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We We are honored to pay tribute the truly extraordinary life Weare arehonored honoredto topay paytribute tributetoto tothe thetruly trulyextraordinary extraordinarylife lifeofof of Navy Navy LT. Michael Murphy, as well the Commissioning the NavyLT. LT.Michael MichaelP.P.P.Murphy, Murphy,as aswell wellasas asthe theCommissioning Commissioningofof ofthe the USS USS Michael Murphy (DDG-112). USSMichael MichaelMurphy Murphy(DDG-112). (DDG-112).

When When LT. Murphy and 18 other members Operation Red Wings WhenLT. LT.Murphy Murphyand and18 18other othermembers membersofof ofOperation OperationRed RedWings Wings tragically tragically perished on June 28, 2005, their heroism and tragicallyperished perishedon onJune June28, 28,2005, 2005,their theirheroism heroismand and commitment commitment to our country created an inspirational legacy commitmentto toour ourcountry countrycreated createdan aninspirational inspirationallegacy legacy that that will forever be remembered. thatwill willforever foreverbe beremembered. remembered.

The The entire PepsiCo family, including our military veteran Theentire entirePepsiCo PepsiCofamily, family,including includingour ourmilitary militaryveteran veteran employee employee resource group VALOR, honors the sacrifice employeeresource resourcegroup groupVALOR, VALOR,honors honorsthe thesacrifice sacrificeofof of LT. LT. Murphy and his family on behalf our country. LT.Murphy Murphyand andhis hisfamily familyon onbehalf behalfofof ofour ourcountry. country.

May May the ship’s crew have Maythe theship’s ship’screw crewhave have fair fair winds and following seas throughout their journey. fairwinds windsand andfollowing followingseas seasthroughout throughouttheir theirjourney. journey.



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Contents 12





Letter from the Publisher



Manufacturers adjust their designs to counter emerging wartime threats. By John Pulley

34 12

Medium Tactical Vehicles

That’s Logistics

Grounded in Reality

Military loggies take a page from UPS and FedEx playbooks.

TACOM’s Integrated Logistics Support Center focuses on new combat vehicles.

By James Kitfield

By Michael Fabey

42 16

Cleanup Crew As troops leave, the Defense Reutilization and Marketing Service gets busy.

Joint Light Tactical Vehicle Industry teams scramble to build variations of DoD’s light tactical ride.

By James Kitfield

By Michael Fabey


50 Data Dilemma Centaur breaks down communication barriers in coalition warfare.

Culture Clash NATO-led coalition in Afghanistan tackles integration challenges. By David Perera

By Rich Tuttle

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Contents 56




On the Homefront 56

Soldier Smartphones Could commercial technology answer the call for better combat communications?


Joint Terrorism Task Force The FBI and NYPD pump up anti-terrorism efforts in the Big Apple.

By Rich Tuttle

By Elaine S. Povich



Border Watch U.S. Border Patrol shifts from physical fences to electronic surveillance. By Sara Michael


Air Force: Wind Power


Army: Networked MRAPs


Marine Corps: MV-22 Osprey


Louder than Words 82

Final Frame

on the cover Navy: Scan Eagle Photo by Russell Lee Klika

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WRITERS: Michael Fabey

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James Kitfield

John Pulley

Sara Michael

Rich Tuttle

David Perera

Copyright 2011-2012. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part is prohibited. The opinions expressed within this publication do not necessarily represent the views of the publisher. Defense Standard LLC assumes no responsibilites for the advertisements or any representations made in this publication. Defense Standard LLC in unable to accept, or hereby expressly disclaims, any liability for the consequences of inaccuracies or omissions of such information occurring during the publishing of such information for publication. Disclaimer: Neither the Department of Defense nor any other United States Government agency has approved, endorsed or authorized this publication in any form. No such inference is suggested, promoted or communicated in any manner.


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Publisher’s Note


n a sunny day in early October the DEFENSE STANDARD team was honored to be present as the USS Michael Murphy (DDG 112) was commissioned into service as the Navy’s newest guided-missile destroyer. We observed military tradition at its finest, from the first raising of the U.S. flag up the main mast to a Navy band playing “Anchors Aweigh” as the 269 members of the Michael Murphy crew jogged in front of the crowd to board the ship, line her decks and bring her to life. I’m quite certain I was not the only person present with a lump in the throat. Military ceremony has been a big part of the lives of many on the DEFENSE STANDARD team, sometimes as journalists, other times as participants. Our vice president of military and government relations, Martin McAuliffe, was a combat medic in Vietnam. Our editor and our executive vice president are both Air Force brats. I remember how hard it was to say good-bye to my own Navy father as he set out to sea during the Vietnam era, even with a Navy band playing patriotic tunes as the ship set sail. We all know that military ceremonies can be, in a word, boring. Speeches go on too long, everybody is sweating in the sun or shivering in the chill, little ones get tired and fidgety. But then comes a moment that forms a lump in your throat. Cannon fire a 19-gun salute. Colors are unfurled and snap in the wind. Long-separated husbands and wives, children and parents reunite in joyous, swirling hugs. Rifles volley and the lonesome strains of “Taps” float through the still

air. The commander of a newly commissioned ship calls out, “Hooyah, Michael Murphy” in honor of a SEAL who made the ultimate sacrifice, and more than a thousand gathered on a pier in New York Harbor return the call. Politicians in Washington may use the Department of Defense budget as a pawn in a dangerous game of who blinks first, but readers of DEFENSE STANDARD understand more than anyone what is at stake when our nation asks our military men and women to go into battle. That’s why we remain “Focused on the Warfighter” and committed to telling stories that impact their lives. In this issue we look at everything from the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle and the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles to the revolution in combat logistics and the possibility of equipping solders with smartphones. And as with every issue, we salute you, with a lump in our throats and gratitude in our hearts.

David Peabody PUBLISHER

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Demands of combat force TACOM to focus on new wheeled vehicles By Michael Fabey


ith years of combat operations revving the Army’s wheeled- and tracked-vehicle programs into high gear, TACOM’s Integrated Logistics Support Center and its contractors have been in the driver’s seat. The TACOM center lords over a range of programs: It’s responsible for the entire life cycle support of Army aircraft armament, small arms, field artillery, mortars, tools and training systems, tactical vehicles, light and heavy combat vehicles, watercraft, soldier/biological/chemical systems and deployment/support equipment. 12

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As deaths and injuries from roadside bombs rose in Iraq and Afghanistan, the military’s focus shifted toward finding ground vehicles to address those concerns, and directing TACOM expertise to those needs. Ground operations have also taken an enormous toll on existing equipment, requiring expensive refurbishing and reset work. Ground-vehicle funding saw an average annual compounded growth of 45 percent from 2002 to 2008, the Pentagon estimates. In 2007, for example, the Pentagon spent about $16.4 billion in contracts or contract modifications for tracked and wheeled combat vehicles, making their combined

TACOM expertise was needed to get the rapid acquisition of thousands of mine-resistant, ambush-protected (MRAP) vehicles on track after a rough start to one of the fastest Pentagon acquisition programs in recent history.

tally the second highest Defense Department expense of the year, just behind the $18.4 billion slated for fixed-wing operations.


ne high-profile road warrior program has been the mine-resistant, ambush-protected vehicle (MRAP). No acquisition program had ramped up so quickly in recent times. In fiscal 2007-08, the Pentagon spent about $18.8 billion to procure more than 14,000 MRAPs for the Army and Marine Corps. But the quick acquisition and production cycle became a nightmare. The Pentagon inspector general

said the Army jeopardized about $3.8 billion by prematurely paying for MRAPs without making sure they met all Army requirements. TACOM concurred with IG recommendations to “limit payment to the contractor as required in the contract” and to further limit vehicle acceptance for reasons of “economy and urgency.” It was TACOM that put the acquisition program back on course, according to BAE Systems, which has the lead in three of the five MRAP vehicle programs. “The MRAP program really did need the TACOM experience,” says Scott Leitch, BAE Systems vice president of U.S. business development. F a l l 2 0 1 2 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D


“There was a lot on the logistics side of it. And TACOM will be a major player in the sustaining side of it.” BAE has significant experience dealing with TACOM programs, especially with the extensive Bradley Fighting Vehicle maintenance and reset required by the demanding operations tempo. In the first few months of the Iraq war, for example, between March and October 2003, the Army and TACOM needed to replace an average of more than 100,000 Bradley track shoes per month, a 1,300 percent increase from the months immediately preceding the war. BAE and other contractors hum right along with such traditional tracked-vehicle work. The supplier base is known and steady and the logistical lines run smooth and straight.

PHOTO: Sgt. Ken Scar


U.S. soldiers from 1st Platoon, Alpha Company, 1st Battalion, 2nd Infantry Regiment, Task Force Black Hawk, pull security in their MRAP during a traffic check point, outside Combat Outpost Yosef Khel, Paktika province, Afghanistan.


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heeled-vehicle work is another matter. “Setting up a wheeled business, you have different suppliers, different procedures,” Leitch says. “We quickly reached production levels that ground systems had not seen in decades – or never seen before.” The key to making that work, he says, is setting up, refining and maintaining the supply chain. Those are just the kind of processes the TACOM Integrated Logistics Support Center has made a specialty. It has become even more important going forward, with life cycle costs, such as logistics planning, weighing more heavily in procurement decisions. “Wheeled systems seem to lend themselves better to the relatively lowintensity combat in which our ground forces are currently engaged, especially urban operations,” says Lexington Institute military analyst Loren Thompson. “Not only are they more maneuverable in tight

PHOTO: Spc. Tristan Bolden

U.S. Army Spc. Carlos Medina checks his equipment inside an MRAP before a convoy training exercise at the Joint Multinational Readiness Center (JMRC) in Hohenfels, Germany.

spots, but they do less damage.” But, given the acquisition issues the IG outlined with MRAPs, there’s lingering concern about Army and TACOM acquisition procedures. “There still remains significant frustration within Congress, the White House and the defense secretary with the opaqueness of the Army’s tactical wheeled-vehicle strategy, as expendable logistics trucks evolve into light combat vehicles,” says James McAleese of McAleese and Associates, a Northern Virginia-based defense consultancy. Lawmakers allowed the Army to down-select to two primary MRAP configurations and provided more money for both tracked combat vehicles and wheeled tactical vehicles. But MRAPs are becoming yesterday’s news. The big wheeled program now on everyone’s minds is the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV), a joint Army/Marine Corps program with the Army designated as the lead service and TACOM as its biggest champion. While the Humvee certainly has served the Pentagon well as a type of souped-up SUV for decades, the JLTV is supposed to offer all of that – on steroids. With the Army acting as the lead, ground troops are looking for a muscle machine with scalable armor protection, agility to wiggle through the tight spots, connectivity for on-the-move communications and payload ranges from 3,500 pounds to 5,100 pounds. All of that in a deployable mobile package for the Army’s new road warriors. J

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Jerry McElwee, vice president of Boeing Advanced Systems, another competitor, says, “It truly is a tactical vehicle.” The Army and Marines say they need a vehicle to serve their needs now in Iraq and at home, and to meet global requirements in the coming decades. The services figure on three variants to do the job – a lightweight vehicle, a combat/tactical troop carrier and a utility vehicle. But meeting all of these current and future requirements is no easy task. “Fifteen years ago, they would have three different vehicles for this,” says Joe Taylor, vice president of ground combat systems for Northrop Grumman, which also is competing for the contract. Why would more than a dozen of the world’s top contractors form a handful of teams vying for such a difficult job? It’s a simple matter of math. Most experts say the contract could easily be worth $40 billion. The controversial Air Force refueling tanker contract is worth an estimated $35 billion, by way of comparison. The program entered the Engineering and

PHOTO: Courtesy of ONR

ike any auto buyer, the Defense Department is being very choosy about exactly what kind of vehicle it wants to replace the stalwart Humvee. DoD’s new ride has to cruise the open road like a Caddy, survive IEDs like an MRAP and beat its way through jungles, deserts and all other terrain like, well, a Humvee. The Army and Marines also want related makes and models that carry more troops for fighting, haul more equipment to fight and essentially be a warrior’s pack-and-play, mobile and transportable. This is essentially what the ground services are looking for in the new Joint Light Tactical Vehicle program. “This is not your father’s Humvee anymore,” says Louis DeSantis, vice president and general manager of Ground Vehicle Systems for Lockheed Martin, one of the competitors fighting for the contract.

