Page 1

2011 FALL EDITION

QUARTERLY

Remembering

9/11:

SFC Leroy Petry:

His new

MISSION

Survival stories from the

PENTAGON Building

a better

ARMY

carbine

$5.95 US $7.95 CAN

www.defensestandard.com

SPECIAL GEAR for

Special Ops dogs


FR Base LayeRs & aCCessORIes

FRee OutpeRFORMs OtHeR systeMs IN eVeRy CateGORy: • Completely FR: Every component is fire • Glove Liner • Merino Wool Boot Sock • Riggers Belt T-Shirt & Boxer Briefs

Undershirt & Drawers

Mid-Weight Shirt & Drawers

System Accessories

Intermediate Weather

• INteGRateD: Available in OCP and UCP, FREE is designed to integrate with current Army issue FR duty service uniforms such as FR ACU, iCVC, and A2CU.

• VeRsatILe: FREE can be configured and

FR OuteR LayeRs Light Weather

resistant for warfighters at greater risk of being exposed to fire.

worn to address the individual’s personal climate tolerances without sacrificing FR protection.

Extreme Weather

• eXtReMe CLIMate pROteCtION: Enhanced comfort and protection across a broad climate range from - 40˚ F to 60˚ F.

• IMpROVeD DesIGN: Athletic fit for enhanced layering and freedom of movement with reduced bulk.

• BReatHaBLe: Lightweight and breathable LWOL

IWOL

EWOL

Jacket & Trouser

Jacket, Vest & Trouser

Parka, Liner & Trouser

Available in OCP and UCP

with high moisture movement to keep body dry and comfortable.

tHe aDs teaM OF FRee paRtNeRs RepReseNt tHe pINNaCLe OF peRFORMaNCe aND MateRIaLs:

© 2011 ADS, Inc. The ADS and FREE logos are registered trademarks of ADS, Inc.


MOuNteD OR DIsMOuNteD, aMeRICa’s waRFIGHteRs FaCe a BROaD RaNGe OF eNVIRONMeNtaL tHReats eVeRy Day ON tHe BattLeFIeLD aND at HOMe. FINaLLy, tHeRe Is a VeRsatILe FIRe ResIstaNt sOLutION tHat pROVIDes COMpLete pROteCtION. Introducing the Fire Resistant Environmental Ensemble (FREE). Based on current U.S. Army layering systems, FREE uses the latest textile science and FR technology to keep the warfighter protected, comfortable, dry and warm across a broad climate range. The system is engineered to be functional in and out of aircraft and combat vehicles. Whether riding, flying, or on foot, the system’s adaptability provides the broadest range of environmental protection − a critical factor in responding to current threats while facing extreme climate conditions.

tHe ONLy OFFICIaL FRee systeM autHORIZeD FOR u.s. aRMy Issue Is aVaILaBLe eXCLusIVeLy tHROuGH aDs. CONTACT YOUR ADS REPRESENTATIVE OR VISIT US ONLINE FOR MORE INFORMATION.

800.948.9433 • ADSINC.COM/FREE A0233D 06/11


Contents 12

30

18

11

46

Letter from the Editor

Features

Procurement and Operations 38

12

Carbine Competition

SFC Leroy Petry

A look at some of the options industry proposes to replace the Army’s M4 carbine

A moment of courage, a lifetime of valor

By Matthew Cox

By Tony Mecia

46 18

Three competing teams overhaul their designs

It’s a Dog’s World

By William Matthews

Special Operations K-9s gear up like their human counterparts By Elaine S. Povich

24

Joint Light Tactical Vehicle

52

Aerostats

The Final Offensive

Tethered surveillance balloons increase situational awareness

Regional Command East picks its battles in Afghanistan

By Rich Tuttle

By James Kitfield

30

9/11, Ten Years Later Eyewitness accounts of the attack on the Pentagon and how it changed their lives By John Pulley 2 0 11 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D

5


Contents 61

74

63

80

On the Homefront ‘12 Procurement preview

68

FORSCOM Q&A How U.S. Army Forces Command is preparing for life after Iraq and Afghanistan

61

By Julie Bird

Air Force: Space Fence By Rich Tuttle

63

Army: Double-V-hulled Strykers

74

Advanced Prosthetics A look at the technology for the next generation of prosthetics

By Matthew Cox

By Sara Michael

65

Marine Corps: New Marine One By Amy McCullough

67

80

The Best of Breen We remember the work of DEFENSE STANDARD writer Tom Breen

Navy: DDG-51s By John T. Bennett

Louder than Words

LY

QUARTER

2011 FALL

on the cover

82

Final Frame

ing

mber

Reme

EDITION

roy SFC Le

Petry:

His new

9/11:

l stories Surviva m the fro

N

MISSIO

P EN TA G

ON

g Buildin er

a bett ARMY

carbine

R for L GEA SPECIA

$5.95 US

nsest anda

PHOTO: Staff Sgt. William P. Coleman

ogs l Ops d Specia

$7.95 CAN

www .defe

Airman Amir Lindsay waits for the next recovery cycle on the flight deck of the aircraft carrier USS Carl Vinson in the Pacific Ocean.

rd.co m

F a l l 2 0 11 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D

7


YOU COULD gAin An On THe

edge competition? As one of America’s top military-friendly schools, Liberty University Online offers more than 45 career-ready degree programs and 100 specializations to prepare you for a military career and beyond.

yellow ribbon program

2009

M

I

L

I

T

A

R

Y

T

I

M

E

S

MOST POPULAR COLLEGES

You serve us. Let us serve you with generous benefits including: + + + + +

Tuition Discounts and Fee Waivers Free Book Vouchers Dedicated Military Affairs Office College Credit for Military Training Heroes Fund Scholarship

Get Started

today!

Proud partners with the Yellow Ribbon Program, GoArmyEd®, SOC Network and Air University Associate to Baccalaureate Cooperative (AU-ABC).

(877) 660-4796 www.LUOnline.com/defense


www.defensestandard.com 2011 FALL EDITION

DEFENSE STANDARD HQ 4410 Massachusetts Avenue Suite 240 Washington, D.C. 20016 Phone: (202) 640-2137

DEFENSE STANDARD OPERATIONS CENTER 14502 N Dale Mabry Hwy, Ste 305 Tampa, FL 33618 Phone: (813) 864-6360

David Peabody PRESIDENT and PUBLISHER EDITOR

Julie Bird

EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT

Kelly Montgomery

VICE PRESIDENT OF OPERATIONS

Daniel J. Peabody

CREATIVE DIRECTOR PRODUCTION ASSISTANT VICE PRESIDENT OF SALES VICE PRESIDENT OF NEW BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT VICE PRESIDENT OF MILITARY & GOVERNMENT RELATIONS MILITARY ADVISER LEAD RESEARCHER OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM ANALYST DIRECTOR OF FIELD OPERATIONS ASSISTANT TO THE PUBLISHER

Samantha Gibbons Jennifer Roark McCants Joe Gonzalez Bill Clark Martin McAuliffe Jerry L. Montgomery, Col. USAF (RET) Lee Anne McAuliffe Sammy Rosario Justin DeJesus Benjamin Peabody

WRITERS: John T. Bennett

William Matthews

Julie Bird

Amy McCullough

Matthew Cox

Tony Mecia

James Kitfield

Sara Michael

Elaine S. Povich John Pulley Rich Tuttle

Dedicated to the Memory of

Tom Breen Journalist, 1946-2011

For more information about this dedication, we ask you to please turn to page 80.

Copyright 2011. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part is prohibited. The opinions expressed within this publication do not necessarily represent the views of the publisher. Defense Standard LLC assumes no responsibilites for the advertisements or any representations made in this publication. Defense Standard LLC in unable to accept, or hereby expressly disclaims, any liability for the consequences of inaccuracies or omissions of such information occurring during the publishing of such information for publication. Disclaimer: Neither the Department of Defense nor any other United States Government agency has approved, endorsed or authorized this publication in any form. No such inference is suggested, promoted or communicated in any manner.


MILITARY

IS OUR MIDDLE NAME. Rebecca Roch | SPC, USA Graduate, School of Security & Global Studies Our military roots run deep. From Fort Bragg to Afghanistan, AMU is dedicated to educating those who serve. With access to quality courses, unrivaled support, and a book grant for undergraduates, we stand behind our community— 60,000 military members strong.

Learn More at www.amuonline.com/DS

Art & Humanities | Business | Education | Management | Public Safety & Health | Science & Technology | Security & Global Studies


Editor’s Note Gone - flitted away, Taken the stars from the night and the sun From the day! Gone, and a cloud in my heart. -Alfred Tennyson

I

t became a bit of a writing crutch, I suppose, the use of a quotation at the beginning and sometimes the end of Tom Breen’s masterful stories about America’s military heroes. As beautiful as his own words were, Tom nearly always chose to start his stories with someone else’s. And so I do the same, a cloud in my heart at the passing this summer of my long-time friend and colleague Tom Breen. Tom and his work were tightly woven into the DNA of DEFENSE STANDARD from the very first issue. But the second issue was when everything fell into place. We asked Tom to tell us the story of Lt. Michael Murphy, a SEAL who became the Navy’s first Medal of Honor recipient since Vietnam. Tom swept us away to the Hindu Kush mountains of Afghanistan, the place where Murphy drew his last breath, sacrificing himself to radio for help for his ambushed SEAL team. Nineteen SEALs and Army Night Stalkers died in the ambush and in the subsequent rescue attempt. With each ensuing issue we asked him to take on another story of heroism and sacrifice. He did so with a zeal that sometimes took an emotional toll on him. He developed strong relationships with the families of the heroes whose tales he told, and he didn’t want to disappoint them. He didn’t. Tom’s stories were not so much news features as they were essays -- tributes, really, to the lives of ordinary men who did extraordinary things. Now I find myself in the same position, struggling for the right words. For Tom, too, did extraordinary things.

His impressive professional resume is too long to recount here, starting with decades of newspapering around the country and in the Philippines, where he was on the plane with deposed president Ferdinand Marcos as the dictator fled into exile. I met Tom later in his career, when he became my editor at Air Force Times. He was passionate, driven and equally hard to please – I never met my goal of getting a story published without him rewriting the lead – yet was incredibly generous, and genuine, with his praise. We grew as journalists under his leadership. By the time I recruited him to write for DEFENSE STANDARD, Tom had reinvented himself as a Ph.D. student in liberal studies at Georgetown University and an adjunct professor of humanities at a community college. His studies focused on the intersection of religion and politics. Leave it to Tom, who savored a good argument, to latch onto the two most controversial topics around. He was a complex man, but at his core Tom believed in the simple truth that on any given day, any one of us can be a hero. Tom was our hero, and we miss him.

Julie Bird EDITOR

F a l l 2 0 11 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D

11


Sgt. 1st Class

LEROY PETRY:

A moment of courage, a lifetime of valor

T

hose decisive few seconds, behind a chicken coop in the Paktia province in eastern Afghanistan, are the ones people will always ask about. That one moment, the one quick decision, will be talked about for years. And make no mistake: What happened that day should be remembered – for one Army Ranger’s bravery, for the way that day changed the lives of the men who were there and for the family of a Ranger who did not come home. Focusing on just one moment – whether it’s in a Vietnamese jungle, a Middle Eastern desert or a mountainous region on Pakistan’s border – risks drawing incomplete conclusions about a warfighter’s character. Yes, actions in battle are courageous. But long after the smoke of battle clears, after the welcome-home parades end and the TV cameras are packed, that’s when other challenges begin. Coping with battlefield memories, dealing with loss, facing the future – those can be trying circumstances. Rising to those challenges is heroic, too. So it is with Army Sgt. 1st Class Leroy Petry. In July,

By Tony Mecia President Obama shook Petry’s prosthetic hand at a White House ceremony and attached the blue ribbon around his neck bearing the Medal of Honor, America’s highest military decoration. The president thanked Petry for his sacrifice, which saved the lives of at least two fellow Rangers. And he thanked the other men in Petry’s company for their service. The ceremony that day was the rarest of events. Petry was only the fifth service member to receive the Medal of Honor for service in Afghanistan, and only the 11th since the U.S. withdrew forces from Vietnam in 1973. More notably, Petry is only the second living service member to receive the Medal of Honor since Vietnam, as most are awarded posthumously. (The first, Army Sgt. Salvatore Giunta, received his in 2010; a third living recipient, Marine Sgt. Dakota Meyer, was to receive his in September – the first presentation of a Medal of Honor to a living Marine in 41 years.) Petry joins an elite club. Fewer than 100 Medal of Honor recipients are still alive. For living recipients, the medal is more than a reminder of one day’s valor on a distant battle F a l l 2 0 11 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D

13


field. It marks them for life as role models, and they can use that perch to inspire others. That’s the role Petry is embracing.

WHAT HAPPENED...

A

1 The objective: Secure a high-value al Qaeda target in the compound.

2 Petry’s team clears an inner compound, then returns to clear the outer compound.

3 Petry and Pfc. Lucas Robinson are wounded by enemy fire.

4

5 A wounded Petry grabs and throws the grenade, but the explosion amputates his right hand.

14

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11

ILLUSTRATIONS: U.S. Army

Sgt. Daniel Higgins is assessing their wounds when a grenade lands.

lthough he would later win honors for his distinguished service, Petry’s life growing up in Santa Fe, N.M., was indistinguishable from that of many children. Family and friends remember him as a happy, helpful kid. “You ask him for a favor, he was always willing to do whatever you wanted,” recalls Joe Griego, who raised one of Petry’s childhood friends. The third of five sons, Petry was known to roughhouse with his brothers and cousins. He was active, playing youth football and basketball. At Santa Fe High School, he cut classes and got in fights. He was earning D’s and F’s and was at serious risk of flunking out. But then he transferred to the private St. Catherine Indian School. Under supervision of the nuns, his fortunes turned around. He pulled his grades up to a 3.0, played basketball and joined the community service club. Upon graduating in 1998, the Santa Fe Chamber of Commerce presented him with its Bootstrap Award, given to students who overcame challenges and finished school. “Now, I can be noticed for something good instead of people going, ‘There goes that kid that dropped out,’ ” Petry told the Albuquerque Journal at the time. “I tried a little harder, and now me and my parents are proud.” A year after graduating, he and a cousin enlisted in the Army, something Petry says he had thought about from childhood. They both passed the rigorous training required to become Rangers, and both were assigned to the 75th Ranger Regiment. The cousin later became a Blackhawk helicopter pilot, while Petry became a grenadier and weapons expert. After six tours in Iraq and Afghanistan, Petry and his platoon sergeant in 2007 were put in charge of forming a combat-ready platoon in just six weeks. The task was a lot of work, and the soldiers spent long hours training. Petry was to lead a nine-man weapons squad. Even in a battalion characterized as friendly and informal, Petry made an impression on his colleagues as a hard worker who always made time to teach the younger soldiers. They recall him as fun-loving, even borderline “goofy.” “When I used to train with him, it could be freezing cold outside and raining, and he’d be smiling the whole time,” says Pfc. Luke Robinson, who since has left the Army. “He always had a good attitude, always had a smile on his face.” In early 2008, the unit was certified as the 2nd Platoon of Company D, 2nd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment based at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Wash. In April 2008, Petry and his colleagues shipped out to Afghanistan’s Paktia province, a mountainous area bordering Pakistan, and known to be filled with Taliban and Al Qaeda fighters. Before each deployment, Petry would call his family in New Mexico, his dad recalls. “We always told him, ‘Be careful, be safe,’ and he told me, ‘I’m going with the best. We always watch each other’s back,’” Larry Petry told Army Times. By May 2008, Petry’s platoon was running raids nearly every day to root out insurgents. Though coming face-to-face with armed enemy fighters almost daily, the platoon had confidence in its abilities. Rangers don’t scare easily. “Part of the training you go through is that you’re the f-----g man and no one is going to touch you,” Robinson says. “There’s a mission. We’re going to take care of business. I don’t ever remember being scared. We were always pumped. That’s why Rangers are some of the best, because they’re so confident.”


PHOTOS: Courtesy of the Petry Family

Petry with his son (below) during the 2004 2/75th Ranger Family Day event and again with his wife, Ashley, and their son (right).

Sgt. First Class Leroy Arthur Petry BORN: July 29, 1979 ASSIGNMENT: Currently assigned to Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 75th Ranger Regiment, Fort Benning, Ga. HOMETOWN: Santa Fe, N.M. FAMILY: Wife, Ashley; four children HOBBIES: Golf, pheasant hunting, fishing Source: U.S. Army

DECORATIONS: Two Bronze Stars, a Purple Heart, three Army Commendation Medals, two Army Achievement Medals, Valorous Unit Award, three Army Good Conduct Medals, National Defense Service Medal, Afghanistan Campaign Medal with Combat Star, Iraq Campaign Medal with Combat

“A lot of veterans don’t like to talk about their military service. But military service for me has been the greatest, so I’m going to talk about it for the rest of my life.“

Star, Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal, Global War on Terrorism Service Medal, Non-commissioned Officer Professional Development Ribbon

— Sgt. First Class Leroy Petry

with numeral 3, Overseas Service Ribbon and the Army Service Ribbon

O

n May 26, the platoon prepared for a rare daytime raid. Most missions were at night, to take advantage of nightvision goggles. But intelligence had identified a high-value target, and they couldn’t risk waiting till nightfall. To some soldiers that day, attacking in broad daylight felt eerie. Arriving by helicopter, the platoon was working to capture an insurgent believed to be one of the top al Qaeda leaders in the area. At 1:34 p.m., the platoon began to clear the target structure, which had two courtyards. As a squad leader, then-Staff Sgt. Petry ordinarily would have stayed outside the courtyard supervising a heavy machine-gun team. But he saw a need and jumped right in. After clearing one of the courtyards, Petry and Robinson began working to secure the second courtyard. As they entered it, a gunman 30 feet away opened fire with an AK-47 assault rifle. One round pierced both of Petry’s thighs. A second round hit Robinson in the side plate of his armored vest. The two took cover behind a chicken coop, the only structure between them and the insurgents. Petry radioed that he and Robinson were wounded and under fire.

