Marianique Santos
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Navy Petty Officer 3rd Class Anthony Rouillard gives a toy to Ring, a military working dog, after a positive identification during detection training at Naval Base Kitsap-Bangor, Wash.
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PHOTO: Petty Officer 2nd Class Jacob G. Sisco
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Marines apply camouflage paint before a high-altitude, low-opening, or HALO, jump for training exercise Valiant Shield on Andersen Air Force Base, Guam.
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PHOTO: Sgt. Justin Fisher
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Marine Corps Lance Cpl. Daniel Wagenblast stands ready for a casualty evacuation exercise during the advanced infantry course at Kahuku Training Area, Hawaii.
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PHOTO: Kyle Gahlau Cpl. Aaron S. Patterson
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Paratroopers compete in the Waal River Crossing Competition at Fort Gragg, N.C. The event marks the 72nd anniversary of when engineers assisted the 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment across the Waal River under enemy fire.
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PHOTO: Sgt. Anthony Hewitt
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Army Sgt. 1st Class Kody Anderson rushes to the rally point while conducting airborne and live-fire training at Joint Base ElmendorfRichardson, Alaska.
PHOTO: Alejandroâ€… Pena
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MADE IN THE USA
CoTCCC guidelines recommend:
“…use Combat Gauze as the CoTCCC hemostatic dressing of choice.”1
ARM YOUR MEDICAL OPERATORS TO STOP BLEEDING AND SAVE LIVES Stronger Clots & Less Re-bleeds In pre-clinical studies, Combat Gauze® has shown stronger clots versus standard gauze2,3 & allows movement with signiﬁcantly fewer re-bleeds.3,4 In one pre-clinical study, Combat Gauze showed zero percent re-bleed after initial hemostasis.5
Scientific Fact The Efﬁcacy of Combat Gauze in Extreme Physiologic Conditions 100%
100% 1st application 2nd application
Reduces Blood Loss In a pre-clinical model, QuikClot Combat Gauze® had less blood loss when compared with standard packing.6
0% Combat Gauze
Causey MW, McVay DP, Miller S, Beekley A, Martin M.J Surg Res. 2012;177(2):301-305.
1 Tactical Combat Casualty Care Guidelines 28 October 2014. http://usaisr.amedd.army.mil/joint_trauma_system.html. Accessed February 1, 2015. 2 Kheirabadi BS, Scherer MR, Estep JS, Dubick MA, Holcomb JB. Determination of efﬁcacy of new hemostatic dressings in a model of extremity arterial hemorrhage in swine. J Trauma. 2009;67:450-460. 3 Gegel B, Burgert J, Gasko J, Campbell C, Martens M, Keck J, Reynolds H, Loughren M, Johnson D. The Effects of QuikClot Combat Gauze and Movement on Hemorrhage Control in a Porcine Model. MILITARY MEDICINE. December 2012;177:1543-1547. 4 Garcia-Blanco J, Gegel B, Burgert J, Johnson S, Johnson D. The Effects of Movement on Hemorrhage When QuikClot® Combat Gauze ™ Is Used in a Hypothermic Hemodiluted Porcine Model. Journal of Special Operations Medicine. 2015 Spring;15(1):57-60. 5 Rall J, Cox J, Songer D, Comeaux J, Estep S, Cestero F, Ross James. Comparison of novel hemostatic gauzes to QuikClot Combat Gauze in a standardized swine model of uncontrolled hemorrhage. Navy Medical Research Unit San Antonio Technical Report;2012. 6 Sena MJ, Douglas G, Gerlach T, Grayson JK, Pichakron KO, Zierold D. A pilot study of the use of kaolin-impregnated gauze (QuikClot Combat Gauze) for packing high-grade hepatic injuries in a hypothermic coagulopathic swine model. J Surg Res. 2013;183(2):704-709.
QuikClot.com • 1-877-750-0504 • email@example.com ©2015 Z-MEDICA, LLC. All rights reserved.
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Air Force Airman 1st Class Alex Tuyul conducts a practice drill under a barricade at Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson, Alaska.
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PHOTO: Davidâ€… Bedard
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Navy Petty Officer 2nd Class Alec Stuller scuba dives near the HMAS Adelaide shipwreck during Exercise Dugong in Sydney, Australia. The training exercise advances interoperability between the U.S. and Australian navies.
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PHOTO: Petty Officer 1st Class Arthurgwain L. Marquez
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A soldier pulls a weighted stretcher during Marne Weekâ€™s best squad competition at Fort Stewart, Ga.
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PHOTO: Staff Sgt. Candace Mundt
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U.S. and Sri Lankan marines stretch after conducting physical training during a theater security cooperation engagement exercise in Trincomalee, Sri Lanka.
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PHOTO: Lance Cpl. Zachery Laning
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Soldiers move through the woods during a live-fire exercise as part of Exercise Mountain Shock in Pocek Range in Slovenia.