By Michael Fabey

The Office of Naval Research Combat Tactical Vehicle Technology Demonstrator is tested on the unimproved roads of the Nevada Automotive Test Center. 16

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High Cut

Mid Cut

Low Cut

PHOTO: John F. Williams

An early Combat Tactical Vehicle Technology Demonstrator (CTV-TF) undergoes testing at the Nevada Automotive Test Center in Carson City. Built under contract for the Office of Naval Research, the CTV-TD is a test bed for the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle family of vehicles.

Manufacturing Development phase in January, with EMD contracts awarded in August to three industry teams for a 33-month development process.


his vehicle will sell itself,” Northrop Grumman’s Taylor says. “They will create a great deal of demand for themselves. Even more than the Humvee out-replaced the Jeep.” The $40 billion figure doesn’t include the long-term maintenance, logistics and related work that’s bound to up the ante over the long haul. This kind of contract is akin to winning a Pentagon lottery of sorts, especially if the JLTV proves to be as successful as the Humvee, officially the High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicle, which replaced the Jeep. Humvee maker AM General of Mishawaka, Ind., has been making Humvees since 1985, and still turns out 3,000 to 5,000 annually. For fiscal 2007-08, the Pentagon spent about $4.7 billion on Humvee procurement. “The Humvee was a great vehicle,” DeSantis says. “But when war changed they tried to up-armor the vehicles. That took away all of the payload.” Humvees often can’t keep up with Bradley Fighting Vehicles in combat formations, says Northrop’s Taylor. The JLTV will, or is supposed to. But the program has been subject to delays, due mostly to money holdups. As national elections near and lawmakers jockey for pole positions, future equipment programs like the JLTV are being shunted aside for more pressing or publicly obvious military 18

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needs. On one hand no one debates the need for a newer and betterprotected Humvee. With the insurgents’ love for IEDs as a lethal weapon of choice, extra armor for such a vehicle seems a no-brainer. “JLTV will replace all the (Humvees) for the Marine Corps and will be the centerpiece of the light tactical wheeled vehicle fleet as part of the tactical mobility triad to maintain our expeditionary capability,” says Lt. Col. Ben Garza, JLTV program manager for the Marine Corps. But the use of IEDs has fallen off, reducing the pressure to buy the less-vulnerable Humvee replacements. Sources familiar with military finances on Capitol Hill and in the Pentagon say Congress is likely to include some money as a placeholder in later budgets, but little more. The Defense Department may be a little gun-shy, too, about rushing into JLTV production and procurement. In recent reports, the Pentagon Inspector General has blasted DoD acquisition officials for violating procedures in MRAP purchases, possibly costing the military and taxpayers money. Indeed, the Pentagon has held its purse strings a little tighter in buying MRAPs and other wheeled vehicles – cousins to the JLTV. In 2007, the Pentagon spent about $7.7 billion for wheeled vehicle programs, according to an analysis of data provided by the National Institute for Computer-Assisted Reporting – the fourth-largest category of Pentagon procurement spending. But as of the end of June in 2008, wheeled vehicle procurement spending had dropped to ninth, with about $1.6 billion contracts and modifications. “The


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and related equipment through test drives. McElwee says using a test rig instead of prototypes can save time and money because a prototype marries a team to a particular concept of the vehicle. But Lockheed is willing to play the odds on a prototype gamble. Teamed with BAE Systems, aluminum giant Alcoa Defense and JWF Defense, Lockheed has developed and extensively tested JLTV model prototypes, and has been putting its vehicles through the paces with blasting and ballistic testing. Lockheed also had gone to Motor City for expertise, hiring 30 vehicle designers out PHOTO: Emily Harris of Detroit, DeSantis says. “We are blowing these hulls up at a MRAP level. And they’re Lockheed Martin shows its Joint Light Tactical Vehicle at a show in surviving.” The team also worked on vehicle Florida. The company is collaborating on another military truck. ergonomics. The Detroit expertise combined with defense experience has yielded a V-hull design, MRAP was a terrific quick solution, not the final solution,” specially engineered bolt-on third axle and an extra-armoring B Northrop Grumman’s Taylor says. kit. The Northrop team, which includes truck maker Oshkosh Corp., has been developing a unique “armor recipe” for its dieselust the automakers in Detroit have different views on how electric vehicle. The team’s strategy has been slow and deliberate. best to manufacture and market automobiles, the defense It developed subcomponents like communications and power contracting teams have their own strategies for winning the JLTV while waiting for a Request for Proposal to provide a base design. sweepstakes. British Aerospace units are part of two teams – Charlie Szews, president and chief operating officer of Lockheed’s and Navistar, which makes trucks and Oshkosh, told Wall Street analysts the JLTV could be a “game engines – and MRAPs. Force Protection, changer. J which makes armored vehicles in South Carolina, teamed with a unit of DRS Technologies, a New Jersey company that’s about to be acquired by Finmeccanica of Italy. Boeing and teammates Textron and Science Applications International Corp. (SAIC) offer a hybrid electric that incorporates a special diesel engine under development by the Ford Motor Co. as part of its F-series trucks. “We’re leveraging the engine,” Boeing’s McElwee says. “We’re bringing it in as a COTS item.” Instead of developing prototypes, the Boeing team is honing technologies using its Detroit-engineered Automotive Test Rig, a specially modified PHOTO: Courtesy Lockheed Martin Ford truck, to put components



D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 1 2

Lockheed Martin unveiled a second operational Joint Light Tactical Vehicle prototype.

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Solving a Data Dilemma

Centaur breaks down barriers hindering information-sharing in coalition warfare


odern w a r is a coalition affair. The U.S. partners with more than 40 other nations, for example, in Afghanistan. But to work effectively, these armies must be able to communicate with each other quickly and easily, a task that has often been difficult because computer systems and networks aren’t always compatible. In fact, difficulties in sharing information could be hindering operations in Afghanistan -- not all countries may be seeing the same thing at the same time. Although he doesn’t say there’s lack of progress, John Kittle of U.S. Joint Forces Command (JFCOM) does acknowledge the importance of sharing information. “You have to be able to do it machine-to-machine” to ensure speed and accuracy, he says. “You can’t just do it, one nation printing off some information and handing it off to another; you have to be able to do it over the networks, and over each individual country’s systems.” Within any single area of Afghanistan, Kittle says, there may be forward operating bases or aerial or ground platforms of different coalition countries. Ideally, information could be seamlessly passed from base to base and platform to platform, giving everyone the same real-time picture of the battlefield. This way, a British base, a U.S. Marine Corps base and a Canadian base, for instance, could all share data. They wouldn’t have to “pick up the phone and talk to each other,” says Air Force Col. George “Skip” Krakie, chief of JFCOM’s ISR Integration Division. A person at one base, for

Canadian Army soldiers launch an aerostat at Canadian Forward Operating Base Ypres. Canadian troops were able to access U.S. intelligence networks through the Raytheondeveloped Centaur system.


D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 1 2

instance, would send an image or radar track of what he’s seen “to another operating base and clear up some of the unknowns about what’s going on in the environment around them.” A step on the road to this goal is Centaur, a system to pass intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) information between U.S. and coalition intelligence systems. Centaur -- Cross-Domain Enterprise AllSource User Repository -- was developed by Raytheon Co.’s Intelligence and Information Systems unit in Garland, Texas, and integrates three company-developed components: -- The Multi-sensor Aerospace/Ground Joint ISR Interoperability Coalition data broker (MAJIIC), a ninenation project to improve the interoperability of coalition ISR systems. It has been in use for several years and is being deployed by NATO to Afghanistan. -- The Distributed Common Ground/Surface System (DCGS) Integrated Backbone (DIB), also operational for some years, links intelligence products of the U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Special Operations Forces and intelligence community. DIB Version 1.3, which merges multiple DIB configurations, has been in the Centaur design baseline. Version 2.0 allows the parties to “query each other’s holdings and find critical ISR information,” says Maj. Tony Barrett, DCGS Multi-Service Execution Team deputy director. The Army and Marine Corps share intelligence on Afghanistan through the DIB, Barrett says. Version 3.0, released in 2011, is more modular and flexible and shares

PHOTO: Staff Sgt. Vanessa Valentine

By Rich Tuttle

information directly with coalition partners, presumably making Centaur more powerful. -- The High-Speed Guard, which allows properly coded information to pass from U.S. intelligence systems to those of other countries. Raytheon calls it a “powerful cross-domain information sharing solution for government organizations.” The three components together yield a machine-to-machine, tactical ISR service using proven technology that allows classified U.S. intelligence domains to link with coalition domains. Centaur makes it possible “to move data from one security domain to another,” says Krakie. Centaur got the green light for deployment to Afghanistan based on success in various test and evaluation arenas. U.S. Central Command wanted four Centaur nodes in the theater, according to Pentagon budget documents.


PHOTO: Staff Sgt. Vanessa Valentine

ome are skeptical about cross-domain solutions, saying funding for technology that could make them more secure has declined. “We connect our most sensitive networks to less-secure networks using low-security products, creating high-value targets that are extremely vulnerable to sophisticated attack or subversion,” says David Elliott Bell, a former senior principal engineer at Mitre Corp. “Only systems of the highest security are sufficient to thwart such attacks and subversions.” But Raytheon says Centaur proved its worth and “seamlessly exchanged ISR information with U.S. and multinational partners at sites worldwide.” During a two-week Empire Challenge demonstration at Fort Huachuca, Ariz., Centaur supported more than 6,000 cross-domain operations across three networks, says Mark E. Kipphut, deputy for tactical intelligence systems at Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. He says Centaur passed messages about objects tracked by the ground-moving-target indicator mode of

radar, and messages from cursor-on-target systems, which allow soldiers to see precisely where sensors are pointing. Centaur also passed full-motion video (FMV) from aircraft to ground stations, Kipphut says. Television-quality FMV is used by commanders to monitor enemy movements. In one event, the Centaur High Speed Guard provided live streaming video from a Scan Eagle unmanned aerial vehicle flying at night. In addition, he says, Centaur supported video streaming between highly modified de Havilland Twin Otter aircraft known as Valiant Angels. The transmissions were carried by secure U.S. secret and coalition networks. Valiant Angel “uses broadcast television technology to help commanders collect, archive, search, analyze and share full-motion video,” according to Lockheed Martin, leader of an industry team that developed the system. Several Valiant Angels were fielded in Afghanistan. The system incorporates Lockheed Martin’s Audacity video analysis system, Harris Corp.’s Full-Motion Video Asset Management system (FAME) and NetApp’s Data ONTAP highperformance storage technology. Centaur presumably helped fill a need of British analysts at a simulated United Kingdom forward operating base during Empire Challenge. They wanted, and got, Valiant Angel full-motion video from a U.S. Base Expeditionary Targeting and Surveillance System - Combined, or BETSS-C, basically a tower studded with cameras and other sensors to help protect American forward bases. And Centaur apparently was used to send FMV to the NATO Consultation, Command and Control Agency (NC3A) at The Hague in the Netherlands, based on comments by Andrew Forysiak, Valiant Angel deputy program manager. Kipphut adds that the Centaur High Speed Guard transferred multiple channels of streaming video bi-directionally between U.S. and coalition networks.

U.S. Joint Forces Command intelligence specialists test the Valiant Angel system. Valiant Angel uses commercial technology to improve access to, and movement and storage of, large data files, including full-motion video and wide-area surveillance products, according to JFCOM. The Centaur system, developed by Raytheon Co., allows Valiant Angel FMV and other intelligence products to be passed to the networks of U.S. allies.