Sgt. Daniel Higgins, Staff Sgt. James Roberts and Spc. Christopher Gathercole headed to the second courtyard to help. Petry lobbed a grenade at the insurgents, buying time for Higgins to join them behind the chicken coop, while Roberts and Gathercole battled other fighters in a different part of the courtyard. As Higgins evaluated Petry’s and Robinson’s wounds, an enemy grenade landed about 30 feet from them. It exploded, spraying Higgins and Robinson with shrapnel. Moments later, a second grenade landed. It was much closer. Just a few feet away. Right in the middle of them. It was behind Higgins and Robinson but right in front of Petry. What happened next happened quickly, certainly in no more than a few seconds. But to the three men who were there, the moment seemed longer. And in the months that followed, they slowed it down further in their heads, replaying the scene time and time again. Says Higgins: “It’s one of those things you’ll always go over in your mind: What could I have done better? What could I have done F a l l 2 0 11 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D

15


PHOTO: Sgt. 1st Class Michael R. Noggle

Petry signs an autograph for a veteran at American Legion Post 01 in his hometown of Santa Fe, N.M., a few days after receiving his Medal of Honor.

President Barack Obama awards the Medal of Honor to Sgt. 1st Class Leroy A. Petry at the White House on July 12, 2011.

to make it so things didn’t happen the way they did?” Says Robinson: “It was like in war movies. Time slowed down for a second.” The typical kill radius of a grenade is about 15 feet. This grenade, an old, pineapple-looking one, was less than 10 feet away. Petry spotted the grenade first. He didn’t hesitate. “The first thing that went through my mind was, ‘Get it out of here. Get it away from my guys and me,’ ” Petry recalled later in a television interview. So he grabbed the grenade and started to throw it. Then it exploded. The blast blew off his right hand. “I grabbed my arm. It looked like a circular saw had taken it off,” Petry said. “It was flat at the top and was completely gone.” Surprisingly, Petry says he didn’t feel any pain at the time. He chalked it up to the rush of adrenaline. Then his training kicked in. He applied a tourniquet to his wrist – which doctors later said saved his life – and again radioed an update. In a brief firefight, the Rangers in the courtyard killed the enemy. Medics arrived to start treating the wounded. Gathercole, who exchanged fire with the enemy in a different part of the courtyard, didn’t survive.

L

ooking back on that day, the Rangers always recall Gathercole, an easy-going, fun-loving Californian who had been making the best of a rough childhood. Yet they also acknowledge that without Petry, there would have been more deaths that day. “He saved my life. I’m thankful for him,” Robinson says. “I probably would be dead or missing my brain if he hadn’t been there.” Now, three years later, Petry is adjusting to his new role. And he’s thriving in it. Like that day in eastern Afghanistan, he’s continuing to help. He’s continuing to sacrifice for a cause larger than himself. With his injuries, he could have qualified for a medical discharge from the Army. He says he received “phenomenal” job offers in the private sector. But he turned them down, and in 2010, he re-enlisted. He’s even served another tour in Afghanistan, over his wife’s ob16

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11

jections. “At the end of the day, I said, ‘What’s going to make me happy?’” he recalled at a recent news conference. “I’m going to do now what I can to continue my service, which I hold very dear.” Petry now serves as a liaison officer with the U.S. Special Operations Command Care Coalition, where he helps wounded soldiers and their families understand available benefits and services. Throughout it all, he’s kept his trademark sense of humor. His grandmother told a Santa Fe newspaper: “He loves putting out his prosthetic hand when he first meets people. The hand turns all the way around. He likes to see the look on people’s faces.” Stops on his post-ceremony public-relations blitz included “The Today Show,” “The Daily Show,” “Fox & Friends,” a New York Mets game and Broadway. Buddies from his old platoon say he’s the same man he was. But he’s taking on bigger challenges and applying the same selflessness he did in battle. “With the responsibilities he’s taken on, he’s definitely realizing the importance of who he is now,” says Collin Snyder, who served alongside Petry as a private. “That’s definitely made him come to realize that while he was already doing great things, the bar has been raised. He’s definitely willing to rise to that occasion. It’s just as important, if not more.” In a news conference after being presented with the medal, Petry said he was impressed by a quote he read in a book about Medal of Honor recipients: that the Medal of Honor is a lot easier to earn than it is to wear. “I hope I represent it well and do the most positive things I can with it,” Petry said. For now, that means working with injured soldiers, encouraging medical students to join the military and using his new platform to advocate for members of the military, their families and others. For Petry, that means that despite his heroism and his sacrifice, his mission is not complete. And his biggest contributions to our nation might be yet to come. J


Panasonic recommends Windows® 7.

THE PANASONIC

ENHANCED SITUATIONAL AWARENESS COMPANY.

TOUGHBOOK FULLY-RUGGED MOBILE PCs ■

Sunlight-viewable displays with anti-reective/anti-glare treatment

Long battery life for extended operations

MIL-STD-810G and IP65 certied

Panasonic Toughbook® fully-rugged mobile PCs, powered by the 2nd gen Intel® Core™ i5 vPro™ processor*, enable the U.S. Army to access and exchange vital information in any environment, no matter how harsh the conditions. Count on them for your daily operations, maneuvers and extreme tactical deployment.

Toughbook 31*

Toughbook 19**

Toughbook U1 Ultra

1.888.322.3703

panasonic.com/federal

SOLUTIONS

IS OUR MIDDLE NAME

Intel, the Intel logo, Intel Core, Intel vPro, Core Inside and vPro Inside are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the U.S. and/or other countries. Toughbook notebook PCs are covered by a 3-year limited warranty, parts and labor. To view the full text of the warranty, log on to panasonic.com/toughbook/warranty. Please consult your Panasonic representative prior to purchase. Panasonic is constantly enhancing product specifications and accessories. Specifications subject to change without notice. (*CF-31J and **CF-19A are 2nd gen Intel® Core™ i5 vPro™ Processor models) ©2011 Panasonic Corporation of North America. All rights reserved. Awareness_FG_Army_FY11-4


PHOTO: Courtesy K9 Storm Inc.

it’s a

By Elaine S. Povich

Special Operations K-9s gear up like their human counterparts for sensitive missions like the Osama bin Laden raid

F

rom his protective vest to his goggles, camera, harness and equipment, the SEAL Team 6 dog was likely “kitted out” in gear made to protect what was an invaluable member of 18

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11

the team. Jim Amann, owner of Trident K9 in San Clemente, Calif., which supplies military and police dog gear, says the Secret Service was right to be cautious about letting the SEAL dog too close to the president. “There’s too much chance of a dog biting him,” said Amann, who was a SEAL for 20 years and also has a military police background. “You are talking about dogs who have bitten numerous people in the line of duty.” While much of what is known about the dog working the bin Laden raid is speculative (Special Operations forces are necessarily tight-lipped), the dog could have tracked down members of bin Laden’s entourage in hiding, chased and held them while human team members caught up, sniffed out booby traps or bombs, or ferreted out drug caches. “When the team goes into a house or a cubby hole, if someone is hiding, they are trained on alert to let you know if someone is there,” says Jason Ferren, operator of EliteK9 dog gear company in Boaz, Ky.

CA

W

hen Navy SEAL Team 6 raided Osama bin Laden’s compound in Pakistan, one important member of the team had keen ears and eyes, a small body, and … a tail. The Special Operations dog, possibly named Cairo or Turk, likely went into the compound wearing at least as much specialized gear as the human combat members in the unit. President Barack Obama singled out the dog for praise, but when he went to congratulate the canine, according to news reports, the presidential Secret Service detail insisted that the dog wear a muzzle. President or not, he’s still a stranger to the specially trained dogs that have become increasingly important to Special Operations teams, as well as regular military units, airport security teams and local police departments. In short, Cairo is not anything like Bo, the First Dog.

IRO

DOG’S WORLD


D

ribu

te

K9COP

is t

d

Wo

rl

dwide

M A G A Z I N E TM

For Police and Military Working dog Handlers The largest and most read

Police and Military K-9 magazine in the world 1 year (6 issues) ONLY $24.95 SUBSCRIBE TODAY! Scan code with your smartphone to subscribe today!

www.k9copmagazine.com

(270) 534-0500

Bite Suit Helmet $74.95

info@k9copmagazine.com

Reward Balls with Tug Handles 3" Ball

$12.95

2.5" Ball

$11.95

2" Ball

$9.95

Hand Protectors E-Collar Holsters $39.95

Has cutouts so the buttons can still be worked while it’s holstered. Has 2¼" metal clip on back of holster so it can be worn on a 2" duty belt or clipped to a MOLLE tactical vest.

$39.95 ea

Special Operations Harness

Bite Suit

available in black, coyote or multicam*

$1,189.95

with plastic buckles

$149.95

with metal cobra buckles

$199.95

*with attachments for MOLLE pouches and K-9 camera

Muzzles $69.95

Scan our QR code with your smart phone to view our online catalog.

Malinois

German Shepherd

YOU’VE GOT THE RIGHT DOG, NOW GET THE RIGHT EQUIPMENT


(LEFT): Special Operations dogs can be carried by backpack in customizable K9 Storm tactical body armor.

PHOTOS: Courtesy K9 Storm Inc.

(BELOW): The K9 Storm intruder vest has an integrated waterproof camera for amphibious assaults.

“They could be behind a door, a false wall or a false door,” he says. In the bin Laden operation, he says, “They were on a short time frame; they didn’t have time to dissect that house if it had hidden walls or hidden doors. Look at Saddam Hussein – he was in a hole.” Ferren, who has a military and police background, sells “everything for the working K9.” Among his many products, he lists Special Operations goggles and “mutt muffs” to protect dogs’ ears from noise like explosions or heavy shelling. It keeps the dogs a little calmer, he says.

B

y far the most important piece of equipment the dogs wear is their vest. Some of the vests are made to ward off blows from knives, other hand weapons or shrapnel. Others are bullet-proof. The vests also help insert the dogs into a combat zone – using the “fast rope” technique that may have been used to get troops from helicopters to the ground on the bin Laden raid – or as part of a human/dog parachute tandem jumping team. K9 Storm Inc. in Winnipeg, Canada, makes custom vests sold to military units in 15 countries. While no one will say who made the vest the bin Laden-raid dog was wearing, K9 Storm vests are often tailored to specific missions, according to K9 Storm owners Jim and Glori Slater, a husband-and-wife team. “We started the company solely to provide protection for dogs,” says Jim Slater, who has a German shepherd named Olaf. Slater worked as a municipal police officer during the 1990s and was part of an operation that quelled the Headingly 20

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11

Jail riot in Manitoba in 1996. Eight guards were injured by inmates wielding homemade weapons fashioned from kitchen utensils and fire extinguishers. “We went to take control of the jail and about 140 people were still running loose, and inside that environment there were a lot of weapons,” Slater says. “The dog was first into the building and he could have been stabbed or slashed. (He) had no armor whatsoever, whereas the team was well-armored. It made sense to me that we should minimize the vulnerable areas on his body and at the same time develop a harness so he could be raised and lowered.” K9 Storm makes customized vests ranging in cost from a couple of thousand dollars to tens of thousands.

C

ombat dogs get specialized training before they are assigned to units. Many don’t make it. They have to respond to commands, and, unlike most police dogs, have to be able to work with a variety of handlers because of the unpredictable nature of war. They grow close to their units, but they aren’t pets. It’s not like they retrieve Frisbees in their spare time or frolic on the floor with handlers. It’s strictly a working relationship.


He puts his life on the line for you. Why not give him the best care you can? Now, for the first time in America, Celox™ introduces Celox™ Veterinary, a revolutionary new product to stop bleeding in animals. Utilized for years by humans—especially on the battlefield by the military—Celox is now available in granular packets or as a gauze to stop bleeding in your K-9 partner should he become injured. Celox can be used by vets to stop life-threatening emergency bleeding in animals, but you can also keep a supply handy in your animal first aid kit for emergency use in the field.

Available through your veterinarian, stock up on a supply of Celox Vet™ today. It could save the life of your faithful K-9 partner. Exclusive U.S. Distribution

HOW IT WORKS Pouring Celox into a wound prevents blood loss by forming a gel-like clot as the Celox binds to the surface of red blood cells. CONTACT INFORMATION:

15g Granular Packet

3” x 5’ Gauze Wrap

HRL Distributors, LLC 221 Redding Road Georgetown, KY 40324 (502) 316-0980 www.celoxvet.com


(RIGHT): The K9 Storm Intruder Vest is equipped with automatic infra-red lighting systems to allow the handler to see what the dog is seeing even in darkened hallways or cave searches.

Several breeds of dogs are used as combat dogs, but mostly Belgian Malinois, German shepherds and Dutch shepherds. Dutch shepherds and Malinois are a little more agile than the German shepherds, the experts say. “It’s a matter of who can kick your butt better, Jackie Chan or Arnold Schwarzenegger,” says Ferren. “The Belgian Malinois and the Dutch shepherd are more like Jackie Chan.” Tim Crockett, a former Special Forces member in the British Special Boat Service (the British equivalent of the SEALs), says the dogs can essentially wear the same kind of protective ballistic type vest as their human counterparts. “And it is kitted out with other types of sensors as well,” says Crocket, an official with Pioneer Consulting Group in Marietta, Ga. “Like cameras, so information can be passed back from the dog to the handlers.”

D

og-mounted cameras can tell handlers what is around corners or behind buildings several hundred feet away. Those cameras can be mounted forward- or rearfacing, depending on what the dog is looking for. The dog on the bin Laden mission probably carried a camera, though reports that video was streamed in real-time back to the White House are said to be erroneous. A bomb-sniffing dog can approach a vehicle in a way that a soldier could not, even if the soldier is outfitted in protective gear. The dogs are very good at detecting explosive devices, which then allows a human team member to go in and defuse the device. Sometimes, however, there are unforeseen consequences. One of Ferren’s clients told him about a dog working in Iraq that, while searching a car, looked back at his handler when he smelled explosives. Seeing that reaction, an insurgent blew up the car, killing the dog. Ferren says as hard as that is, most of the time the dogs are successful. “It’s not like they are sending dogs on a suicide mission,” he says. “If they search 20 cars, maybe one is positive. Would you rather the handler and the dog go, or just the dog?” J 22

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11

PHOTOS: Courtesy K9 Storm Inc.

(LEFT): A special vest allows dogs to rappel or fast-rope out of a helicopter with their handlers.


After pulling back in the last year, Regional Command East readies what will likely prove the final assault of the frustrating, decade-long war By James Kitfield

The view from a .50-caliber M-2 machine gun position at Firebase Phoenix overlooking the Korengal Valley in Afghanistan. U.S. soldiers and paratroopers occupy several small firebases along the valley in one of the most hard-fought areas in eastern Afghanistan’s Regional Command East.

24

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11

PHOTO: Spc. Jason Mace

I

f you were to choose ground to fight the final offensive of America’s decade-long war on terror, it’s doubtful you would pick a series of remote valleys at the feet of the Hindu Kush mountains. Yet that imposing landscape is where the U.S.-led coalition in Afghanistan has strewn roughly 150 combat outposts, many of them little more than rough collections of blast walls, containerized housing and weaponry set amid the dung-colored mountains that demark the Durand Line and the border with Pakistan. The remote valleys that spill from those mountains into Afghanistan serve as a natural infiltration route toward Kabul for insurgents and terrorists who enjoy sanctuary on the other side of the border. For the past year, the troops in Regional Command East have fought what is essentially a blocking action near the border, trying to protect the approaches to the capital even as they expand Kabul’s “security bubble” east. By every available metric, it has been a tough and bloody fight. U.S. and allied forces have lost more than 200 killed in action in RC East over the past year, even while capturing or killing an estimated 5,000-plus insurgents. Along with the insurgents, the 15 local tribes and sub-tribes that inhabit the region are ideologically conservative and historically resistant to perceived invaders going back to the armies of Alexander the Great and the British and Soviet empires. In the past year and a half, attacks on U.S. forces in RC East increased by 200 percent. The assault on some U.S. combat outposts was so relentless that RC East commanders abandoned their foothold in the Korengal and Tangi Valleys altogether. Taliban propagandists predictably exploited the withdrawals as a retreat. All of which explains why Regional Command East puts the “cautious” in the cautious optimism U.S. officials have lately expressed about progress in the war in Afghanistan. “Our current focus, shoulder-to-shoulder with our Afghan security force partners, is to expand the Kabul security zone and interdict insurgent infiltration along the 450-kilometer Afghanistan-Pakistan border,” Maj. Gen. Daniel Allyn, commanding general for RC East, said in a recent briefing with reporters. In more stable areas of the region, he notes, the main effort resembled a traditional counter-insurgency operation to establish security and build governance for the approximately 7.5 million Afghans in RC East. Along much of the border, however, operations have consisted of fending off routine attacks on allied outposts and launching anywhere from eight to 10 targeted operations each night against known insurgent leaders and cells.


