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GEN III ECWCS – The next generation U.S. Army Extended Climate Warfighter Clothing System. Whether training at home or abroad or operating in theater, our nation’s warfighters are exposed to a broad spectrum of extreme environmental conditions – from warm, dry, or wet weather at 60 degrees Fahrenheit or higher, to extreme cold weather in excess of minus 40 degrees. GEN III ECWCS is a radical re-design of previous generation ECWCS for the U.S. Army. No longer just a Cold Weather Clothing System, the third generation ECWCS has been transformed into an Extended Climate Warfighter Clothing System that enhances soldier survivability across broad climate ranges.

“FOR THE FIRST TIME IN MY MILITARY CAREER I WAS ACTUALLY BEGGING FOR A COLD FRONT TO COME THROUGH. I KNEW MY SOLDIERS COULD HANDLE IT AND THE ENEMY COULDN’T. ECWCS ALLOWED MY MEN TO OUTLAST THE ENEMY ON THEIR OWN TERRAIN.” - LTC CHRISTOPHER CAVOLI, 10TH MOUNTAIN DIVISION

GEN III ECWCS Outperforms Previous Generation Systems In Every Category. • A Complete System: Seven levels to address a broad climate range from -40°F to +60°F • Lighter: 25% lighter than previous generation ECWCS • Less Bulk: 30% less bulk than previous generation ECWCS • Expanded: Four additional levels compared to previous generation ECWCS • Flexible: All seven levels function as a dynamic system to meet personal climate tolerances • Improved Sizing: Innovative garment design with sizing logic for optimal fit when layering • Stealthy: Exceptionally quiet for added stealth with integrated Near Infrared Textile Technology (NIR) • Integrated: Seamless integration with load carriage and body armor • Innovative: Technically advanced proprietary materials, garment design and construction

The only official GEN III ECWCS authorized for U.S. Army issue is available exclusively through ADS. Contact your ADS representative for more information or order online today at www.adstactical.com

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Photo courtesy of the Department of Defense.

© 2010 ADS, Inc. The ADS Logo and the GEN III ECWCS Logo are registered trademarks of ADS, Inc. A0166 06/09

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Caring

for

Families of Fallen and Wounded Special Operations Warriors

Wounded Warrior Support Providing immediate financial assistance to severely wounded special operations personnel so their loved ones can be bedside during their recovery.

Educating their children Providing full college educations to the surviving children of fallen Army, Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps special operations personnel since 1980. Funding provided for tuition, books, fees, room and board.

CFC # 11455

www.specialops.org


Contents 12

11

50

18

56

Letter from the Publisher

Procurement and Operations

Features

36

Nett Warrior The Army prepares to field its next-generation smart-soldier system

12

Courage in Combat Honoring Private 1st Class Ross McGinnis, the youngest-ever recipient of the Medal of Honor

By Matthew Cox

42

By Tom Breen

Revolution in Logistics A look at the dramatic improvements in combat logistics since the first Gulf War By James Kitfield

18

The Big Spill Inside the Coast Guard’s efforts to contain the Gulf of Mexico oil spill

50

DARPA seeks private-industry ideas for a flying combat car

By Tony Mecia

By Rich Tuttle

56 28

Regenerative Medicine Pentagon jump-starts research into regrowing body parts

Up, Up and Away?

Solutions for IT Enterprise Defense Intelligence Agency spends billions to streamline IT acquisition By Rich Tuttle

By Julie Bird

F a l l 2 0 1 0 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D

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THE HOME OF THE BRAVE A donation to the Fisher House serves our military and their families in times of need. Providing shelter and support during medical crises, Fisher House’s many “homes away from home” provide a comforting environment to injured service members, veterans, retirees and their families. While a loved one is undergoing medical treatment in an unfamiliar town, city or state, the offer of a welcoming refuge to help families stay close together is appreciated by the brave men and women who serve our nation with valor. Become a hero to someone special by contributing to the Fisher House today. For more information, call toll-free (888) 294-8560 or visit www.fisherhouse.org.

Through the generosity of the American public, you can find Fisher House facilities in the following states: California • Colorado • District of Columbia • Florida • Georgia • Hawaii • Kentucky • Maryland Minnesota • Mississippi • New York • North Carolina • Ohio • Texas • Virginia • Washington • Europe

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D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D S p r i n g 2 0 1 0

©2007 Fisher House Foundation / Brendan Mattingly Photography / Don Schaaf & Friends, Inc.


Contents 63

70

67

76

On the Homefront ‘11 Procurement preview

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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder VA looks at age-old problem of PTSD in a whole new way

63

By Sara Michael

Air Force: Joint Direct Attack Munition By David Perera

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Army: Expeditionary Warrior

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The USS Michael Murphy Scenes from the keel authentication for ship named after Medal of Honor recipient

By Arthur O. Murray

By Gary Williams

67

Marine Corps: Unmanned Ground Vehicles By David Perera

69

81

Dedication

Navy: Guided Missile Destroyers By Michael Fabey

Louder than Words

2010 FALL

on the cover

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A U.S. soldier wears a mask to protect himself from a Baghdad dust storm.

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Rescue Hero

Res’-kyōō - He’•ro (hē rō), pl. -roes

www.defensestandard.com 2010 FALL EDITION

DEFENSE STANDARD HQ 4410 Massachusetts Avenue Suite 240 Washington, D.C. 20016 Phone: (202) 640-2137

A person of great courage, nobility, etc. or one admired for his or her exploits.

DEFENSE STANDARD OPERATIONS CENTER 14502 N Dale Mabry Hwy, Ste 305 Tampa, FL 33618 Phone: (813) 864-6360

What would injured military members and stranded hurricane victims do without a

Rescue Hero?

David Peabody PRESIDENT and PUBLISHER

EDITOR

Julie Bird

EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT

Kelly Montgomery

VICE PRESIDENT OF OPERATIONS

Daniel J. Peabody

VICE PRESIDENT OF SALES CREATIVE DIRECTOR PRODUCTION ASSISTANT NATIONAL ACCOUNTS MANAGER MILITARY ADVISER TECHNICAL ADVISER: SMALL ARMS GENERAL COUNSEL DIRECTOR OF FIELD OPERATIONS ASSISTANT TO THE PUBLISHER

Joe Gonzalez Samantha Gibbons Jennifer Roark McCants Bill Clark Jerry L. Montgomery, Col. USAF (RET) Fritz Casper Joseph C. Bodiford Justin DeJesus Benjamin Peabody

Supporting the Children of Fallen Rescue Heroes

WRITERS: Julie Bird

James Kitfield

Tom Breen

Tony Mecia

Matthew Cox

Sara Michael

Michael Fabey

Arthur O. Murray

David Perera Rich Tuttle Gary Williams

Dedicated to the Memory of

PFC Richard A. Williams U.S. Army, Veteran of Korean War, Bronze Star Recipient February 7, 1930 - March 31, 2010

THAT OTHERS MAY LIVE FOUNDATION A 501(c)3 non-profit charitable organization.

Part of the CFC in Arizona (except Maricopa County), Okaloosa-Walton Counties, Florida, Southwest Georgia, and Southern Nevada.

Thank you for your tax-deductable gift. For more information about this dedication, we ask you to please turn to page 79.

Copyright 2010. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part is prohibited. The opinions expressed within this publication do not necessarily represent the views of the publisher. Defense Standard LLC assumes no responsibilites for the advertisements or any representations made in this publication. Defense Standard LLC in unable to accept, or hereby expressly disclaims, any liability for the consequences of inaccuracies or omissions of such information occurring during the publishing of such information for publication. Disclaimer: Neither the Department of Defense nor any other United States Government agency has approved, endorsed or authorized this publication in any form. No such inference is suggested, promoted or communicated in any manner.

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Fight proud. Work proud.

“The thing that I really love about my job is that I get to help people. The mail is a real morale builder because it keeps people in touch with home.” – AbilityOne employee Rosalinde Andrews The 300 Air Force personnel representing five squadrons stationed at Ft. Hood Army Base, TX are always happy to see Rosalinde Andrews. That’s because Rosalinde delivers their mail and packages from home, connecting America’s servicemen and women with their loved ones around the world. With a presence on nearly every military installation in the U.S., AbilityOne has the experience, capability and workforce to keep our fighting men and women fed, clothed, supplied, supported and protected. In addition, AbilityOne helps people who are blind or have other severe disabilities join the ranks of independent, productive, taxpaying citizens.

AbilityOneDoD.org

Soldier photo courtesy of U.S. Army.


Publisher’s Note

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he concept of sacrifice has been on my mind a lot lately. It started earlier this summer, when I had the privilege of visiting the ship-building facility at General Dynamics Bath Iron Works in Bath, Maine. The occasion was the keel-authentication ceremony for the guided missile destroyer named in honor of Navy Lt. Michael Murphy. Lt. Murphy’s father, Dan, invited me to be his guest at the ceremony after DEFENSE STANDARD profiled the Navy SEAL and Medal of Honor recipient. As Tom Breen so eloquently reported in that Spring 2008 article, Lt. Murphy knowingly exposed himself to enemy fire to call for help during an intense firefight in the Hindu Kush mountains of Afghanistan. He sacrificed himself to try save the rest of his SEAL team. Later this summer, not long after the ceremony in Bath, my family and I were guests at a Florida banquet for the Military Order of the Purple Heart. We were honored and frankly overwhelmed to be in the presence of so many heroes who had sacrificed so much for our country. I have often wondered what makes one person cower from danger and another sacrifice himself to protect others. Case in point: 19-year-old Army Private 1st Class Ross A. McGinnis, who could have leapt to safety when a rocketpropelled grenade landed behind his position in the gun turret of an armored Humvee on patrol in Iraq. Instead, McGinnis threw himself on the grenade, sacrificing his life to save those of four other soldiers trapped in the vehicle. In so doing, McGinnis became the youngestever recipient of the Medal of Honor. Tom Breen tells his compelling story in this issue. This summer also brought one of the worst oil spills in the country’s history, the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Tony Mecia writes about the Coast Guard’s high-profile role in managing the capping of that well, monitoring environmental damage and overseeing the cleanup. Meanwhile, the 20-year anniversary this fall of the massive buildup of troops and material known as Operation Desert Shield made us wonder how combat logistics have

changed over time. The answer, James Kitfield reports, is nothing less than a revolution in combat logistics. Speaking of revolutions, that’s exactly what the Defense Department is trying to spark in treating combat trauma. The Armed Forces Institute for Regenerative Medicine has enlisted the country’s top researchers in regenerative medicine – the science of helping the body heal itself -- to field real-world treatments more quickly. Editor Julie Bird talks to the leading researchers and looks at some of the most promising areas of study. Another futuristic research project also captured our attention, a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency program to develop a combat vehicle that can also fly. Rich Tuttle looks at the so-called Transformer program and some of the early vehicle concepts generated by industry. This issue also examines the next iteration of the Army’s Land Warrior smart-soldier system, called Nett Warrior; a Defense Intelligence Agency effort to streamline information technology acquisition; the VA’s new approach to treating PTSD; and major servicespecific procurement priorities. Finally, we take you inside the keel-authentication ceremony in Bath for DDG-112, soon to be known as the USS Michael Murphy. I think Gary Williams’ report will help you understand why I was so moved; you might find that you are moved yourself. The ship is a fitting tribute to Lt. Murphy’s sacrifice by the Navy that he loved.

David Peabody PUBLISHER

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Courage

in combat 12

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He was only 19, but a split-second decision proved Private 1st Class Ross McGinnis was already a soldier’s soldier By Tom Breen

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oss McGinnis was 3 years old during the first gulf war, 5 when he told a kindergarten teacher “I want to be an Army man,” 17 when he enlisted and 19 when he smothered a grenade in Iraq, saving four others but not himself and becoming one of the youngest troops in American history to receive the Medal of Honor. Now, as fall’s Potomac winds rustle across the nation’s capital, this teenage warrior with the “big heart and tender spirit,” as former President George W. Bush described him, rests at Arlington National Cemetery, not that far from his small-town boyhood home in the verdant terrain of northwestern Pennsylvania. This was an ordinary kid, fun-loving and generous, his friends and family say, who did an extraordinary thing on Dec. 4, 2006. McGinnis that day was serving as a U.S. Army private first class in Iraq. He had been there only a few months. In a mission that afternoon, he was manning an M2 .50-caliber machine gun in the turret

of a Humvee truck patrolling the insurgency-infested streets of northeast Baghdad. The up-armored vehicle carried four other Army solders, all from McGinnis’ 1st Platoon Charley Company, 1st Battalion, 26th Infantry Regiment: Sgt. Lyle Buehler, the driver; Sgt. 1st Class Cedric Thomas, platoon sergeant and vehicle commander; Spec. Sean Lawson, a medic; and Staff Sgt. Ian Newland, a squad leader. McGinnis died instantly. The others survived with a range of injuries. All four likely would be dead if not for McGinnis’ actions. Instead they remain immersed in life’s joys and struggles, reveling in their families, helping others when they can. “We are trying to make the most of what we have,” Newland said recently from Colorado. “Ross saved us.” McGinnis gave the four a “gift, not a debt to repay,” his dad Tom says often as he and his wife Romayne honor their son’s selflessness at memorial services and other events across the country, including the renaming of the local VFW chapter in


his honor. They know he now belongs to the nation as well as to them. “It gives us comfort that the world is aware of who he is and what he did,” Romayne McGinnis said recently from Pennsylvania. Of the four who survived that day, Thomas is the only one to remain in the Army. Lawson and Newland retired for medical reasons, and Buehler left after his enlistment ended. Although spread out around the country, they have remained close, usually contacting each other and the McGinnis family at least once a week. “We really are a band of brothers,” Newland says. Overall, the four are doing fairly well as they cope with the haunting memories of an afternoon in Iraq. Buehler, 27, recently completed a master’s degree in Iowa. Thomas, 35, promoted to master sergeant, is serving at Fort Belvoir in Virginia and is expected to take over the Defense Department’s Wounded Warriors program. Lawson, 24, is a stay-at-home dad in Texas, where he and his wife just had a baby. And Newland, 31, is working on his master’s degree in business administration and employed full-time as an IT technician for RE/MAX real estate. With the help of a federal grant, Newland also recently bought a 50-acre ranch about 100 miles south of Denver that helps rehabilitate wounded veterans. “The ranch is my way of honoring Ross, and helping my fellow veterans,” Newland says. He says he and Thomas talk freely about the events of that day, Lawson and Buehler less so. he Humvee carrying McGinnis and the others was part of a six-vehicle combat mission weaving through Baghdad’s teeming streets. The mission was commanded by Army Capt. (now Maj.) Michael Baka, who rode in another vehicle. As the afternoon light accentuated the convoy’s movement, a rooftop insurgent tossed a grenade into the Humvee. McGinnis, who would have been able to escape from his position quickly, instead tried to deflect the grenade. In that split second, according to survivor accounts, he also realized the other four appeared to be locked into their positions, unable to easily leap from the vehicle. Had McGinnis warned the others and then leapt to safety, he would be alive. Instead, the teenager with the unforgettable smile covered the grenade with his back. “He could get out the easiest,” Buehler said during McGinnis’ Medal of Honor ceremony. “We definitely wouldn’t have had time to get out. It’s unbelievable. For him to make that decision ... .” As the grenade went off under McGinnis’ back, the