D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 1 2

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High Speed Guard sent multiple, simultaneous high- and standarddefinition video feeds “while supporting thousands of cross-domain DIB queries and product retrievals,” Raytheon says. Besides video, it enabled the transmission of about 700,000 low-latency messages -those whose delays must be virtually unnoticeable. “Our capabilities allow warfighters to work more efficiently in the full spectrum of operations by easily sharing information in a common operating environment,” says Todd Trapp, director of Tactical Intelligence Systems for Raytheon Intelligence and Information systems. “This is a big deal,” says Krakie, the EC10 military lead. “I know it’s kind of down in the weeds and a little geeky, but it is hard to move data from one security domain to another.” There are 10 security domains in the 26 networks of the 44-nation Afghanistan coalition, helping make the moving of data a major focus.


mong impediments to coalition information-sharing has been the perception that it’s just too complex, that information would be too hard to find -- if it was even there. But, says Krakie, “I’m glad to tell you that ... significant progress” was made. Kipphut elaborates. Under the guidance of officers using security classification guidelines, he says, the High Speed Guard uses techniques that allow near real-time updates in data-rule sets, which determine what a body of information is. Approval of release guidance in Empire Challenge “allowed many of the data producers to coordinate directly with Centaur support personnel to 26

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make changes to their products as well as the data-guard rule sets during the event to allow the products to be shared cross-domain” as operations were unfolding. But there were hang-ups. One involved the mistaken typing of an underscore instead of a space. This meant Centaur’s guard wouldn’t allow an intelligence product to pass to other security domains. The problem was discovered after some hair-pulling and was quickly resolved, but it did show the importance of precise coding -- and of the machines themselves. “We have so much data, if we don’t let the machines do the work of passing it, we’ll never get it to move to the other side so folks can use it,” Krakie says. “We have to get that rule set right, and we’ve been working very hard on that.” But, he says, “this is an incredibly important accomplishment, to get two machines on different networks to share data without a human in the loop.” Of course, it can be done with a human in the loop. And Centaur does permit a person to intercede as required to manually authorize information to be transferred across domains, according to Kipphut. But the idea is to let the machines do the work. “I can print [a product] off and I can look at it and say, ‘Yes, this is releasable’ ” to the intelligence service of Poland, for instance, one of the coalition partners in Afghanistan, Krakie says. “I can hand them a piece of paper. No one has time to do that. We need a machine to be able to pass it to them electronically so [the partner] gets it like that,” he says, snapping his fingers. “And that’s what we’ve been working on with some success.” J

PHOTO: Sadie Bleistein

Information from U.S. aircraft, like these OH-58 Kiowa Warriors of the U.S. Army’s 101st Combat Aviation Brigade conducting reconnaissance over southern Afghanistan, can be passed to coalition forces by Raytheon’s Centaur system.

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By John Pulley


D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 1 2


arly in March 2009, as winter was grinding to an end, a military convoy rumbled along an unpaved road that twisted, rose and dropped through remote and rugged terrain. Most of the troops in the armored caravan were freshly graduated from infantry school. For many of them, it was their inaugural ride aboard military transport. Advised to be on the lookout for improvised explosive devices, the warfighters spotted a pair of IEDs that, upon closer inspection, turned out to be decoys fashioned from trash bags and plastic jugs. Farther along, roadside bombs flashed without warning, booming and concussing the convoy’s surroundings. Later, during an ambush, the troops came under fire. They weren’t surprised. The convoy had departed from Bridgeport, Calif., on a 35-mile training exercise that would end at Hawthorne Army Ammunition Depot in Nevada. The IEDs were low-concussion dummies. The exercise was undertaken to “develop tactics, techniques and procedures for mountainous operations,” according to an account of the exercise published by the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center. But the convoy-training maneuver also gave troops a chance to kick the tires of medium tactical vehicles and become familiar with other ground transport systems they were to rely on to move troops, equipment, fuel and materials in hostile territory. As wars in Iraq and Afghanistan changed the how U.S. military forces prepared for and execute missions, those ground vehicles have been reengineered to survive blasts, maneuver in rugged terrain, operate with less manpower, resist rollovers and rapidly adapt to fast-changing conditions on the ground. In an unconventional war, there is no front. Assymetrical conflicts like those in Iraq and Afghanistan are characterized by hit-and-run attacks, booby traps and other guerilla tactics. Absent a bright line of demarcation, danger lurks in the distances between safe havens: the mountain pass, the unsecured road, the supply line and the convoy, any place in which troops are strung out and unprotected. Having engaged unconventional enemies on unwelcoming terrain for more than a decade, the Defense Department and its contractors worked to bolster the capabilities of tactical vehicles. Among the advancements are new blast-resistant technologies, improvements to unmanned ground vehicles, and vehicles that expand maneuverability without sacrificing armor protection. That’s one reason former Defense Secretary Robert Gates killed the Army’s ambitious Future Combat System, noting the


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D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 1 2



leading cause of convoy breakdowns is rear-end collisions caused by fatigued drivers. Tired drivers are also less adept at spotting and neutralizing environmental threats like IEDs. To compensate, the military and defense contractors tested and refined the Convoy Active Safety Technology (CAST). The idea is that roboticized driving capability will allow soldiers in the cabs of vehicles to focus on critical, higherlevel tasks, such as spotting and avoiding attacks, proponents say. “The Department of Defense’s take is if unmanned systems can keep a human from doing anything that is dull, dirty or dangerous, there’s no reason not to adopt the technology,” says John Beck, senior autonomous project engineer of advanced

product engineering for the Oshkosh company. Moreover, Congress called for one of every three military logistics vehicles to be unmanned by 2015. “The idea is that it allows them greater situational awareness,” says Beck. “They can identify a threat sooner than if they were driving, and it reduces fatigue. It allows the person in the cab to do other things.” In 2009 Oshkosh signed agreements with the Army’s Tank and Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) and the U.S. Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) to advance and develop new uses for the company’s autonomous technology. At the time, robot-driven convoy vehicles followed a manually operated lead vehicle. Oshkosh worked to outfit its unmanned TerraMax vehicle with integrated CAST technology to create an unmanned vehicle capable of leading a convoy. “It’s a step toward [completely] unmanned systems,” Beck said at the time. “It’s a stepping stone.” The contractor also worked to integrate CAST technology

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into its Palletized Load System, its Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Truck and the Heavy Equipment Transporter. In addition to working out technological challenges, broad adoption of unmanned solutions could hinge on allaying a particular strain of technophobia. Fans of the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey might refer to it as the HAL 9000 syndrome. Automating functions that have always been done by people typically involves “a trust factor,” Beck says. “Nobody trusted elevators to operate without a [human] operator for a long time.”


he prevalence of land mines and IEDs in Iraq and Afghanistan necessitated adding new layers of protection to vehicles that in the past would have had much less armor. The urgency of delivering vehicles capable of withstanding those blasts compelled the Defense Department to issue emergency requests for getting sufficiently armored trucks in the field. The ramp-up was historically fast, noted one contractor. Beginning in 2007 the military invested heavily in MineResistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) vehicles as the chief means for reducing deaths and injuries from roadside bombs. The fortified vehicles rely on V-shaped hulls and heavy armor to protect troops. A leading producer of MRAPs is Navistar, which secured an estimated $8 billion in contracts to produce them. The company builds the MaxxPro mine-protected vehicle, developing 32

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 1 2

PHOTO: Spc. David J. Marshall

Manufacturers have been developing modifications and upgrades for variants of the Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) vehicles that saw heavy use in Afghanistan and Iraq, where soldiers conducted a mounted patrol after setting vegetation ablaze in a roadside canal.

six major variants of the vehicle, each with a unique armor configuration. One of the later versions is the MaxxPro Dash, a smaller, lighter, more mobile vehicle designed specifically for Afghanistan. As with other vehicle modifications, conditions on the ground inform the specs of Navistar’s MaxxPro variants. “As we went through that time period, the military would come back and ask if we could make a quick change to make it better,” says Elissa Koc, a Navistar spokesperson. Navistar competed with BAE Systems and other contractors to build an MRAP all-terrain vehicle known as the M-ATV or MRAP-Lite that can handle Afghanistan’s challenging terrain. In 2008, BAE secured $3.7 billion in contracts to produce the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles. The order called for configuring the units with BAE’s long-term armor strategy (LTAS), a flexible kit-based system that provides level of armor protection commensurate with prevailing threats. LTAS was developed specifically to protect cabs for tactical vehicles fighting asymmetric war, said Ruben Maestas, a spokesman for BAE Systems Global Tactical Systems. Vehicle variants equipped with LTAS were to include cargo trucks, wreckers, expansible vans, shop vans, tractors, load handling systems, mobile artillery support vehicles and air-drop configured trucks. J


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That’s Logistics

– Military-Style Technology and better planning revolutionize how DoD supplies combat troops


By James Kitfield t the end of August 2010 the nation watched transfixed as the last U.S. combat brigade rolled out of Iraq, bringing combat operations to a close and officially ending Operation Iraqi Freedom. The troopers of the 4th Stryker Brigade were the last of 50,000 U.S. troops to exit the country. President Barack Obama marked the symbolic milestone by noting that the United States had already closed or handed over hundreds of bases in Iraq. “We’re moving out millions of pieces of equipment in one of the largest logistics operations that we’ve seen in decades,” he said. Remarkably, the largest post-combat redeployment of U.S. troops since Operation Desert Storm in 1991 was not even the primary focus of logisticians at U.S. Central Command and the Pentagon. They were more concerned with flooding that had deluged huge swaths of Pakistan, displacing millions of people and restricting one of two major supply arteries in the south that support roughly 100,000 U.S. troops in Afghanistan. After the floods started in mid-August, the number of shipping containers stacking up at regional supply hubs and in the Pakistani port of Karachi ballooned from 1,000 to 2,700 in just two weeks. Such a blockage in the pipeline and concentration of critical supplies spelled potential trouble, inviting theft and possibly insurgent attack. Just a few months 34

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 1 2

PHOTO: Staff Sgt. Angelique Perez

GPS technology means combat airdrops land within 25 meters of the target.

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earlier, delays at a border crossing caused supply trucks to stack up at a rest stop in Pakistan that was later attacked by opportunistic Taliban insurgents, with the loss of more than 80 trucks and all their U.S. military cargo. But two decades of nearly constant military deployments have spurred dramatic improvements in precision logistics and supply chain transparency that are revolutionizing combat support. As a result, U.S. logisticians not only knew exactly where every truck and container in the Afghan supply pipeline was located and its ultimate destination, but also exactly what parts, supplies and equipment each one contained. With a few computer key strokes, the dispersal of supplies and transportation assets was cross-referenced against requisition orders and stock levels in 16 supply warehouses in Afghanistan. Adjustments were rapidly made in a global supply system that feeds and supports frontline troops through an intricately balanced network of air, land and sea routes and major distribution hubs around the world. In the meantime, “container intrusion detection devices” sensitive to light and motion revealed any tampering with the containers in Pakistan. As a result of those advancements, logistics challenges that might have become a game-stopper in an earlier era were never even apparent to frontline commanders in Afghanistan. The simultaneous withdrawal of combat forces from Iraq and surge of troops to Afghanistan in 2010 can thus be written as a successful case study in logistics for future war college text books. “After supporting combat operations in Afghanistan and Iraq for nearly 10 years, all of the logisticians in the Army, along with our partners at Transportation Command and at the Defense Logistics Agency, have all gotten really good at honing and refining our supply processes,” says Lt. Gen. Mitchell Stevenson, the Army’s deputy chief of staff for logistics at the time. “When you combine doing things smarter with dramatic advances in asset visibility and satellite communications, it’s a game-changer in terms of logistics. That’s enabled us to do things in Afghanistan and Iraq that we simply couldn’t have done 20 years ago.” Brig. Gen. Kenneth Merchant, director of logistics at the Air Force’s Air Mobility Command at the time, says all of the component commands that contribute to the military supply effort embraced a culture of continuous improvement and trial and error over the past decade of operations. “Everyone at U.S. Transportation Command has become much more innovative, to the point where we are always trying new ways to go about this business more efficiently, and if something doesn’t work we’ll back off and try another way. If something works, we’ll continually refine it,” says Merchant, now Air Force program executive officer for weapons in the Armament Systems Directorate. “As a result, we’ve evolved from Desert Storm in 1991, where we moved a whole lot of stuff but had to break open every container on the other end just to determine what was in it. Today we’ve adopted a mindset much more like Federal Express or UPS, which is that if someone orders a priority item that is scheduled to arrive on a certain day, we’ll make sure that it’s in their hands on that day.”


very logistician has the same nightmare. A combat operation grounds to a halt, and the mission and the lives of U.S. troops are put at risk because of a lack of critical support. A famous case study was Gen. George Patton and the 3rd Army racing across France to relieve Army units surrounded by German forces during the Battle of the Bulge in 1944-45. Despite the heroic efforts of what became known 36

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 1 2

PHOTO: James Kitfield

With precision logistics, U.S. logisticians know exactly what’s in every container headed for Afghanistan and where it is in the supply chain.