Concertainer from HESCO. Providing dependable protection wherever you are. Acknowledged as the most significant development in field fortification since the Second World War, Concertainer速 units from HESCO速 have become the benchmark in force protection. Whether used to define boundaries or as a protective barrier, Concertainer units have been employed to safeguard personnel, vehicles, equipment, facilities and other critical assets. www.hesco.com

HESCO and Concertainer are registered速 trade marks of Hesco Bastion Limited Photograph courtesy US DoD/SGT Artur Shvartsberg


“It’s been a very tough fight, with courageous actions by our troops and task forces,” says Allyn.

J

ust how tough the fight in RC East has proven became clear in August, when an insurgent in the Tangi Valley successfully downed a U.S. Chinook helicopter ferrying Special Forces troops on a raid, killing 22 Navy SEALs and eight other Americans. The incident resulted in the worst single-day loss of the long Afghan war, and highlighted just how “kinetic” the fighting was in some of the remote valleys of RC East. Privately, U.S. military sources knowledgeable about operations in RC East concede that the roughly 31,000 troops and eight allied brigade task forces there are stretched too thin to seal a long, mountainous border against a determined enemy, while simultaneously conducting a counter-insurgency campaign in a region roughly the size of Pennsylvania. That was a main reason for abandoning some of the eastern valleys in the past year. “In a battle space this large, with such challenging terrain, you simply can’t be everywhere at once all the time, so you have to pick your fights,” says a knowledgeable U.S. officer. “We also repositioned our forces from some of those valleys because we discovered that our very presence was provocative and destabilizing, and that when we pulled out and let Afghan troops take our place, the violence dropped precipitously.” The people in some of those valleys don’t want to join the Taliban, the officer says, so much as they want to be left alone. “So rather than maintain fixed outposts in some valleys, we shifted more towards targeted, offensive maneuver operations alongside our Afghan security force partners whenever we identified enemy concentrations,” he says. “So while we’re definitely making progress, in RC East it’s often two steps forward and one step back.”

W

hen the United States “surged” 30,000 additional troops to Afghanistan last year, the main effort was to break the Taliban’s grip on its southern strongholds of Kandahar and Helmand with a classic counter-insurgency operation of “clear, hold and build,” even while accelerating the stand-up of Afghan security forces. U.S. 26

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11

commanders believe both of those strategic goals have been largely met in the past year. The Taliban failed to re-establish control of Helmand and Kandahar this fighting season, having lost much of their logistical infrastructure in the region, including more than 50 bomb-making factories and hundreds of weapons caches. Perhaps most importantly, senior military sources claim the local populace in southern Afghanistan has turned against the insurgents and, free of their intimidation, has given allied forces intelligence tips that led to the destruction of much of their logistical infrastructure. This past summer the Taliban retaliated with a campaign of assassinations and bomb attacks on soft civilian targets, but U.S. officials don’t believe they will regain their stronghold in the south. Significant progress has also been made in standing up Afghan National Security Forces that are scheduled to take the lead in all operations by the end of 2014. Since December 2009, the alliance has increased the size of the ANSF by 100,000 soldiers and police, bringing the total to roughly 300,000, with an ultimate goal of 352,000 by October 2012. NATO’s Afghan training mission has also begun putting in place the recruiting, training, and support infrastructure that will make that force sustainable over time, though it will still require NATO “enablers” such as training, intelligence, communications, and logistics support beyond 2014. The strategy all along was to transition the “hold” mission in the south primarily to Afghan security forces this year, shifting U.S. forces to reinforce the 31,000 troops and eight coalition task forces already in RC East in order to take the fight decisively to the Taliban and the allied Haqqani network. With all of the “surge force” of 30,000 U.S. troops due to leave Afghanistan by the end of next summer, and the transition to full-Afghan lead-in operations scheduled for 2014, the operation to secure RC East will thus likely prove the final offensive of the decade-long war. And in terms of geography, population and a still-resilient enemy, it may well prove the toughest campaign of the war. Before he handed over command of RC East earlier this year, Maj. Gen. John Campbell of the Army’s 101st Airborne Division frequently remarked that the fight there was “infinitely more diffi-

PHOTO: Senior Airman Courtney Witt

U.S. Army Staff Sgt. Jorge Solano stands guard during a visit to Tepe Sardar, Afghanistan’s unique monument of sacred architecture, outside Ghazni City, Afghanistan.


cult” than the battle to secure Baghdad during the Iraq “surge” of 2007-2008, which he helped lead. In contrast with Iraq, he noted, the complex web of relationships in RC East were even more tribal, and the primitive infrastructure “biblical.” “Every single day in these valleys, we are either dropping bombs or shooting Hellfire missiles, because this is a very, very kinetic fight,” Campbell said in an interview conducted at Forward Operation Base Joyce along the border with Pakistan, before relinquishing command last spring. “Out here we’re fighting the Taliban and a few al Qaeda, but probably the most dangerous enemy we face is the Haqqani network, because they have sanctuary in Pakistan,” he said. “We should make no bones about that fact. They go back and forth across the border at will.”

O

nce upon a time Jalaluddin Haqqani was a favorite of the CIA, and considered one of the most brilliant and courageous of the mujahedeen commanders that the United States supported in their fight against the Soviet army in Afghanistan during the 1980s. After the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, Haqqani’s long and close friendship with Osama bin Laden, and his tactical alliance with the Taliban government, made him a top target of U.S. forces. Today, Jalaluddin’s son Sirajuddin has assumed the tactical leadership of the Haqqani network, which U.S. military officials consider perhaps the most skilled, dedicated and ruthless of all the insurgent groups in the region. U.S. drone strikes have killed several of the network’s operational commanders and hundreds of its fighters, and there is a $5 million reward on Sirajuddin Haqqani’s head. Father and son continue to operate with relative impunity, however, in the militant stronghold of Miranshah, the capital of Pakistan’s North Waziristan province. The Haqqani network also has long and close ties to Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence agency (ISI). U.S. officials believe the Pakistani military intelligence agency offers the Haqqanis protection, military and financial aid, and has even tipped off senior Haqqani officials to impending drone strikes. “There is a lot of evidence that Pakistan’s ISI continues to provide

training, logistics and intelligence support to the Taliban and Haqqani networks, to include tipping them off to the movement of U.S. and coalition forces, undermining coalition operations, and even participating in terrorist attacks such as the bombing of the Indian embassy in Kabul in 2008,” says Arturo Munoz, a long-time CIA analyst now working at the RAND Corp. think tank. “My impression is that the ISI considers al Qaeda a threat to Pakistan, but they don’t consider the Taliban or the Haqqani network as a threat.” Haqqani network operatives have reportedly mastered the skill set of building sophisticated bombs and improvised explosive devices, and are reportedly behind many of the suicide bombings that have rocked Afghanistan over the past year. According to U.S. officials, the network has sent boys as young as 8 on suicide bombings. Afghan security forces recently seized two shipments of ammonium nitrate, the key explosive ingredient in many of the bombs, totaling more than 5,750 kilograms. If anything, the mission to contest the Haqqani network’s sanctuaries in Pakistan’s tribal areas has been set back by the near rupture in U.S.-Pakistan relations that resulted from the U.S. raid to kill Osama bin Laden. Since the secret raid against bin Laden, who had lived for years in a military garrison town in Pakistan, humiliated Pakistani military leaders have kicked out U.S. trainers and intelligence agents, and they continue to resist U.S. calls for a military offensive in North Waziristan. Nor have Haqqani leaders been willing to take part in recent reconciliation talks with the Afghan government, as have some of their Taliban allies. All of which means that the final U.S. offensive of the war will test the assumption that you can defeat an insurgency operating essentially on its home turf, with the safety of a nearby sanctuary. “Haqqani is clearly the most lethal threat to the government in Afghanistan and to the coalition,” Allyn recently told National Journal. “Because of Haqqani’s bases in Miranshah, they clearly have a stronger regenerative capability than the Taliban. There’s no question that they’re a difficult, capable enemy.” J

U.S. Army Capt. Lee Vandewater provides security at Observation Post Two during Operation Bull Whip in Galsuh Valley, Laghman Province, Afghanistan. U.S., Afghan and coalition forces conducted an assault mission to clear the area of insurgents and weapons caches in support of the International Security Assistance Force.

28

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11

PHOTOS: Spc. Kristina Gupton

A U.S. Army UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter lifts off after Maj. Gen. John F. Campbell and other service members disembark during Operation Bull Whip in Galsuh Valley, Afghanistan.


www.armorsource.com


We Will Never Forget

“The Loudest Noise I The impact of the Sept. 11 attack on the Pentagon still affects untold lives 10 years later By John Pulley

30

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11


Ever Heard in my Life”

PHOTO: Photographer’s Mate First Class Dewitt D. Roseborough III

L

t. Col. Steve Zappalla, an Army combat arms officer, had on many occasions during his 20-year career in uniform traveled great distances to confront armed adversaries and face down his own fears. Yet on the morning of Sept. 11, 2001, Zappalla was home, ensconced in a cubicle inside the Pentagon, the world’s largest office building. At 9:41 a.m., his office became a crucible. A hijacked plane struck the exterior of the Pentagon at ground level, a direct hit on a section of the massive structure that had recently been renovated during the first phase of a 17-year, $4.5 billion overhaul. Breaching the western façade, American Airlines Flight 77 sliced into the building’s guts, exploded and obliterated most of what was in its path. One flight up, Zappalla’s workgroup occupied a section of the second floor between Corridors Four and Five, two of 10 passageways that project spokelike from the Pentagon’s hub to its perimeter. The renovation had transformed the area into a vast cubicle farm, known as The Bay, that sprawled for 100 yards. The violence of the collision and the ensuing blast generated the “loudest noise I ever heard in my life, followed by a rush of air,” says Zappalla. “The ceiling started falling down. I remember getting lifted up and hitting the wall. Something from the ceiling hit me on the head.” Getting knocked to the floor saved Zappalla’s life, he says. Colleagues in the forward part of The Bay, nearest the point of impact, died instantly. Others perished in a secondary explosion of jet fuel propelled by the plane’s momentum into the building’s recesses. The fireball roared over Zappalla, who assumed it was a gas explosion caused by a careless renovation worker. It was, of course, part of a well-coordinated assault -- the most destructive terrorist attack ever carried out on American soil. On the 10-year observance of Sept. 11, millions of people will remember ​​ the horrifying images of the attacks on the Pentagon and the World Trade Center. For most, time has healed emotional wounds that once F a l l 2 0 11 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D

31


We Will Never Forget

were jagged and raw. But for the relatively small group of men and women who were there, a decade has done little to soften the impact. eptember 11 began unremarkably. Zappalla, a staff officer in Army headquarters, arose at 5 a.m., showered, donned his uniform, walked to the bus stop, caught a shuttle at the Navy annex and made it to his second-floor office by​6:30. “It was a nice day,” he says. “A happy, normal day.” ​Arriving at The Bay’s cubicle farm, Zappalla “said hello to a few buddies, had a cup of coffee, made phone calls.” When colleagues began stirring and moving, he “sensed something was up.” Someone turned on a television. One of the World Trade Center’s twin towers, in New York City, was in flames. “Chills were going through the back of my head,” he says, recalling the feeling of disbelief. Zappalla, who reported to Lt. Gen Timothy Maude, the Army’s deputy chief of staff for personnel, instinctively went into action, gathering information he would need to brief the general on the attack’s implications for force mobilization. After the team briefed Maude in his office on the Pentagon’s outermost E Ring, the general gave the order to fully stand up the Army Operations Center deep in the bowels of the Pentagon. Zappalla retreated to his D Ring office. Moments later, Flight 77 plowed into the Pentagon. Maude and others closest to the point of impact died instantly. The three-star general would be the highFormer Army Sgt. est-ranking military officer Isaac Ho’Opi’i killed in the attacks and the most senior Army officer killed by enemy action in more than half a century. In all, 22 of Zappalla’s colleagues perished, along with 103 others inside the Pentagon and 54 passengers and crew aboard the plane. In an instant, offices became death traps. People who survived the initial hit struggled to escape. “It was dark. I couldn’t see,” says Zappalla. “The smell was horrendous, a terrible smell. I couldn’t breathe. I felt like I was suffocating.” Someone asked Zappalla if he was OK. He couldn’t move, but he said “yes.” Someone helped him to his feet, and together

S

32

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11

they made their way toward the center of the Pentagon, their movement blocked at one point by a mechanical firewall. They eventually made it to the Pentagon’s courtyard, which had ​​ become something of a field hospital. Medical personnel performed triage, and ambulances spirited the wounded away. Zappalla, Retired Lt. Col. who had suffered a severe Steve Zappalla concussion, was treated at the hospital at Fort Belvoir, Va., several miles away. t started like any day,” says Navy Cmdr. David A. Tarantino, a medical doctor, who recalls checking email in his office on the A Ring, the innermost of the five concentric loops. “It was a beautiful day.” Tarantino watched on television as a passenger plane hit the​ second World Trade Center. Not long afterward, he “felt a violent shuddering, like an earthquake. We knew we were under attack.”​ Making his way toward the direction of the blast, he discovered a gaping hole in a wall abutting a service corridor. “We could hear voices inside,” he says. “People were trapped.” Stepping into the breach, Tarantino encountered an “apocalyptic” scene obscured by “thick, black jet-fuel smoke. … I could barely see my hands.” The partially collapsed ceiling had exposed electrical wires. Intense heat was melting shoes and clothing. “Get out! Get out!” he yelled. He saw Jerry Henson, a civilian employee trapped by debris in his Navy Command Center office. Calling on his experience rowing crew at Stanford University, Tarantino used his wiry body to “leg-press the debris off of him” and lead Henson to safety. “As we got back to the passageway,” he says, “that area collapsed.”   ormer Army Sgt. Isaac Ho’opi’i, a member of the Pentagon Force Protection Agency, had taken his K-9 partner, Vito, to see the veterinarian at nearby Fort Myer, Va., that morning. He “heard a big boom and felt the ground shake,” he says. Seconds later, his radio came to life. “Emergency! This is not a drill,” blared the dispatcher. Ho’opi’i sped to the Pentagon, sprinting on foot when he could drive no farther. “The helipad was in flames,” he says, and the

“I

F


Iridium salutes the courage of the brave heroes of 9/11 who knowingly, and without hesitation, put their lives at risk responding to the needs of so many. We also wish to honor those who lost their lives on that tragic day, and hope we never again must face such unforeseen peril.

Iridium delivers reliable, near real-time, mission-critical global communications services and creates vital lines of communication for emergency response and disaster relief organizations everywhere. Iridium strives to ensure that these lines of communication are never broken.


We Will Never Forget the Pentagon effectively “closed the loop between the chain of command,” she says, allowing the Guard’s leadership at Andrews to work through the Secret Service on base and ultimately gain clearance from Vice President Dick Cheney to launch aircraft. Lt. Col. Marc “Sass” Sasseville was already moving toward the flight line when he called out to Penney. “Lucky,” he said, using the nickname given to her by other pilots, “you’re coming with me.” Believing a commercial airliner was still unaccounted for, they punched the afterburners of their F-16s, rocketed northwest along the Potomac River and prepared to intercept a jetliner. There were no orders for engaging a hijacked plane, no standing rules of engagement. Aside from a few rounds of training bullets that could not take down a large aircraft, the F-16s had no weapons. On the fly, they came up with a plan: Sasseville would ram the cockpit. Penney would take out the tail. “We simply knew what had to be done that day.” After returning from their sortie, they learned the missing aircraft, United Airlines Flight 93, had been found. Passengers on the Boeing 757 had stormed its cabin before Sasseville and Penney ever took flight. The plane had crashed  into a ​Pennsylvania field.   hortly after noon, Lt. Michael P. Regan of the Fire & Rescue ​Department of northern Virginia’s Fairfax County arrived at the Pentagon. He was part of Virginia Task Force 1, an international urban search and rescue unit with expertise in rescuing victims from collapsed structures. The unit Air Guard Maj. Heather “Lucky” Penney has responded to crises all over the world, including the 1998 bombing of the U.S. embassy in Nairobi, Kenya, an attack attributed to Osama bin Laden and al Qaeda. Sinclair, told the story of his rescue to The Washington Post, which Searching the Pentagon for people trapped in the rubble, the resled to his meeting the man who had saved his life. cuers experienced “intense heat” of a type they had “not encountered   in collapsed buildings before,” Regan says. “At ​points [it] became aj. Heather “Lucky” Penney, an F-16 pilot with the D.C. unbearable.” Ten feet inside the building, the team encountered the Air National Guard, had eaten Cheerios before changing first victim. They continued, finding “total ​devastation [and] victims into her flight suit and driving to Andrews Air Force Base, Md., that just about everywhere we looked.” It appeared that people escaped morning beneath “a gorgeous, crystalline-blue sky.” In the language quickly or not at all. “We did not find any live victims.” On the day after the attacks, even as the destroyed section of the of pilots, such conditions are known by the acronym C ​ AVU: clear building continued to smolder, “almost everyone at the Pentagon was above, visibility unlimited.  Penney and her fellow pilots had just returned from a ​demand- back at work,” says Dr. Tarantino, who later deployed with a Marine ing training exercise at Nellis Air Force Base, Nev., to ensure pilots unit to Iraq. For him, the past decade has been “10 years of being part possess the skills “to go to war in ‘bad guy’ land,” as Penney says. of the response. ” Former Army Capt. Randy Schwartz, a firefighter, was on the roof A routine scheduling meeting “immediately dissolved” when news arrived that the second World Trade Center tower had been struck. of the Pentagon on Sept. 12, putting out hot spots. After he descended, his commander directed him to escort a pair of active-duty Army solShortly afterward, another plane flew into the Pentagon. Her Air Guard unit is not part of the official response chain de- diers to the roof. Scaling a truck ladder that had been extended to its ployed by the North American Aerospace Defense Command full 100-foot length, soldiers and firefighters lugged a large garrison (NORAD), which defends the country’s airspace. But the attack on flag to the roof and unfurled it along the side of the Pentagon. It would PHOTO: Tech. Sgt. Johnathon Orrell

grounds on the west side of the building flared with “little fires here and there.” People were crawling out of the building. Some jumped from the second floor. Windows bubbled in the intense heat. Inside, Ho’opi’i encountered smoke, running water, flickering lights and people yelling. It was, he says, “chaos.” He used his booming voice as an auditory beacon to help lead victims, some with severe burns, out of the building, repeatedly instruct​​ ing people to “come toward my voice.” One of the survivors, Wayne

S

M

34

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11


Providing cutting edge security glass and polymer solutions for protection against today’s modern threats. The LTI Group offers a wide range of security and decorative laminates including the SMARTGARD line of defense products multi-ply protection designed for ATTACK, CONTAINMENT, and BULLET & BLAST RESISTANCE. Also available is a unique offering for TRANSPARENT RF/IR protection against signals & eavesdropping attacks.