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others in the Humvee rushed to shield their bodies. Thomas, Buehler and Lawson crouched, but not Newland. “As I soon as I heard ‘grenade,’ I went to drop my weapon and protect myself, but I had no time,” he says. Shrapnel tore through everyone but medic Lawson, who was stunned by the blast but otherwise unscathed. “It is amazing Doc didn’t have any shrapnel,” Newland says. The grenade “was an improvised one, and one of the most powerful we had ever seen. It blew all the doors off the Humvee. We encountered grenades all the time in Baghdad, but nothing like that.” The blast was confined to the single Humvee. Of the four, Newland received the most devastating injuries, with doctors finding at least 60 chunks of shrapnel lodged in his lower body, and another 15 in his neck and head. The strap from McGinnis’ helmet embedded itself near his face. Today, Newland still struggles with injuries; some days are “horrible.” He cannot fully use his left arm, the head injuries led to severe migraines, and pieces of shrapnel deemed irremovable by doctors often spark ripples of agonizing pain. The Army in 2006 released him from Landstuhl Regional Army Medical Center in Germany only two days after hospitalizing him, claiming they had no room; he says he retired from the Army “without a solid support structure.” Newland’s anger about his treatment after the blast led to major reforms in the way wounded veterans receive treatment, Army Maj. Donald Ducker told the Army Times in 2007.  “The context of Ian’s complaints were very appropriate. We thought, ‘Let’s take action.’”  Newland’s travails led to his decision to purchase the ranch south of Denver to help other wounded vets facing months and years of rehabilitation. “This is Ross’ ranch too,” he says.   cGinnis’ selfless action, call it unabashed bravery, hardly can be explained. As Buehler says, McGinnis easily could have escaped the Humvee. Why is it that some human beings go to extremes, unfathomable to most of us, to save others? The survivors go on, haunted by guilt at one time or another, wondering if they would have acted similarly. Family and friends wonder how the funloving, often-impish person they knew and loved could have risen to such extraordinary heights. McGinnis’ father, Tom, when talking about the son he misses virtually every moment, once said he envisioned a Medal of Honor winner to be a cinematic type of guy. Think Rocky, not his Ross, not the kid who spent his youth

M


Spec. Ross Andrew McGinnis

BORN: June 14, 1987, in Meadville, Pa. DIED: Dec. 4, 2006, in combat in Iraq. PERSONAL: Member of St. Paul’s Lutheran Church in Knox, belonged to the Boy Scouts and Cub Scouts, and played YMCA basketball and soccer and Little League baseball. EDUCATION: 2005 graduate of Keystone Junior/Senior High School in Clarion County, Pa.; also attended automotive technology school. FAMILY: Parents, Thomas and Romayne McGinnis; sisters, Becky and Katie. MILITARY CAREER: Enlisted on his 17th birthday under the Army’s Delayed PHOTO: Courtesy of McGinnis Family

Entry program. Left for basic training at Fort Benning, Ga., in June 2005, and completed six weeks of Advanced Infantry Training in October 2005. Assigned to the 1st Battalion, 26th Infantry Regiment, 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 1st Infantry Division in Schweinfurt, Germany. Deployed to Iraq in July 2006. Promoted posthumously to specialist. MEDAL OF HONOR: Awarded posthumously to the McGinnis family in June 2008, with all four of the men he saved present.

«F

SOURCES: U.S. Army and the McGinnis family

McGinnis with his father, Tom, after completing training at Fort Benning, Ga.

Medal of Honor Citation For Ross A. McGinnis

or conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty: Private First Class Ross A. McGinnis distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an M2 .50-caliber Machine Gunner, 1st Platoon, C Company, 1st Battalion, 26th Infantry Regiment, in connection with combat operations against an armed enemy in Adhamiyah, Northeast Baghdad, Iraq on December 4, 2006. That afternoon his platoon was conducting combat control operations in an effort to reduce and control sectarian violence in the area. While Private McGinnis was manning the M2 50.-caliber machine gun, a fragmentation grenade thrown by an insurgent fell through the gunner’s hatch into the vehicle. Re-

acting quickly, he yelled “grenade,” allowing all four members of the crew to prepare for the grenade’s blast. Then, rather than leaping from the gunner’s hatch to safety, Private McGinnis made the courageous decision to protect the crew. In a selfless act of bravery, in which he was mortally wounded, Private McGinnis covered the live grenade, pinning it between his body and the vehicle and absorbing most of the explosion. Private McGinnis’ gallant action directly saved four men from certain serious injury or death. Private First Class McGinnis’ extraordinary heroism and selflessness at the cost of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Army. Source: U.S. Army

»


«

Sentinels of Freedom:

TOP: Ross McGinnis, middle, with his parents at his high school graduation in June 2005. MIDDLE: McGinnis, left, with Privates 1st Class James Beda and Edmond Leaveck in Iraq. BOTTOM: McGinnis and three of the four men who were in the Humvee with him when a rocketpropelled grenade landed near McGinnis’ position in the gun turret and exploded. PHOTOS: Courtesy of the U.S. Army and the McGinnis Family

Giving wounded warriors a fighting chance

After Army Staff Sgt. Ian Newland survived the December 2006 grenade blast in Iraq that took Medal of Honor recipient Ross McGinnis’ life, he faced debilitating injuries and a daunting path to recovery. Of the four with McGinnis that day, Newland’s injuries were the most severe: shrapnel wounds to the face, both arms, the right hip, both legs and right knee. Doctors left several shrapnel chunks in him, unable to remove them. Newland also suffered a mild traumatic brain injury that has caused severe headaches. “He was pretty beat up, but he’s a fighter and was not about to give in,” says Mike Conklin, the 56-year-old chairman and CEO of Sentinels of Freedom, which Conklin started in San Ramon, Calif., several years ago. The organization’s mission is to donate college and university scholarships as high as $60,000 or more to severely wounded veterans, and steer vets toward productive jobs as well. Most of those helped by Sentinels of Freedom are recovering from severe injuries Conklin’s group gave Newland a scholarship to defray the costs of an online Master of Business Administration degree from Jones International University, and steered him toward a job with RE/MAX real estate’s IT department. After Newland retired from the Army for medical reasons, he could not find a job, and was becoming desperate. “I read about Mike, contacted him, and he stood up for me. Because of him, I am where I am today. Ross saved my life once, and Mike saved it again.” Newland also won a federal grant to help purchase a ranch south of Denver where he and his wife, Erin, help wounded vets rehabilitate. “Ranch life is wonderful for them,” Newland says. Conklin says Newland and other wounded veterans deserve a place in the forefront of national consciousness. “We’re not asking for charity for these men and women,” says Conklin, who is a land developer. “We simply want corporations to recognize the talents and expertise they offer.” The father of three boys, all Army Rangers, all deployed several times in Iraq and Afghanistan, Conklin has high praise for the Defense Department’s current infrastructure that assists wounded warriors, but says the private sector needs to intensity its efforts to help. “We’re all in this together,” he says. “These troops are our troops. They need us.” Without military experience himself, Conklin said he grew aware of the struggles of wounded veterans as a youngster in California. “There was a guy in the neighborhood who came home after losing his legs in Vietnam,” he says. “But nobody helped him, or paid much attention to him. That always bothered me, and I guess he’s the reason I am doing what I do today.” -- Tom Breen Sentinels of Freedom is one of numerous private organizations striving to help wounded veterans. For more information, e-mail Conklin at mconklin@sentinelsoffreedom.org, or call the organization at (925) 353-7100.


working on autos, playing baseball and harmless pranks, attending church regularly, and serving as a Cub Scout and Boy Scout in the mountains and valleys of northwestern Pennsylvania. Sure, Ross dreamed about the Army as a little kid in kindergarten, but nothing prepared the family for the day they stood at the White House, receiving a posthumous Medal of Honor for him from a president of the United States. The family also remembers him as the good-natured kid who entered the Army without a life plan, and became a structured, purpose-driven person. “He seemed so grounded when he came home on leave,” said a teacher at McGinnis’ alma mater, Keystone Junior Senior High School. His sisters felt the same way, once describing him as someone who gave 100 percent when he wanted to and zero percent when he had no interest, like chores and mowing the lawn. In the Army, though, he was a 100-percenter. Thomas, his platoon sergeant, says McGinnis never turned down or complained about an assignment, large or small. “He was always exceeding the standard, always taking on another task. When there was a detail, McGinnis volunteered for it,” Thomas said during a ceremony last year at Fort Benning, Ga., honoring McGinnis. Added McGinnis’ commander Baka, “I had to tell him to let others carry the load.” Because of McGinnis’ devotion to the Army, Baka chose to promote him to specialist with a waiver after only 17 months in the service. “He earned it,” Baca says. “I had 190 soldiers and two waivers. I signed his 15 minutes before we went on patrol.” After the blast, Baka moved immediately to nominate McGinnis for the Silver Star, then the Medal of Honor.   he bedrock values of faith, family and country shaping McGinnis grew out of his quiet upbringing in and around Knox, Pa., in Clarion County about 100 miles north of Pittsburgh. The county is a place where much of life still revolves around potluck dinners, church socials and sports. Many of the small towns in the mostly rural area, set amid forests, valleys and mountains, also boast colorful names such as Turnip Hole and Turkey City. It is a highly patriotic place, and McGinnis’s family was proud he was born on Flag Day, June 14, a fitting tribute as it turned out. It was in this small-town setting that McGinnis grew, a fun-loving, lanky sort but not someone enamored of his academic studies, his mother Romayne says. When he enlisted in the Army’s deferment program

T

at 17, however, joining full-time at 18, McGinnis found the structure he sought, his mother says, a similar story in many ways to that of another recent Army Medal of Honor recipient, Army Sgt. 1st Class Paul Ray Smith. McGinnis also fell in love with a German girl when in the Army, making him very happy, his family says. Only in the service a short time, McGinnis deployed to Iraq in summer 2006, entering a country that remained in the grips of internecine conflicts and bloodletting. Back in Pennsylvania, his parents feared for his safety, but did not dwell on the dangers, partly because of their confidence in the Army’s infantry training, as detailed by their son. Everything changed on the evening of Dec. 4, 2006. “When the doorbell rang  ... about 9:30 p.m. ... I wondered who would be visiting at this hour,” Tom McGinnis recalls in an eloquent essay sent Dec. 23, 2006, to media and friends; it is now available in its entirety at www.arlingtoncemetery. net/ramcginnis.htm. “But when I walked up to the door and saw two U.S. Army officers standing on the patio at the bottom of the steps, I knew instantly what was happening. This is the only way the Army tells the next of kin that a soldier has died. ... At that moment I felt as if I had slipped off the edge of a cliff and there was nothing to grab onto. ... I rushed back into our bedroom and told my wife Romayne to get up; we had company. And they were going to tell us Ross is dead. I knew of no other way to say it. ... Ross did not become OUR hero by dying to save his fellow soldiers from a grenade. ...  He was a hero long before he died, because he was willing to risk his life to protect the ideals of freedom and justice that America represents.” Instinctively, Ross McGinnis also was protecting the buddies he admired, bickered with of course from time to time, and shared a brand of commitment and camaraderie that only those engaged in combat situations truly can comprehend. Perhaps that is why he covered the grenade: He felt there was no choice. “He was that kind of person,” a friend and fellow infantryman told the American Forces Press Service. “He would rather take it himself than have his buddies go down.” What is remarkable is that no one, not a single person, would have questioned McGinnis’ motives had he yelled “grenade” and leaped. That is what the Army’s book says to do. His buddies, though, had no way to escape. So this small-town kid from Pennsylvania gave his life for four of his buddies. Soldiers like McGinnis are not born. They are made. And they stay with us forever. J F a l l 2 0 1 0 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D

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PHOTO: Courtesy of US Coast Guard

Chief Petty Officer Brad Frost, of Hampden, Maine, directs the crane operator while stowing boom onboard the Coast Guard cutter Juniper in June. The crew of the Juniper skimmed oil near the Alabama and Florida coast.

BIG The

SPILL

By Tony Mecia

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D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 1 0

From explosion to cleanup, Coast Guard helms massive effort in oil-fouled Gulf of Mexico

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n hour after the massive explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, the first Coast Guard helicopter arrived to help with search and rescue. The Coast Guard cutter Cobia, an 87-foot patrol boat based in Mobile, Ala., arrived a few hours later. Those were the beginnings of what would soon become a strikingly complex operation led by the Coast Guard in the Gulf of Mexico. What started with a helicopter and a cutter 50 miles off the coast of Louisiana on the night of April 20 quickly morphed into one of the largest Coast Guard responses in history. As the oil headed toward hundreds of miles of coastline, the Coast Guard took charge of a response that involved 45,000 people from more than 500 organizations, including federal, state, local and tribal governments and private contractors. It oversaw a makeshift armada of more than 5,000 vessels – many of them small shrimp and oyster boats, and even a


The top federal agencies awarding oil spill-related contracts as of Aug. 30, 2010:

Department of Commerce Environmental Protection Agency

Department of Homeland Security

$55.3 million

Graphic: Samantha Gibbons

agencies awarding contracts $23.1 million

$21.4 million

Department of the Interior $13.1 million

Department of Justice $8 million

Source: Federal Procurement Data System

PHOTOS: Courtesy of US Coast Guard

Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, also monitored the water. It coordinated about a dozen research vessels in the Gulf that collected and analyzed water samples. By the end of August, about 10,000 samples of the water column had been collected. The Coast Guard also faced public relations hurdles and occasional criticism for not moving fast enough. Zukunft says some of the criticism was overblown and that the Coast Guard tried hard to get the truth out: “When you’re close to the operation, sometimes you see there were mischaracterizations of the spill. … We tried to get in front of that.”