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as the “Red Ball Express” to try and keep the 3rd Army resupplied on its breakout offensive, Patton’s lead tank companies ran out of gas and stalled outside of Metz, France, where they became fodder for German Panzers. Because of their shared nightmare, logisticians adopted a common adage: Never run out. More is always better. “A critical failure is what keeps us all up at night, so logisticians are traditionally conservative in estimating how much support will be needed,” says Stevenson. The result was an American tradition of combat logistics, he says, that relied on moving massive amounts of materiel. “If you look at how we supported combat operations in the past century, from World War II to Vietnam to Desert Storm, it was by pushing huge amounts of supplies forward with brute force.” Despite showcasing the ability of U.S. support forces to move mountains of military equipment and supplies halfway around the world, Desert Storm also revealed the limitations of combat support of maneuver forces circa 1991. At that time Stevenson, for instance, commanded a support battalion in the 24th Infantry Division, which conducted the famed “left hook” that blocked the escape of the Iraqi Republican Guard from Kuwait and brought the ground war to a quick and decisive end. Because of limitations in long-range communications, supply train visibility and knowledge about the fuel requirements of a mechanized division trying to sprint nearly 180 miles across the desert, however, Stevenson says the “left hook” nearly outran its own supply lines. “At one point we accidentally stumbled into a transport unit of 60 fuel tankers that were on their way to establishing a fuel farm, and I requisitioned them on the spot,” he says. “If we hadn’t encountered those trucks, we absolutely would have run out of fuel and they might have written a different story about the ‘left hook.’ And in retrospect, that ‘left hook’ operation was nothing compared to Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003, which required moving a much bigger force more than 300 miles from Kuwait to Baghdad in a matter of weeks.”



n roughly the decade between Operation Desert Storm in 1991 and Iraqi Freedom in 2003, however, Defense Department logisticians embraced new technologies that dramatically streamlined the supply chain. They shifted from the relatively cumbersome “bar code” readers used in Desert Storm, for instance. Especially during the deployment of U.S. and NATO forces to the Balkans in the mid1990s, logisticians began experimenting with active and passive D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 1 2

PHOTO: Tech. Sgt. Joseph McLean

U.S. Marines hook up sling loads of humanitarian relief supplies to a U.S. Army Chinook helicopter at Muzaffarabad, Pakistan.

radio frequency identification (RFID) tags similar to those used by today’s “E-Z tag” toll-way systems. When paired with automatic “interrogator networks” established at key nodes such as airports, seaports and in-transit hubs, the RFID tags allow logisticians sitting at a computer anywhere in the world to not only track every vehicle and container en route, but also to list exactly what cargo each is carrying. The result is an unprecedented level of supply chain transparency that now characterizes U.S. support operations. “We were still pretty nervous in 2003 that something in the logistics system would not work right and our forward forces would run out of fuel, ammo or water, but it all came together after a lot of really intense rehearsal and training,” says Stevenson. “We absolutely could not have conducted an operation on those timelines and distances without the new RFID technology and in-transit visibility it gives us.” Because U.S. Army doctrine in 2003 called for support convoys to travel in large formations over relatively short distances, however, many of them relied on short-range radios and static communications systems that proved inadequate during the dash to Baghdad. Afteraction reviews showed that in some instances, communications from support battalions to their headquarters went silent in the weeks after crossing into Iraq. “When we saw that support battalion communications went virtually dead in the two-week period after crossing into Iraq, we purchased satellite communications equipment for all logistics battalions that can also act as a wireless network for elements of that unit,” says Stevenson, referring to the Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) mobile satellite communication systems. “The result is constant communications connectivity. If I wanted to know how much main tank ammunition I have in Iraq at this moment, I could query the system from the computer on my desk and know the answer in minutes. So everyone is now connected all the time, and that’s another game-changer in the logistics profession.”


eginning with a 1990s initiative called Velocity Management, DoD logisticians have also constantly honed

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D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 1 2

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“best practices” gleaned from private industry, from the efficient storage and stock rationalizations of a Wal-Mart distribution center, to the “just in time” The Military Sealift Command’s roll-on/roll-off ships make delivery model of a Federal Express or it easier to transfer large numbers of large vehicles like this United Parcel Service, to the continuous mine-resistant, ambush-protected (MRAP) vehicle in and process improvement of a Toyota out of combat zones. assembly plant. Meanwhile, the nature of counterinsurgency warfare in Iraq and Afghanistan allowed the Pentagon to leverage the immense by AMC nearly doubled, from 30 million tons in 2009 to an capabilities of private contractors in helping to deliver fuel, food and estimated 54 million tons in 2010. Thanks to technology, forward supplies, providing a major force-multiplier to support forces. operating bases in Afghanistan that depend on airdropped Through an initiative called Inbound Logistics, for instance, Air supplies can count on the cargo landing on the targeted drop Mobility Command capitalized on the transparency of the supply zone. chain to custom-tailor cargo pallets so that all items are bound for the “Because of the GPS capabilities of the Joint Precision Air same customer and stacked in the order they are needed. Drop System, we can put airdropped cargo within 25 meters “As a result of Inbound Logistics, when one of our ‘pure pallets’ of any target,” says Maj. James Fuller, AMC’s then-chief of is taken off an airplane by a forklift, within minutes a contractor airdrop operations. “That means our troops don’t have to expose is moving the entire pallet to the forward base where it’s needed, themselves to enemy fire or improvised explosive devices in without wasting a lot of time breaking it down and storing disparate order to retrieve critical airdropped supplies. In Afghanistan, if supplies in a warehouse,” says Merchant. As another example, he supplies are dropped even 500 meters off target, it can require notes that AMC orchestrates 900 military and Civil Reserve Air troops to climb over two mountaintops to retrieve them. So the Fleet (CRAF) flights each day in support of U.S. military forces. precision of our airdrop operations has come a long way even By increasing the size and weight of some pallets flown by CRAF since the beginning of Operation Enduring Freedom” in 2011. transports in an initiative called Next Generation Cargo Capacity, As a net result of all those advancements, the fundamental he says, AMC was also able to reduce the number of U.S. military philosophy underlying U.S. military logistics has changed. transport flights, saving money and wear on aircraft. Modern-day “loggies” are still determined that U.S. military As another example of “smart” over “brute” logistics, Merchant forces will never run out of critical supplies. More, however, is not says that AMC was initially transporting Mine Resistant Ambush always considered better. “In the past, what caused logisticians Protected (MRAP) vehicles to Afghanistan strictly by air, an to order so much material is that they didn’t know where their expensive and inefficient process that required a 20-hour flight for a previous order was in the pipeline, and commanders in the field C-17 to transport three MRAPs. Today, a single ship from Military didn’t have a clear picture of the worldwide strategic logistics Sealift Command can transport 450 MRAPs to in-theater ports, where system of supply, maintenance and transport,” says Stevenson. they are loaded onto C-17s for a 30-minute flight into Afghanistan. As an example, Stevenson notes that commanders during “By adopting a continuous process-improvement mindset in Desert Storm ordered 200,000 short tons of excess ammunition prosecuting these wars we are constantly learning, and that has that eventually had to be shipped back to the United States when energized and excited our people,” says Merchant. “They are not fighting ended, at significant expense. Compare that to the less afraid to test new ideas, dropping the ones that don’t work and than 4,000 short tons of ammunition that had to be shipped back refining the ones that do. As a result, we’ve increased the speed of from Iraq as 50,000 U.S. combat forces withdrew. our support operations such that we are now operating at a pace in “Today, commanders can query the logistics system and Afghanistan that would have been impossible even five years ago.” determine the exact location of the part or ammunition they need, and they have confidence in our ability to move it quickly,” he erhaps nowhere have smarter supply methods and says. “That trust and confidence has eliminated excess ordering advanced technologies combined to greater effect than in and the need to build up huge mountains of material, which cuts the realm of airdrops. With the surge of 50,000 U.S. troops into across the entire supply chain. It allows us to do this business Afghanistan, the amount of supplies airdropped into the country with much greater precision.” J

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n o i t e a c z i i l v i r t e u S e g R n e i t s e n k e r f De and Ma

By James Kitfield

Combat troop departure signals it’s time for DRMS to get busy


While the Defense Logistics Agency’s main role is supplying units with food and other supplies, as in this underway replenishment aboard the USNS Comfort (TAH 20), its Defense Reutilization and Marketing Service swoops in later to determine when it’s time to dispose of excess or outdated military property.


D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 1 2

sponsible drawdown of forces that takes very seriously issues such as proper property disposal and environmental stewardship. That’s one reason why DRMS was brought into the planning process on Iraq much earlier than ever before.”


eadquartered in Battle Creek, Mich., DRMS traces its history back to the 1970s and the aftermath of the Vietnam War. The Pentagon was looking to improve how the armed services disposed of excess material during a period of contraction. Today DRMS has nearly 1,500 people scattered across 41 states and 16 countries, its workforce augmented by reservists and private contractors. Despite that long lineage DRMS has grown in PHOTO: Senior Airman Jessica Snow

n 2009 U.S. Central Command held a planning drill at Camp Arifan, Kuwait, a massive logistical hub that supplied U.S. forces in Iraq with food, water, equipment, maintenance facilities and other critical support. The senior logisticians who gathered at Arifan were briefed on plans to withdraw the roughly 130,000 U.S. troops still in Iraq by the end of 2011. The first slide in the PowerPoint presentation was a photograph of rusty U.S. military equipment and supplies strewn for miles and rotting in the desert, detritus left behind at the end of the 1991 Persian Gulf War. “That photograph really resonated with me as someone in the military disposal business, and it served as a useful wake-up call and warning to the entire Army that this time we don’t want to leave a lot of equipment behind as an unnecessary blight,” Twila Gonzales, director of the Defense Logistics Agency’s Defense Reutilization and Marketing Service (DRMS), said at the time. “In all of our planning we’re now much more sensitive to the whole notion of conducting a re-

PHOTO: Van Williams

The hanger deck of USS Kitty Hawk is covered with tens of thousands of pieces of equipment that were turned in to DRMS in San Diego at the end of an operational voyage. DRMS employees sailed on board the aircraft carrier to plan and manage the equipment turn in.