Call TODAY for your FREE CONSULTATION!

Prisons/Jails Court Houses Gov’t Buildings Corporate Security Cashier Areas Healthcare Facilities Psychiatric Hospitals

Border Patrol Armored Vehicles Military Shooting Ranges Nuclear Plants Chemical Plants Transit Facilities

Testing Standards (including but not limited to): UL 752, NIJ 0108, H.P. White TP-500.03, ASTM F1915-05, UL 9, 10B, 10C, ASTM F1233 Attack, WMFL Attack & Ballistic

The LTI GROUP / www.LTISG.com SMARTGARD / Smart Glass / Smart Design phone +1 413-637-5001 / fax +1 413-637-5004


PHOTOS: Lt. Col. Steve Zappalla

We Will Never Forget

become one of the iconic images of the attack and its aftermath. “I was in the right place at the right time to give something back to my country, a small thing. I am thrilled that I was part of that,” Schwartz says. “I was very saddened about the events of the day before, but to give America something to cheer about, I’m awfully proud of that.” Zappalla, the Army combat arms officer, was back at work two days after the attack. He was present when Maude’s grieving wife, Terry, spoke to the men and women who had worked for her husband. She told them that “Tim” would want his team to pull together and do what needed to be done. “She stood up and gave the most inspirational speech I ever heard in my life,” he says. ​Of necessity, most of his colleagues relocated to temporary offices in Alexandria, Va., while workers rebuilt their offices, but Zappalla’s job required him to work in the Army Operations C ​ enter, in the Pentagon. He spent much of the next nine months in the Pentagon’s basement. Exiled colleagues considered him fortunate. “People were fighting to get back in,” Zappalla recalls. o a person, the men and women who were closest to the events of Sept. 11 say they still feel the impact. “I think it affected all of us who are firemen,” says Schwartz. “We didn’t lose anybody here (at the Pentagon), but 343 guys in New York lost their lives. You think about it every day. When w ​ e’re going up the steps in a high rise, I can visualize what it was like. All of a sudden, their world came crashing down. … Yeah, I’d ​say it changed my life.” Firefighter Regan concurs: “There’s no such thing as closure. … A lot of our people have sleepless nights. There’s not a single day that goes by that I don’t think about it.” In the immediate aftermath of the attacks, many people hungered for retribution. Years later, the death of Osama bin Laden was less cathartic than it might have been had it happened sooner. “That guy tried to kill me,” says Tarantino. “But there’s still a lot of work to be

T

36

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11

done.” For Tarantino, being in the Pentagon during the attack led to “a rededication of military values … honor, courage, commitment … not leaving anyone behind.” Some suffer from survivor guilt. “Did I do enough?” asks Ho’opi’i, who served eight years active duty in the infantry as a police investigator and another 10 in the Army Reserve. “Did I help enough people?” The day burns within him. At times, when he is grilling and gets a whiff of charcoal smoke and lighter fluid, it all comes back. “Even though 10 years have gone by, the thing that hits me is the smell. It’s more than just smoke,” he says of the odor inside the Pentagon that day, a mixture of jet fuel, construction materials consumed by fire, incinerated clothes and burned flesh. “I don’t wish for anybody to go through it.” He copes by coaching youth sports and performing contemporary Hawaiian music with his band, The Aloha Boys. Ho’opi’i plays guitar and ukulele, and he sings. “I don’t take a lot for granted anymore,” he says. “Life is too short. …  Waking up a​ live is always great. For Penney, Sept. 11 provided perspective: “There are things in this world that are far more important than our individual ​selves. Those things are our Constitution, the Bill of Rights, our way of life, what it means to be an American.”   or Zappalla, Sept. 11 changed everything. He had grown up in the Italian neighborhoods of Bushwick in Brooklyn, Glendale in Queens and in Levittown, on Long Island. From those places he learned to aggressively stand up for himself. “The Army seemed like a natural extension of that,” says Zappalla, who was recruited to play on the lacrosse team at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, and eventually became team ​captain. “The environment there was familiar to me. Very aggressive. I

F


OPPOSITE: (LEFT) Zappalla snapped pictures of the devastation when he returned to the remains of his Pentagon office on Sept. 27. (RIGHT): Zappalla’s photos showed the burned exterior of the building outside his former office.

would take chances and get rewarded.” ​During a summer break, he went to Ranger School, at Fort Benning, Ga. He met challenges and handled fear by fighting back. “I’ve been in situations where I was afraid in the Army, many situations where I was afraid for my life,” he says. “The way I used to deal with it was to put my head down and charge with a lot of aggressions.” After Sept. 11, fighting failed him. “I was angry that somebody did this to us. I didn’t know what to do. I felt hopeless that I couldn’t fight back. It was frustrating.” He didn’t realize it at the time, but the attack on the Pentagon was also an assault on a deeply ingrained way of reacting to adversity. “For months on end, I couldn’t escape the noise of it, the dealing with it and trying to escape from it,” says Zappalla, who lived close enough to the Pentagon that his street was closed to vehicles after the attack. He became claustrophobic, unable to get into an elevator or walk around a shopping mall. “It was the straw that broke the camel’s back,” he says. “It was the beginning of the end.” Eventually, he put in his papers and retired from the Army. He took up meditation, became interested in Buddhism and began pursuing a more spiritual life. He enrolled in and graduated from a master’s degree program in counseling. Today, he helps people struggling to recover from crippling fears, stress and addictive behaviors. Zappalla didn’t die in the flames of Sept. 11. He was reborn there. J

PHOTO: PH1 Michael Pendergrass

(RIGHT): Fairfax County firefighter Randy Schwartz, a former Army captain, helped unfurl the large garrison flag on the roof of the Pentagon on Sept. 12 in what became an enduring image of the attack and its aftermath.

F a l l 2 0 11 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D

37


Remington Arms Company’s Adaptive Combat Rifle, a weapon that features a gas piston system, quick-change barrel and adjustable stock.

Dozens of gun makers lock and load for competition to build the Army’s next carbine

T

By Matthew Cox

he Army has finally launched its long-awaited competition to build a new carbine, prodding small-arm makers from across the country to take a shot at replacing the service’s M4 carbine. It’s a rare opportunity. The Army hasn’t held an open competition to replace its individual soldier weapon since before the Vietnam War. It’s also a risky undertaking. Dozens of small-arms firms have spent three years, and in some cases millions of dollars, preparing for the competition while knowing that the Army could decide to stick with the M4 in the end. In late June, the Army invited industry to submit proposals by the end of September for off-the-shelf carbines in a competition that will cost about $30 million and take more 38

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11

than two years to complete. Senior Army leaders first announced a plan to hold a competition for a new carbine in November 2008 in the face of congressional scrutiny over the service’s devotion to the M4, despite its shortcomings. Some companies will be eliminated before the first shots are fired. In the first phase of the competition, the Army will review all the proposals and weed out companies that don’t have the manufacturing capacity to produce hundreds of thousands of weapons, or to manufacture inside the United States. The carbine competition is part of a two-pronged strategy to improve soldier weapons. Army officials also are working on a product-improvement program to radically upgrade the current inventory of more than 500,000 M4s. The Marine Corps, Navy and Air Force also use the M4 and the

PHOTO: (Left) Courtesy of Remington Arms and (Right) Courtesy of Adcor Defense Inc.

Adcor Defense Inc.’s new Brown Enhanced Automatic Rifle, or B.E.A.R.


PHOTO: Courtesy of Adcor Defense Inc.

PHOTO: Spc. Kristina L. Gupton

(BELOW): Adcor Defense Inc. designed its Brown Enhanced Automatic Rifle, or B.E.A.R., for the Army’s new carbine competition.

(ABOVE): Concerned about reliability problems with the M4 carbine, used here by a soldier in Afghanistan, Congress prompted the Army to look for a more reliable weapon.

M16, but are waiting for the outcome of the Army competition before making any decisions on new weapons. The Army began buying M4s from West Hartford, Conn.-based Colt Defense in the mid-1990s to replace the full-size M16, which has been in service since the mid1960s. M16s still remain in the inventory, but weapons officials say the M4’s collapsible stock and shortened barrel make it ideal for soldiers operating in vehicles and in the tight quarters of urban combat. It’s also highly accurate and extremely easy to handle. The problem is its reliability. The M4, like the M16, uses a direct gas tube system, which relies on the gas created inside the barrel when a bullet is fired to cycle the weapon. The system blows hot gases mixed with carbon residue into the firing mechanism, drying up lubrication and allowing extreme wear and tear on internal parts. Many modern carbines rely on a piston-style gas system, which uses the weapon’s gas to push a piston rod to cycle during firing. The gas is vented without funneling through the firing mechanism. Three piston-style carbines – Heckler & Koch’s 416 and XM8, and FNH USA’s Special Operations Forces Combat Assault Rifle, or SCAR – outperformed the M4’s direct-gas system in an Army reliability test in November 2007.

40

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11

T

he carbine competition represents a huge gamble for many small-arms makers, some of which have spent millions of dollars to upgrade and test their weapons to join the competition. “We invest a lot of research and development dollars to try to provide a better wholesale solution,” says Jason Schauble, vice president of Remington Arms Co.’s Global Military Products Division. “We do a lot of testing.” The Madison, N.C.-based Remington makes the Adaptive Combat Rifle, which features a gas piston operating system, tool-less quick-change barrels and a multi-adjustable folding stock. It also makes an M4-style carbine known as the Remington Gas Piston system. Companies can only submit one design. Schauble declined to say which design it is submitting. Some smaller companies worry they don’t have the resources to compete alongside bigger firms with experience at winning government contracts. LWRC International isn’t taking any chances. The Cambridge, Md.-based company has entered into a partnership with Anniston Army Depot in Alabama to use its government-owned small-arms repair facility in the event LWRC is chosen to make the Army’s new carbine. The company hopes that teaming with Anniston will put LWRC on a more stable footing when the Army evaluates production capability in the first phase, says Darren Mellers,


executive vice president for LWRC, which specializes in M4-style carbine designs. “It’s their infrastructure; they have ownership,” he says. Daniel Defense of Black Creek, Ga., and the much larger Heckler & Koch also are discussing a possible partnership. The competition is “a huge gamble,” says Patrick Kisgen, sales manager for Daniel Defense, adding there’s a strong possibility of his company “never selling a single weapon, even if we win.” Kisgen hopes to take advantage of Heckler & Koch’s proven track record. The German arms company makes the 416, an M4-style weapon that the Army’s elite Delta Force adopted in 2004. The Marine Corps also is buying a version of the 416, known as the M27 Infantry Automatic Rifle, as a replacement for the heavier M249 squad automatic weapon. HK USA, Heckler & Koch’s U.S. division, also could benefit from Daniel Defense’s new 92,000-square-foot manufacturing facility in South Carolina.

G

un makers aren’t the only ones taking an interest in the Army’s carbine competition. Adcor Defense Inc., a small Baltimore-based firm with roots in the soda-pop industry, wants to be known as the maker of the next weapon soldiers carry into combat. While it’s new to the gun game, Adcor is a seasoned de-

fense contractor with experience making everything from precision missile components to small-arms parts. “We saw and heard and read how much this weapon (M4) has come under scrutiny on Capitol Hill, and we took it upon ourselves as mechanical people to see if we could solve some of those problems,” says Jimmy Stavrakis, president of the parent company, Adcor Industries Inc. Stavrakis has been running Adcor since he took over the family business from his father in 1990. The company says its new Brown Enhanced Automatic Rifle, or B.E.A.R., prevents dust and debris from entering the receiver with a special spring-loaded dust cover mounted on the carbine’s bolt carrier, improving reliability, durability and overall performance. Each time the weapon fires and the bolt carrier returns to the ready position, the dust cover moves into the ejection port, sealing out dust or debris. Adcor subcontracts for defense giants such as The Boeing Co. and Lockheed Martin Corp. and, at one time, made most of the sophisticated parts on the Navy’s Fleet Ballistic Missile System. But the company’s expertise in manufacturing highly technical machines for beverage companies such as Coca-Cola Co. and PepsiCo Inc. may be what gives it an edge in the Army’s carbine competition. “It is basically, for us, another mechanical machine,”

PHOTOS: Courtesy of Adcor Defense Inc.

Adcor, a company new to the gun-making game, says it has devised a spring-loaded dust cover for the weapon’s bolt carrier, which protects it against dust and debris, and a gas piston system that doesn’t come into contact with the barrel.

42

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11


PHOTO: TSgt. Mark Getsy

The Army’s elite Delta Force adopted the Heckler & Koch 416 to replace its M4A1 carbine in 2004, and the Marine Corps recently began purchasing another version of the 416, the M27 infantry automatic rifle, to replace the M249 squad automatic weapon shown here. The 416 will be HK’s entry in the M4 replacement competition.

44

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11

Stavrakis says. “It’s a very simple machine for us in comparison for what we do in the bottling industry. When we build a piece of machinery for the bottling industry, it is comprised of 20,000 part numbers, and it is capable of filling a 12-ounce can at a rate of 2,000 cans a minute. It’s basically a big Gatling gun.” Adcor’s new carbine also features a gas piston system that operates without coming in contact with the barrel, a design the company says makes it more accurate than other piston systems on the market. Adcor’s openness about its new weapon design is unusual at this stage of the competition. FNH USA of McLean, Va., for example, which makes the highly respected M249 and M240 machine guns for the U.S. military and is supplying variants of the SCAR to U.S. Special Operations Command, confirms it will be submitting a proposal. But that’s about all Mark Cherpes, executive vice president, is willing to say. Performance might not be the only factor in play as the competition moves forward, one likely competitor says. “There is an entire political side to this that is never going to show up with the RFP,” says Steve Mayer, law enforcement and government sales manager of Rock River Arms Inc. of Colona, Ill. All too often, Mayer says, funding for defense programs depends on the number of congressional districts affected by the effort. “Hopefully, we will end up with the best weapon system and not the most political weapon system.” The companies surviving the initial cut will move to the second phase, which involves firing about 700,000 rounds at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. Phase Two will end with the award of contracts to three gun makers, which will advance to the next phase. The Army will buy more weapons from the three companies to conduct limited user evaluations during Phase Three of the competition. Army testers plan to shoot another 850,000 rounds before a winner is selected sometime in late 2013. But even then, it’s not certain the Army will buy a new carbine. The service will conduct a business-case analysis to decide whether the winner offers enough of an improvement over the M4 to be worth the cost of replacing it. Despite the risk, it’s a chance for smaller gun makers to gain a new level of recognition in the small-arms industry. “It’s worth it to us just to have that opportunity,” says LWRC’s Mellers. J


I was fortunate to have been provided with a pair of your Blast Boxers. I would recommend your product for use with all those embarking on future tours.

OVER 50 YEARS OF QUALITY SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT

British Fusilier, Royal Welsh Regiment who survived 170lbs blast in Helmand Province, Afghanistan

External seams; very comfortable to wear

The kevlar portion shields the perineal area

Fire Retardant Mesh helps keep wearer cool

Extended inner leg helps protect the femoral artery

Available from BCB International Inc. 3900 31st Street North, Suite A, St. Petersburg, FL 33714 Tel: 727 525 5552 Email: pj@bcbin.com

n for Protectioa tes! your Priv

photo © Jason P. Howe/WpN

www.bcbin.com


PHOTO: Courtesy Lockheed Martin

JLTV I

By William Matthews

t was a difficult assignment from the start: Build a tactical vehicle that’s as light and maneuverable as a Humvee, but as tough against roadside bombs as an MRAP. Now, after four years of designing and building and a year of testing, the Joint Light Tactical Vehicles developed by three competing teams are headed back to the garage for some overhauls. “Right now we are fine tuning to ensure we get the requirements right,” says Mark McCoy, the Army’s JLTV product manager. The biggest change “is the protection level. We are increasing it due to lessons learned from Afghanistan and Iraq.” About halfway through testing, the Army concluded that the vehicles’ underbody blast protection wasn’t adequate and would have to be beefed up. At the same time, the Marine Corps complained that the prototype JLTVs were too heavy. The vehicles, which have to be light enough to be lifted by military helicopters and C-130 Hercules cargo planes, were several hundred to a thousand pounds overweight. How to make them stronger and yet lighter is a perplexity. And other obstacles have begun to crop up. Costs are increasing even as defense budgets tighten. Other blast-resistant vehicles have been rushed into service, possibly reducing the need for JLTVs. And the Army has announced program delays. The JTLV “is going through a lot of program churn in terms of requirements, schedules and cost estimates. That’s not a good sign,” says Todd Harrison, an analyst at the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments. The problems prompted two House committees to cut $50 million – nearly 25 percent – from JLTV program 46

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11

Can manufacturers find the “Light” in the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle? Contractors including BAE Systems, which proposes the JLTV version shown below, designed the prototypes to endure tough operational conditions, from freezing temperatures to oppressive heat.