A

t command centers, all that coordination translated to a lot of meetings. Out in the field, though, there was plenty to do. On Grand Isle, La., a remote area about a two-hour drive south of New Orleans, here’s how all that activity played out: Delta D2 helicopters would leave at sunup, headed north into the Caminada and Barataria bays to look for oil. When they found it, a rapid response cutter would head to the scene to verify it. Then skimmers would go to the scene to get rid of it. At the same time, other vessels inspected boom to ensure its placement was correct, and environmental experts worked to figure how to remove oil from marshes without destroying the grass. 24

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U.S. Coast Guard Petty Officer 1st Class Rodney Colon, left, and Chief Petty Officer Hector Melendez, marine science technician reservists with Coast Guard Sector New York, survey marshland in Plaquemines Parish near Venice, La., for possible areas in need of boom placement in June. Colon and Menendez were assigned to the Plaquemine Parish branch as safety observers to enforce safety zones, ensure contractors complied with safety procedures and provide guidance to response divisions on where to deploy boom.


ABOVE: Ensign Adam Mosely, a marine biologist, tests water samples to help scientists determine the effectiveness of oil dispersants in the water.

PHOTOS: Courtesy of US Coast Guard

BELOW: A Coast Guard helicopter flies overhead as the Coast Guard cutter Resolute passes the Deepwater Horizon spill site in July. The cutter supported and protected personnel and ships involved in the response.

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Earlier in the process, the Coast Guard officer responsible for the 100-square-mile region, Cmdr. Randal Ogrydziak, led an effort with local governments and BP to devise a strategy on laying boom to keep oil from getting by the barrier islands and into the fragile bays, home to the area’s well-known shrimp, oysters and crabs. The region was tended to by more than 800 vessels and about 3,400 responders, including about 140 from the Coast Guard. Ogrydziak’s role, he says, was to “bring order and coordination to the chaos.” Ogrydziak, who has spent most of his 31-year Coast Guard career in hazardous materials response, says there were plenty of challenges to overcome, including the summer heat, the remote location and coordination of so many people. Although there’s still some oil in the northern marshes, he says the area is in pretty good shape. His team even started holding shrimp boils in recent weeks. “The waters are clean, fishermen are pulling their shrimp trawls, crabbing is back in, recreational fishing has been opened in the area – that’s good success right there,” he says. Petty Officer 2nd Class Martin Montalvo, 38, a Reservist and a marine science technician, says he finds his job “a little awe-inspiring at times.” He goes through the bays and bayous aboard a 24-foot charter fishing boat to inspect the marshes and to ensure that contractors are being safe. He’s on the water from about 7 a.m. to 2 p.m., then does paperwork for a few hours before heading back to a four-bedroom rental house he shares with three other guys. He’s a wetlands biologist from Tampa, Fla., and says he also enjoyed his previous assignment – putting on a flight suit and helmet and hanging out of a Jayhawk helicopter looking for oil. “I had a series of best day-evers. You got to play ‘Top Gun’ for a little while,” says the scientist. And, he says, “You finish each day with sense of accomplishment.” Ogrydziak puts it like this: “We won the fight of Barataria Bay. It was us against oil, and we won.” Zukunft says there are still lessons to be learned. He says it’s important to cultivate connections with partners before a crisis hits and figure out possible responses. Here, the science of capping a well so far beneath the surface was mostly untested. Second, he says, it’s become apparent that the Coast Guard’s Reserve component is too small, and many of the Reservists are able to be activated for only 60 days. He says the Coast Guard was fortunate no other major incidents this summer required attention. “If we had a mass migration, or another Katrina, it really would stress our resiliency,” he says. “We learned that our bench is not as deep as it needs to be for a spill that goes on for this length of time.” J


Body,

HEAL Thyself By Julie Bird

Inspired by America’s wounded warriors and funded by DoD, top medical experts have united to dramatically advance the science of regenerating parts of the human body. The implications for repairing severe combat trauma are staggering.

“P

ixie dust” isn’t the kind of term you’d expect to be tossed around among the green-suited medical minds at the U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research. The power of the white, powdery substance to help grow muscle, tissue, cartilage and even body parts has captured the imagination of military medical researchers, who long have sought better ways to repair devastating combat injuries. But the pixie dust nickname for the substance officially known as extra-cellular matrix drives Smita Bonsale a little crazy. “Pixie dust is magic, and this is science,” says Bonsale, who manages a $120 million, five-year Defense Department project to jump-start major advances in the relatively new field of regenerative medicine. Science or magic, what they’re doing is pretty amazing. 28

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 1 0

University researchers are studying using polymerbased materials to rebuild damaged bones in their original shape, and extra-cellular matrix to regenerate chunks of missing muscle. They’re examining how to marry a transplant patient’s cells with donor cells, tricking the body into thinking it’s receiving its own tissue. They’re developing a device like a dot-matrix printer to spray varying thicknesses of treated skin cells onto unevenly burned tissue, prompting rapid skin regeneration with little scarring. Ultimately, they hope to find ways to regenerate not just muscle, skin, bone and nerves, but limbs and appendages. The Armed Forces Institute for Regenerative Medicine (AFIRM) at Fort Detrick, Md., rounded up the top academic and private-industry researchers

PHOTO: Courtesy of Wake Forest University

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TM1176-0910


PHOTOS (Clockwise from left): Courtesy of Cleveland Clinic and Wake Forest University

(CLOCKWISE FROM LEFT): The Cleveland Clinic’s Dr. Maria Siemionow, center, heads three research projects using

R E G E N E R AT I V E M E D I C I N E

regenerative medicine to reduce the risk of rejection in

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transplants; ReCell technology, an alternative to traditional skin grafting, sprays skin cells harvested in the operating room onto a burn, covering an area 80 times the size of the biopsy; a computer-controlled system grows human skin in a lab to create large amounts of skin for grafts and reconstruction.

in the field, Bonsale says, including nine of the top 10 regenerative medicine research universities and eight of the 10 most-published scientists. Hundreds of university and private-industry researchers are working on 240 projects under two major research consortia. One is led by North Carolina’s Wake Forest University and the University of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania. The other is led by Rutgers University in New Jersey and Ohio’s Cleveland Clinic. The U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research, or USAISR, at Brooke Army Medical Center in San Antonio is the third research partner, providing overall guidance and participating in clinical trials. The last scientific collaboration on that kind of scale was the Manhattan Project, says Army Col. Robert G. Hale, USAISR’s representative to AFIRM. “This isn’t a bomb, it’s healing. And that’s fantastic.” The project is indeed “a very, very large enterprise,” says Dr. Rocky Tuan, director of the Center for Cellular and Molecular Engineering at the University of Pittsburgh. “Somebody said, ‘How is that possible that all of these Type-A people that compete with each other are supposed to work together?’ But it is possible to get the top researchers in the regenerative field to work together toward the common goal of regenerative therapies for the wounded warrior.” D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 1 0

The five targeted research areas are limb repair, craniofacial repair, burn repair, scarless wound repair and compartment syndrome repair, in which an injured limb swells so severely that muscle dies. “We aren’t asking for the moon,” Hale says. “We are asking for improvement. And that’s inspiring researchers.” It seems to be working. AFIRM’s original goal was to have one active clinical trial treating patients in five years, says Wake Forest’s Dr. Anthony Atala, co-chair of the Wake Forest-Pittsburgh consortium. Just two years in, though, his consortium alone already has three active clinical trials and four in the works. ollaboration accelerates technological advances by enabling researchers to quickly share both their discoveries and their failures, says the Cleveland Clinic’s Dr. George Muschler, co-director of the Rutgers-Cleveland Clinic consortium. By quickly dropping dead-end research and concentrating on successes, he says, 20 years of advancements could be squeezed into two to four years. Some of the most promising research has been in the

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save lives and close wounds, high-priority area of burn but we also want to return treatment. soldiers to full function in work “It sucks to go to the and life,” he says. operating room and do a big burn case and it may be no different from what was done r. Maria Siemionow in 1980, or 1996,” says Dr. of the Cleveland James H. Holmes IV, director Clinic is working on three of the Wake Forest Baptist major projects to reduce the Burn Center and head of risk of rejection in face and AFIRM’s burn project. “We hand transplants. As director can do better. We have our of plastic surgery research and chance here.” head of microsurgery training, He is especially optimistic Siemionow was part of the about a commercial product team performing the first U.S. called ReCell already in use in face transplant in December other countries. Cells from a 2008. thin, 4-square-centimeter skin Immuno-suppression drugs graft can be easily processed that transplant patients must outside of a lab in less than take for the rest of their lives a half-hour, and then sprayed have serious potential side onto the patient’s wound to effects, including tumors or create more than 320 square lymphoma, Siemionow says. meters of skin – an 80-to-1 One clinical trial will examine expansion rate. The Australian how a protein antibody can manufacturer, Avita Medical, selectively block certain says the new skin heals receptors, minimizing the more quickly than traditional need for lifelong anti-rejection grafts, with significantly less treatment. The therapy is scarring. AFIRM is funding important for all transplant a clinical trial to gain FDA patients, she says, but is approval of ReCell as early as especially applicable to young 2012. military members who could be If the technology is widely in for decades of anti-rejection (TOP): Dr. James H. Holmes IV, director of the Burn Center adopted in the U.S., it will be drugs. at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, directs a the first major advancement Her second project fuses clinical trial of ReCell, a new treatment for burns. for treatment of major burns transplant donor and recipient (BOTTOM): Engineered tissues and organs are often built since the mid-1970s, Holmes cells extracted from bone using three-dimensional, porous molds or scaffolds that says. It is one of several marrow, then replicates them support cells as they develop. The scaffold for finger bones research projects addressing in the patient’s body. Because is part of a long-term project to engineer a human finger. one of the biggest challenges the fused cells are partly the in military burn treatment: patient’s, the theory is that finding enough healthy skin for grafts on a severely burned minimal immuno-suppression treatment would be required. patient.  The third project represents a new generation of cell “We are very aggressively trying to answer the therapeutics, she says. charge given us … to provide treatment for wounded Siemionow says AFIRM funding is critical to the servicemembers as rapidly as possible,” Holmes says. “I research. The National Institutes of Health, another major really, truly believe we are going to make advances that will governmental provider of regenerative medicine research make an absolute difference.” grants, won’t generally fund what it considers high-risk Other researchers are developing an engineered skin that procedures. AFIRM, she says, considers the risk in relation can be used to temporarily cover burns as a first stage of to the potential for innovation. treatment, according to the Army’s Hale, director of cranioTuan, who co-chairs the Wake Forest-University of maxillofacial research at USAISR. “Our primary goal is to Pittsburgh consortium, expands on that idea.

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PHOTOS: Courtesy of Wake Forest University

R E G E N E R AT I V E M E D I C I N E

D


PHOTOS: Courtesy of Wake Forest University

R E G E N E R AT I V E M E D I C I N E

“In treating civilian injuries we often are conservative in what we do. As a result, development happens very sequentially,” he says. “Injuries from war-related trauma are usually very extensive. It’s an upside-down pyramid – the most severe injuries are the most frequent. The approach therefore is totally different from that of projects funded by NIH and even by the VA. We have taken very drastic and sometimes even somewhat risky approaches.” Hand transplants are an example, Tuan says. A soldier who loses a hand can live a productive life with a prosthetic. “But this is exactly what you want to do – use this opportunity to really push the envelope. We are committed to going for broke and trying out these crazy ideas. I think by doing this we will break new ground.” Although transplantations are not technically regenerative medicine, the science of improving the interface between graft and host tissue is, Tuan says. “We very constantly keep track in the consortium of the status of so-called enabling technologies,” he adds. Enabling technologies include scaffolds that serve as fundamental building blocks for generating bone, tissue or nerves. Extracellular matrix is one such scaffold. So are adult stem cells and cells extracted from fat, or adipose tissue. “So the people who do cells need to be in touch with the people who use cells. The probability of being able to take advantage of any development is greatly enhanced.” he Cleveland Clinic’s Muschler, vice chair of the Institute for Orthopedics and Rheumatology, says that optimizing the environment for bone, muscle and nerve regeneration also can lead to fewer amputations. Rocketpropelled grenades and other explosives can easily blow a gap in bone or muscle that “without very, very aggressive treatment doesn’t heal with very good reliability,” he says. Muschler says researchers are working on processes to use polymer scaffolds to prepare stem cells harvested from the patient and use them to regrow missing chunks of

T

34

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(LEFT): This mold is being coated with cartilage cells that will develop into the shape of an ear. (RIGHT): Catherine Ward is part of a team working on developing an oxygen-producing gel that military medics could carry with them to provide a temporary burst of oxygen to damaged tissue, buying time until the patient can get medical treatment.