importance in recent years, largely as the result of an evolution in the nature of U.S. military operations. The U.S. military’s support, engineering and transport units have always prided themselves on collectively being able to move logistical mountains of equipment and supplies farther and faster than any other force in the world. Whether that entailed launching an invasion force across the English Channel on D-Day; keeping Gen. George Patton’s Third Army supplied by the “Red Ball Express” as it raced across Europe to relieve surrounded Army forces during the Battle of the Bulge; conducting the Inchon landing during the Korean War; or supplying a maneuver force that toppled Saddam Hussein’s government and army in just three weeks in 2003, it seemed not to matter. As the PowerPoint photograph of miles of discarded equipment attests, however, that same U.S. military logistics system is less heralded for efficiently and effectively cleaning up the messes left in its wake. Yet in an era of counter-insurgency warfare, where the objective is to stand up and smoothly transfer authority to local government institutions and security forces, and win the hearts and minds of the populace away from the insurgents, U.S. military planners increasingly understand that how they leave a country can be just as important as how they entered it. “Military types such as myself are great at requisitioning, transporting and consuming supplies and equipment moving forward, but in the past we haven’t been as good at reutilizing or disposing of leftover materiel back through that big logistics tail we create,” said Col. Juan Arcocha, deputy director of DRMS in 2009 and a chief logistician for an armored division during the invasion of Iraq. “In the Army we always talked D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 1 2

about life-cycle management of equipment as stretching from the research and development phase right up to the foxhole, but in reality life-cycle management has to go beyond the foxhole to the ultimate point of disposal or reutilization. That’s where the DRMS comes in.”


o manage ongoing operations and the expected drawdown of forces, DRMS established four Defense Reutilization and Marketing Offices in Iraq and another in Kuwait. In addition, disposal remediation teams consisting mostly of reservists traveled into the field to assess the disposal needs of forward operating bases throughout Iraq. There they worked directly with base and unit commanders, who retained ultimate authority over their materiel and equipment. Using computerized inventory and requisitioning systems that track supply and demand across the Army, DRMS and Army officials first determined whether materiel or equipment deemed excess was needed elsewhere. “The Army has established a Responsible Retrograde Task Force in Iraq, for instance, that works with us to determine what is reusable and who has priority in reutilization,” Arcocha said at the time. “If we determine that reusable materiel or supplies are no longer needed by a unit in Iraq, but they are required by a unit surging to Afghanistan, we don’t want to ship it all the way back to the United States.” In determining possible reuse priority, DRMS and Army officials also placed Iraqi Security Forces and related institutions high on their list. Many U.S. commanders still remember occupying Iraqi ministries after the fall of Baghdad in 2003, only to find them looted and stripped bare of everything including wir-

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ouflage pattern. Outside of those customers, we now destroy our combat uniforms.” DRMS officials acknowledge that even their stringent coding system sometimes lags behind the realities of rapidly evolving national security threats. Before the 2001 terror and anthrax attacks, for instance, DRMS was allowed to resell military police badges and lab equipment to the public. Both are now coded for “demilitarization” and likely destruction. Likewise, all spare parts for F-14 fighter aircraft were coded for destruction once that aircraft was phased out of the Navy’s inventory. The only country still flying the jet is Iran. Before computers are reutilized all hard drives must be wiped clean to protect operational security. “I like to think of the tension between security and reutilization as healthy, but there’s no question that since 9/11 the pendulum has swung in the direction of protecting national security and making absolutely sure potentially dangerous equipment does not fall into the wrong hands,” says DRMS director GonPHOTO: Capt. Michael Lovas

ing and plumbing. The resultant difficulty in getting Iraqi ministries up and functioning again created a governance vacuum exploited by insurgents. U.S. officials were determined not to create a similar power vacuum when they leave Iraq. “As part of our drawdown plans one of our major goals is to leave a stable Iraq behind, and that means rather than stripping our forward operating bases down to sand we need to turn them over to Iraqi Security Forces in a functioning state,” Thomas Legeret, director of disposal operations for DRMS, said during the planning stage. “So the services have received authorization to turn over to the Iraqis essential items such as housing trailers and furniture, blast walls, concertina wire, office furniture, and some kitchen equipment. We have to leave what is appropriate for them to assume authority.” Before a final decision was made, however, DRMS first had to resolve a constant tension in its operations between security and reutilization. That is especially important in a war zone where insurgents are expert at impersonating security forces, and scavenging military equipment to turn into weapons such as improvised explosive devices. Before an item is reutilized or resold, it is thus checked against “demilitarization codes” that determine whether anyone outside the U.S. military is authorized to receive it, and if so who. “As an example, historically we coded combat uniforms as safe to resell,” said Legeret. “Then we decided that it was not wise to let new versions of our combat uniforms outside the Department of Defense. The decision was made that the new, digitized camouflage uniforms could only be reutilized by our National Guard and reserve troops. Iraqi Security Forces were allowed to buy BDUs (battle dress uniforms) with the old cam-

PHOTO: Kathy Hausknecht

DRMS has disposed of thousands of M-35 series trucks turned in as they reach the end of their service life. Some were sold overseas through DoD’s Foreign Military Sales program; others went to state emergency management and public safety agencies.


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PHOTO: PFC Ali Hargis

Soldiers from the Pennsylvania National Guard’s 28th Infantry Division’s 56th Stryker Brigade Combat Team close a movable storage container after packing up their equipment to leave Iraq. Anything the 56th SBCT or any other unit didn’t ship back stateside was evaluated by DRMS for recycling, sale or disposal.

zales. “That has forced us to strengthen our processes to ensure that all inventory is accounted for, and plug any holes or gaps that might allow unsafe property to leak out.”


hen equipment or material is cleared, DRMS officials pride themselves on finding creative and cost-effective ways to reuse it. In one instance excess office furniture was used to upgrade a tax preparation center used by service members and their families in Wiesbaden, Germany. A cache of old particle-board furniture was sent to a live-fire range where soldiers practice clearing rooms and buildings, just as old washers and dryers ended up at Fort Irwin, Calif., adding realism to a mock village where soldiers prepare for urban warfare. Thirty-five excess buses originally worth $1.9 million were given to a school system on Guam. By harvesting and recycling the rubber in old chemical protection gear, DRMS officials saved $346,000 in disposal costs. As part of its Precious Metals Recovery Program, DRMS extracted more than 71,000 pounds of silver from spent batteries for an estimated cost savings of $2.5 million. Refurbishing two Humvee radio sets for reuse saved an estimated $2 million. In all of fiscal 2008, equipment that originally cost $28 billion to acquire was turned into DRMS, and an estimated $1.5 billion worth of inventory was reutilized. Especially in Iraq, responsible disposal of equipment too battle-damaged or worn to be reused constituted an equally important part of DRMS’ mission. Such equipment is routinely transported to facilities where it is crunched, smashed and 48

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torched before being resold as scrap. A single DRMS demilitarization site in Indiana, for instance, received a shipment of 18,000 M-16 rifles and 20,000 M-60 machine guns slated for destruction. The Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office at Camp Arifan, Kuwait, had shredded 40 million pounds of tires worn out on the potholes and crumbled roads of Iraq. Perhaps no DRMS mission was more critical to a successful withdrawal from Iraq than its role disposing of hazardous materials left over from years of military operations. The toxic debris of mechanized war includes hundreds of tons of dirty fuels, spent oils, used batteries and contaminated dirt. “After six years of operations on Victory Base in Iraq, you can just imagine the nightmare the Iraqis would have on their hands if we just let all that stuff pile up and left it there,” said Arcocha. Fully 80 percent of that hazardous material, said experts, was petroleum products such as used oil and lubricants. DRMS contracted with the Iraq Oil Co. to recycle it. Likewise, officials arranged for a state-owned battery factory in Iraq to process old batteries. Under an Army contract written by DRMS, an Iraqi facility capable of treating lead-acid and other highly contaminated materials became operational. Guided by DRMS, Army units also used “land farming” techniques to leach oil and spent fuels out of contaminated dirt. “At the end of the day we’re treating the hazardous waste in Iraq exactly as we would treat it in the United States,” DRMS’ Legeret said at the time. “The last thing we want is for the Iraqis to think of us as `Ugly Americans’ who just dumped this stuff out in their desert and then left for home.” J

Culture Clash

Language isn’t the only barrier for NATO-led coalition in Afghanistan


By David Perera

riction between partners is a fact of coalition warfare. Still, the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan might have it particularly rough. Many of the 50 nations with military troops in Afghanistan have attached conditions, or “caveats,” under which they will operate. Until April 2009, for example, Germany told its soldiers they could use weapons only in strict self-defense, leading to cases of German soldiers waiting until insurgents opened fire before using their own weapons, according to Der Spiegel, a German newsweekly. Germany has approximately 4,900 deployed troops, one of the largest NATO missions to Afghanistan. German soldiers had been instructed to call out “United Nations – stop or I will fire!” to potential adversaries, then do so in Pashto and then in Dari – and to repeat the warnings, if possible. Caveats “created nearly paralytic situations,” Anthony Cordesman, a military expert at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, wrote in 2009. Caveats on information-sharing between nations have also restricted the distribution of photographic imagery and other data. Recalls Richard “Ozzie” Nelson, a former Navy commander stationed in Afghanistan as head of a joint task force during 2009, “I would go from one meeting where I would have a discussion with my partners talking under my [Operation Enduring Freedom] hat, and I would go to a NATO meeting and it would be a whole different dialogue.” The experi50

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ence was surreal, adds Nelson, now a senior CSIS senior fellow. Within Operation Enduring Freedom, he says, “You all share the same security clearances, you’re sharing the same cultural background, you all know why you’re there. Then you go into a NATO meeting, and now of all a sudden there are different security classifications, different understandings of why they’re there.”


on-alliance countries such as Sweden, Finland and Australia have complained that NATO shuts them out. Australia’s then-defense minister, Joel Fitzgibbons, decried in February 2008 what he called denial of access to important war information and exclusion from strategic planning. Australia has 1,550 troops in Afghanistan, making it a major contributor of warfighters. “There’s a reality around this and commanders on the ground would not spend a lot of time bemoaning the caveats, because they are reality and you just find out a way to make it work,” says Canadian Lt. Gen. Michel Gauthier, who retired in 2009 after serving as the first commander of the Canadian Expeditionary Force Command, which is responsible for Canada’s operations abroad. “It’s really up to the guy who has the conductor’s baton in his hand, the commander on the ground, to put round pegs in round holes in terms of accomplishing the mission.” And caveats about sharing information never prevent mission-critical data from going to the people who need it, Gauthier says. “There’s always a perception of a lack of desire to share information, but the risks to human beings and the risks to mission success trump the risks associated with information leakage.” That said, Gauth52

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ier acknowledges the complexities of sharing sensitive information. National intelligence agencies have different informationsharing arrangements with allies. “There’s concentric circles, I suppose, on how intelligence, in particular, is shared – which is quite complex to work through in an alliance setting.” But in cases where information-sharing is required to support an operation, nations simply resort to a workaround that ensures people who need to know do indeed know what they need, says Robert Hunter, who was the U.S. ambassador to NATO during Operation Deliberate Force, the 1995 bombing campaign in Bosnia. “They may not be able to say we got this from the following source or by the following method, [but] no-

TOP: Bulgarian Land Forces Lt. Col. Terziev Krasimir participates in M16 rifle qualifications during operational mentor liaison team training at the Joint Multinational Readiness Center in Hohenfels, Germany. The JMRC is the U.S. Army’s only training center outside the United States and regularly trains multinational forces.

body in the U.S. military is going to let an ally go into an operation with false information that might put people at risk,” says Hunter, now a senior Rand Corp. adviser. Hunter said it would be a mistake to view NATO troops in Afghanistan merely as window-dressing. Still, countries often find it easier to work together based on their bilateral relationships rather than in a NATO context, Nelson says. “You have to realize when you’re having your NATO discussion that information and the things you’re doing are available to everyone in NATO.” Bilateral isn’t bad, says Canada’s Gauthier. “There are natural allies, natural partners, like-minded nations who train in the same way, fight in the same way, see things in the same way and naturally will be able to cooperate on the battlefield.”


he nations might be furthest apart, however, when it comes to supporting their militaries with products or goods. Although NATO’s policy is that logistics should be a collective responsibility, the big nations have a tendency to go it alone, says Bruno Cantin, head of the logistics section within the defense pol54

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icy and planning division of NATO International Staff, a Brussels-based alliance advisory and administrative body. “The big players, like the U.S., U.K., France, Germany can do most of what they want by themselves.” Nations with forward operating bases in Afghanistan mainly procure support services through national channels, says Marni Dicker, a senior vice president for SNC-Lavalin, a Canadian operations service firm supporting the Canadian mission in Afghanistan. “Everyone services their own contracts,” she says. “Could there be synergies? Sure, but there aren’t.” The British military is the major exception to the national channel rule.