PHOTO: Courtesy BAE Systems

Delays


THE ULTRA-POWERFUL WARN WINCH LINEUP

© 2011 Warn Industries, Inc. WARN ® and the WARN logo are registered trademarks of Warn Industries, Inc.

®

60+ years of service and still the technology leader WARN® 30XL Hydraulic winch. Available in lightweight aluminum. Rated to 30,000 lbs. pulling capacity

A new force multiplier: the WARN Olympus 25 winch, the world’s most powerful and efficient electric winch

Warn Industries provides the technical innovations that can help keep troops moving forward. Case-in-point, our innovative Olympus 25 winch—the most powerful electric winch on earth. It’s capable of severe duty pulls formerly attained only by hydraulic winches. We also offer a variety of field-proven hydraulic and electric winches and hoists. Capacities are as varied as the terrain our troops encounter: from 6,000 lbs. to 30,000 lbs. Count on Warn Industries when it’s all on the line.

Learn more: www.warn.com, or contact Jim Armour, Director of Industrial Sales: 734-953-9870


Lockheed says its version of the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle already meets the Army’s tougher blast protection requirements.

funding for 2012. The House Armed Services Committee warned that “initial test results indicate that the JLTV program may face many operational and technical challenges.” The House Appropriations Committee says that “the operational niche to be filled by the JLTV appears to be shrinking.”

PHOTO: Courtesy Lockheed Martin

F

ive years ago the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle was an ambitious idea: Replace vulnerable flat-bottomed Humvees – which were designed in 1980, before IED was even an acronym, let alone a deadly threat – with new vehicles whose V-shaped “hulls” are engineered specifically to direct blast forces away from troops who ride in protective “crew capsules.” Unlike Humvees, which originally had no armor, JLTVs would be armored to protect against improvised explosive devices, machine-gun rounds and high explosive fragments. And more armor could be added as threats increase. The Army, which heads the JLTV program for itself and the Marine Corps, says it wants vehicles that balance three key elements – payload, performance and protection. But for the Army, the emphasis is on protection. The new blast survivability requirement means that JLTVs will have to match the under-body protection provided by M-ATVs – the mine-resistant, ambushprotected all-terrain vehicles that were specially designed for the war in Afghanistan. To accommodate these tougher requirements, the Army has delayed issuing contracts for the second phase of JLTV development from October this year until early 2012. And the second phase – the engineering and manufacturing development, or EMD phase – has been stretched from 24 months to 48 months to provide more time for new systems engineering, subsystem design and testing, prototype building, contractor shakedown and time for “test-fix-test” of vehicle improvements, McCoy says. So the vehicles the Army and Marine Corps once hoped might 48

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11

deploy as early as 2010 now won’t be available until at least 2017. Even with the two extra years, building a “light” tactical vehicle that’s as blast-resistant as a 25,000-pound, bomb-hardened M-ATV just might not be possible, says Daniel Goure, a military analyst at the Lexington Institute. Protection demands armor, and armor adds weight. Meanwhile, performance means agility on the ground and deployability by helicopter, which requires lightness. The Army’s “iron triangle” of protection, payload and performance might be impossible to balance, Goure says. “There’s no way around it. You might be able to get two of the three, but not all three.”

B

ack in 2006, the Army was hoping for JTLVs that weighed about 12,000 pounds. The basic vehicle would carry four troops, 3,500 pounds of gear and tow a trailer. A larger version would carry six and a payload of up to 4,500 pounds. And a third variant would carry a crew of two and a payload of 5,100 pounds. Among the three types, various JLTVs would be equipped for special purposes, such as reconnaissance, command and control, and to serve as gun carriers and as ambulances. The Army planned to buy 55,000 and the Marine Corps, 5,500. In 2008, the Army awarded technology development contracts to three competing teams, one led by BAE Systems, one by General Dynamics and one by Lockheed. Weight was a problem from the start. When the prototypes arrived in 2010, the lightest, Lockheed’s, weighed in at 12,650 pounds. BAE’s was 13,200 and General Dynamics’ was 13,400. And that was “curb weight” – the weight without all of the protective armor and other combat gear. When fully ready for combat, the two-man and four-man JLTVs weighed 18,000 to 20,000 pounds. The six-man version weighed 23,000 pounds and was eventually terminated by the Army. Weight is a particular sticking point for the Marines. In 2009 the former commandant, Gen. James Conway, warned that the Corps “will not buy a Joint Light Tactical Vehicle that’s 20,000 pounds. It doesn’t fit our expeditionary kind of capacity. We can’t carry it on our helicopters or even sling it.” The JLTV’s weight is limited by the lifting capacity of CH-47F helicopters. That’s 15,600 pounds, according to the Government Accountability Office, which reviewed the JLTV program for Congress last November. Documents published by the JLTV program office say the CH-47F can lift 17,940 pounds. But even at the higher lifting capacity, the JLTV prototypes “appeared to be very close to the maximum envelopes for aircraft


THE WINCH FOR THE JLTV.

H18K 18,000 POUND CAPACITY HYDRAULIC POWER

The MILE MARKER HYDRAULIC WINCH system has been a military and tactical vehicle recovery icon for over 12 years. The unique design of the Power Steering System driven winch has reached legendary status with over 32,000 units in the field without a single failure. Now available for MRAP, JLTV, M-ATV, and other large frame vehicles, the submersible, continuous-duty design of the Mile Marker Hydraulic Winch is offered in an 18,000 pound model (scalable to 24,000 pounds). This unit is available in a short drum design (96’ of 1/2” cable), as well as a long-drum design (168’ of 1/2” cable), and can be used with any hydraulic power source.

Photo Courtesy: BAE Systems

CoNtINUoUs DUtY Pull all day and all night without interruption, rather than the intermittent duty cycle of electric winches.

ULtRA LIgHt DEsIgN At only 127 pounds (without cable) on the short drum design, this is the lightest winch available in its class.

sUBMERsIBLE Fully sealed against the elements and fully operational under water or deep mud.

tWo-sPEED oPERAtIoN Spool cable and lighter loads at blazing fast speeds in high gear; drop into low gear for serious pulling power.


Designing a lighter yet blast-resistant vehicle is both an art and a science, a BAE executive says.

PHOTO: Courtesy BAE Systems

over $800,000.” But that eye-popping sum was for the vehicle and the equipment that would go into it, not just for the vehicle, the GAO says. Without its mission equipment, JTLVs might cost $306,000 to $336,000 apiece. That compares with $186,000 for an up-armored Humvee, and $445,000 for each M-ATV, the agency says. The cost estimates prompted Conway, the former commandant, to say, “There’s no way that the Marine Corps is going to be able to afford $300,000 a copy” for JLTVs. The California-based think tank Rand added to the cost controversy earlier when Rand analysts told Congress that “the most significant challenge to this [JLTV] program appears to be fiscal rather than physical.” Cost could be a killer, says Harrison of the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments. “We’re entering a declining budget environment and not every program is going to make it. And if something looks unaffordable, it’s in trouble.” In search of other options, the Marines launched a Humvee survivability improvement program that aims to make Humvees less vulnerable to improvised explosive devices. Improved Humvees aren’t the JLTV alternative. While the three JLTV teams were busy designing and building their prototypes, the number of U.S. troops in Afghanistan killed or wounded by roadside bombs increased dramatically. That sparked an emergency $12.5 billion acquisition spree to buy 8,104 M-ATVs. At 25,000 pounds, they’re not as light or as movable as JLTVs are intended to be, but they do offer the blast protection that JTLVs now are struggling to match. With M-ATVs now in service, the GAO cautioned lawmakers of a possible “overlap in capabilities” between M-ATVs, JLTVs and the even bigger MRAPs. The Congressional Research Service, too, pointed to “a significant number of redundancies” that it says should be “examined in greater detail before the JLTV program enters production and procurement.” And with the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan winding down, there’s a question of whether JLTVs will be needed at all, Harrison says. A roles and missions review currently under way at the Pentagon could deemphasize the role of ground forces, and consequently their equipment requirements, he says. In a speech at West Point in February, then-Defense Secretary Robert Gates suggested as much. “In my opinion, any future defense secretary who advises the president to again send a big American land army into Asia or into the Middle East or Africa should have his head examined.”J

transportability,” the Congressional Research Service reported in March. That’s a problem if the Army’s revised protection requirement means adding much more weight.

W

hen it comes to force protection, “there are no easy solutions,” says Glen Lamartin, the BAE vice president who oversees the JLTV program. “It’s both an art and a science” that involves materials, design and the ability to manufacture with attention to detail, he says. The JLTV program “set ambitious targets for weight.” BAE’s “Valanx” JLTV has at various times been described as a “16,000-pound vehicle,” and as having a “13,200 curb weight” and a “20,850 combat weight.” Deepak Bazzas, BAE’s JLTV program director, says BAE is “well along the path to meeting the new [blast protection] requirement.” Lockheed says it has already met the requirement. “We anticipated that these requirements would go to this level well over a year ago,” and designed that level of protection in, says Kathryn Hasse, Lockheed’s JLTV program director. Even so, Lockheed engineers continue working to reduce their JLTV’s weight, and its cost, she says. General Dynamics, which has teamed with AM General to produce a JLTV, declined to discuss the new requirement or its vehicles’ performance in the Army’s tests. It was not surprising that the Army changed some requirements during the technology development phase, Lamartin and Bazzas say. “You build, test, assess and fix – it’s continuous” during that phase. One approach to tackling the weight problem is to use more composites, alloys and other lightweight materials. But that’s likely to aggravate another problem – rising costs. The Army says it’s too early in the JLTV development process to know how much the vehicles will cost. But at the request of Congress last fall, the GAO took a stab at it. “JLTV’s acquisition costs are yet to be determined, but are expected to be substantial,” the GAO reported. “Unit costs could be 50

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11


Winning the battle against night, bullets and mediocrity. SCHOTT component technologies lead the way in armor, night vision, electronic packaging and optics. Component failure is not an option. That’s why SCHOTT fights the laws of physics every day to achieve the very highest levels of success. It’s why the defense industry consistently chooses our components for critical equipment and systems. Our SCHOTT Resistan® transparent vehicle armor, currently deployed in Afghanistan, is lighter than competing armor. It provides multi-hit ballistic performance while still allowing soldiers to use night vision equipment – a key factor in their safety. We’ve expanded and enhanced our capabilities in fiber optics and lighting, IR and eye-safe laser materials and electronic packaging. Insist on components that are SCHOTT stronger, SCHOTT safer, SCHOTT smarter.

Defense SCHOTT North America, Inc. 2451 Crystal Drive, Suite 450 Arlington, VA 22202 Phone: 703-418-1409 Fax: 703-418-4762 E-mail: defense@us.schott.com www.us.schott.com/defense


U

p,

Itʼs not just a bunch of hot air: Low-cost surveillance systems aboard tethered balloons are saving lives in combat zones

Up an d.. .st a y?

By Rich Tuttle

F

loating high above the British base in Afghanistan’s Helmand Province, the unmanned aerostat had a bird’s eye view of the neighboring village and surrounding terrain. The surveillance package toted by the tethered, heliumfilled balloon could look behind walls and into areas that couldn’t be seen by soldiers on the ground. “A patrol was going out, down through the main street in the village, and there were two intersecting alleyways. We couldn’t see into the area” from the base itself, recalled Lance Bombardier Garth Edwards. But they had been watching the area with the Revivor aerostat. “That morning as the patrol was going out, we saw insurgents moving into firing points. We were able to get on the [communications] net, stop the patrol, and then we eventually struck those targets and eliminated them, so that allowed the patrol to carry on,” he said at the Empire Challenge multinational demonstration earlier this year at Fort Huachuca, Ariz. Revivor is one of several types of tethered aerostats used by the U.S. and its allies in Afghanistan and Iraq. They are able to sit for weeks over a location, keeping

52

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11

tabs on movements in local populations and detecting changes in life patterns that might be threatening to friendly forces. The U.S. had deployed about 60 in Afghanistan by March 2011, when former Defense Secretary Robert Gates told Marines at a base in Sangin, “I want to put a bunch more in.” Aerostats’ relatively low cost -- the balloon portion of a Canadian model demonstrated at Empire Challenge, for instance, costs about $25,000 and its payload comes in at about $1 million -- helps make them attractive.

G

ates established the Pentagon’s Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) Task Force in 2008 to rush desperately needed ISR assets, including aerostats, to U.S. troops in combat zones. They’ve shown their stuff by helping to save lives, although officials acknowledge that it’s hard to say how many. They’re considered most effective when used with other ISR systems. Aerostats “allow you to understand what is going on within the enemy network, and that’s helpful to understanding where to look” for an improvised explosive device, or IED, according to U.S. Army Lt. Gen. Michael L. Oates, director of the Joint IED Defeat Organization, or JIEDDO. “Our


Š 2011 Rockwell Collins, Inc. All rights reserved.

Every day, coalition forces around the world rely on Rockwell Collins to find their way in hostile environments. From networked communication and navigation to integrated displays and computing systems for military vehicles, we provide the critical solutions they need to successfully complete their missions. To see where we’re headed, visit us at rockwellcollins.com/depend.


I

t’s true that an aerostat floating in the air is a sign there’s a base below. But it’s also true that if you can see it, it probably can see you. In addition, aerostats are typically very low pressure systems, so gunfire has little immediate effect. In fact, says one soldier, “We like it when enemy forces shoot at the balloon because when they do, it tells us exactly where they are.” Aerostats also can be flown

54

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11

PHOTO: Staff Sgt. Bradley C. Church

other intelligence capabilities allow us to do the same. But unless you employ all of these capabilities, it is very, very difficult to find these explosives,” he told reporters in Washington last December. Revivor “works best in a village,” says Lance Bombardier Edwards. He says his aerostat team watched “target houses, alleyways and vulnerable points that the lads [British soldiers] were going through, obviously making sure that nobody’s mashing about there and doing things they shouldn’t,” like burying IEDs. Aerostats doing combat duty in addition to Britain’s Revivor include the U.S. Persistent Ground Surveillance System, or PGSS, the larger U.S. Persistent Threat Detection System, or PTDS, and the Canadian Persistent Surveillance Aerostat, or PSA, which is based on an Israeli design. PGSS has prompted accolades from troops. U.S. Army Lt. Col. Viet Luong, commander of the 101st Airborne Division’s 3rd Brigade, called it a game-changer shortly after the first was launched from Forward Operating Base Salerno in Afghanistan in July 2010. PGSS suppliers include Aerostar International Inc. of Sioux Falls, S.D., and TCOM of Columbia, Md. The program sprang from an urgent request in August 2009 for tethered aerostats that, unlike the bigger Lockheed Martin-built PTDS, could be operated from smallto medium-size forward operating bases. It went into service in April 2010. PTDS has been operating from larger bases since 2004. The systems complement each other in the field, according to the Navy, which developed and fielded PGSS. PTDS is a U.S. Army system. It has been “very successful, and has provided over 230,000 hours of full motion video in support of missions in theater,” Maj. Robert Rugg, assistant product manager for persistent surveillance devices for the Army Program Manager Robotic and Unmanned Systems office, says in an email. “The PTDS systems have made a significant difference in not only protecting the warfighter, leading the way in helping reduce IED casualties, but also helping execute the mission.”

PHOTO: Courtesy of U.S. Army

Members of the Precision Threat Detection System (PTDS) crew put the final touches on the aerostat’s cameras before its first flight Nov. 17, 2010, from Forward Operating Base Andar in Afghanistan’s Ghazni Province.

Aerostats see far beyond what a soldier can see during a typical base perimeter security check.


PRECISION REFLEX, INC.

In battle field conditions when the weather and the elements are against you, it is a time for your weapon to be on your side. The PRi Gas Buster 速 is a safety device that will tame the blowback from the M16 and M4 that can blind your shooting eye or dirty your glasses.

419.629.2603

PRi is a manufacturer of a full line of tactical shooting products.

pri-mounts.com


without payloads to fool insurgents into thinking they are looking at an ISR system. The Army and Navy work together on development of aerostats and their payloads, which typically include powerful electro-optical and infrared cameras. Northrop Grumman recently demonstrated a lightweight radar on a PTDS. It cued cameras to vehicles and people it detected. PTDS aerostats have been deployed largely in eastern Afghanistan, where the Army says they have helped thwart insurgent activity. In January, for example, near Forward Operating Base Andar in the eastern province of Ghazni, an aerostat camera saw four armed insurgents on motorcycles near the village of Shamsay. Their location was passed to attack helicopters, which killed them as they drove through an open field, the Army says. But aerostat-aided surveillance can’t always anticipate attacks. “No system is going to be perfect,” said John Pike of GlobalSecurity.org, which tracks defense programs and issues. A case in point may be the attack on the Intercontinental Hotel in Kabul in June. A PTDS was launched over Kabul in August 2009, but it’s not clear whether it was on duty when the hotel was attacked; ISAF didn’t respond to an email query. But even if it was, it might not have been able to give real-time warning of attackers wearing local uniforms. On the other hand, says Pike, videotape of the scene from PTDS cameras could be played back to see where the attackers had come from, which could ultimately lead to their demise. “It takes time to connect the dots,

56

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11

PHOTO: Courtesy of Lockheed Martin

The Persistent Threat Detection System (PTDS) has been operational since 2004. Lockheed Martin recently received a $184 million contract for 29 more for use in Afghanistan. The company said it delivered 28 PTDSs last year for use in theater, bringing the number provided to the U.S. Army to 37.

but this sort of persistent surveillance is where you get the dots to connect.” Persistent surveillance has often meant constantly monitoring a video screen to detect unusual activity -- a potentially mind-numbing job. In some forward operating bases, however, automated computer tools have been enlisted to help human operators whose knowledge of an area increases with time, says Ron Browing, business development lead for Lockheed Martin’s PTDS program. PTDS systems -- 37 deployed and 29 more just ordered -- are operated by Lockheed personnel. “You get more bang for the buck with both,” he says. He declines to be specific, but does refer to “some tools in development that will continue to help limit the factors you get into with humans staring at screens.”