bone. Related research is looking at ways to better prepare the damaged site to accept the stem-cell therapy. Not every project has been a success. AFIRM’s Bonsale says some of the compartment syndrome projects, in particular, have been abandoned after disappointing early results. But the overall progress is staggering, she and the researchers say. “We’re just finishing up two years, and I don’t think anybody was expecting the program to be so successful,” she says. “We might have to reassess our fiveyear goals.” Regenerative medicine is a new field for the Department of Defense, Bonsale adds. “We’ve made a tremendous amount of progress, and I wanted to be part of it. Not a single day do I regret it.” She knows the research will one day help people like recently retired Master Sgt. Todd Nelson, who sustained extensive burns and other debilitating injuries in a 2007 suicide bomber attack in Kabul, Afghanistan. Nelson serves on a regenerative medicine advisory committee in San Antonio, where he still undergoes treatment. “If they can start doing some of the things they’re talking about, it will just be heaven-sent to the folks that have this happen in the future,” says Nelson, who was a senior maintenance supervisor in the Army. “Being in their shoes, I can see it will mean the world to them. We should do this.” J


nett warrior

I

n a couple of years, U.S. foot soldiers likely will go into battle wearing digital command-and-control gear that works much like Modern Warfare II and other first-person shooter video games they played growing up. Army equipment experts recently began testing prototypes of Nett Warrior, the next generation of smart-soldier systems designed to help soldiers see through the fog of war. Fielding is scheduled for 2012. Land Warrior, the first version of this equipment, recently completed its second combat tour with infantrymen from the 5th Stryker Brigade Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division in Afghanistan. The technology allows a small-unit leader to look into the tiny computer screen on a helmet-mounted display and track subordinates’ locations in relation to his own position via icons on a digital map. The unit leaders can view satellite imagery and even send text messages. The system can give leaders a precise view of their tactical environment, empowering units to operate more decisively than ever before, program officials maintain. Land Warrior was gauged a success on its maiden combat deployment to Iraq in 2007 with the 4th Battalion, 9th Infantry Regiment. But users require a lot of training for the complex system, and program officials still grapple with challenges such as weight, power management and connectivity. The Nett Warrior system could solve these shortcomings. “Nett Warrior brings advances in technology for things like lighter-weight operations, more capable processors that are faster and more power-efficient,” says Col. William Riggins, the head of Project Manager Soldier Warrior. “It’s not just to make it smaller PHOTO: Courtesy of PEO Soldier and lighter, but it’s also to make it more reliable.” Army officials have already started to plan the next round of upgrades for Nett Warrior, known as Increment 2. The 2016 version could give soldiers on-board foreign language translation and monitor the wearer’s vital signs. “It’s always been a vision -Graphic video-game imagery marks that Nett Warrior is more than just this situational-awareness the newest smart-soldier system tool,” Riggins says. Formerly known as Ground Soldier System, Nett Warrior is By Matthew Cox named after Col. Robert B. Nett, who was awarded the Medal of Honor for bravery during a 1944 battle in the Philippines. The Army plans to field an improved version of the The name change was announced June 14, on the Army’s 235th Land Warrior smart-soldier system, Nett Warrior, in 2012. birthday. Since then, the Army has started testing 60 Nett Warrior Above, a staff sergeant wears the current version of prototypes each from General Dynamics C4 Systems, Raytheon Land Warrior. and Rockwell Collins Inc. A platoon of soldiers has done initial tests on obstacle courses 36

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nett warrior

PHOTO: Courtesy of General Dynamics

and during night land-navigation training to ensure the system’s System made by GD C4 Systems will connect individual soldiers components work. with the tactical network. In late September, three infantry companies were to perform a Rifleman Radio sends out a signal so the soldiers appear as limited-user test on the prototypes. Each company will be assigned icons on a leader’s digital display. prototypes from one of the three companies and will wear the Team leaders basically know where their team members are systems while conducting platoon and company-sized training now, but with the new radio “you have the ability for squad leaders and higher leaders to reach down and see that rifleman,” Riggins missions. The Army plans to make its choice by late summer 2011 says. Nett Warrior may also be significantly easier to master than and conduct operational testing into early 2012, Riggins says. Land Warrior. Program Fielding and deployment officials underestimated are scheduled for around the level of training summertime, he says. time for smartProgram officials and soldier technology the companies involved until the 5th Stryker have been tight-lipped so Brigade Combat Team, far about the Nett Warrior 2nd Infantry Division prototypes. All three (5-2) experienced designs are “fairly similar,” reliability problems on Riggins says, comprising its 2009 Afghanistan a computer, GPS, mouse, deployment. radio and a helmetOne reason Land mounted display. Warrior performed well Bob Haag, senior with the 4th Battalion, director of soldier solutions 9th Infantry Regiment at Rockwell, says he thinks (4-9) in Iraq was that his company surprised the unit had a long time the industry when it was The 5th Stryker Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division tested Land Warrior in Afghanistan, to learn the system, selected to compete in the but had little time to learn how to use the technology. Here, a brigade capprogram officials final three. tion’s helmet-mounted display is folded up and out of the way. maintain. “I think there were The Stryker team a fair amount of people wasn’t so lucky. that didn’t recognize us as “It’s important to remember that 4-9 had the systems for a year, being a strong competitor,” says Haag, adding the company is best known for supplying the military with hundreds of thousands of and 5-2 had them for a month,” Riggins says. That meant 5-2 soldiers had to relearn the same lessons in combat that 4-9 did in Defense Advanced GPS Receivers, or DAGR. Rockwell wants “to move the world beyond ‘these are the guys training, he said. Program officials hope to solve this by making Nett Warrior that make the DAGR,’ ” he says. GD C4 Systems, the company that revived the failed Land work more like first-person shooter video games. “Kids these days, they grow up playing video games,” Riggins Warrior program when it took over in 2003, remains confident. “The thing that we have that other suppliers don’t is the experience says. “We took feedback from 4-9 and 5-2 and kind of combined of putting equipment on a soldier in an integrated fashion like we that with a gaming look and feel.” The system’s new Graphical User Interface -- the image soldiers have done on Land Warrior for years,” said Mark Showah, director see when looking into the helmet-mounted display -- relies on of Battle Management Integration Soldier Solutions. “what we call a God’s-eye view, so you’ve got your view of the and Warrior currently is issued only to squad leaders and field, but then on maybe a lower corner you’ll see all the entities that are outside of your immediate view,” Riggins says. the two team leaders of each nine-man infantry squad. This means “less points and clicks to get to the business end of Nett Warrior will still be provided at the team-leader level, but riflemen, grenadiers and squad automatic riflemen will carry the screen, more intuitive pop-ups, a compass display that looks the system’s Rifleman Radio. The hand-held Joint Tactical Radio like a gaming compass.”

L

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nett warrior

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D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D F a l l 2 0 1 0

PHOTO: Courtesy of PEO Soldier

S

uch advancements mean little to infantrymen if the system is too heavy to carry in combat. It helped that the Army provided all three companies with teams of soldiers that had used Land Warrior in combat, says David Treichler, the lead for force modernization and transformation at Raytheon. They helped Raytheon “try to find ways to make the thing smaller and make it weigh less, allowing the soldier to be able to carry the things that are more important to them than batteries and more dead weight,” he says. Program officials have already lightened Land Warrior significantly. It weighed 17 pounds when it went to 4-9 in 2006 and dropped to 10 pounds when 4-9 deployed to Iraq in 2007. The Land Warriors 5-2 carried weighed 8.5 pounds, but weight is still a challenge. Nett Warrior prototype components are already 10 percent lighter than Land Warrior, but that weight must include enough power for a 24-hour mission on one battery, Riggins says. Currently, a single battery powers Land Warrior for 12 hours. Nett Warrior will simply have to be as power-efficient as possible. “Similar to a laptop, if you walk away for a cup of coffee, it goes into a sleep mode,” he says. “Nett Warrior will have the same type of intelligent power management.” Reliable communications are another challenge Nett Warrior will inherit from Land Warrior. Terrestrial-based radios often struggle with connectivity over long distances and heavy terrain. Special Forces units scheduled to evaluate a version of Land Warrior in Afghanistan early next year intend to mitigate this with satellite-based radios. Program officials, however, plan to have Nett Warrior plug into the Army’s future tactical network strategy, Riggins said. Much of that network will evolve around GD C4 Systems’ Warfighter Information Network Tactical. Win-T Increment 2 is a collection of line-of-sight or terrestrial radios and satellite communications radios, antennas and software that provide units on the move with a “self-healing” network. The terrestrial radios form the primary connection and are backed up by satellite radios when connectivity is lost. The Army plans to begin fielding WIN-T Increment 2 in 2013. The satellite-based WIN-T Increment 1 has been in use since 2004, but it doesn’t work on the move. By 2016, the Army hopes to transition from Nett Warrior Increment 1 to Increment 2, a version allowing wearers to definitively identify friend or foe, and use on-board biometrics to accurately identify high-value targets and other persons of interest.

TOP: This shows the new Graphical User Interface the Army is creating to give Nett Warrior images similar to those in popular first-person shooter video games. BOTTOM: This is what a leader sees when he looks into the current Land Warrior helmet-mounted display.

Increment 2 would also be wireless, Riggins says. “I want to get rid of all the cables,” he says, solving a longstanding problem with the weapons portion of Land Warrior. The system was originally designed to connect to day and night optics on the soldier’s weapon. Units quickly abandoned it because the bulky cables created a snagging hazard. “If we can integrate that into Increment 1 ... I won’t wait for Increment 2,” Riggins says. J


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PHOTOS (top to bottom): Tech. Sgt. Joseph McLean; Tech. Sgt. Jeromy K. Cross; and James Kitfield

Combat Logistics

Revolution What logisticians have learned from nearly two decades of far-flung war deployments

A

By James Kitfield

t the end of August the nation watched transfixed as the last U.S. combat brigade rolled out of Iraq, bringing combat operations to a close and officially ending Operation Iraqi Freedom. The troopers of the 4th Stryker Brigade were the last of 50,000 U.S. troops to exit the country just this year. In an August speech, President Barack Obama marked the symbolic milestone by noting that the United States had already closed or handed over hundreds of bases in Iraq. “We’re moving out millions of pieces of equipment in one of the largest logistics operations that we’ve seen in decades,” he said. Remarkably, the largest post-combat redeployment of U.S. troops since Operation Desert Storm in 1991 was not even the primary focus of logisticians at U.S. Central Command and the Pentagon. They were more concerned with flooding that had deluged huge swaths of Pakistan, displacing millions of people and restricting one of two major supply arteries in the south that support roughly 100,000 U.S. troops in Afghanistan. 42

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TOP: Improved combat logistics allowed logisticians to focus on supply pipelines disrupted by flooding in Pakistan as U.S. combat troops left Iraq. MIDDLE: Improvements in planning processes are enabling more efficient use of limited sealift and airlift resources. BOTTOM: Airmen can now tailor pallets to stack items bound for the same customer in the order in which they are needed.


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After the floods started in mid-August, the number of shipping containers stacking up at regional supply hubs and in the Pakistani port of Karachi ballooned from 1,000 to 2,700 in just two weeks. Such a blockage in the pipeline and concentration of critical supplies spelled potential trouble, inviting theft and possibly insurgent attack. Just a few months earlier, delays at a border crossing caused supply trucks to stack up at a rest stop in Pakistan that was later attacked by opportunistic Taliban insurgents, with the loss of more than 80 trucks and all their U.S. military cargo. But two decades of nearly constant military deployments have spurred dramatic improvements in precision logistics and supply chain transparency that are revolutionizing combat support. As a result, U.S. logisticians not only knew exactly where every truck and container in the Afghan supply pipeline was located and its ultimate destination, but also exactly what parts, supplies and equipment each one contained. With a few computer key strokes, the dispersal of supplies and transportation assets was cross-referenced against requisition orders and stock levels in 16 supply warehouses in Afghanistan. Adjustments were rapidly made in a global supply system that feeds and supports frontline troops through an intricately balanced network of air, land and sea routes and major distribution hubs around the world. In the meantime, “container intrusion detection devices” sensitive to light and motion revealed if any of the containers in Pakistan were tampered with. As a result of those advancements, logistics challenges that might have become a game-stopper in an earlier era were never even apparent to frontline commanders in Afghanistan. The simultaneous withdrawal of combat forces from Iraq and surge of troops to Afghanistan in 2010 can thus be written as a successful case study in logistics for future war college text books. “After supporting combat operations in Afghanistan and Iraq for nearly 10 years, all of the logisticians in the Army, along with our partners at Transportation Command and at the Defense Logistics Agency, have all gotten really good at honing and refining our supply processes,” 44

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Lt. Gen. Mitchell Stevenson, the Army’s deputy chief of staff for logistics, says in a recent interview. “When you combine doing things smarter with dramatic advances in asset visibility and satellite communications, it’s a gamechanger in terms of logistics. That’s enabled us to do things in Afghanistan and Iraq that we simply couldn’t have done 20 years ago.” Brig. Gen. Kenneth Merchant is a C-17 pilot, and the director of logistics at the Air Force’s Air Mobility Command. All of the component commands that contribute to the military supply effort, he says, have embraced a culture of continuous improvement and trial and error over the past decade of operations. “Everyone at U.S. Transportation Command has become much more innovative, to the point where we are always trying new ways to go about this business more efficiently, and if something doesn’t work we’ll back off and try another way. If something works, we’ll continually refine it,” he says in an interview. “As a result, we’ve evolved from Desert Storm in 1991, where we moved a whole lot of stuff but had to break open every container on the other end just to determine what was in it. Today we’ve adopted a mindset much more like Federal Express or UPS, which is that if someone orders a priority item that is scheduled to arrive on a certain day, we’ll make sure that it’s in their hands on that day.”

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very logistician has the same nightmare. A combat operation grounds to a halt, and the mission and the lives of U.S. soldiers are put at risk because of a lack of critical support. A famous case study in that instance was Gen. George Patton and the 3rd Army racing across France to relieve Army units surrounded by German forces during the Battle of the Bulge in 1944-45. Despite the heroic efforts of what became known as the “Red Ball Express” to try and keep the 3rd Army resupplied on its breakout offensive, Patton’s lead tank companies ran out of gas and stalled outside of Metz, France, where they became fodder for German Panzers. Because of their shared nightmare, logisticians adopted

PHOTO: Spc. Micah E. Clare

A combat logistics patrol from the 782nd Brigade Support Battalion, 4th Brigade Combat Team, 82nd Airborne Division travels through a difficult route after completing a mission at Bandar Command Observation Post in Paktika Province, Afghanistan.