PHOTO: Spc. Tristan Bolden

PHOTO: Spc. Sean Mclaughlin

BOTTOM: Georgian army Sgt. Sagali Komladze calibrates a mortar during a training exercise at the U.S. Army’s Joint Multinational Readiness Center in Hohenfels, Germany. The readiness center worked with U.S. Marine Corps Forces Europe to help Georgian forces prepare to deploy to Afghanistan.

“There isn’t the protectionism that you see in some [defense] markets, and I include America in that,” says Alexandra Ashbourne, director of London-based Ashbourne Strategic Consulting. The U.K. Ministry of Defense has signed contracts with major U.S. service firms, including KBR. “We don’t have time to get our own experience, so we can’t keep it in-house,” she adds. In any case, it’s the United States – which has 90,000 troops in Afghanistan– that does most of the contracting, totally and pro-

PHOTO: Erin A. Kirk-Cuomo

PHOTO: Mass Comm. Spc. 2nd Class Olivia Giger

PHOTO: Master Sgt. Kap Kim

U.S. Marine Corps Gen. John R. Allen, right, the International Security Assistance Force commander, speaks with Afghan police and army leaders at the Provincial Operational Coordination Center during a mission to Regional Command Southwest in Helmand province, Afghanistan.

portionally, said David Scruggs, co-founder and chief operating officer of Arlington, Va.based Renaissance Strategic Advisors. “The Brits are probably No. 2,” he says. “Their total is smaller, and the proportion of what they contract out is still less than us, but probably more than the Europeans.” Most European militaries contract out less work both because their footprint is smaller and because they have different comfort levels with outsourcing, experts say. Some countries devote more than 40 percent of their deployed Afghan forces to support operations, Cantin says. He was hoping to see more nations look automatically to NATO contracting agencies such as the NATO Maintenance and Supply Agency, or NAMSA, for support services. “We’re not telling a country, no, you cannot have a food contract,” he says. “What we’re saying is that if you want to tap into the NATO food contract, you’re welcome. But if you don’t, fine, but you’ll have all the overhead that you’ll have to incur.” NATO deployed to Afghanistan without a collective logistics plan in place – something that Cantin says won’t happen in future operations. NAMSA is starting to earn the trust of deployed nations, he adds, putting in place a contract in Kandahar to support everything from food to garbage disposal. J

LEFT: U.S. Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta, right, and U.S. Army Lt. Gen. Curtis Scaparrotti, the commanding general of the International Security Assistance Force Joint Command, attend a press conference at North Kabul International Airport. RIGHT: Deputy Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter, far right, meets with U.S. soldiers at Forward Operating Base Shank.

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Smartphones Could cellphone technology answer the call for on-the-move tactical communications? By Rich Tuttle

technologies with battle command systems?’ ” says Ron Szymanski, a computer scientist in the Command and Control Directorate of RDECOM’s Communications-Electronic Research, Development and Engineering Center (CERDEC). “Can I get situational awareness data down to [the devices]? Can I get position reports and spot reports down to them? Can I get terrain analytical tools down to those devices? Can I get those devices connected into our tactical network?”


U.S. Army plan to evaluate commercial hand-held devices like Apple’s iPhone to make individual soldiers more effective dovetails with a larger plan to allow big fighting units to do what they can’t do well today -- communicate on the move. Hand-helds -- including the iPhone and other Apple products including the iPad, Mac and MacBook -- have caught the eye of Army leaders because soldiers use them at home and then take them along when they deploy to Afghanistan, often coming up with ideas that could have significant military implications. The high level of the Army’s interest was demonstrated by a trip to Apple’s headquarters in Cupertino, Calif., by Maj. Gen. Nick Justice before he retired earlier this year as commander of the Research, Development and Engineering Command (RDECOM). “Justice and other senior officials are saying, “ ‘OK, we know the soldiers are using [hand-helds], how can we better integrate those 56

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ne of the challenges, says Bill Beamish of Harris RF Communications, is that such devices rely on cell towers, which an enemy could destroy. But that could be overcome if they and advanced applications could be connected to radios, he says. Wideband communications architectures now being fielded to support new radios and other systems are changing the way soldiers fight. They now have information at their fingertips that they never had before, and previously unseen levels of collaboration. One idea, Beamish says, is to have foot soldiers equipped with smartphones running a biometrics application. As they walk through a village, they would communicate with higher headquarters through a ruggedized cell site in a parked Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicle. The biometrics app would tell them if a person they are talking to is on a list of hostiles.ACERDEC-developed counter-insurgency application, called COIN Collector, allows a soldier to collect information

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“about people, places and events, and make connections between those,” says Steven Mazza, another computer scientist in CERDEC’s Command and Control Directorate. It could become a Special Forces tool, he says. Special Forces are already using Tacticell, for Tactical Cellular. Developed by On Track Technologies of Durham, N.C., Tacticell “leverages new innovations in 3G cellular technologies to deliver megabits of data to dismounted SOF teams via notebooks and smartphones ... allowing users to take advantage of applications such as streaming media and instant messaging,” according to a report from Joint Forces Command’s 2009 Coalition Warrior Interoperability Demonstration. The system received final Joint Integration Testing Center certification in 2010 and was scheduled for interoperability testing in 2011. A 4G upgrade called Tacticell NG (for next generation) followed. Because Tacticell is intended for use by small groups in remote areas devoid of communications infrastructure, it used a tethered aerostat or a circling airplane as a relay. This works for small groups like Special Forces units. But for “big Army” rolling across vast stretches of terrain, multiple links are needed to ensure continual contact. Industry and the Pentagon are working on the problem. “I think they’re going to solve it. It’ll be a few years,” says Kevin Anastas, manager of business development in the Ground Combat Division of Northrop Grumman Corp.’s Information Systems Sector. Northrop Grumman is working with Ericsson Federal Inc., a major provider of cellular systems.


he Army’s cornerstone tactical communications system, the Warfighter Information Network-Tactical, or WIN-T -being developed for brigade and above by General Dynamics and teammates Lockheed Martin Corp., BAE Systems Inc., Harris, L-3 Communications Corp., Juniper Networks Inc. and Cisco Systems Inc. -- does not yet allow big formations to communicate on the move. General Dynamics says WIN-T will ultimately deliver on-the-move Internet-like broadband networking capabilities to widely dispersed 58

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military units. But Increment 1, which relies on satellite communications, “is not mobile. It is at the halt or at the quick halt,” says the project manager, Col. William “Chuck” Hoppe. This is because it uses big communications terminals and associated antennas that must be pointed at satellites. The Army received approval from the Defense Acquisition Board to begin limited production and fielding of Increment 2 this fall, extending the network to company level by adding terrestrial line-of-sight radio to satellite for on-the-move communications. Increment 3, under development, would bring full communications on-the-move by adding aerial relays to the satellite and terrestrial links, giving communications an additional potential path if the primary terrestrial link is broken. Terrestrial is primary because it’s less expensive than satellite and can carry more information. Increment 4, also under development, would provide protected satellite comm on the move. The plan for all the increments is to get smaller chunks out as soon as possible to better adapt to changing technology, not to mention changing world conditions, says Al Resnick, director of capabilities integration at Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC). One of the keys to constant on-the-move communication is the ability to automatically switch from one link to another if the first drops out. Increment 2 features a network management system to make sure a link is always up; it automatically favors terrestrial. The network management system will be upgraded to handle Increment 3 communications. “We’re sensing link quality the whole time” so contact is continual, says Hoppe, who is in the Program Executive Office for Command, Control, Communications-Tactical at Fort Monmouth, N.J. For instance, he says, in Increment 2, if a soldier in one vehicle is talking to a soldier in another by ground link and a building or some other object blocks the line of sight between them, the system switches to satellite. When the blockage is passed, a new terrestrial link is quickly acquired. “This is a significant operational capability,” says Hoppe. “It allows the network to be ad-hoc, self-healing and self-forming.”

Iridium salutes the courage of the brave heroes of 9/11 who knowingly, and without hesitation, put their lives at risk responding to the needs of so many. We also wish to honor those who lost their lives on that tragic day, and hope we never again must face such unforeseen peril.

Iridium delivers reliable, near real-time, mission-critical global communications services and creates vital lines of communication for emergency response and disaster relief organizations everywhere. Iridium strives to ensure that these lines of communication are never broken.

PHOTO: Colleen Leslie

A fleet of vehicles configured to meet the needs of various assessments is operated by the Army’s C4ISR On-the-Move office. It runs an annual system-of-systems evaluation event at Fort Dix, N.J. Lessons learned give a look at how the Army’s networks and systems will operate in the future.

Industrydeveloped protocols applied to routers mounted in the vehicles allow this to happen, according to Murray Duff, mobility program manager for Cisco Systems. He says the protocols allow the switch from satellite to terrestrial and vice versa to be very fast. “The network within milliseconds recognizes that I’m losing a connection and it finds me a better one,” which is critical in combat. This switching ability “is the fundamental difference between what WIN-T brings and any one of the separate, independent things that are out there today,” Hoppe says. “There are commercial products out there today that do one or the other. They don’t do both. And they don’t integrate them from a network operations and management standpoint.” When WIN-T is completed it will help the Army reach its goal of interoperable and modular combat units. It will “allow commanders to plan, employ and mass the network just like we plan, employ and mass indirect fires,” Hoppe says. Its power would be even greater if it can be made to work with smartphones. One idea, says TRADOC’s Resnick, is to make WIN-T relay stations act like surrogate cell towers. WIN-T’s already big communication pipes bring “the whole network so a guy can plug his laptop in and get his e-mail and everything else,” including video, data, imagery and voice, all to enable decisive action in combat. It’s the Army’s contribution to the Defense Department’s Global Information Grid. And, says Hoppe, who received the Bronze Star for duty in Afghanistan, soldiers like it. “They would never go back. You go tell somebody you’re going to take their [system] away from them and you’re going to have a fight.”


he pipes of the various systems that run on WIN-T may not be as large, but they’re still vital for the mobile Army. The Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below, or FBCB2, for instance, has very small pipes. It was originally developed for use in Bosnia and


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Kosovo to keep track of small units operating close to their bases, according to prime contractor Northrop Grumman. FBCB2 operates with terrestrial line-of-sight radios but also has a satellite communications capability called Blue Force Tracker (BFT), which tells the location of friendly and enemy forces. It is said to have played a role in the capture of Saddam Hussein in December 2003. BFT made a name for itself in March 2003 as coalition armored forces sped into Iraq from Kuwait. One of many stories is that of Army Lt. Col. John W. Charlton, commander of a Bradley Fighting Vehicle battalion. He tells how he got his BFT the day before the invasion and had little time to learn how it worked. He and his driver used paper maps to cross the border -- and the battalion was immediately ordered to an area for which he had no paper maps. He knew the BFT had digital maps, so he turned it on and instantly got what he needed, including imagery of new construction in many nearby towns. He and his unit moved into a town in the middle of a sandstorm. They couldn’t see anything but were still able to navigate around buildings and down streets, communicating with each other by text message. He was converted on the spot to digital battle command. A program to field a new version of Blue Force Tracker, BFT II, illustrates the role of relatively small defense contractors in developing and building equipment for mobile tactical communications systems. BFT II features satellite communications that will cut refresh time from minutes to seconds, reduce comm lag and increase bandwith, among other capabilities. BFT II would replace BFT I, so the Army will have to buy at least 10,000 units a year over a five-year period. ViaSat Inc. of Carlsbad, Calif., won the estimated $477 million BFT II contract in 2010, beating out Comtech Mobile Datacom Corp. of Germantown, Md., the BFT supplier since 2003. In 2006, BFT prime Northrop Grumman picked ViaSat to develop BFT II, but Comtech developed its own system and both companies delivered prototypes for evaluation. J 1 04-May-12 15:04:56