T

he Pentagon’s Defense Advanced Projects Agency is using cutting-edge technology to develop such tools. The idea is to use software to pick out unusual activity in live as well as archived video. It’s a new field called activity-based exploitation. “Bad guys do bad things, such as actions associated with burying an IED,” DARPA’s Mita Desai says in an email, and “the activity is what becomes important. This is especially true when bad guys look, dress, and drive vehicles like those around them. The tools to detect these activities and their underlying actions don’t currently exist, which is why there is such interest in activity-based analysis and exploitation.”


C

M

Y

M

MY

Y

MY

VT Hackney

Satellite IP Comms Technology

Shipbuilding

Command Centers

K

VT Halter Marine

VT iDirect

Our family of companies has proven ability to meet your needs

VT Systems

A Reputation for Engineering Ability

vt-systems.com

VT Miltope

VT MĂ„K

VT LeeBoy

AUSA Booth 7247

Rugged Computers

Training and Simulation

Road Construction Equipment


These slides from DARPA explain how its Video and Image Retrieval and Analysis Tool (VIRAT) might work with aerostats or unmanned aerial systems. VIRAT helps human analysts find threats more quickly and easily, DARPA says.

ILLUSTRATIONS: Courtesy of DARPA

He says warfighters “are being inundated with data, especially from wide-area sensors, where one day’s worth of collection could be as much as 100 terabytes” -- a staggering amount, considering that the entire Library of Congress amounts to only about 235 terabytes. “Reducing the amount of data or the number of sensors isn’t the answer, and there will never be enough analysts,” Desai says. “The solution lies in better automated video analysis and exploitation capabilities that can identify those areas that require a human analyst to review or respond to the most important aspects of the data and turn that sensor data into intelligence.” Two DARPA programs managed by Desai -- the Persistent Stare Exploitation and Analysis System (PerSEAS) and the Video and Image Retrieval and Analysis Tool (VIRAT) -- are intended not to replace human analysts, “but to make them more effective and efficient by reducing their cognitive load and enabling them to search for activities and threat patterns quickly and easily,” Desai says. “Both programs are designed to be interactive, to allow an analyst to view data the system thought was important, but let the analyst make the decisions.” PerSEAS will point to events of interest, such as “cars following each other or driving aimlessly, which in turn would be linked to activities like a vehicle-borne IED attack or an ambush,” he says. VIRAT will quickly “find video content of interest from hours of archived data and from live video, providing online alerts as events of interest occur,” he says. It “finds actions and events that are short in duration and occur in small geographic areas…. Examples include carrying, u-turns, and digging.” VIRAT isn’t “fully automatic, but employs user interaction to get the best results.” ✪

58

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11


We Will Never Forget 9-11-01

Partnering to Improve the Lives of Military Families

family

UN I T UnificationNavigationInspirationTransformation

FOR EVERY FAMILY UNIT COUPON redeemed * AT YOUR LOCAL Commissary

P&G will donate 25 to USO Operation Enduring Care

Register for a Family Unit coupon book to save on P&G brands!

*Coupons must be redeemed at the Commissary to qualify towards total donation.

www.FamilyUnitPG.com

¢


’12 AIR FORCE Preview

Space fence AF pursues new space tracking system

T

By Rich Tuttle

PHOTO: Courtesy of Lockheed Martin

he job of keeping track of more than 100,000 objects as far away as handling the program, is the service’s center thousands of objects in Earth 3,000 kilometers, well over the 22,000 of excellence for ground-based radar. But that doesn’t mean Space Fence orbit falls to the Air Force’s objects being tracked today. It won’t be perfect. There may be isn’t being scrutinized on Capitol Hill. The Space Surveillance System, a network of six radar antennas stretching from Georgia millions of pieces in low to medium Earth House Appropriations Committee’s defense subcommittee has targeted the program to California that has been in operation since orbit. for budget cuts over the 1961. past two years, which The system Haines calls “very, very works, but it frustrating.” sometimes shows She says her response is its age. For instance, to “increase the confidence” it signaled on June of Air Force, Pentagon and 28 that a piece of congressional leaders “that space junk was you have a good plan and approaching the you’re executing to that International Space plan and you’re keeping Station. But the your promises.” warning came too Congress’ Government late for the station Accountability Office, to take evasive meanwhile, has been maneuvers. The worried that Space Fence six astronauts had technologies aren’t mature to climb aboard enough. But Haines says two Russian Soyuz the GAO used old data. capsules docked to This still photo from a Lockheed Martin film dramatizes the collision of two satellites “Basically the technologies the station, ready to and indicates how debris can be added to Earth orbit. Space Fence operators for this program are return to Earth if the would have earlier warning of potential collisions. mature,” or will be by the station was struck. time the preliminary design The debris Still, networked with other systems, review is conducted next February. whizzed by only 820 feet away -- reportedly John Morse, Lockheed Martin’s Space the closest any space junk has ever come to Space Fence is expected to revolutionize the art of space situational awareness – knowing Fence program manager, says technology the space station. and manufacturing risks will be reduced “to A new ground radar system, slated to what is where in Earth orbit. Haines declined to address whether the almost nothing” by the end of the preliminary begin operation in 2015, would have given an design phase next summer. earlier warning, says Linda Haines, program trackable objects include stealthy satellites. One of the technologies is digital beam Lockheed Martin Corp. and Raytheon manager of the new system. It’s called Space Fence because, like its predecessor, its radar Co. are competing for Space Fence, which is forming, according to Doug Burgess, beams will shoot straight up like a fence to expected to have a lifetime cost of $4 billion senior Space Fence program manager at to $5 billion. Each received $107 million Raytheon. He describes it as the ability to detect objects passing through. simultaneously put multiple beams of radar But with S-band radar instead of the earlier this year for preliminary design. The companies have extensive into a large volume of space. old VHF radar, Space Fence will see To help reduce risk, both companies are smaller objects – important, because even a experience with big, ground-based radars. centimeter-sized object traveling at 20,000 The Air Force’s Electronic Systems Center building prototypes that will track space mph could destroy a satellite. It will track at Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., which is objects by the end of this year. J

F a l l 2 0 11 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D

61


THE ULTIMATE HEAD PROTECTION The ultimate protection from trauma—

Blunt force, blast and ballistic.

With a lightweight wearability…

INTRODUCING BATLSKIN

THE WORLD’S FIRST FULLY INTEGRATED, FULLY MODULAR HEAD PROTECTION SYSTEM. More science. More technology. More protection. Less weight. And you can tailor the system to the mission. So a soldier can do what a soldier does.

That allows for peak performance.

revisionmilitary.com/batlskin

© 2011 REVISION MILITARY INC. 3575 ST. LAURENT BLVD. SUITE 488, MONTREAL QC H2X 2T7 CANADA. BATLSKIN ™ IS A TRADEMARK OWNED BY REVISION MILITARY S.A.R.L. AND USED UNDER LICENSE BY REVISION MILITARY INC. BE REVISION READY. ® AND REVISION ® ARE TRADEMARKS OF REVISION MILITARY.


’12 ARMY Preview

Strykers

Anti-IED double-V hulls prove their value

F

By Matthew Cox

PHOTO: U.S. Army

or the first time in nearly Stryker Brigade Combat Team in late vice president for General Dynamics’ eight years of combat de- 1999 to create a fighting force with the Ground Combat Systems. “We had to ployments, the Army is final- flexibility of a light unit and the stay- redesign seven variants; that is a sigly outfitting Stryker armored personnel ing power of a heavier outfit. Since nificant effort.” The middle of the Stryker vehicle carriers with armor that will stand up 2003 the service has fielded seven to some of the deadliest enemy bombs. Stryker brigades, each equipped with equipped with the new hull is no higher off the ground than the basic Stryker, The Army now has about 50 new about 300 Stryker vehicles. Cannon says. The Stryker wheeled veV-shaped design dehicles in Afghaniflects the blast out stan equipped with and away from the blast-deflecting hulls Stryker. similar to those on Schumitz says the Mine Resistant that the acceleration Ambush Protected of the double-V hull (MRAP) vehicle fleet. program prompted The service exthem to conduct pects to spend up to survivability test$320 million developing while the new ing the new hull design Strykers were in prothrough fiscal 2012, duction. Normally, including the full testing would be range of testing, says completed before the Col. Robert Schumitz, system goes into prowho oversees Stryker duction. development as the Mounting casualties in Iraq from improvised explosive devices prompted the As of July 12, 205 project manager for Stryker Brigade Com- Army’s move to equip newer models with double-V hulls on the bottom. Strykers of the 450 improved equipped with the new hull will cost about $2.4 million each. Strykers had been bat Team. Fielding 450 built and accepted, new Stryker vehicles But warfare in Afghanistan brought says Schumitz. equipped with a double-V hull through Cannon says the new hulls have 2012 will cost about $1.3 billion, with new threats. Afghanistan’s road network is less developed than Iraq, proved to be “outstanding” at protecting a per-unit cost of about $2.4 million. “The unique hull design, combined and enemy improvised explosive de- soldiers from bomb attacks in Afghaniwith energy attenuating seats, provides vices tend to be significantly larger, stan. While he wouldn’t provide details, significantly improved protection for Schumitz says. Casualties to Stryker he said no soldiers riding in Strykers with Stryker soldiers,” Schumitz says in a troops mounted. The Army began the new hulls had been killed by IED written response to questions. “Sol- searching for ways to combat the IED blasts. The new-style hull adds about 4,000 dier survivability is the Army’s No. 1 threat in 2008, and accelerated the doupounds to the Stryker’s weight and repriority. Once we determined that the ble-V hull program in 2009. In late 2010, Stryker manufacturer quires a beefed-up suspension, Schumitz [double-V hull] effort was an achievable and acceptable risk, we swiftly General Dynamics agreed to deliver says. Cannon says the weight is not signifiengaged in executing the robust pro- the first 150 new Strykers with doubleV hulls by May 2011. “We actually de- cant, and that the vehicle can still be transgram.” The Army began developing the livered 177,” says Mike Cannon, senior ported aboard a C-130 Hercules aircraft. J

F a l l 2 0 11 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D

63


You’re a hero to your country. What do you want to be

NOW ? 1/2 TUITION FOR MILITARY STUDENTS

Military Friendly School

Start Now, Online! Bachelor’s Degree Flexible Schedule 8 - Week Internet Courses Regionally Accredited Financial Aid Available Transfer Credits Accepted Credit for Ratings/MOS Credit for Military Training & Schools

Majors

Business Administration Computer Science Psychology Criminal Justice Health Care Administration Liberal Studies Human Resource Management

1.866.654.2223

www.Limestone.edu/military LIMESTONE COLLEGE

Extended Campus


’12 MARINE CORPS Preview

New Marine One

industry ready for competition to lift off

S

By Amy McCullough

PHOTO: PM2 Daniel J. McLain

ix months after Naval Air Sys- development. The first nine birds are still Sikorsky spokesman Frans Jurgens says. The design combines the S-92 airframe tems Command announced its sitting in the hangar. In February, NAVAIR released a preso- and the CH148 Canadian Maritime Heliintentions to move forward with a competition to build the next-generation licitation for the next-generation presiden- copter’s flight control systems with Genpresidential helicopter, industry is still tial helicopter, which is operated by Marine eral Electric CT7-8 engines, says Jurgens. waiting on the Pentagon to take the next Helicopter Squadron One at Marine Corps Advanced capabilities will include “low Base Quantico, Va. At the time, the pro- pilot workload, full authority flight constep. Officials would say only that changes gram executive office confirmed the analy- trols (fly-by-wire), a state-of-the-art cockpit, and fail-safe structural design and flawto the program were possible, but declined sis of alternatives was in the final stages. The budget environment has changed tolerant components. to provide further details. Some industry Unlike the S92, which is insiders wonder whether a commercial aircraft, the the controversial program AW101—the previous winmight fall under the Penner—was built as a comtagon’s budget ax, saying bat aircraft for the United at the very least the highly Kingdom and Italy, an Aupoliticized program may gustaWestland spokesman remain stalled until after the says. It boasts three engines 2012 elections. and a unique rotor-blade NAVAIR spokeswoman design intended to provide Capt. Cate Mueller says “maximum performance” “the Navy renewed (its) fobased on the aircraft’s flight cus on improving functionprofile. ality of the in-service fleet” “The 101 has a long opover the last few years, inerational history now. It has cluding reducing the over- The VH-60Ns in Marine Helicopter Squadron One are more than 20 years a couple hundred thousand all weight of the existing old and have an average of 6,500 flight hours. The squadron’s VH-3Ds VH-3D and VH-60N air- are 15 years older. The competition for a next-generation chopper seems hours on it and (it) will not to be in limbo. throw any surprises” at the craft, implementing a serNavy because of its matuvice life extension program, improving the lift and upgrading the cock- significantly since then, and the Pentagon’s rity, says the AugustaWestland spokesman, pit. The VH-3D fleet, first fielded in 1974, biggest challenge will be focusing the air- who would speak only on background. has an average of 10,500 flight hours; the craft’s requirements and ensuring costs “That’s why the Indian air force bought 12 to be its presidential helicopter because it’s VH-60N fleet, fielded in 1989, has an aver- don’t get out of control again. The now-canceled VH-71, manufac- extremely reliable.” age of 6,500, Mueller says. Boeing owns the rights to the aircraft Former Defense Secretary Robert tured by a Lockheed Martin/AugustaWestGates shelved the initial Lockheed Martin- land team, was loaded down with top- and would serve as the prime contractor if led Marine One replacement program in of-the-line communications equipment, awarded the competition. Both the Lockheed/Sikorsky and BoeApril 2009 after costs ballooned from an hardened hulls, and antimissile defenses, estimated $6.5 billion to more than $13 bil- all of which made the aircraft difficult to ing/AugustaWestland teams responded to the Navy’s request for information last lion for a fleet of 28. Development lagged build. This time around Lockheed has part- year, outlining how the team would deat least six years behind schedule. The initial contract called for all 28 aircraft to be nered with Sikorsky Aircraft Corp., a sign and manufacture the aircraft, but ofdelivered in two increments by 2013. The subsidiary of United Technologies Corp., ficials for each team say there has been Pentagon has already spent $3.2 billion on to offer its H-92 medium-lift helicopter, little contact since. J

F a l l 2 0 11 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D

65


Handcrafted by real people. And the occasional machine. Like LaVerne here. LaVerne Borger Quality Control Specialist since 1985

LaVerne can discern our ammo’s merit merely by the way it rolls across her palm. If you’re a serious shooter or belong to the US Military Special Forces, chances are LaVerne has ensured that your ammunition is perfect. Expertly, flawlessly, methodically. Like a machine. Only better. www.black-hills.com

|

605.348.5150

|

P.O. Box 3090

|

Rapid City, SD 57709


’12 NAVY Preview

Destroyers

DDG-51 sails through political turmoil

T

By John T. Bennett

PHOTO: Courtesy of Huntington-Ingalls Industries

hese have been an eventful few through the incremental approach of Northrop Grumman’s Ingalls Shipyard in years for the DDG-51 destroyer developing new technologies,” Navy Mississippi. Bath is working on the final pair of 51s program. But it appears all is acquisition executive Sean Stackley and well with a program that until recently was other service officials said in a recent awarded under previous contracts (DDGjoint statement prepared for leaders of 111, the USS Spruance, and DDG-112, slated to stop churning out ships. ​The Navy decided to build only a few the House Armed Services seapower and the USS Michael Murphy). Picking up work started under the Northrop banner, models of an entire new class of ships -- projection forces subcommittee. Huntington-Ingalls dubbed DDG-1000 -Industries is under and restarted production contract to build DDGof the Arleigh Burke113. class war ship. The The Navy also has Obama administration awarded Huntingtonmade the Aegis Weapon Ingalls a contract to System-equipped ships a build DDG-114. Bath central part of its missile will build DDG-115. defense plan. And one of The company offering the two manufacturers the best price estimate of the ships, Northrop for Arleigh Burke 116 Grumman Corp., spun would get the contract off its shipbuilding for that ship. business. Despite breaking off But with the smoke from Northrop, Brenton clearing from those says Huntington-Ingalls moves, Navy and The Arleigh Burke-class destroyer program was close to ending when Hunis focused on becoming industry officials say tington-Ingalls Shipyards laid down the keel for DDG 107, the USS Gravely. the Navy’s “shipbuilder the DDG-51 program A revived program includes plans for at least 10 of the Aegis guided-missile of choice in the design is progressing on destroyers, splitting the work between Northrop Grumman’s Huntington-Ingalls and General Dynamics Bath Ironworks. and build of future schedule. Aegis destroyers.” The sea service But its top shipbuilding rival reports it The restart plan also “strengthens made the call to revive Arleigh Burke production in 2008, and talked of building and stabilizes the industrial base to more has made big strides in ship design tactics. efficiently and cost-effectively produce And that could give it an edge when eight new ships. But now, “the Navy’s plan includes ships to meet our national needs,” they pursuing future DDG contracts. Jim DeMartini, a General Dynamics at least 10 continuation DDG-51 class told the panel. Each new ship will cost around $3.5 spokesman, says the shipyard’s work on ships, and the number of platforms could ... increase,” says Beci Brenton, billion, according to Congressional the first vessel in the DDG-1000 class “is a spokeswoman for Northrop spin-off Research Service analyst Ron O’Rourke. coming along better than any lead ship has That means both Huntington-Ingalls and before.” Huntington-Ingalls Industries. DeMartini credits three-dimensional Not bad for a program that just three General Dynamics stand to benefit from computer-aided design, a technology he the revived production. years ago was on its last leg. The Navy several years ago had calls a “game-changer” in improving “The approach for the [DDG-51] restart leverages the cost savings of every intention of ceasing production the company’s shipbuilding process. existing production lines, [and] reduces of the ships at General Dynamics Bath General Dynamics is slated to build the potential for cost overruns and delays Iron Works shipyard in Maine and three DDG-1000s. J

F a l l 2 0 11 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D

67


U.S. ARMY FORCES COMMAND Nothing is easy as the Army’s largest force provider readies for life after Iraq and Afghanistan By Julie Bird

PHOTO: Sgt. M. Benjamin Gable

With combat operations and multiple deployments winding down and equipment returning home, FORSCOM intends to transition away from contract equipment maintenance at units’ home bases.