PHOTO: Sgt. Christopher R. Rye

a common adage: Never run out. More is always better. “A critical failure is what keeps us all up at night, so logisticians are traditionally conservative in estimating how much support will be needed,” says Stevenson. The result was an American tradition of combat logistics, he says, that relied on moving massive amounts of materiel. “If you look at how we supported combat operations in the past century, from World War II to Vietnam to Desert Storm, it was by pushing huge amounts of supplies forward with brute force.” Despite showcasing the ability of U.S. support forces to move mountains of military equipment and supplies halfway around the world, Desert Storm also revealed the limitations of combat support of maneuver forces circa 1991. At that time Stevenson, for instance, commanded a support battalion in the 24th Infantry Division, which conducted the famed “left hook” that blocked the escape of the Iraqi Republican Guard from Kuwait and brought the ground war to a quick and decisive end. Because of limitations in long-range communications, supply train visibility and knowledge about the fuel requirements of a mechanized division trying to sprint nearly 180 miles across the desert, however, Stevenson says the “left hook” nearly outran its own supply lines. “At one point we accidentally stumbled into a transport unit of 60 fuel tankers that were on their way to establishing a fuel farm, and I requisitioned them on the spot,” he says. “If we hadn’t encountered those trucks, we absolutely would have run out of fuel and they might have written a different story about the ‘left hook.’ And in retrospect, that ‘left hook’ operation was nothing compared to Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003, which required moving a much bigger force more than 300 miles from Kuwait to Baghdad in a matter of weeks.”

Logisticians take advantage of the latest technology to efficiently move warfighting equipment to the field. Here, Marines with Combat Logistics Battalion 8’s helicopter support team prepare to attach a howitzer to a CH-53E Super Stallion in Helmand Province, Afghanistan.

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n roughly the decade between operations Desert Storm in 1991 and Iraqi Freedom in 2003, however, Defense Department logisticians embraced new technologies that dramatically streamlined the supply chain. They shifted away from the relatively cumbersome “bar code” readers used in Desert Storm, for instance. Especially during the deployment of U.S. and NATO forces to the Balkans in the mid-1990s, logisticians began experimenting with using active and passive “radio frequency identification” (RFID) tags similar to those used by today’s “E-Z tag” toll-way systems. When paired with automatic “interrogator networks” established at key nodes such as airports, seaports and intransit hubs, the RFID tags allow logisticians sitting at a computer anywhere in the world to not only track every vehicle and container in route, but also to list exactly what cargo each is carrying. The result is an unprecedented level of supply chain transparency that now characterizes U.S. support operations. “We were still pretty nervous in 2003 that something in the logistics system would not work right and our forward forces would run out of fuel, ammo or water, but it all came together after a lot of really intense rehearsal and training,” says Stevenson. “We absolutely could not have conducted an operation on those timelines and distances without the new RFID technology and in-transit visibility it gives us.” Because U.S. Army doctrine in 2003 called for support convoys to travel in large formations over relatively short distances, however, many of them relied on short-range radios and static communications systems that proved inadequate during the dash to Baghdad. After-action reviews showed that in some instances, communications from support battalions to their headquarters went silent in the weeks after crossing into Iraq. “When we saw that support battalion communications went virtually dead in the two-week period after crossing into Iraq, we purchased satellite communications equipment for all logistics battalions that can also act as a wireless network for elements of that unit,” says Stevenson, referring to the Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) mobile satellite communication systems. “The result is constant communications connectivity. If I wanted to know how much main tank ammunition I have in Iraq at this moment, I could query the system from the computer on my desk and know the answer in minutes. So everyone is now connected all the time, and that’s another game-changer in the logistics profession.”

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eginning with a 1990s initiative called Velocity Management, DoD logisticians have also constantly honed “best practices” gleaned from private industry, from the efficient storage and stock rationalizations of a WalMart distribution center, to the “Just in Time” delivery model of a Federal Express or United Parcel Service, to the continuous process improvement of a Toyota assembly


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erhaps nowhere have smarter supply methods and advanced technologies combined to greater effect than in the realm of airdrops. Because of the surge of 50,000 U.S. troops in the past year, and the primitive nature of Afghanistan’s transportation infrastructure, AMC has seen the amount of tonnage of airdropped supplies nearly double, from 30 million tons last year to an estimated 54 million tons in 2010. Today, the 150 forward operating bases in Afghanistan that depend on airdropped supplies can count on the cargo landing on the targeted drop zone. “Because of the GPS (global positioning satellite) capabilities of the Joint Precision Air Drop System, we can put airdropped cargo within 25 meters of any target,” says 48

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Maj. James Fuller, AMC’s chief of airdrop operations. “That means our troops don’t have to expose themselves to enemy fire or improvised explosive devices in order to retrieve critical airdropped supplies. In Afghanistan, if supplies are dropped even 500 meters off target, it can require troops to climb over two mountaintops to retrieve

PHOTO: Petty Officer 2nd Class Sandra M. Palumbo

plant. Meanwhile, the nature of counterinsurgency warfare in Iraq and Afghanistan has also allowed the Pentagon to leverage the immense capabilities of private contractors in helping to deliver fuel, food and supplies, providing a major force-multiplier to support forces. Through an initiative called Inbound Logistics, for instance, Air Mobility Command has capitalized on the transparency of the supply chain to custom-tailor cargo pallets so that all items are bound for the same customer and stacked in the order they are needed. “As a result of Inbound Logistics, when one of our ‘pure pallets’ is taken off an airplane by a forklift, within minutes a contractor is moving the entire pallet to the forward base where it’s needed, without wasting a lot of time breaking it down and storing disparate supplies in a warehouse,” says Merchant. As another example, he notes that AMC orchestrates 900 military and Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) flights each day in support of U.S. military forces. By increasing the size and weight of some pallets flown by CRAF transports in an initiative called Next Generation Cargo Capacity, he says, AMC was also able to reduce the number of U.S. military transport flights, saving money and wear on aircraft. As another example of “smart” over “brute” logistics, Merchant says that AMC was initially transporting Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicles to Afghanistan strictly by air, an expensive and inefficient process that required a single C-17 transporting three MRAPs to fly 20 hours. Today, a single ship from Military Sealift Command can transport 450 MRAPs to in-theater ports, where they are loaded onto C-17s for just a 30-minute flight into Afghanistan. “By adopting a continuous process-improvement mindset in prosecuting these wars we are constantly learning, and that has energized and excited our people,” says Merchant. “They are not afraid to test new ideas, dropping the ones that don’t work and refining the ones that do. As a result, we’ve increased the speed of our support operations such that we are now operating at a pace in Afghanistan that would have been impossible even five years ago.”

Transporting Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicles to Afghanistan exclusively by air was costly. A roll-on / roll-off Military Sealift Command ship can transport 450 vehicles to the theater at a time.

them. So the precision of our airdrop operations has come a long way even since the beginning of Operation Enduring Freedom (in 2001).” As a net result of all those advancements, the fundamental philosophy underlying U.S. military logistics has changed. Modern-day “loggies” are still determined that U.S. military forces will never run out of critical supplies. More, however, is not always considered better. “In the past, what caused logisticians to order so much material is that they didn’t know where their previous order was in the pipeline, and commanders in the field didn’t have a clear picture of the worldwide strategic logistics system of supply, maintenance and transport,” says Stevenson. As an example, Stevenson notes that commanders during Desert Storm ordered 200,000 short tons of excess ammunition that eventually had to be shipped back to the United States when fighting ended, at significant expense. Compare that to the less than 4,000 short tons of ammunition that had to be shipped back from Iraq as 50,000 U.S. forces withdrew this year. “Today, commanders can query the logistics system and determine the exact location of the part or ammunition they need, and they have confidence in our ability to move it quickly,” he says. “That trust and confidence has eliminated excess ordering and the need to build up huge mountains of material, which cuts across the entire supply chain. It allows us to do this business with much greater precision.” J


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RENDERING: Courtesy of AVX Aircraft

Here’s how the AVX Aircraft version of the proposed Transformer flying vehicle might look.

Flying Cars in Combat? DARPA goes gear up on a game-changing, do-everything vehicle

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By Rich Tuttle

t’s a car! It’s a plane! It’s … Transformer, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency’s effort to bring to life the decades-old dream of a flying car. If successful, the program and the vehicle it produces could be a game-changer for the U.S. Marine Corps and Special Forces. DARPA has said it plans to select contractors this fall. Unconfirmed reports said AAI Corp. and Lockheed Martin Corp. made the cut, but a DARPA spokesman declined to say at press time if this was true. Transformer is described by program manager Stephen Waller as “a vehicle that would carry four people up to 250-plus miles and take off vertically, land vertically, and essentially be more of a roadable vehicle that flies instead of an aircraft that rolls. It’s got to be more robust than an airplane with wheels or a helicopter with wheels.” He acknowledges it won’t be easy. Still, the idea dovetails especially with combat needs of the

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Marines. The service is very interested in Transformer, or TX, because battlefield reports indicate “this could potentially be a huge enabler to support us in the field as we are operating now,” says Lt. Col. Ed Tovar, the Marine program manager for TX from 2004 to 2006. Tovar just completed a tour as an analyst at the Marine Corps Warfighting Lab in Quantico, Va. The lab is under the Marine Corps Combat Development Command, which is responsible for generating requirements and looking at concepts for the future of the Marine Corps. After-action reports show that “we’re really having a hard time resupplying our patrols on the forward edge of the battle space,” Tovar says. “Could TX be an enabler? Could [it] operate autonomously? Could it deliver something to us? Could it bring back wounded? Could it send Marines downrange? Absolutely.” One ongoing battle challenge is getting fuel and water to distant Marines. The heavy vehicles and long logistics trains now used to do the job are expensive. “That’s a problem and it’s taxing us,” Tovar says. But TX could potentially do this and other missions at a lower cost, he says. “Could this vehicle be a game-changer for us? I personally believe it can, and so does the Marine Corps.” Tovar says, for instance, that while the V-22 tilt-rotor aircraft is performing well for the Marines, “we don’t want


RENDERINGS: Courtesy of AAI Corp. and AVX Aircraft

LEFT: AAI Corp.’s Transformer concept is a fixed- and rotary-wing hybrid featuring technology from Carter Aviation. RIGHT: AVX Aircraft says its Transformer design is adaptable and can be configured for vehicles of different sizes.

to put it into a hot LZ [landing zone].” And rough terrain makes many places out of bounds for Humvees. The result is that “we find ourselves on foot, as we always have, everywhere we go.” TX could fill the gap. But along with flying low, the vehicle would also have to cruise at 10,000 feet, which Waller calls a big challenge. The range of 250 miles with four people “is actually pretty significant,” Waller says, and dictates the kind of engine TX would use. Ducted fans are a possibility, but “you have to produce a lot of horsepower.” And “if you have too much airflow at one time in one small area, you have what I call the Joint Strike Fighter problem, where you have very, very high disc loading, in the thousands of pounds per square foot, and that tends to drill a hole in the ground, so it’s not very practical unless you have either steel plates or very wellreinforced concrete.” It’s a balance between getting enough lift and enough horsepower without drilling a hole in the ground from the pressure, Waller says. That means the vehicle can’t be too heavy. “Your car typically is anywhere from 4,000 pounds to 7,000 pounds. If you can make [TX] lighter than a typical car, your lift gets easier.” DARPA planned to pick teams of companies to do the initial development, but because contracts were not to be announced until mid- or late-September, Waller declined to say who was in the running. He did say that the response from industry was “overwhelming,” with more than 150 people from large and small companies attending a TX “industry day” in January. A DARPA spokesman, asked in early September about reports that AAI and Lockheed Martin had been chosen, said the agency wasn’t ready to make an announcement. AAI publicly indicated an interest in Transformer earlier in the year. Lockheed Martin kept a 52

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low profile. AAI has several team members for Transformer, including Carter Aviation Technologies of Wichita Falls, Tex. An AAI-Carter deal gives AAI exclusive access to a Carter idea called slowed rotor/compound. AAI describes SR/C as “a fixed- and rotarywing hybrid that uses multiple proprietary approaches to deliver high speed, long endurance and vertical/short takeoff and landing capability at low cost.” AAI, a Textron company, has two Textron sister companies aboard on Transformer, Bell Helicopter, and Marine and Land Systems. Another AAI teammate is Terrafugia of Woburn, Mass., developer of the Transition roadable light sport aircraft. The Transition made headlines in June when it won an exemption from the Federal Aviation Administration to fly with a maximum takeoff weight of 1,430 pounds. That’s 110 pounds over the limit of FAA’s light sport aircraft category, and accommodates things like airbags and an energy-absorbing crumple zone to increase safety on the road and in the air. It also boosts the prospect for sales. AVX Aviation of Fort Worth, Tex., says its proposal “is very adaptable and can be configured for many different sizes and types of vehicles.” The design “provides flexibility and performance to support both ground and aerial movement required for the TX design.” Logi Aerospace of Bellevue, Neb., and Sacramento, Calif., is proposing the Tyrannos, which it says will have a top speed of 240 mph in the air and 103 mph on the ground. The company says it will be able to reach 14,000 feet and hover at 10,000 feet with a full payload. NASA is working on TX with DARPA and the Marines, bringing to bear Langley Research Center’s decade-long study of light civilian “personal air vehicles.” One possibility for such