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’13 AIR FORCE Spotlight

Wind Power Air station finds the wind beneath its wing


By Lea Johnson

PHOTO: U.S. Air Force

APE COD AIR FORCE 2012 Energy Conservation Investment than 1,000 metric tons of sulfur dioxide, STATION, Mass. — Change Program, is expected to pay for itself nitrogen oxide and carbon dioxide is blowing into Cape Cod within 12 years, according to officials at annually, according to Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency Air Force Station as officials. “It will cut down the 6th Space Warning the greenhouse gases and Squadron receives two not burn so much oil to new wind turbines here, generate power,” Mellin saving an estimated $1 says. million in annual energy The location of costs. The new wind the wind turbines also turbines are expected to means they will not cut the station’s energy disrupt residential areas, cost by 50 percent after according to the Air Force. the project’s expected “We aren’t in an area completion November where we have residential 2013. houses close by,” Mellin According to Steve says. “In fact, one of Mellin, support officer the closest houses to the for the 6th Space Warning turbines is my house and Squadron, the new wind we don’t see the turbines, turbines will put Cape we don’t hear them and Cod Air Force Station in we don’t get any of line with the Air Force’s the (reflection) off the goal of using 25 percent blades.” renewable energy by The entire Air 2025. “Where we’re Force plans to produce stationed here on the renewable energy equal Massachusetts seashore, to 27 percent of its total there is extremely high electrical consumption to potential to generate comply with Title 10 of wind energy,” he says.” U.S. Code 2911, a federal We’re in one of the better Air Force Space Command will install two 1.6 megawatt utility-scale wind turbines at the Cape Cod Air Force Station in Massachusetts by November law that defines energy spots on the East Coast performance goals for the to take advantage of the 2013. The new turbines, similar to these two already in place at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, will offset more than 50 percent of the Department of Defense. wind energy.” station’s annual electrical purchases. According to the U.S. The new turbines will Environmental Protection help power the PAVE Phased Array Warning System, Mellin the Air Force Facility Energy Center. The Agency’s list of top purchasers of green said. PAVE is a radar system used to detect Air Force will receive free energy for the power, the Air Force ranks No. 1 in DoD, and track sea-launched, intercontinental remainder of the 20- to 25-year life of the No. 2 in the entire federal government, and 18th on the national list. J ballistic missiles. It also supports space turbines. In addition to saving money, the situational awareness, detecting and Lea Johnson is with the 21st Space turbines also reduce air pollution. Each tracking earth-orbiting satellites. The project, funded by the Fiscal Year turbine reduces air emissions by more Wing’s Public Affairs Office.

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’13 ARMY Spotlight

Networked MRAPs

Army tests integrated communications


By Claire Heininger and Katie Cain

PHOTO: U.S. Army

BERDEEN PROVING human factors and electromagnetic raising and lowering the vehicles’ weapon GROUND, Md. -- The Army interference. During the human factors systems. Under these conditions, testers has completed safety release phase, test personnel conducted ingress/ can determine whether the radiation and testing for a new fleet of networked egress drills for various scenarios, such interaction between the various systems vehicles, paving the way for soldiers to as evacuating a vehicle after sustaining and antennas will harm soldiers. “We’ve tested begin training on WIN-T on many High them this fall. Mobility Multipurpose The Army Test and Wheeled Vehicle Evaluation Command configurations, and (ATEC) determined have tested numerous that the five baseline military radios, but designs for minenow the capability resistant, ambushset combines WIN-T, protected vehicles, additional radios, and known as MRAPs, the digital backbone all equipped with integrated on a MRAP Capability Set 13, or All-Terrain Vehicle,” CS 13, are suitable says Michael Geiger, for new equipment EMI Test Facility training, which kicked manager at Aberdeen. off the first week of The Army recently completed safety release testing for a new fleet of networked “There is a new level October for the 3rd of complexity on these and 4th Brigade vehicles, paving the way for soldiers to begin training this fall. The testing focused on platforms, and there Combat Teams of both human factors and electromagnetic interference. is a lot of value in the 10th Mountain Division. Capability Set 13 marks the casualties. The testers donned full combat understanding how everything works as a first time the Army is delivering network gear to ensure they could access and operate system to conduct a quality test.” The safety release testing cleared the systems as an integrated communications CS 13 system controls wearing different package that spans the entire brigade sets of gloves, including extreme weather way for soldiers at Fort Drum, N.Y., and combat team formation, connecting the arctic mittens, cold-weather mittens with Fort Polk, La., to begin new equipment static tactical operations center to the isolated trigger finger and protective gloves training. Following safety release, the Army commander on the move to the dismounted used on nuclear, chemical and biological is also conducting safety confirmation and network verification testing through missions. soldier. The human factors testing led to some December. Safety confirmation, also Inside MRAPs configured with components of CS 13, commanders will subtle design adjustments to improve conducted at Aberdeen, clears the vehicles be able to exchange information and accessibility, the Army says. During the for use in theater. Network verification, execute mission command using mobile electro-magnetic interference, or EMI which will take place at Fort Dix, N.J., pairs communications technologies, rather than phase, engineers created “worst-case the vehicles with other CS 13 components having to rely on a fixed infrastructure, the configurations” that push the systems to and runs them through operational threads Army says. The first of a rigorous series their limit, such as transmitting voice and to validate the network configurations of tests was completed in September at data simultaneously via the Warfighter specific to the 10th Mountain Division. J Information Network-Tactical -- known ATEC’s Aberdeen Test Center. Claire Heininger and Katie Cain are The safety release testing for CS 13 as the WIN-T Increment 2 -- network vehicles focused on two main categories: backbone and several radios, in addition to with Army Public Affairs.

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’13 MARINE CORPS Spotlight

MV-22 Osprey

Aircraft makes first carrier-based landings


By Renee Candelario

PHOTO: Spc.Mass Comm. Spc. 3rd Class Ryan J. Mayes

Nimitz sent some of its flight deck SS NIMITZ, At Sea -- The is a lot more than a helicopter,” explains aircraft carrier USS Nimitz Aviation Boatswain’s Mate (Handling) crew to Marine Corps Air Station (CVN 68) received and 2nd Class Andre Taylor, a flight deck Miramar in California for training on how to handle the Osprey. refueled an MV-22 Osprey, They learned to properly a potential replacement for chock and chain the aircraft the C-2 Greyhound, for along with how to turn, move the first time Oct. 6. The the aircraft without using Osprey, assigned to Marine a tractor or a tow bar, and Medium Tiltrotor Squadron stow it on the flight deck, (VMM) 165, was the first Taylor says. “Basically, we to make a carrier-based learned the ins and outs of landing. the aircraft. We got inside all The landing and of the batteries and oxygen refueling was part of an tanks and learned what to ongoing initiative from the look for in case the aircraft Joint Program Manager Air crashes and where to go to 275 office to increase the pull the emergency door in number of available Osprey case a fire broke out.” platforms. “This was a The training was key to first for our squadron,” the Osprey’s first carriersaid Capt. Patrick Johnson, based landing on Nimitz, the commander of VMM 165. sailors say. “We recently made the “We all took turns switch from helicopters to landing the aircraft because the Osprey so it was a new it was something new experience for most of us.” that we had never seen,” Johnson embarked says Aviation Boatswain’s Nimitz as a liaison between Mate (Handling) 1st Class the pilots of the MV-22 Ricardo Camposflores, a and Nimitz’ primary flight flight deck leading petty control. As the subject officer who assisted with the matter expert, Johnson Osprey landing. “We all got provided the Nimitz crew a chance to learn something with information about the new from this landing.” MV-22 to aid in the recovery An MV-22 Osprey assigned to Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron Taylor says he was more of this aircraft. Though (VMM) 165 lands on the flight deck of the aircraft carrier USS Nimitz (CVN 68) in October, making Nimitz the second carrier to excited than nervous. “It’s the Osprey is similar to a different feeling. Most standard Navy aircraft, conduct successful MV-22 flight operations. people don’t get a chance to there were differences on which the flight deck crew had to be director onboard Nimitz. “This aircraft be a part of these experiences.” J has a larger landing area so we have to briefed. Mass Communication Specialist 3rd “With the Osprey you have to be make sure anything around the landing careful because the ‘down-wash’ [the area is secure and make sure everything Class Renee Candelario works for the USS Nimitz Public Affairs Office. air that comes from the aircraft’s rotors] is out of the way.”

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’13 NAVY Spotlight

Scan Eagle Navy researchers test smaller apparatus for shipboard launch and recovery of UAVs


PHOTO: MC2 Joseph M. Buliavac

CLRE uses a compressed-air mast and arms. Once the mission is shipboard-capable system designed to support both launcher to shoot the Scan Eagle into the completed, the whole system can be the launch and recovery sky. Once airborne, the UAV transmits folded up, like a folding chair or table, of the Scan Eagle unmanned aerial real-time electro-optic and infrared for storage. Developed by Insitu vehicle successfully Inc., the system is completed final smaller and lighter than demonstration flight the current SuperWedge testing Sept. 27 at launcher and Skyhook a testing range in recovery systems eastern Oregon. combined. ONR says its Sponsored by design accommodates the Office of Naval all weight classes of the Research (ONR), the company’s Scan Eagle Compact Launch and UAV design, including a Recovery System model equipped with an (CLRE) will provide IR camera, and provides a small-scale solution the same air vehicle for the unmanned successful recovery rate. surveillance craft’s The system currently operations. is trailer-mounted for “This system’s testing and ease of shipboard capability towing behind ground is unique,” says John vehicles, but Insitu is Kinzer, who manages exploring modifications ONR’s Air Vehicle of this version for rapid Technology Program. deployments. Its turntable “It’s more compact base allows for mounting than other systems, to a variety of integration so you can install it A Scan Eagle unmanned aerial vehicle launches from the amphibious dock structures. on a small special landing ship USS Comstock (LSD 45). Scan Eagle is a runway independent, Today, the Marine operations boat—or long-endurance, UAV system designed to provide multiple surveillance, reconCorps is the primary user save additional space naissance data, and battlefield damage assessment missions. The Office of of Scan Eagle, but other on a larger ship, since Naval Research is testing a new compact launching and recovery system for forces—including the space is always at shipboard use. U.S. Coast Guard—also a premium on any (IR) imagery to a ground station where could have uses for the unit. Coast vessel.” Guard officials attended the testing. J The Scan Eagle is designed to it can be recorded for analysis. For landing, small hooks on the provide advanced capabilities for realArticle courtesy of the Office of time situational awareness and force UAV’s wings catch hold of rope suspended from the system’s extendable Naval Research. protection information.

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FBI headquarters in Washington, D.C.

NYPD + FBI New York’s finest team with feds and other agencies to quash terrorism


t might have been a scene out of “NYPD Blue” or “The FBI” television shows, but it was real. Four suspects planted what they thought were improvised explosive devices (IEDs) outside two synagogues in the Bronx, N.Y., and sauntered to their cars. Takedown! New York Police Department officers swooped in, guns drawn, and arrested the men before they had a chance to figure out how they had been caught. The “how” was a result of one of the most successful operations of the NYPD/FBI Joint Terrorism Task Force – the oldest and most successful antiterror law enforcement agency in the nation. The JTTF was created in 1980, in the wake of a successful NYPD/FBI task force that teamed up to investigate an overwhelming number of bank robberies. The partnership worked, and led to creation of the first of several JTTFs. “The FBI New York’s Joint Terrorism Task Force was the first in the nation. It was formed … with 10 FBI agents and 10 NYPD police officers,” Special Agent Richard Kolko of the FBI’s New York office says in 2009. “It now has over 70

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By Elaine S. Povich 400 members from more than 50 different federal, state and local law enforcement agencies and the intelligence community. If it was a stand-alone operation, it would be the seventh-largest FBI field office. They have every investigative and technological tool necessary to complete their mission and it is a huge success of joint agency cooperation.” In addition, the mandate for JTTFs has expanded. There are more than 100 similar agencies in cities nationwide, 65 of which were created after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon on Sept. 11, 2001. The New York JTTF includes not only officers from the NYPD and FBI, but also the New York State Police, the New York/ New Jersey Port Authority Police, the U.S. Marshal’s Service, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and the U.S. Secret Service. Robert A. Martin, a former JTTF member now with the International Associations of Chiefs of Police, calls it a “concept that works” in a widely distributed white paper he wrote more than a decade ago. It still works, if you can judge by the cases the task force has cracked.