F

ORT BRAGG, N.C. -- The paint was not quite dry yet at U.S. Army Forces Command’s new headquarters when acting commander Lt. Gen. Howard Bromberg and several key deputies sat down with DEFENSE STANDARD for their first media interview in their new center of operations. Earlier that morning, in a dedication ceremony timed to beat the steamy eastern Carolina heat, Bromberg had presided over the ceremonial ribbon-cutting and uncasing of the command’s colors. Lt. Gen. Jack Stultz, his counterpart at U.S. Army Reserve Command, which shares the 631,000-squarefoot building with FORSCOM, did the same. And with that, the Army’s largest command – and the primary provider 68

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11

of Army forces to combatant commanders worldwide – had officially relocated to Fort Bragg from Fort McPherson, Ga., a move set in motion by the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure legislation. That was the easy part. The bigger question is how FORSCOM will manage emerging challenges such as shrinking defense budgets, industry’s role in resetting equipment returning from Iraq and Afghanistan, and a pending drawdown of the Army force structure. Joining Bromberg in the interview were Maj. Gen. Mark Graham, deputy chief of staff for operations; Brig. Gen. (Maj. Gen. select) John O’Connor, deputy chief of staff for logistics; and Col. Darryl Murch, the command’s budget chief. (Gen. David Rodriguez since has taken over as commander, with Bromberg returning to his role as deputy commander.) The following was edited for brevity and clarity.


The world’s most complete and trusted line of battle tested IR & visual beacons, illuminators and remote lighting systems VIPIR™

GUARDIAN™

STEALTH ILLUMINATOR™

LAZER STIK™

®

UNIVERSAL DIGITAL REMOTE CONTROL ™

INQUIRIES PLEASE CONTACT: military@adventurelights.com T. 514 694 8477 • F. 514 694 2353 www.adventurelights.com VISIT US AT SOFIC BOOTH 1952

Signaling . Safety . Survival When it’s a matter of life and death you need to be heard! Designed by Search & Rescue Professionals, the Tri-Power Whistle gives you the best chance for being found and rescued.

Made In

USA

120 DB Split Ring and Clip for Easy Fastening to Gear

Our patented 3-chambered design produces separate frequencies and omni-directional blasts of up to 120 Decibels! Critical for being heard over environmental and mechanical noise. Manufactured in the USA of the highest grade ABS, this whistle will not fail like cheaper imported whistles. Trusted by life saving organizations around the world it is the Official Whistle of the National Association for Search & Rescue and in use by our Armed Forces in Afghanistan and Iraq.

UV Resistant Custom Jewel with Your Logo

Third Chamber With Pea Creates A Loud 120 Decibel Staccato Sound Waffled Sure-Grip for Wet, Cold or Gloved Hands Two Outer Pea-less Chambers Create Separate Omni Directional Sounds

TM

Hands Free Mouth Grip Will Not Freeze To Lips

Custom whistles and colors are available with volume orders, including your organizations full color logo and optional oil-filled compass or thermometer inset on the back of the whistle.

www.whistlesforlife.com Toll Free: 800-454-5706


QUESTIONS & ANSWERS Contractors’ role is at the heart of FORSCOM’s post-combat planning

Maj. Gen. Mark Graham

Brig. Gen. John O’Connor

Col. Darryl Murch 70

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11

What kind of challenges have those conferences tackled lately? Graham: One of the biggest challenges is when you have a high-demand unit, but you don’t have very many of them, like intelligence or explosive ordnance disposal. You have to sort out how you build enough of those units to do what you need to do. Bromberg: You might take an organization and reshape it, or you might go back to the combatant commander and see if the mission can be done in another way. We need to figure out how soldiers get adequate rest time to spend time with their families. Graham: We always say the enemy gets a vote. Based on how the enemy is fighting, the commander on the ground in theater comes back and gives us requirements. We need to figure out how we can support him, so we sometimes combine units together or bring in different individuals to form an ad hoc unit to go do that mission. Can you think of an example? Graham: IEDs. We had organizations that did explosive disposal, but we did not have near enough that did those types of explosives. So we had to take other engineer units and train them to be route-clearance units. You need more capability than you had before because it’s a new mission set. Bromberg: And we have to make decisions all the time about where we refurbish our equipment. Do we do it at the home station? Do we do it at Army depot? O’Connor: We’ll send our equipment through an automated reset program out of theater. We will determine a deliberate plan well in advance, 180 days out from a unit coming home, exactly where every single piece of equipment is going to go. This fits our back-to-basics campaign for Forces Command that has allowed us to look at how we’re going to use our soldiers when they come back. We actually had contracts in place to fill the (equipment maintenance) gap while soldiers were deployed. We’re going to start weighing those contracts out to right-size them to support missions, but get soldiers back to the basics. Can you explain more about that? O’Connor: As we draw down, everything’s got to draw down simultaneously. We want to synchronize it so we don’t create an imbalance. You can’t just take a $100 million contract that’s providing support to three installations and take it off the table. We want to do it smartly, so as a unit comes back it can pick up the support and responsibility. We’ll bring down the contracts appropriately. Bromberg: Let me give you an example. So I’m in a tank unit and didn’t need my tanks for my mission in Iraq. I’ve been gone for over a year and someone’s got to maintain those tanks, because in the interim a crisis could happen somewhere else where

PHOTOS: Larry Stevens

Lt. Gen. Howard Bromberg

Can you set the stage for the major issues FORSCOM is facing these days? Bromberg:. We had to readjust and reshape the Army after Desert Storm and after 9/11 and re-tailor capabilities. In this next phase, as we come down in Iraq and Afghanistan, we’ll just take the mission and see what we have to do to change and adjust for it. Graham: We have a major event four times a year called the Army Force Generation Synchronization Resourcing Conference. We literally bring the Army together four times a year here at this headquarters and synchronize all that we do and have all the right pieces in the right places to go fight the nation’s wars or to do whatever, like support the homeland or the Haiti mission.


Forward thinking. World ready. www.fhsu.edu/virtualcollege 800.628.FHSU

NOBODY DOES “MILITARY-FRIENDLY” BETTER THAN FHSU. A World Leader in Online Education at an Affordable Price Awarded “America’s Top Military-Friendly Colleges & Universities” 3 Years Running

Easy Transferability of Credits LOI Institution Ranked a National Best Buy Yellow Ribbon Recognized for Excellence by the Sloan-C Foundation

Fully Accredited MyCAA Partnered with GoArmyEd Troops to Teachers Accepts DANTES and CLEP Exams

OVER 30 ONLINE DEGREE PROGRAMS AVAILABLE BACHELOR’S DEGREES

Bachelor of General Studies Customizable Degree 17 Options Available Bachelor of Arts in Sociology Bachelor of Arts in Political Science Bachelor of Business Administration Management Management - Concentration in Human Resources Marketing Management Information Systems Tourism and Hospitality Management Bachelor of Science Business Education Three Concentrations Available Education Elementary Education TEAM K-6 w/Special Ed Minor Early Childhood Unified Elementary Education TEAM K-6 TEAM K-6 Honors Computer Networking and Telecommunications Web Development Justice Studies Medical Diagnostic Imaging Nursing - RN to BSN

Apply Online Now

Organizational Leadership Bachelor of Science in Technology Leadership

MASTER’S DEGREES

Master of Business Administration Ten Concentrations Available Master of Liberal Studies Customizable Degree 20 Options Available Master of Science Counseling Education Educational Administration Health and Human Performance Instructional Technology Nursing Administration Education Family Nurse Practitioner Special Education Professional Science Master’s in Health Care Administration

CERTIFICATE PROGRAMS Enhance your skills with 51 Certificates available.

Financial Aid Available


PHOTO: Larry Stevens

we need the tanks. Now those tank units come back and have soldiers who know how to fix and maintain those tanks. We don’t need those contractors doing that any more. Another example might be our aviation. Aviation is in such high demand that they redeploy in about a year. They don’t have enough time to repair their own helicopters and to keep training for their next deployment, so we have to give them helicopters that are ready to fly, and fix helicopters at the same time so they’re ready to go. This involves the whole industrial base of the nation. You have large companies, Army depots, everybody involved all the way down to the sergeant with a wrench. O’Connor: We’ve got to make sure our facilities here are ready to receive 10,000 MRAPs coming back from theater, that we’ve got the right maintenance institutions there. Until we can get that built we’ll have some contractors to help oversee that. I would think it would take some time to requalify and recertify soldiers in certain skills. O’Connor: We have to retrain the installations how to provide that support back to the soldier, where before they had complete control but now we have to work what we call an installation support plan. We have to blend our cultures and our automation and our systems with theirs.

FORSCOM trimmed its headquarters staff by 15 percent for the move to Fort Bragg, N.C., in anticipation of upcoming budget cuts.

I think we’re very well resourced for the fight, but we do have to look at doing things differently. There will be some things where we just have to be smarter about how we use our money. - Lt. Gen. Howard Bromberg

72

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11

Talk a little bit about the next war and how FORSCOM is preparing for that. Graham: We do have basic mission-essential tasks -- offensive operations, defensive operations, stability operations. And inside those from a strategic level all the way to what a small unit does we’ve got manuals and automated systems now that lay out all the tasks from a system to a squad to a platoon all the way up to large formations. So we’ve been using a lot of those skills in Afghanistan, but some we have not. So when you come back and you start resetting, that’s the training you go through. You always train to the hardest mission – a full-blown fight against the enemy, a nearpeer competitor. Bromberg: We’ll have this basic block of capabilities and then we can add things on. O’Connor: We’re projecting that 2012 is the first time we’ll have equipment on hand at the levels that the U.S. Army Reserve Command’s readiness levels will be at 90 percent, equal to the active component forces. That’s a huge progression that we’ve made. Is there a crunch point where there’s not enough money or people? Bromberg: I think we’re very well resourced for the fight, but we do have to look at doing things differently. There will be some things where we just have to be smarter about how we use our money. Because it’s very easy when you’re in the fight to resource everything without, a lot of times, the proper questioning. Murch: Think of the left-behind equipment. As soldiers come back we’ll look at this and say instead of a using a bunch of contractors to maintain it, maybe we’ll hire some in advisory and accountability levels to take advantage of some of these soldiers who can be the wrench-turners. It also gets us back to basics of what soldiers do – take care of equipment. Bromberg: The money we’re going to save is in the hundreds of millions. O’Connor: In Operation Clean Sweep, units are going to bring equipment back. We call it the war on excess. Do we need all that equipment now or not? It costs us a lot to sustain it, to store it and maintain it, so let’s start divesting ourselves of things that we no longer require. That will drive down operating costs, overhead costs, management costs. J


www.drdieseltech.com Jorge.guerrero@drdieseltech.com 1-888-698-3387

“The Marines choice for vehicle Diagnostic test equipment”

Dr. Diesel Technologies – A Service Disabled / Veteran Owned Small Business “DATS is designed as a Joint Services U.S. Military Diagnostic Analyzer Tool Set (DATS) intended for use by U.S. Military vehicle technicians and mechanics”

DATS-I

DATS-II

DATS Customer Benefits • Improve Readiness of Service Weapon Systems • Increase Troubleshooting Efficiency • Reduce Test Equipment Logistical Footprint

M-ATV (MRAP)

M1A1 Tank

DefenseStandard_CompromiseElswhere:Layout 1

8/15/11

9:19 PM

MTVR 7-Ton

Page 1

Compromise Elsewhere! AR-75 Vehicle-Mounted Booster Amps • • • • •

75 watts of power Fast automatic switching Separate antenna ports for line-of-sight & satellite communications Switchable LNA and co-site filters Waterproof

KMW2030 (JITC Certified) • • • •

125 watts of power Automatic band switching option UHF co-site filtering eliminates interference from nearby transmitters Protection against VSWR, antenna mismatch, over temperature, excessive current draw and DC power mismatch

All AR products are backed by the 3 year no nonsense warranty. These state-of-the-art amplifiers support tactical waveforms including DAMA, SINCGARS, HAVEQUICK, HPW, IW and ANW2. GSA Contract Number GS-07F-0371U. Call us at 425-485-9000 or visit us at www.arworld.us.

AR-50 (JITC Certified) • • • •

50 watts of power Fast automatic switching Switchable LNA and co-site filters Small size

KMW1031 Kit

• The “lightest” 20-watt amplifier kit on the market at less than 2.5 lbs. • Fully automatic band-switching • No VSWR fault or reset required • Single battery full spec operation • Waterproof • Kit includes amplifier, 30-512 MHz antenna, RF cables, battery cable & tactical vest pouches for both the amp and the antenna.

modular rf Other ar divisions: rf/microwave instrumentation • receiver systems • ar europe Copyright© 2011 AR. The orange stripe on AR products is Reg. U.S. Pat. & TM. Off. The Battle Tested logo is Reg. U.S. Pat. & TM. Off. # 3,821,099.


PHOTO: Courtesy of Johns Hopkins APL

Prosthetics Prosthetics W It’s the little

things – think

nanotechnology – that will make a big difference By Sara Michael

The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory is developing a neurally-controlled arm limb, with the help of funding from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, that offers 22 degrees of motion, all controlled by brain signals.

74

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11

hen then-Staff Sgt. Leroy Petry lost his right arm throwing a live grenade away from his comrades in Afghanistan, his valor earned him a Medal of Honor. But his injury also earned him a far more common distinction: that of a wounded service member who would come to rely on a prosthetic limb. Petry’s new arm and hand are a bit more advanced than the standard prosthetic technology, says Del Lipe, area practice manager with Hanger Prosthetics and Orthotics in San Antonio, who works with Petry. Petry’s prosthetic, made by Hanger, is known as a myoelectric limb, which uses signals transmitted from surface electrodes that read the muscle contractions and prompt open and close actions. He uses two kinds of hands, the i-LIMB Pulse from Touch Bionics and a hand from Bebionic, both in the United Kingdom. They have microprocessors that allow for more than the traditional three-finger pinch movement. But with the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan increasing the number of amputees almost daily, the Defense Department, Department of Veterans Affairs and other federal agencies continue their push for more and better prosthetic technology. Private industry is doing its part as well. “It’s unfortunate in prosthetics,” Lipe says. “Wars are always where our field goes wild.” More than 1,033 service members from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan had lost a major limb as of last year, and at least 375 more suffered a partial amputation such as a hand, foot, toes or fingers, according to a September 2010 Congressional Research Service report. So far, says Lipe, “we are not replacing your hand; we are putting a tool at the end of your arm.”


Combat Casualty Care Ad XL.ai 1 9/13/2011 9:41:54 PM

There’s a Reason COMBAT GAUZE® is in Your IFAK

• PROVEN on the battlefield • SAFE & EFFECTIVE • APPROVED (recommended by CoTCCC)

M

Y

Authorized Basis of Issue:

Y

COMBAT gAUZE®

1 per Warfighter W fi ht 3 per CLS Bag 5 per Medic

4 Faireld Boulevard Wallingford, CT 06492 203-294-0000 www.Z-Medica.com www.CombatMedicalSystems.com QuikClot and Combat Gauze are registered trademarks of Z-Medica Corp. © 2011 Z-Medica Corporation. All rights reserved.


Medal of Honor recipient Sgt. 1st Class Leroy Petry uses a myoelectric prosthetic arm similar to this one.