PHOTO: Davide Dalla Massara
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Be Prepared www.GoHandH.com
When you are the first on the scene, you need the right gear to save the life in your hands. Be confident that your H&H casualty care supplies will do the job so you can do yours. H&H Medical brings our expertise in creating complete trauma kits to the law enforcement community with our line of pre-packed trauma response kits.
In Your Pocket › Pocket Law Enforcement Kit
Our newest and smallest kit is our Patrol Officer Casualty Kit for Emergency Trauma (POCKET). The POCKET puts everything an officer needs to immediately respond to a major trauma in a package designed to fit in small spaces and weighs less than a pound.
Part No. POCK-01 Size: 4.5" H x 4.5" L x 2" W Weight: Less than 1 lb.
In Your Desk ›
Bleeding Response Injury Control Kit When severe injuries occur and public access bleeding control is required, having a kit with essential equipment is vital. The Bleeding Response Injury Control Kit (BRICK) is designed for easy use, easy access, and quick response to severe emergencies, and has a five-year shelf life. Part No. BRICK-01 Size: 6" H x 4.25" L x 2"W Weight: 12 oz.
In Your Vehicle › Tactical Emergency Casualty Care
The H&H TECC Kit is designed to hold enough emergency products to respond to a mass casualty situation, containing everything you need to treat the three most preventable causes of traumatic death: blood loss, airway occlusion, and sucking chest wound. Our kit meets the basic requirements for Tactical Emergency Casualty Care.
Military Grade. Battle Tested.™
Part No. TECC Size: 8" H x 6" L x 3.5"W Weight: 2.0 lb
For detailed product information, go to www.gohandh.com Tactical Gear 2017 DEFENSE STANDARD 67
A Marine participates in a field training exercise during Iron Sword 16, a training exercise, in Rukla Training Area, Lithuania.
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PHOTO: Sgt. Kirstin Merrimarahajara
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Army Sgt. Jaquez Jones observes soldiers using a smoke grenade for concealment during an exercise in Wedrzyn, Poland.
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PHOTO: Sgt. William A. Tanner
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A Marine with Alpha Company, 1st Battalion, 3rd Marine Regiment runs from a CH-53E super stallion helicopter assigned to Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 463 during a simulation of Operation Gothic Serpent at Marine Corps Base, Hawaii.
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PHOTO: Sgt. Brittney Vella
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The FBI Dallas office held a field training exercise with its federal, state, and local law enforcement and private sector partners collaborating to respond to an attack scenario at a local mall. Members of the Dallas FBI SWAT team are seen setting up their perimeter inside the mall as they search for attackers and look to rescue shoppers and mall employees hiding inside.
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FBI Jacksonville SWAT team operators work to clear a section of threats during a training exercise before the The Avenue mall opened. The exercise was part of a nationwide Complex Mall Attack Initiative for the FBI to practice responses in the event of a terrorist attack on a public venue and to work to develop a coordinated plan of action with state and local law enforcement partners.
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Two role-playing “suspects” are led by an FBI SWAT operator to a safe location outside The Avenues mall as the Complex Mall Attack Initiative exercise advances.
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A U.S. Secret Service agent protects President Obama and the First Family during the National Christmas Tree Lighting at Presidentâ€™s Park in Washington, D.C.
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Davenport, Grady F., Jr. Lt. Col. (RET USAF) At age 94, Grady Davenport died peacefully on September 12, 2015. Beloved husband of Isobel (Rusty) Wagner Davenport and survived by stepsons Roy (Ginny) and Donald (Mary Ann) Wagner, their children: Krista McNamara (David), Meggie Owsiack (Michael), Ross Wagner, Davis Wagner, Rachel Wagner and Alex Wagner. He was predeceased by his first wife Bertha â€œWillyâ€? and his daughter Ellen. Born in Alabama, Grady was a highly-decorated US Air Force pilot having received The Distinguished Flying Cross (2), Air Medal (2), Commendation Medal, and Meritorious Service Medal. He flew 104 combat missions in World War 2 and 83 combat missions in the Vietnam conflict. This obituary was provided by a personal friend of Grady Davenport and a special friend to DEFENSE STANDARD, Mr. Alan Gomber.
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Hawaii Governor David Ige greets Pearl Harbor survivor and former Army member Alexander Horanzy upon arrival in Honolulu. Horanzy was on an honor flight from Los Angeles that carried Pearl Harbor survivors and other veterans to Hawaii for commemorations for the 75th anniversary of the Pearl Harbor attack. PHOTO: â€…Lisaâ€…Ferdinando
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Named Top Hot 100 Franchises I N T H E N AT I O N 2 0 1 5
37% of Bio-One owners are former law enforcement and military
Profit Margins The initial investment
of a Bio-One franchise is $75,000 and
historically fully recovered within 16 months
BioOneInc.com | 720-463-3004
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DEFENSE STANDARD Winter 2017