PHOTO: Courtesy FBI


PHOTO: Courtesy FBI

FBI teams practice fast-rope helicopter egress on a rooftop.


n the example cited earlier, an FBI source received information that one of the suspects wanted to take down an aircraft coming out of Stewart Air National Guard Base in Newburgh, N.Y., about an hour from New York City. According to the FBI, this person was talking about how he wanted to “kill Jews and blow up synagogues” as well. The JTTF swung into action and was able to contact the suspect, befriend him, and work with his associates as the plot went forward. The FBI provided the group with fake IEDs and two fake Stinger shoulder-fired missiles, which they presumably wanted to use to shoot down aircraft. They allegedly planned to plant the IEDs at synagogues. At one point during the investigation, the FBI said, the group managed to buy a working weapon, but that gun was secretly rendered inoperable by the JTTF. The group of plotters was observed throughout the investigation with concealed cameras and listening devices. 772 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 1 2

On the day the attack was supposed to take place, the group of plotters was tailed by surveillance machinery and personnel as they went about their business, planting the fake IEDs. “We were fully wired and able to see everything they were doing,” says Rich Frankel, FBI special agent in charge of the JTTF in New York at the time. “The task force, JTTF surveillance team, was involved, and, in case anything else happened, also following them was an NYPD SWAT helicopter minutes away. So they drop the two fake IEDs and start walking to their getaway vehicles so they can go up to Stewart to shoot down the plane. We took them down in the Bronx. They were walking back to their cars. Within less than a minute everyone was safely arrested.” The four men arrested by the NYPD Emergency Services Unit (the department’s version of a SWAT team) all used Arabic aliases, according to the FBI press release. They were awaiting trial in New York. “This is the way the task force should work,” Frankel says. “We do our best work this way.”



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regulations. After that time, it presumably is also deleted. The FBI also obtains sophisticated communications equipment from Harris Corp. that allows agents to communicate across federal and international jurisdictions. “We provide the FBI with multiband, JTRS [Joint Tactical Radio System]-approved military tactical radios so they can securely communicate with the U.S. military on missions outside the U.S.,” Harris Corp. spokesman Marc Raimondi said in an e-mail. “We also provide them with a high-frequency system that allows them to communicate within the U.S. with other government agencies and FBI field offices in the event other communications systems become unavailable.” Harris also introduced a multiband firstresponder radio that can be used by all federal, state and local entities.


n an older, but internationally illustrative case, the JTTF worked a high-profile case involving an apparently mentally unstable individual who opened fire on the observation deck of the Empire State Building in New York in 1997. Abu Kamal killed one person and wounded seven others before killing himself. Thoughts immediately turned to whether he was part of a terrorist organization. JTTF investigators determined the man was a Palestinian. The FBI sent investigators to interview his family in the Gaza Strip in Israel and to interview friends and associates in Florida, where he lived. The task force quickly concluded that the man was mentally unstable, expressed hatred of Israel and the United States, but was not a member of any terrorist group. The investigation ended there. “The speed with which the JTTF arrived at this conclusion remains a testament to the effectiveness of a joint task force concept,” Martin wrote in his white paper. J

PHOTO: Courtesy FBI

hile in that case the contact was person-to-person, with a source going to law enforcement with a tip, electronic surveillance also plays a big role in JTTF activities. Called eGuardian, the system is modeled after a classified version that was available only to FBI and JTTF offices. eGuardian, manufactured and maintained by General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems, is available to more than 18,000 law enforcement agencies. The eGuardian system takes surveillance information, processes it and tries to match it up with other potentially suspicious activity. For example, if an NYPD detective is emailed a photograph of two men who appear to be casing the Brooklyn Bridge, the detective can upload the images into the eGuardian system, looking for similar scenarios. Let’s say a match is found – two men fitting the same description were spotted photographing the Washington Monument several days earlier, and are being sought for questioning. The eGuardian system sends the NYPD report to the JTTF, which in turn passes it to Washington, D.C., police. The system is designed to consolidate information from many points and fuse it all into a single picture. The system doesn’t take pictures; instead, it puts many bits of information together. If those bits make a whole picture, then law enforcement agencies have something to work with. The goal is also is to build on the system by adding technological elements, including geo-spatial mapping and live chats. “This is a much easier way for agencies around the country to send leads to each other,” Frankel says. To address worries about privacy and false charges, the FBI says the eGuardian report is deleted from the system if no terrorism link is found. But if the report is “inconclusive” on whether the suspects have terrorist links, it will remain in the system for up to five years, in accordance with federal

LEFT: FBI-NYPD Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF) officers. ABOVE: An early logo for New York City’s JTTF referred to a terrorist task force rather than today’s moniker of a terrorism task force.


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PHOTO: U.S. Border Patrol

PROTECTING THE BORDER Technology arms a beefed-up Border Patrol with tools to counter post 9-11 threats By Sara Michael


he pitch-black darkness of the vast land stretching along the southern U.S. border can seem like a planetarium scene with nothing but a blanket of stars lighting the way. That’s how Bobby Brown, a business development executive for the electronic systems division’s homeland security group at Telephonics Corp., describes ground zero in the U.S. battle against illegal immigration. “You can’t see your hand in front of your face.” Add to the darkness a rocky desert terrain, and a picture emerges of the treacherous obstacles U.S. Border Patrol agents face in their efforts to prevent smugglers and illegal immigrants from making it into the country. Telephonic’s mobile surveillance systems, equipped with a full suite of sensors, are among the many technologies agents now have at their disposal to better protect the borders. From miles of physical fence to cameras and sensors, Border Patrol agents are utilizing a combination of tools to supplement expertise and intelligence gathering. “As the technology 76

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advances, it makes our job easier,” says Michael Reilly, an assistant chief and spokesman for the U.S. Border Patrol. As the mobile law enforcement arm of the Customs and Border Protection within the Department of Homeland Security, Border Patrol agents patrol 6,000 miles of land borders with Mexico and Canada and 2,000 miles of coastal waters around Florida and Puerto Rico. In the years since the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks, the Border Patrol’s mission has shifted, placing higher priority on preventing terrorists crossing into the country, along with the traditional goal of halting illegal immigration and smuggling. As the mission expanded, its numbers swelled from about 9,600 agents shortly after Sept. 11 to more than 20,000. With more than double the staff, the Border Patrol is better able to patrol the vast and diverse regions between ports of entry, adapting to the constantly changing techniques of smugglers and illegal immigrants, Reilly says. New agents now receive an anti-terrorism course during training to understand terrorist organizations, weapons and tactics, says Border Patrol



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PHOTO: U.S. Border Patrol

Jenny Burke. Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano last year canceled Boeing’s SBInet system of interconnected cameras, radars and sensors to monitor the border and communicate information following a pilot program, saying she wanted new technologies tailored to different types of terrain and threats. Meanwhile, on March 31, Boeing was awarded a $20 million task order to deploy video cameras along the A U.S. Border Patrol agent investigates a potential northern border. The Remote landing area along the Rio Grande River in Texas. Video Surveillance Systems camera and radar towers aren’t spokesman Steven Cribby. Border Patrol special operations integrated like the pilot SBInet program would have been, but groups such as the Tactical Unit (BORTAC) and the Search, the project tests surveillance technology in the dramatically Trauma and Rescue (BORSTAR) teams, formed in the mid- different and equally harsh northern environment. 1980s, continue to expand in scope and capabilities to address Whether traveling by horseback, all-terrain vehicle or on growing threats. foot, Border Patrol agents must be highly mobile and still “Our law enforcement posture has changed since 9/11 from able to closely monitor activities at the border. Enter the units an immigration enforcement agency to an all-threats agency,” developed by Telephonics, which was awarded a $15.2 million says Cribby. “We strive to prevent all threats from entering the contract in December 2007 to build 30 mobile surveillance country by gathering intelligence and continually reevaluating systems. The Mobile Surveillance Capability system includes and updating our technology.” several technologies, such as radar that scans for targets, and day and night cameras, which the agent can direct to a specific he U.S. Border Patrol partners with other law location once something is detected, says Mark Supko, vice enforcement agencies and the Defense Department to president of business development at the Electronic Systems police the land between border check points, with both the Division of Telephonics, based in Farmingdale, N.Y. terrain and the potential threats varying wildly. Perhaps one of Eyeing the expanse used to be like looking through a the most well-known impediments to illegal border crossing straw, Supko says. Now, agents can rely on the radar to do the is the more than 600-mile fence stretching along parts of the scanning, then redirect the camera to the area of concern. “You border with Mexico. This “tactical infrastructure,” which can cover a much wider front with one person,” he says. “Some also includes roads and lighting, is part of the Border Patrol’s movement is people, deers, cows. Now they can classify that Secure Border Initiative, launched as a multiyear physical automatically. If [the objects] are humans, they can see what and technological infrastructure program. Boeing is the prime they are carrying. They can actually take a look and see what’s contractor. there.” The Border Patrol more recently shifted its focus physical Border agents can put this sensor suite in the back of fences to technology, says Border Patrol spokeswoman a vehicle and use the cab as a rolling command and control



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center, says Brown. The agents “really do become a part of the surrounding terrain,” he says. “You can work a spot for a day, a half-day, a week, and then you can move it at will. The coyotes or the drug smugglers are never aware of where the [mobile surveillance systems] are.” In May 2011 Telephonics received approval from Customs and Border Protection to supply its Mobile Surveillance Capability system for the southern border, in a contract worth an estimated $45 million over five years. Donald Pastor, president of the company’s Electronic Systems Division, described the system as an enhanced version of one already deployed on the U.S.-Mexican border.

PHOTO: U.S. Border Patrol


The Border Patrol is shifting its priorities from physical fences to electronic surveillance.


D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 1 2

nother critical piece of technology is thermalimaging technology for night vision -- a far cry from the old night-vision goggles Reilly recalls agents using when he joined the Border Patrol 15 years ago. Today, agents use the Recon III, a handheld, binocular-style tool developed by Flir Systems Inc. that lets them see at night while staying highly mobile, says Bill Klink, vice president of security and surveillance business development for the Wilsonville, Ore.-based company. More than just night-vision goggles, the thermal-imaging technology can discern even the most minute temperature changes and represent those gradients in a black, white and gray image. Everything gives off heat, Klink says, so agents can clearly identify what they are seeing. When mounted to platforms on trucks, thermal-imaging cameras can offer a long-range view of up to eight miles, he says. “The farther away you can see them, the more reaction time you have.” Agents can see as far as 3 miles when using technology such as the Recon III handheld goggles, which cost about $70,000 each, he says. The units can be outfitted with range-finder radar that measures the distance to the object. Patrols can send out a beam invisible to the naked eye, but others using the night goggles can see the laser pointer, and therefore the object. “An agent is mobile, and he can go where he thinks the best route is,” says Reilly, who served as a field operations supervisor in Tucson and a supervisory agent in Del Rio, Texas, before transferring to headquarters. “He can fit it in his camelback, hike up a mountain or hike up a hill and decide where he’ll set up. It gives us the ability to get to those remote areas.” J

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Sailors line the deck of the guided-missile destroyer Michael Murphy as it heads up the Hudson River for its Oct. 6 commissioning in New York Harbor. Photo: Kelly Montgomery


D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D S u m m e r 2 0 1 2

2012 Fall Edition  

DEFENSE STANDARD, focused on the warfighter