S

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RENDERING: Courtesy of Logi AeroSpace

vehicles, and maybe TX, is hybrid propulsion -- taking off with readily available diesel fuel, for instance, and cruising on electric power. “It is likely that future [vertical takeoff and landing] systems will embrace some form of electric propulsion, certainly a hybrid if you’re interested in any reasonable range in the near term,” says Mark Moore of Langley’s Systems Analysis Branch. “If you need to go a Logi AeroSpace’s Transformer concept features shrouded propellers developed by Trek couple of hundred miles, it’s going to Aerospace, one of its partners. During takeoff, nearly half the lift is provided by the shroud have to be a hybrid system.” and not the propellers, the company says. Some say that with TX, DARPA is getting away from its mandate of looking well into the future and trying instead to solve a current the next step would be to integrate this Hybrid Aircraft Control problem, avoiding roadside bombs. But Waller doesn’t agree. “For piece.” starters, it is far out to think that you could take a car, drive down pecial Forces, meanwhile, are very interested in the vehicle’s a road, hit a button, 60 seconds later it turns into something that ability to get in and get out of an operational area, Waller takes off vertically and then flies automatically.” As for roadside bombs, that threat will be around “for a long time no matter where says. “If you get into a firefight and you don’t like things, you can back up in the car, configure and fly away.” we go because it’s effective.” A flying ground vehicle would cut across traditional Pentagon To get past what he calls “the giggle factor,” Waller says DARPA wants to show that TX can be driven on the ground lines of development. There are separate establishments for air and and fly autonomously, which the Marines say would be ideal for ground that might not take well to a new program infiltrating their getting wounded people back to a safe area. He says that is one turf. But that’s some years away. “We’d certainly like to have it of the basic missions the Marines envision for TX. “Most likely, now,” Tovar says. But it will be “three to four years to prototype,” another human being would go with [the wounded] to attend them according to a DARPA spokesman. TX could be operational in medically. But there is no pilot and it would fly them back to a safe about five years. The Marines conducted a number of war games and reviewed landing zone where you could get a larger helicopter in and take a number of battle strategies before settling on one, called Tactical them to a hospital.” Tovar says he’s “very passionate” that TX be operable by Maneuver after Next, or TMAN, that led to TX. One of its basic “infantry, not pilots. The whole foundation of this program is points was the need to maneuver unencumbered in the battle space. that it takes an infantryman to fly it, not a pilot.” A number of “This was a hard problem,” Tovar says. “DARPA had a number technologies “allow us to say, ‘I’m on this vehicle for the ride.’ ” of initiatives over the years, but it always seemed like the Marine An infantry corporal, for instance, wouldn’t have to “put a whole Corps wasn’t really invited in these initiatives. Everybody just assumed that the Marine Corps wasn’t interested. We were always lot of thinking into it.” The key is improvements in flight control, he says. “If we can on the ground, we were being dropped from the air, or we just put a probe on a moving asteroid, why can’t we [use that kind of massed ourselves against an enemy. The trouble is, we can’t do that technology] down here? Why can’t we put a Tom Tom [GPS] on a these days.” TX has changed things for the Marines and may have opened a door. flying vehicle that tells me, ‘Go here, don’t go here’?” “Many tell us we cannot defeat irregular forces,” Tovar wrote Coming up with a control system that gets wounded Marines out of the battle and back to a safe area with a mere push of a “go- in a 2005 paper for DARPA. “Well, we just don’t accept that. home” button is beyond the program as it stands today, Waller says. Marines want to partner with technology innovators...to solve this “I intended to get into what I call HAC, Hybrid Aircraft Control. problem.” “To provide our ground forces overwhelming capability against That is not currently part of this program focus. That would mean that the craft would fly automatically or with human inputs, real- future enemies, our Marine infantry and supporting units need time, by somebody who’s not a pilot. In other words, it wouldn’t technology and training equivalent to programs like the Navy’s let him put it out of control, but he could make steering changes Top Gun or Air Force’s Red Flag,” Tovar wrote, “although being in the air.” If the prototype can fly just by remote control, “then Marines, we’d call it Top Grunt.” J


SITE Development Defense Intelligence Agency is spending billions to streamline IT acquisition across DoD and to cut costs

By Rich Tuttle

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PHOTO: Courtesy of US Army

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cquiring information technology services for the sprawling U.S. intelligence community more efficiently is the goal of the largest contract ever awarded by the Defense Intelligence Agency. Eleven companies began competing this summer for a broad range of tasks under the five-year, $6.6 billion effort. The effort, called Solutions for the Information Technology Enterprise, or SITE, will support worldwide intelligence and command and control operations of the DIA, Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, combatant commands, other defense agencies and civilian agencies. The 11 companies will compete for jobs that include support services, program management and Soldiers training at Forward Operating Base Walton in Kandahar Province, intelligence analysis for things like the DIA’s Joint Afghanistan, use a PRC-117G radio to connect to the Operation Enduring Worldwide Intelligence Communications System, an Freedom SIPRNet. SIPRNet is a system of interconnected networks used by Internet for the intelligence community. the Department of Defense to transmit secret information. Driven as much by pressure to keep costs down as by an insatiable demand for intelligence, SITE consolidates two earlier umbrella contract vehicles The other earlier umbrella was the Intelligence Information, that were themselves intended to reduce the cost and ease the Command and Control, Equipment and Enhancements (ICE2). process of buying and servicing intelligence-related hardware Run by the Air Force, it was a single-award vehicle, with and software. General Dynamics getting the contracts. General Dynamics beat One of the earlier umbrellas was the Department of Defense competitors for ICE2 in 2003, winning a $1.95 billion contract Intelligence Information Systems (DoDIIS) Integration and that was to run until 2013. The ceiling value, however, was Engineering Support Services Contract, or DIESCON. Launched reached a few years ago. by DIA in the 1990s, it covered a group of blanket purchase General Dynamics and BAE are among the companies chosen agreements, each of which allowed anticipated procurement of by DIA in May to bid on contracts under SITE. DIA selected supplies and services. BAE Systems Inc. was a leading provider four other large companies: Lockheed Martin Corp., Northrop of IT services to the DIA under DIESCON. Grumman Corp., Science Applications International Corp.,


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than develop them. “There is a growing number of these [contracting] tools, and agencies like them because they don’t have to go off and pay a fee to another agency -- gives them a little bit more control in house,” says John Needham, director of the Government Accountability Office’s Acquisition and Sourcing Management unit. “It also allows them to tailor their requirements to their particular needs, and it keeps everybody working off the same set of vendors.” One problem with that approach is the government as a whole “doesn’t know that these [tools] are out there,” Needham says. It also “creates a lot more work for the vendors because they now

uch is expected of the SITE contract. DIA says it “is designed to enable streamlined execution, simplify purchase requests, standardize acquisition documentation, improve enterprise program management for customers, provide better reporting capability, improve contracting performance and data integrity, and make [DIA’s] overall IT acquisition process more efficient.” “It puts everything in a competitive environment,” says Esther Woods, SITE contract officer. “ICE2 was a single-award contract, so in the competitive environment we’re hoping to leverage industry’s knowledge on [DIESCON and ICE2], and the competitiveness normally gives us a better price for the services.” At the same time, it’s not yet clear how much money SITE will save. “That’s the million-dollar question,” says Jenniffer Wilson, the SITE program manager. “Time’s going to tell on that. We awarded SITE on a full and open competitive basis, and we are anticipating that the labor rates that we negotiated for the next five years are really going to show us some This image of the Air Force’s Defense Common Ground System facility savings.” under construction at Langley Air Force Base, Va., prior to its June 2010 opening gives an idea of the size of the multiservice DCGS program. The But DIA won’t know what the savings are “until $40 million, 120,000-square-foot facility will help troops around the world we start competing task orders and get those awarded. share intelligence information. And then we’re going to have to do a comparison of the current year to previous years. So how much money is SITE going to save? I don’t know.” She anticipates that have to compete to be on GSA [General Services Administration] process will take six months to a year. schedules,” for instance. Defense officials “started doing this 20 years ago, buying versus But Wilson says vendors face less uncertainty under SITE. “We building, to try to bundle as much as possible of their computer are going to buy the same items that we’ve bought in the past, but purchases into a single contracting vehicle,” says John Pike of we’re going to do it [with] a more standardized process,” she says. Global Security.org, which tracks defense programs. “They were The 11 companies “know how we’re going to buy [items], they basically just trying to put their IT requirements onto a commercial know when we’re going to have our meetings, how they need to best-practices basis. Before about 1990, there was very little prepare their proposals, and everything is known up front.” SITE customers, like military services and intelligence agencies, standardization in terms of what they were buying, there was little interoperability, everything was unique, and they were spending an will find the process of acquiring and servicing various items nearly identical to that of DIESCON and ICE2. awful lot of time specifying things.” “For the customers and program managers that we’re going When it became clear that the commercial computer industry had already solved most of the defense IT problems, military to be dealing with that have the actual projects and programs that information managers moved more strongly to bring companies we’re going to buy for them, it is a streamlined process. We’re into big, overarching contracts that would supply systems rather moving away from that single award culture into a competitive 58

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PHOTO: Courtesy of Joint Forces Command

and Systems Research and Applications Corp. It also picked five small companies: BC Fed Group, CenTauri Solutions, Enterprise Information Services Inc., Red Arch Solutions Inc. and Worldwide Information Network Systems Inc. The jobs for which the companies will compete have a total contract ceiling of $6.6 billion between now and 2015. The indefinite-delivery-indefinite-quantity (IDIQ) contract creates the procurement framework for the types of services that were provided under DIESCON3 and ICE2, according to Lockheed Martin.


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One intelligence tool purchased under ICE2 that feeds information into JWICS and other secure networks -- the Defense Common Ground System, or DCGS -- apparently would be acquired and maintained under SITE. DCGS, with Lockheed he government as a whole is making greater use of and Raytheon as the prime contractors, is intended to allow realenterprise-wide contracts, says the GAO’s Needham. time intelligence from a variety of sensors around the world to And this is prompting the GAO to start looking at their be shared by the military services and national agencies. “Let’s say the Marines are operating a battalion in effectiveness as tools for strategic sourcing -- how strategic are they, in fact, and do government agencies understand how to Afghanistan that’s adjacent to an Army battalion and they’re both looking at some high-interest person,” says one defense match demand with supply chains? official who asked not to be Needham agrees that when further identified. “You search a single contract is awarded under that person’s name in to a single company, most of DCGS-Marine Corps” and if those questions are answered. it, or DCGS-Army or some In the case of contracting other DCGS has information vehicles that cover a number on the person, “that’s going to of companies, however, that pop up.” information must be known All DCGS versions are about all the companies. designed to be interoperable There aren’t any known and share data via the DCGS negatives to SITE, Wilson Integration Backbone, or DIB. says. For instance, “many of Additional information from the prime vendors … have other networks would also be good teaming arrangements available. with other companies. It’s a An MC-12 Project Liberty aircraft prepaes for takeoff in March But the system, including competitive environment. at Joint Base Balad, Iraq. The airborne sensor platforms feed DCGS, has not yet been The process really allows into intelligence networks. General Dynamics has a contract to support Project Liberty. perfected, according to the industry to offer suggestions official. “We can transfer and recommendations to the government if they think there’s a smarter way we could be information, people can do searches on websites -- it’s just that we have not attained the level where it’s a one-stop shop out doing our business.” Although the SITE contractors are competing, they also are there in the whole DoD community.” GAO says DCGS implementation has been uneven. The Air teaming with each other in some cases. Enterprise Information Services, for instance, is teamed with both BAE and Lockheed Force and Navy plan to have fully functioning versions by the end Martin. And Worldwide Information Network Systems is teamed of fiscal years 2010 and 2013, respectively, but the Army doesn’t with General Dynamics. “That’s how IT works,” says Wilson. expect its DCGS to be fully up until 2016. The Marines, meanwhile, have not yet established a date for full operational capability. “That’s an IT business model. They all play with each other.” Similarly, GAO says, DoD hasn’t developed overarching The DIA’s Internet for the intelligence community, the Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System, or JWICS, guidance for use of the DIB. This means the services lack direction could be a beneficiary of SITE. DIA operates JWICS to help to set their own goals for ranking and sharing information. And, “support the growing demand for intelligence agility and global GAO says, the fact that users can’t fully access existing information collaboration,” according to the Office of the Director of helps increase the demand for additional intelligence-gathering National Intelligence. It calls JWICS “one of the world’s most assets. Another system that feeds into intelligence networks and that robust communications systems,” describing it as “essentially a very secure Internet” and a high-bandwidth system that provides apparently will continue to be acquired and supported is Project full-motion video teleconferencing and data exchange for the Liberty, which employs MC-12W aircraft as sensor platforms. General Dynamics announced in June that it had received a $49 entire intelligence community. Hardware and software for the JWICS infrastructure could million contract to support the Air Force’s DCGS and Project be purchased under SITE with operations and maintenance Liberty. It said Liberty provides “sustainable, deployed full-motion funding, DIA spokesman Lt. Col. Thomas Veale says in an video processing, exploitation and dissemination (PED) cells to joint e-mail response to questions. “Previously these services were ground forces at the corps level and below to exploit data collected” by the Air Force-flown MC-12Ws. J purchased under ICE 2 and DIESCON.” award culture, and we’re really steering the community toward more performance-based contracting,” says Esther Woods, the SITE contract officer.

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PHOTO: Senior Airman Brittany Y. Bateman

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’11 AIR FORCE Preview

Joint Direct Attack Munition Latest version can take out moving targets

W

By David Perera

PHOTO: MSgt. Greg Kobashigawa

Fighting a counterinsurgency battle can become greater or lesser depending hen Taliban fighters ambushed coalition troops in Afghanistan hasn’t dampened demand on the desired effect, Wingfield adds. The war in Afghanistan has required outside Tarin Kowt, for the kits. The JDAM enjoys “a very high some adaptation, however. “When we Afghanistan, in late March 2009, the Air started getting really involved in Force responded with 500-pound Afghanistan, the need came about warheads that destroyed enemy to hit moving targets,” says Nelson fighting positions along with Sturdivant, a retired Air Force a fortified heavy machine gun lieutenant colonel and now an position. industry analyst with consultancy Unlike during wars past when Frost & Sullivan. demolishing enemy fortifications “We don’t have a lot of things required multiple sorties, a B-1B that we can use to hit moving Lancer near Tarin Kowt required targets with,” he adds. The result just one pass. That’s because has been a laser seeker attached to the bombs on the airplane were the JDAM, allowing the munition equipped with Joint Direct to navigate toward a moving target Attack Munition kits guiding the even after it’s been launched. With warheads to Global Positioning regular JDAMs, once the GPS System-derived coordinates. coordinates have been set and Born from a desire following the warhead launched from the the first Gulf War for satelliteairplane, the bomb target cannot be guided precision weapons, unchanged. JDAMs have since passed Boeing received a $28.8 million from cutting edge into what contract in May 2007 to add laser JDAM prime contractor Boeing seekers to 600 of the Air Force’s characterizes as a stable rate of 500-pound bomb stockpile. The Air production. Airmen apply JDAM Force used a Laser JDAM against a kits onto otherwise “dumb” moving target for the first time in 500-pound and 1,000-pound Iraq, in August 2008. warheads, as well as to two A Laser JDAM can hit a target varieties of 2,000-pound moving up to 70 miles an hour. The munitions. “There hasn’t been a huge Three GBU-32 Mk-84 2,000-pound Joint Direct Attack Muni- guidance mechanism can toggle [recent] increase,” says Dan tions are mounted under the wing of a B-52H Stratofortress between laser and GPS guidance right up until launch, Sturdivant Jaspering, director of Boeing’s bomber supporting the war in Afghanistan. says. direct attack weapons program. “That’s the beauty of it – it gives The Air Force buys JDAMs from Boeing in annual lots, most recently accuracy and a very good – actually one them the capability to have one bomb awarding the company a January 2008 of the better – mission reliabilities of on the plane. If they need to drop it on contract potentially worth $1.3 billion all the air-ground munitions out there,” a stationary target, they can, or, if they through 2015, if all the options are says Steve Wingfield, Boeing manager need to hit a moving target, they also exercised. A single kit currently costs of warfighter operations. The ground can,” he says. “Most weapons can’t do both,” he around $29,000, according to Air Force depth at which a JDAM detonates is also customizable, so the explosion radius adds. “It’s one or the other.” J budget documents.