Researchers around the country are doing their best to change that, in many cases developing incremental advances that help the body accept prosthetics or interface better with them. Incredible strides are being made in efforts to improve a user’s control of a prosthetic by engineering limbs that can be controlled through brain signals. By improving the interface between nervous system and prosthetic, researchers are finding ways to mimic natural motion and control – advances that will benefit amputees such as Petry, whose prosthetics are still somewhat limited in their control and capability. In the case of an arm amputee, brain signals will travel to nerves that run down the arm, but don’t go anywhere, explains Mike McLoughlin, program manager at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Baltimore. “If you can pick up those signals, those electrical impulses, then you can potentially convert those into telling the prosthetic arm to perform some kind of motion,” he says. Last year, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) awarded APL a contract for up to $34.5 million to manage development of the Modular Prosthetic Limb. The limb offers 22 degrees of motion, including movement of fingers, all controlled by brain signals. “The idea is that they would be able, through an implant to the brain, to think about moving the arm and be able to move it,” McLoughlin says. Similarly, brain signals could help control the sensation of touch, allowing an amputee some level of tactile perception, he says. An amputee could control the arm and interact with the environment thanks to basic sensations such as pressure. “Our goal is to make the ability to control that arm very natural,” he says. One of the greatest engineering challenges facing researchers is the ability to make an arm with natural strength and dexterity in a manageable size and weight, McLoughlin says. Researchers also face neuroscience challenges in understanding what’s happening in the brain to process the information. Five years into a seven-year program, researchers have devel-

76

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11

oped a “very capable prosthetic limb,” he says. Over the next several months, they will be working with the first human implantations, and in the next couple of years, McLoughlin says he hopes to have developed the technology that will be the basis of a commercial venture.

A

t the University of Texas in Arlington, bioengineering professor Mario Romero-Ortega and his team are approaching the brain-prosthetic connection by placing an interface in the prosthetic, rather than in the brain. Researchers have built a neural interface — with the help of a $2.2 million DARPA grant, which is part of the reliable neural interfacing (RENET) program — to connect the prosthetic to the nervous system. Through this implanted interface, Romero-Ortega and his team aim to unlock the nerve channels that allow for better movement and control. But deciphering the various kinds of nerves (that is, those that signal heat versus those that determine touch) is a major hurdle, he says. “The work we do is directed to provide the feedback mechanism in addition to motor control,” Romero-Ortega says. “It’s a more natural way to access the nervous system.” Commercialization of such cutting-edge products isn’t far off. For example, with the help of federal dollars, the research of Hugh Herr, an associate professor and director of the Biomechatronics Group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab in Cambridge, Mass., has resulted in a foot and ankle system known as PowerFoot BiOM. The system is developed by iWalk, a company Herr founded. The prosthetic, which simulates the ankle, Achilles tendon and calf muscles and provides upward energy to mimic the natural effort put into walking, is already being made available to amputees, including U.S. service members.

S

imilarly, the fields of regenerative medicine and nanotechnology are gaining traction, and receiving interest and funding from the federal government, which could significantly improve prosthetics by changing how the body attaches to and accepts then. “We are not focused on prosthetics themselves,” says Dr. Anthony Atala, director of the Wake Forest Institute for Regenera-

PHOTOS: (Left) Courtesy of John Hopkins APL and (right) Courtesy of Hanger Prosthetics and Orthotics

rosthetics


PHOTO: Courtesy Brown University

Researchers at Brown University are looking to nanomaterials to promote tissue growth, decrease infection and reduce inflammation, all keys to improving the connection and acceptance of prosthetics.

rosthetics tive Medicine in North Carolina. “We are thinking of ways of connecting prosthetics to engineered tissues to bridge gaps where needed.” Improving the connections between the human body and the implant or prosthetic reduces infections and inflammation, and increases the comfort, mobility and lifespan of the prosthetic. For example, if a nerve is too short to connect with a prosthetic, researchers can extract and cultivate cells to support the growth of new tissues and regrow the nerve into the prosthesis, providing more finite control of the limb. “That’s where the research is right now,” Atala says. Atala directs the Wake Forest-Pittsburgh consortium of the Armed Forces Institute for Regenerative Medicine (AFIRM), which brings together researchers around the country to develop treatments for wounded service members. With funding for the first five years totaling close to $300 million, AFIRM is a partnership between the Army, Navy, Air Force, Veterans Health Administration, Defense Health Program and the National Institutes of Health. Although the field of prosthetics is one step removed from that of regenerative medicine, the efforts of AFIRM and others may one day benefit amputees, says Terry Irgens, director of AFIRM. “I think down the road some of our scarless wound healing and our artificial skin potentially would help,” he says.

A

t Brown University in Providence, R.I., a major academic partner with the VA’s Center for Restorative and Regenerative Medicine, associate professor of engineering and orthopedics Thomas Webster has dedicated his career to developing nanomaterials to improve the human body’s acceptance of prosthetics. By modifying the prosthetic surface with nanomaterials, researchers aim to promote skin cell growth, which can create a better seal to the artificial limb. Nanomaterials are fibers or particles with parts measuring less than 100 nanometers. To put that into perspective, a single strand of hair is about 80,000 nanometers wide. 78

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11

All materials exert energy that dictates how the surfaces react with each other. By adding nanoparticles to a surface, researchers can increase the surface area (consider the amount of surface on a golf ball versus that on a marble), thereby increasing the surface energy. More surface energy is important because it increases the interaction with the other materials. With nanoparticles, researchers are increasing the surface area of the implant and the energy of that surface, changing the reaction between implant and the human body. As the blood cells and proteins interact more with the surface of the implant or prosthetic, Webster says, nanoparticles can promote tissue growth and reduce infection and inflammation – all of which can benefit the field of prosthetics. “We are looking at modifying implants we already use today with nanotechnology or creating nanofeatures,” says Webster. Webster’s work started in 1995, when he started to recognize the limited life span of implants. A hip implant, for example, lasts 15 to 20 years. So rather than just focus on developing new implants, he and other researchers started trying to find materials that would mimic the body’s response, in hope that the implants or prosthetics would be accepted better and last longer. Nanomaterials, they found, do just that. “Our initial thought was if we could mimic the natural roughness of our tissues in these synthetic materials, we should get a better cell response, and that’s what we’ve seen,” he says. For example, with funding from the VA and other sources, Webster and his fellow researchers focused on changing the landscape of the part of an implant inserted into bone. They roughed the surface, mimicking the natural skin landscape and encouraging the regrowth of skin cells. Through the work of neural interfaces and nanomaterials, prosthetic design and implementation will continue to improve, researchers say. The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have infused interest and federal funding into the efforts, and researchers are working to develop products that offer greater movement and control and improved connection and acceptance with the human body. J


Designed to protect and serve.

Tarian ® RPG Protection System

More effective than bar armor and weighing up to 98% less, Tarian is the world’s lightest solution for protection against rocket propelled grenades (RPGs).

Visit us at the AUSA Conference Booth 2942 1 602 850 2850 sales-asd @ amsafe.com www.amsafe.com

© 2011 AmSafe, Inc. All rights reserved.


The Best of BREEN

I

n his work for this magazine, Tom Breen specialized in crafting tributes to war heroes and the legacy they leave. Tom leaves his own legacy -- his words.

We can think of no better tribute to Tom following his unexpected passing this summer than to reprint some of our favorite

Army

passages from his work. Farewell, good friend.

PHOTO: U.S.

Army

PHOTO: U.S.

of A close up s Paul R. Smith’ l Congressiona Honor, Medal of on awarded at April 4, 2005, House. the White

ived soldiers surv Scores of ice selfless cho thanks to recipient al of Honor by first Med dom Iraqi Free n ratio in Ope

CY OF RING LEGA ith Ray Sm

ce! s of Death rejoi “In the Gate -hold the good e We see and made our choic Earth, we have od!” Bear witness, s brotherho ’s dom’ Free For Rudyard Kipling ” - Excerpt from 1917 poem,

“The Choice.

so, hardly impos an ounce or lifeit weighs maybe fine metal: inanimate, and few inches long, ded. Yet this ality. It is cloth n if left unten ing in its physic serves as disintegratio of Honor -to material less, prone as the Medal through we know it the Civil War, still form -nation, from Gulf War, diminutive soul of our the Persian , the into Korea a long, winda lasting lens Vietnam and the medal tells I and II, into World Wars . Over and over, valor” of the 3,450 recipiAfghanistan soldiers now Iraq and the “uncommon ed to six Union ing story of it first was award ing and endur the medal has since 1862 when locomotive. Since then, a ents honored the military, derate and outside ring a Confe cance, inside commandee e and signifi elves “above grown in prestig and selflessness. thems lift ce who are symbol of sacrifi only a heroic few, to those choices they to choices, not g, free g is It truly goes makin blood rushin the call of duty,” they make when the when, s and beyond their sides, choice at but others of make, freeary to those ordered to choices “for make their lives turn second when their observed, they Kipling once Smith, rests as Rudyard Class Paul Ray rhood.” 1st Sgt. brothe Nation Army dom’s at Arlington hallowed few, settling in by family, One of the ac autumn ers, more often a tombof a Potom imes by strang now, the chill r linked to greeted somet sisters, foreve ... Medal of al Cemetery, brothers and Paul Ray Smith his band of Memory of friends and ... Purple Heart simply, “In April 4 2003 .... reads that 1969 stone Sep 24 USA Iraq .... r.” Honor ... SFC War (four have Lives Foreve during the Iraq dying KIA ... His Spirit to receive the medal six years now, more than The first person has been gone to Baghdad. him), Smith d for on the road come after who yearne 2003, battle Southern boy an April 4, at age 33 in Smith was a an Iraqi spring committed, finding it on Resolute and h the Army, personnel cared throug y armor identit a meaningful a disabled M-133gun to hold off advancing barreled into machine enemy of iber de day when he 50-cal fusilla r in a the vehicle’s rs, falling foreve mortars. By then, acrier, manned Guard soldie and es lican 50 grenad lled Iraqi Repub slain up to rocket-prope ts, Smith had machine guns, on and firsthand accoun 13 SE STANDARD cording to Pentag

A

Fall 2009 DEFEN

PM 9/11/09 2:32:48

By Tom Breen

dd 13

PM 9/11/09 2:31:21

BOOK_DS09V3.in

ND VE A

NTRY ERS

OTH

F BR

n By Tom Bree

flow strong, they and young and prairies ne by one, nation’s vast e one-hors our out of ntains and not farms, mou t on service -coastal to -ben try -- but ges, hell villa coun s and , are god and were them towns, citie higher forces of , who once ts ferociously the generals only to s figh r. The old with this of warrior on g crop each othe t is goin tly this new . Just wha a generation mos in awe as hanistan of Afg ch ration in Iraq and o-game, wild-bun osed to be a gene oits vide This is supp repeating the expl hip-hop, and 30s? of . in their 20s pable, by many, before them bat-savvy as inca deemed e coming com them. ism of thos are as tough and hero with and king is, they people wor The truth r military the olde ever, say

O

PHOTO

sy : Courte

of traninin

gonthe

road.com

fight -hour fire wing six ad Taliban A harro rs h 150 de Silver Sta ends wit and 10 unit ret Be een for a Gr

80

Lt. Michael P. Murphy and the Men of Operation Red Wings Spring 2008 Murphy’s actions -- phone and rifle in hand, blood spurting -- now are engraved in SEAL lore, a lasting metaphor for the valor and loyalty to one another that defines Special Operations. Indeed, out there along the jagged cliffs of the Hindu Kush, Murphy and his team took on a mythic veneer.  If it were another time in American history, during World War I or II, their valor would be locked into the American psyche, right up there with Audie Murphy from World War II, connected to Michael by spirit if not blood, and Alvin York from World War I. Yet military heroes in our current world seem to fade, recognized for a short while and then cast aside, if not forgotten. Perhaps, however, as time passes, the Saga of Red Wings will occupy its proper place in military lore. 

Spring

2009

DEFEN

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11

ND S E S TA

A R D 13

The Lion of Fallujah: Inside the Soul of an Unabashed Warrior Summer 2008 Not far from where he rests now, arm and arm with a legion of other warriors, Douglas Zembiec spent long days, sometimes nights,

working at Marine Corps headquarters in northern Virginia. It was 2005, and the 32-year-old Marine had come out of the Iraqi bloodbath -- which still was bubbling at that time -- with a slew of combat medals and shrapnel wounds. Promoted at that point from captain to major, he could have played it safe, far from combat, moving up through the ranks, perhaps even to Marine commandant. He was that type of leader -- innately smart, gutsy, “absolutely magnetic,” said his friend, retired Marine Corps Col. John W. Ripley of Annapolis, Md. He did not have to return to combat. “Hey, Dougie,” many friends told him in unison: “Stay put, you’ve done your duty, give it up, and stay in one piece. They’re going to make you a general some day.” “No way,” the 6-2, 190-pound Zembiec would say. “I’m going back. I have to go back. I can’t stay cooped up.” In the end, no office could hold this guy, the guy they still call the “Lion of Fallujah.”   ​  Operational Detachment Alpha 3336: A New Band of Brothers Spring 2009   Immediately upon landing, (team leader Capt. Kyle) Walton’s head struck the ground after two bullets hit his helmet. He shook it off, and leaped into the battle. As the fight unraveled, Walton’s mom near Indianapolis and dad in Florida went about their daily routines, unaware until much


later that one of the fiercest firefights of the Afghan War was taking place. That was the way it was throughout the day, with warriors’ families in places like Athens, Ohio; Fredericksburg, Virginia; Casper, Wyoming; and Smithville, Texas, oblivious to what was going on. Here they were, ordinary lives in America that were rolling on as extraordinary deeds were unfolding literally a world away. This juxtaposition, with the American people often in the dark as to the harsh reality of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, is the face of war in the 21st century. Bob Howard: The Soldier Who Would Not Surrender Summer 2010   As he lay dying at Waco’s St. Catherine’s hospice in central Texas shortly before Christmas, Army Special Forces Medal of Honor legend Bob Howard — wounded and near death countless times in Vietnam as he became America’s most decorated war hero — fought for his life one last time with the same ferocity that marked every moment of his existence. He was damned if he was going off into the good night without a fight.     Salvatore Giunta: A profile in courage Winter 2010   Their actions, not their words, speak for them now, the seven Medal of Honor recipients in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars who came before Sal Giunta, the ones who died so their buddies could live, so the rest of us could go about our lives back home. … Now, as winter and the holiday season embrace us, we also can see Giunta, the only living Medal of Honor recipient from the two wars, dragging away his buddy Josh Brennan from enemy clutches. Now, Giunta, the 25-yearold Army soldier from the heartland, is the symbolic face of not only the seven Medal of Honor recipients from the two wars who came before him, but of the millions of troops, then and now, who go where they are asked to go, and do what they are asked to do. 

SFC Jared Monti: Doing the Right Thing Spring 2010 Up in Massachusetts now, with the deep snows finally fading, Paul Monti eagerly awaits the day when his beloved baseball team, the Boston Red Sox, will start playing again. The Red Sox, a state religion of sorts in Massachusetts with Fenway Park as the Cathedral, were a love of Jared’s too. In August 2009 Paul Monti threw out a first pitch at Fenway in honor of his son. “They could have honored anyone, and they honored Jared,” he said. “I was so proud.” 

News Analysis

The U.S . and the Phi lipp ine

The Robby Miller Story: Standing Proud, to the End ​                              Spring 2011                       As they look back, they now think of a son who not only rose in combat, but one who shined as an informal ambassador of sorts for American values. He spoke Pashto, he rode horses across the Afghan countryside, he shared meals with villagers, and even showed Afghan troops a video of snowboarding, telling them, if the war stopped, they too could snowboard along the ranges. Along the way, as with many Green Berets, he certainly turned himself into a Renaissance man of sorts, prepared to fight, but always leading, learning and broadening himself in a strange new culture, even in the face of imminent danger. We can see him now, bubbling with energy and resolve: One moment, he is riding a horse through a village, smiling and waving to the local folk, and the next he is confronting evil and sacrificing himself without hesitation. That is the way it is with warriors and their families: One second, the world is normal and​ predictable. The next second, it is not. J

s

Old allies join forces for war on terror

N

By Tom Breen

early 20 years after the United States shut down its bases in the Philippines, the American militar y has forged a striking new presence in the Southeast Asian archipelago of 7,100 islands and nearly 100 million people. From the mounta ins of northern Luzon jungles and pineap to the ple plantations of Mindanao and elsewhere in the south, American forces continu train Philippine soldier e to s and police to conten d with a decades-old Islamic insurgency, as well as building bridges, schools and roads to win civilian support and assist the Philipp ine government. In addition, the United States rushes in to help when natural disasters occur, such as in June 2008 when hundreds died in a ferry-boat accident. Under orders President Bush, the from U.S. contributed supplie food in the rescue s and efforts. In short, the U.S.-P hilippines relation ship is as strong as it was during the Cold War days. In moving back into the Philippines, U.S. forces not only help control an insurge ncy that has some links to Al Qaeda, in reality is far less although potent than in the Middle East, but produced a forwar have d-basing operation that serves U.S. interes throughout the region. ts

(Top) An Army Special Operations training session for Armed Forces soldier leads a security assistan ce Philippines troops. (Middle) U.S. Army Maj. Gen. Ernesto Col. David Fridovich, right, stands alongside Southern Comm Carolina, commander of the Philippines’ and, during a ceremo ny in Zamboanga City.

30 D E F E N S E S TA NDARD 2008

PHOTO: Petty Officer

PHOTO

PHOTO: Courtesy of Philippine Info (Bottom) U.S. forces and Filipino soldiers military exercises during the Balikata at Crow Valley n in Tarlac provinc e, north of


FINAL FRAME

A Marine lays a wreath at a Pentagon ceremony honoring the 184 people killed when terrorists crashed American Airlines Flight 77 into the building 10 years earlier. The Pentagon memorial park includes a bench for each of those who died that day. PHOTO: Mass Comm. Spc. 1st Class Chad J. McNeeley

82

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 11


2011 Fall Edition  

DEFENSE STANDARD 2011 Fall Edition (Revised)

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you