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’11 ARMY Preview

Expeditionary Warrior TRADOC Integrates new technologies

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By Arthur O. Murray

PHOTO: Courtesy of Lockheed Martin

ilitary historians like to the AEWE maneuver battle lab, says itself, according to Daniel. It’s more say that generals often try the exercise tackles the integration of than just building a better radio. “The to fight the last war. The technology on a variety of levels. “Our first thing you have to have is a network theory is that leaders want to correct focus in the campaign to this point is that will support that kind of operation, any mistakes made in the previous the network-enabled small unit. Do with voice and data capabilities. How we make a unit more survivable if it’s do you take a sensor that has a pretty campaign. While that makes sense to some enabled with a robust network, with all good read and get that transmission to the guy on the ground that needs it the extent, it makes more sense for military platforms integrated to that network?” Among the defense contractors with most? The information has to be timely leaders to try to avoid mistakes before they happen in combat. That’s even technology tested during the exercise enough to act on it.” That calls into more important now as technology were L3 Communications Corp., question the capability of the sensors, improvements lend themselves to Raytheon Co., Lockheed Martin Corp. their deployment and the integration of information into the integration on the network in real time. battlefield. Despite the advances That’s the in technology, some point of the Army challenges haven’t Expeditionary Warrior gone away, he says. Experiment at Fort “It’s as hard as it’s Benning, Ga. AEWE always been to make is the U.S. Army sure the network is Training and Doctrine reliable and secure. A Command’s premier sensor may have been campaign of soldierdesigned to operate by focused experiments itself, and now you’re with emerging trying to integrate it technology. It gives into a network.” But, planners a chance to he says, military and evaluate equipment and civilian researchers are how it works together, tackling those issues. and gives soldiers Lockheed Martin’s Desert Hawk III Unmanned Aircraft System was one of the “We haven’t found a the opportunity to technologies tested at TRADOC’s Army Expeditionary Warrior Experiment challenge try technology out to earlier this year at Fort Benning, Ga. The Desert Hawk has a 360-degree sensor technical turret and color and low-light sensors. we couldn’t overcome accelerate prototype yet.” development. The Much of his time now is devoted ongoing program, launched in 2004, and MacroUSA Corp. Daniel says he receives $2.5 million in funding and others are still looking at which to planning for Spiral G, the eighth technologies will improve survivability. experiment in the AEWE campaign. annually. During the three-week Spiral F But, he says, those changes prompt It will be held in late 2011. “We’re campaign this year, more than 150 other questions. “What happens to shifting the focus away from smallsoldiers participated in 14 live and the battle space if the unit is network- unit network ops. We may have learned virtual missions, utilizing more than enabled? It can and should have a larger about what we can learn there. We’re 25 technologies from more than 20 battle space to operate those sensors shifting back to more basic soldierrelated issues, including resupply and that allow integration.” companies. But work remains on the network soldier load.” J Gary Daniel, project manager in

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’11 MARINE CORPS Preview

Trust in GUSS?

Autonomous ground robot drives itself

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By David Perera

PHOTO: Torc Technologies

arine Corps equipment need be tasked with GUSS as his primary that scan the ground for up to 300 meters is heavy. Heavy as in 70 duty. The handheld controller has three to create a real-time picture of obstacles, pounds of back-busting modes – follow me, location designation Culhane says. The picture isn’t perfect – to loads of ammo, water, batteries and other similar to a laser range finder for solo GUSS a LIDAR sensor, a thicket of tall grass often supplies strapped to a body already lugging trips, and a remote control mode similar looks the same as a concrete wall. Azzarelli to a Nintendo Wii controller for when the says improving sensor perception and up to 35 pounds of body armor. obstacle detection is on the to-do list for What if Marines on foot patrol could vehicle needs manual intervention. fiscal 2011, which starts simply throw a chunk of Oct. 1. that load onto an all-terrain GUSS is not the first vehicle? Even better, an attempt by the military ATV that would drive to create an autonomous itself? ground robot, but it differs That’s the idea behind in a few respects from an experiment called other efforts. For one thing, the Ground Unmanned GUSS is not highly reliant Support Surrogate (GUSS). on Global Positioning Four experimental gasSystem signals. powered GUSS vehicles The Marines “aren’t recently drove themselves trying to send it to a stop while following foot line on the ground that they patrols in Oahu, Hawaii, as need to be 10 centimeters part of a limited objective accurate to,” Culhane experiment undertaken says. “From a tactical during the summer Rim of perspective, that doesn’t the Pacific 2010 exercise. matter.” The system has a The autonomous A GUSS vehicle begins navigating a winding, half-mile trail through thick margin of error typically vehicles “were never down woods on its own during a May 7 test in rural Virginia. It was given only the within a few meters when and they never, to use your starting and ending locations as references. sent autonomously to a words, fell in a hole,” says “This really will extend the operational destination, he adds. Brent Azzarelli, chief robotics engineer at System components are also commercial the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory, reach of these squads, because now the which is funding the GUSS experiment. Marines aren’t walking around with 100 off-the-shelf products, Culhane says, As part of the experiment, the vehicles pounds on them all the time. They can be adding that something like a GUSS vehicle followed a platoon member carrying a a little bit more fresh,” says Maj. Patrick could be about two years away from beacon and were even sent to travel on their Reynolds, the logistics combat element production. No express requirement exists to turn GUSS from an experimental project branch head at the warfighting lab. own to fixed destinations. The four prototypes were put into an actual program, but both Reynolds “It can navigate off road, it can navigate in mud, on gravel, it can navigate through together by Virginia Tech University and and Azzarelli say formal requirements fields, it can navigate through a wooded Blacksburg, Va.-based Torc Technologies. could be forthcoming within the next few area that’s not densely wooded because it’s Each vehicle can carry 1,800 pounds and years. “The Marine Corps just recently got to be able to get around trees,” Azzarelli two passengers, says Andrew Culhane, within the last year has really started to Torc business development manager. says. The roof rack of a GUSS carries a host get their appetite whet with robotics,” Full autonomy was important to the Marine Corps, he adds. No platoon member of light-detection and ranging sensors Azzarelli adds. J

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’11 NAVY Preview

Guided Missile Destroyers Navy picks tried and true over new

T

By Michael Fabey

PHOTO: Navsource.org

The Navy certainly is investing money in he resurrection of the DDG- 2005, deploying 57 by fiscal 2009. The 62nd 51 Arleigh Burke-class guided ship is scheduled to enter service in late 2001 the program. Its fiscal 2011 budget request missile destroyer program can or early 2012. The Navy is now developing included two DDG-51s in 2011, and six be best summed up in one syllable and four the next generations of ships – the Flight IIA more between fiscal 2012 and 2015. The two 2011 ships received $577.2 and Flight III Burkes. letters: Iran. Navy officials are saying the Burke-class million in fiscal 2010 advance procurement Protecting American allies from the growing nuclear threat being cultivated in ships were better for maritime-based defense funding. The Navy’s proposed fiscal 2011 that country has become a U.S. strategic than other ships the service had initially budget requests another $2.9 billion for priority. The destroyer possesses a unique planned to procure, notes the Congressional the two ships for an estimated combined procurement cost of $3.5 capability for that mission, billion. The Navy’s proposed guaranteeing its place in the fiscal 2011 budget also Navy arsenal for decades to requests $48 million in come. advance procurement funding Specifically, the DDG-51’s for the single DDG-51 the Aegis Combat System – the Navy wants to procure in fiscal sophisticated integrated self2012. defense web of electronics and For now, though, Burkehardware that can track missiles class shipbuilders Northrop and other attacking weapons – Grumman and General provides a formidable shield Dynamics’ Bath Iron Works for missile defense. are making sure they keep up “The Aegis Combat System with their current contracts. has become the centerpiece of Northrop’s Pascagoula, the Obama administration’s The Aegis Combat System on the Arleigh Burke-class destroyer, Miss., yard had some issues missile defense plan,” says which can track missiles and other attacking weapons, gave the in July delivering the Gravely defense analyst Loren aging DDG-51 the edge over the bigger Zumwalt-class destroyer. (DDG 107), the 27th DDG-51 Thompson of the Washington- In this test, the USS Hopper is about to successfully intercept a sub-scale short-range ballistic missile launched from the Kauai Test class ship to the Navy, because based Lexington Institute think of difficulty testing the ship in tank. “The Navy has built Facility in Hawaii. the Gulf of Mexico. “It was its missile-defense strategy around the Aegis architecture to defend Research Service (CRS) in a spring 2010 a challenge with sea trials in the wake of Europe and other countries from an Iranian report on the program. There are also the oil spill,” says Bob Merchent, Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding’s vice president of financial considerations, the CRS says. missile launch.” The new destroyer could be more surface combatants and U.S. Coast Guard The Navy and the White House are now so wedded to the Burke-class destroyers that expensive to procure than the Flight III programs. The shipyard also has had to work though the Pentagon has canceled plans to replace DDG-51, the CRS reports, because the DDG-51s with bigger Zumwalt-class ships, DDG-51 leverages years of prior production extensive hurricane damage. “This milestone doesn’t come easy,” opting instead to refine the Burke class and its experience. DDG-51s were originally built with an says Navy Capt. Bill Galinis, supervisor Aegis system, named after the mythological expected service life of 35 years, the report of Gulf Coast shipbuilding. “The shipyard shield that protected Zeus. “This is one program that is not going notes. The Navy reports in its fiscal 2011 has continued to restore itself from Katrina, 30-year shipbuilding plan that it intends to and this is the third ship in this class to be away,” Thompson says. The Navy bought its first DDG-51 in extend the service lives of Flight IIA DDG- delivered since the storm. Each DDG continues to improve.” J fiscal 1985 and procured 62 through fiscal 51s to 40 years.

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PTSD:

VA hones its weapons in battle against war-related psychological trauma

By Sara Michael

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s the notion of a front line of combat has changed, so too has the understanding of how battle affects service members. Troops engaged in direct firefights aren’t the only ones who may experience trauma, and a single event isn’t the only culprit. Similarly, the understanding of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has evolved, prompting the Department of Veterans Affairs to make regulatory changes in July to ease the burden of proof for receiving covered mental health treatment. 70

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“Over time, we have come to realize that PTSD can be triggered by other kinds of stressful life experiences that can’t be boiled down to a single incident,” says Dr. Antonette Zeiss, the VA’s deputy chief for mental health services. The VA’s recent rule change regarding the claims process for PTSD treatment coverage is “a response to a growing understanding of warfare, and a growing understanding of PTSD,” she adds. The VA’s extensive nationwide network of medical centers provides PTSD treatment for the nation’s veterans through personalized, evidence-based programs. Through early intervention efforts, the VA has sought to connect veterans with effective programs and ensure they receive the proper treatment. A veteran seeking PTSD treatment from the VA submits a claim


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PHOTO: Senior Airman Renae Kleckner

PTSD

OPENING PAGE: A mock M-16, bottles of scents reminiscent of the smells of battle and a manual are part of a virtual reality-based software that recreates a traumatic situation in a safe environment. ABOVE: Senior Airman Joseph Vargas uses the Virtual Iraq program at Malcolm Grow Medical Center’s training site at Andrews Air Force Base, Md. The program uses prolonged exposure therapy to help patients confront and overcome the incidents that traumatized them.

seeking an evaluation, which is conducted by a VA clinician and includes collecting information about the event that could have resulted in PTSD. Before the rule change, the VA tried to substantiate the experience and confirm that it occurred when the veteran was in the military. Health administrators then determined whether the patient suffered a serviceconnected trauma. “This is about that step -- looking at the evidence that an event actually occurred while the person was in the military,” Zeiss says. “Previously if someone was claiming a combat-related PTSD, they had to produce very rigorous evidence,” such as an after-action report, a medal or a description of the event. Not only is that information extremely difficult to produce, but the combat experience is not that cut and dried. And soldiers not engaged in active battle may still experience stress. “Streamlining this process will help not just the veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom, but generations of veterans who have previously ‘borne the battle’ for our nation,” VA Secretary Eric Shinseki wrote in a USAToday op-ed explaining the change. Some veterans who previously weren’t eligible for benefits may now be eligible, and those who have hesitated to submit claims may decide to do so, Zeiss says. The VA will be tracking the effects of the new rule. Tom Tarantino, an Iraq veteran and legislative associate for the nonprofit Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans of America, calls the change “monumental,” reflecting a recognition of how wars are fought and who may experience stress or trauma. For example, medics, truck drivers and other support members might have a hard time proving specific traumatic incidents occurred, Tarantino says. “More people are going to have access to more care and benefit from this change.”

A

lthough the change might open the doors for more veterans to receive PTSD treatment through the VA system, it doesn’t impact the treatment programs themselves, officials say. Each veteran entering the VA system is screened for mental health conditions, including PTSD. The screenings can lead to further 72

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evaluations. For the first five years after separation, a veteran is screened annually, says Stacey Pollack, director of the trauma service program at the VA Medical Center in Washington, D.C. “We all know there is a huge stigma for people coming forth, so by making screening a part of our standard practice, we are able to get people into treatment and find out who needs to be referred,” Pollack says. PTSD is caused by exposure to a direct or indirect threat of death or serious injury. Symptoms can include recurring thoughts of the traumatic event, or stressor, reduced involvement in work or outside interests, emotional numbness, anxiety and irritability. According to the VA, the disorder can be more severe and last longer when the stress is a human-initiated action, such as war. The VA relies on two evidence-based treatment methods for PTSD: Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure. Both focus on the trauma, Pollack says, with the veteran talking or writing about his or her traumatic experience in a structured environment. These two treatment options were determined as the most effective based on an extensive Institute of Medicine (IOM) study commissioned by the VA a few years ago, says Thomas Berger, senior policy analyst for veterans’ benefits and mental health issues at the Vietnam Veterans of America. The institute reviewed more than 2,700 programs, many of which lacked scientific evidence or a connection to veterans. “Those are the two treatment programs that pass with flying colors by the IOM,” says Berger. “Clearly, unless the evidence is there based on the IOM report, then we don’t know if the other stuff is good or not.” Although the VA is always considering innovations in PTSD treatment, officials want to make sure the programs are being researched, and are based on strong evidence, Pollack notes. “PTSD is treated much better today than, say 25 years ago,” she says. Cognitive Processing Therapy involves learning about the symptoms and becoming aware of thoughts and feelings. The goal is to look closely at how the trauma is affecting the veteran, and then help him look at it differently. The patient learns the skills to question or challenge the thoughts.


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NUMBERS In fiscal 2009, 365,836 veterans were treated for PTSD. Of those, 19 percent were veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.

From fiscal 20022009, nearly 130,000 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans received a provisional diagnosis of PTSD in VA medical centers. More than 3,700 VA mental health professionals have been trained in Prolonged Exposure and Cognitive Processing Therapy treatments. Source: VA

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Prolonged Exposure treatment centers on the exposure to the thoughts and feelings that cause the distress, and practicing in real-world situations the patient may have avoided, such as driving after a roadside bomb experience. The patient also talks about the trauma memory extensively with his therapist. The duration of the treatment depends on the veteran, and whether he or she is suffering from a recent stressor or one that has gone untreated for 40 years, Pollack says. Some veterans fare better than others, often because they consistently pursue the treatment course or are dedicated to the process. The stigma about receiving mental health services may surface in the beginning, she says, but often a vet will quickly start to see a difference. “They can see week to week how their symptoms are going down and they are feeling somewhat better,” she says. The decision on which course of treatment is most appropriate is based on clinician judgment and patient preference. However, the VA is researching whether one is a better fit for certain patients, Pollack says. “It would be great if we had research out there to let us guide particular patients toward particular treatments and know a better algorithm to see what works for who.”

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oving forward, one challenge for the VA is to ensure that clinicians, both within the system and in the private sector, are well-trained on the treatment programs, Pollack says. More than 3,700 VA mental health professionals are trained to provide the two therapies, according to the VA. The administration also has a mentoring program that works with personnel at treatment sites to improve care. The mentors make sure the clinicians are up on the latest research and best practices. Similarly, many veterans seek treatment outside of the VA system, Pollack notes, and it’s important that non-VA programs and clinicians also are current on treatment and research. Indeed, the treatment network for veterans extends far beyond the VA. Dozens of community-based organizations are providing socalled “wrap-around” care for veterans who need additional support, either as VA contrac-

PHOTO: Courtesy of DOD

PTSD

About one in five veterans treated for post traumatic stress disorder in fiscal 2009 had fought in Iraq or Afghanistan, according to the VA.

tors or as independent groups. “The VA is more of a medical model, [which] relies on organizations to provide benefits advocacy, housing [assistance], employment and training -- all that wrap-around care they simply can’t handle,” explains Colleen Corliss, communications manager at Swords to Plowshares, which provides transitional housing and other services to veterans in the San Francisco area. The nonprofit is one of about 50 groups that make up the Coalition for Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans, a partnership of organizations that offer care and support. Veterans will still go to the VA center to access mental health treatment, and more intensive medical care, Corliss explains, but community groups can fill in some gaps. Ensuring a veteran seeks treatment at all can be a struggle, officials say. The stigma around mental illness among the military is still quite strong. Thomas Hall, a Vietnam veteran and national PTSD / Substance Abuse Committee chair at Vietnam Veterans of America, says his organization and others are working to shift the notion of what is considered a strong service member. Someone who is truly missionready takes care of every weapon and equipment he will need in battle, his mind included, Hall says. “It seems incongruous that someone would be punished or ridiculed for pulling maintenance on that equipment,” he says. “You’d do the same with other weapons. Clear head, and clear mind, and be ready.” J


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MICHAEL MURPHY

The first sight of their loved one’s name on the back

Ceremony brings ship one step closer to service at sea

of the guided missile destroyer being built in his honor was overwhelming for the Murphy family. For the ceremony, the ship was inside a huge assembly facility.

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By Gary Williams

B

ATH, Maine -- Deep gasps were the only sound as the small group touring the legendary Bath Iron Works shipbuilding facility entered the cavernous Ultra Hall. Above them, towering nearly four stories high, the name of their son, brother, grandson and friend, Michael P. Murphy, was emblazoned on the massive, 800-ton hull of what soon will become a U.S. Navy guided missile destroyer. Murphy’s family knew, of course, that the name

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would be there. They were at the shipbuilding facility in June for the keel-authentication ceremony for the ship named after Murphy to forever recognize the sacrifice of the Medal of Honor recipient, who died June 28, 2005, during a covert reconnaissance mission that turned into the most intense and decorated battle in Naval Special Warfare history. But still. The sheer astonishment and emotional impact of seeing the Navy SEAL’s name across the hull of that ship was something none of his family members expected, even after meeting former President George W. Bush in the sobering, October 2007 Medal of Honor ceremony at the White House. His parents, Dan and Maureen Murphy, and his brother John embraced. Maureen’s sister, Eileen, who had been Michael’s godmother, joined the embrace, their sobs and sniffles breaking the silence. Scott Kay, Bath Iron Works’ guided missile destroyer project manager and the tour guide for the day, took the opportunity to gather himself as the family


For our nation’s best... from our nation’s best LT. MICHAEL MURPHY, USN

Navy SEAL – Medal of Honor Recipient

USS MICHAEL MURPHY (DDG 112) being built by the shipbuilders of Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine Coming to the Fleet in early 2012


PHOTO: David Peabody

ABOVE: A poster showing images of Medal of Honor recipient Lt. Michael Murphy motivates workers building the ship at Bath Iron Works in Maine. LEFT: Maureen Murphy, Lt. Murphy’s mother, looks on as Edwin Bard inscribes the Murphy family’s signatures on an iron plate. The iron plate was affixed to the ship’s hull during construction.

PHOTO: Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Dale Patrick B. Frost

embraced. He had conducted numerous tours for the families of ships’ namesakes, but the task had never become any easier or less emotional for him. Construction on the $170 million guided missile destroyer known only as DDG-112 began with the first cut of steel on Sept. 7, 2007. In the dedication ceremony May 7, 2008, Navy Secretary Donald C. Winter declared, “Michael Murphy’s name, which will be forever synonymous with astonishing courage under fire, will now be associated with one of the U.S. Navy’s most technologically advanced, most powerful and most capable warships.” In addition to launching guided missiles, many of the destroyers are equipped to carry out antisubmarine, anti-air and antisurface operations. Their hull classification symbol is DDG. The ship now known as DDG-112 Michael Murphy will keep that name until the christening anticipated for May 7, 2011, on what would have been Murphy’s 35th birthday. 78

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A ship consists of two basic elements: structure, which serves as the skeleton, and outfit, comprising all of the systems, components and equipment that enable it to perform as designed. Raw materials for both structure and outfit were fabricated into various pieces, sections and assemblies at off-site manufacturing facilities, and then shipped to Bath Iron Works (BIW) for the second stage of construction known as main structural assembly and pre-outfit 1. Fabricated in an inverted position for ease of construction, modules were right-sided and joined together into larger sections forming the ship’s hull. The third stage, pre-outfit 2, involved joining individual outfitted sections to create even larger modules. Additional outfit materials including main engines, generators, pumps, electronic consoles, ventilation ductwork and cable were installed in the Ultra Hall. The June 18th keel-authentication ceremony was the first of what will be several emotional ceremonies that will bring the ship to life. During the ceremony, BIW workers helped Dan and Maureen Murphy weld their initials in a steel plate that will become part of the ship. The initials of all 19 of those killed


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PHOTO: David Peabody

in Operation Red Wings also will be welded into the keel plate as a lasting tribute to their service and sacrifice. After the official ceremony and tour of the buildings containing the modules of the ship, the group paid their respects to another American Medal of Honor recipient by touring the USS Jason Dunham, DDG-109, structurally identical to DDG112 and also under construction. The all-steel Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyer is the only one designed around the Aegis Combat System, SPY-1D multifunction phasedarray radar, Aegis ballistic missile defense system, and a collective protection system, also making it the first class of U.S. warship built with an integrated nuclear, biological and chemical warfare air-filtration system. Aegis, the Greek word for shield, is a highly integrated radar and missile system that relies on a separate sonar system to track underwater threats such as mines, torpedoes and submarines, and can simultaneously follow land, air and subsurface threats and attacks. The Aegis ballistic missile defense BMD adds a “sword” to the Aegis “shield” by providing a forward deployable, mobile capability to detect, track and destroy ballistic missiles of all ranges. Within days after the ceremony, the ultra-units were transported using multiple self-propelled mobile transporters to the Land-Level Transfer Facility (LLTF) and set in place on one of the building shipways. There, Ultra Units and other ship modules will be joined together on the LLTF to form a near-finished product, with 80 percent of construction completed in preparation for launch or christening. After the christening next spring by Maureen Murphy, the ship’s sponsor, the USS Michael Murphy will be transferred from the LLTF onto a floating dry dock along the Kennebec River. The dry dock will be flooded, allowing the ship to float off and maneuver alongside the pier, a 24-hour process. Then the ship completion, testing and activation stage will commence, work that can only be done with the ship afloat. During the latter part of this stage the Navy will assume possession and proceed with nearly six months of rigorous sea trials and testing. The commissioning ceremony is tentatively scheduled for June 28, 2012, in New York Harbor. The USS Michael Murphy will be the seventh destroyer and 40th Navy ship named in honor of a Medal of Honor recipient. Although its fleet assignment has yet to be determined, the destroyer

Scott Kay, who is overseeing construction of the Michael Murphy for General Dynamics Bath Iron Works, explains the complexities of ship building to local Fire Department Capt. Michael Clarke and to Dan Murphy, father of the ship’s namesake.

and its 23 officers and 250 enlisted personnel likely will be home-ported in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, home of Murphy’s unit, SEAL Delivery Vehicle Team-1. While the keel-authentication ceremony was emotional, the family remembered the comforting words from Winter at the dedication ceremony two years earlier: “Every sailor who crosses the bow, every sailor who hears the officer of the deck announce the arrival of the commanding officer, and every sailor who enters a foreign land representing our great nation will do so as an honored member of USS Michael Murphy.” Gary Williams is the author of SEAL of Honor: Operation Red Wings and the Life of Lt Michael P. Murphy, USN and attended the ceremony at the request of the family. He lives in Ohio. J


Dedication

In Memory Of

IN MEMORY OF

PFC Richard A. williams February 7, 1930 - March 31, 2010

Although the sun shone brightly in the cloudless, light-blue sky above Columbus, Ohio, Richard Williams, a single 21-year-old grocery clerk, and his best friend, Donald Beck of Lakeview, Ohio, walked quickly to fight off the chill from a crisp wind. Their draft notices in hand, the two were reporting to the Military Recruitment Center on Valentine’s Day morning in 1951. As they walked, Richard’s thoughts turned to his two older brothers, Ivan and Robert, who were serving in the Army. Robert, 20 years his senior, had been serving for the past two years at a base in Virginia. Ivan, nine years older than Richard, had been serving for the past nine years as a combat medic in Germany. Despite their draft notices, both Williams and Beck tried to enlist in the Air Force when they reached the Military Recruitment Center. Richard wanted to follow in the footsteps of his brother-in-law Eugene Gibson. But the two friends were assigned to the Army. Both shipped out to the 3rd Armored Division in Fort Knox, Ky. There they completed basic training before moving on to Advanced Infantry Training at Camp Stoneman in California, 2,000 miles from home. After completing training they reluctantly parted company. After completing an all-too-brief leave, Williams on Sept. 20, 1951, left the safety and security of the continental United States, arriving Oct. 4 in Sasebo, Japan. After five days of additional training and equipment issue, he and hundreds of his fellow soldiers arrived in Pusan, Korea. Williams was assigned to Company L, 179th Infantry as an ammuni-

tions bearer. During the Chinese Communist Forces (CCF) intervention on Dagmar Hill, he and his fellow troops were under intense attack from heavy artillery, grenades and automatic weapons fire. Found unconscious and face down in a bunker with a pack board and 57mm ammunition strapped to his back, Williams was carried by litter to a makeshift field hospital before being transferred to a military hospital in Japan. When he regained consciousness he found a Purple Heart pinned to his pillow case, a common battlefield practice. His unit received the Presidential Unit Citation for their action on Dagmar Hill, and each was awarded the Bronze Star Medal for meritorious service. Williams was honorably discharged in November 1952 after a lengthy hospitalization; those awards, as well as others he had earned, hung for 38 years on his military uniform in a storage closet. Additional military honors and decorations included the Good Conduct Medal, Korean Service Medal, National Defense Service Medal, United Nations Service Medal, Combat Infantryman Badge, and the Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation. In his last year, Williams’ memory of military service nearly 58 years in the past faded. He succumbed to Parkinson’s Disease on March 31, 2010. Unfortunately and tragically, the nation’s memory of the service and sacrifice of its Korean veterans has faded as well, including the 33,741 killed, 92,134 wounded, 7,245 held as POWs and the 2,847 who died while being held captive in Korea. This issue is dedicated to the memory of the late Private 1st Class Richard A. Williams, decorated combat veteran of the “Forgotten War.”

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FINAL FRAME

Army Specialist Chase Collins stands at attention during a Sept. 11 memorial ceremony at Camp Liberty in Baghdad. PHOTO: Petty Officer 2nd Class Kelvin T. Surgener

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2010 Fall Edition  

DEFENSE STANDARD 2010 Fall Edition

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