Page 1




Band of Brothers Green Beret valor in the Shok Valley


What’s next for the


The SureFire M951 Millennium Universal WeaponLight System and 660 Universal Barrel Mount WeaponLight are designed with

Joint Strike

one thing in mind, winning fights. Both are cut from aluminum, features a shock-isolation system to protect the lamp from the


rigors of battle and recoil, and include both a plug-in remote tape switch and a pushbutton switch for redundancy.

Inside DoD’S largest

M951 (KIT02)


Includes Picatinny rail mount and IR ďŹ lter

NSN: 6240-01-532-4184 5.)6%23!,"!22%,-/5.4

procurement program 660

Weapon barrel mount IR ďŹ lter optional

NSN: 6240-01-532-4184 /2$%2/.,).%!4777!$34!#4)#!,#/-

$5.95 US $7.95 CAN

The #/.4!#453&/2-/2%).&/2-!4)/./2/2$%2/52/0%2!4)/.!, %15)0-%.4#!4!,/'/.,).% sWWW.ADSTACTICAL.COM Š 2009 ADS, Inc. The ADS Logo is a registered trademark of ADS, Inc. A0126





FIGHT against




If your GEN III garment doesn’t feature the “Official” GEN III label it isn’t authentic.


Level I

Light-weight Cold Weather Undershirt & Drawers

Level II

Mid-weight Cold Weather Shirt & Drawers

Level IV

Cold Weather Wind Jacket

Level V Soft Shell Cold Weather Jacket & Trousers

Level VI

Extreme Cold/Wet Weather Jacket & Trousers

Level VII

Extreme Cold Weather Parka & Trousers

GEN III ECWCS IS THE NEXT GENERATION EXTENDED COLD WEATHER CLOTHING SYSTEM (ECWCS) FOR THE WARFIGHTER. Based on layering systems currently utilized by mountaineering professionals and designed by the U.S. Army, GEN III ECWCS changes the way the American Soldier can fight. Technically advanced proprietary materials and textile construction combine with advanced garment design to allow the soldier to comfortably operate and sustain combat operations in extreme conditions, extending the ability to take the fight to the enemy. Only the official GEN III ECWCS authorized for U.S. Army issue features: • Sizing logic to minimize bulk • Near infrared (NIR) textile technology • Exceptionally quiet design for • Seamless integration with load carriage and body armor added stealth

CONTACT ADS TODAY FOR MORE INFORMATION. 800.948.9433 » W W W.ADSTACTICAL.COM © 2009 ADS, Inc. The ADS Logo and the GEN III ECWCS Logo are registered trademarks of ADS, Inc. A0142 02/09

THE HOME OF THE BRAVE A donation to the Fisher House serves our military and their families in times of need. Providing shelter and support during medical crises, Fisher House’s many “homes away from home” provide a comforting environment to injured service members, veterans, retirees and their families. While a loved one is undergoing medical treatment in an unfamiliar town, city or state, the offer of a welcoming refuge to help families stay close together is appreciated by the brave men and women who serve our nation with valor. Become a hero to someone special by contributing to the Fisher House today. For more information, call toll-free (888) 294-8560 or visit www.fisherhouse.org.

Through the generosity of the American public, you can find Fisher House facilities in the following states: California • Colorado • District of Columbia • Florida • Georgia • Hawaii • Kentucky • Maryland Minnesota • Mississippi • New York • North Carolina • Ohio • Texas • Virginia • Washington • Europe

©2007 Fisher House Foundation / Brendan Mattingly Photography / Don Schaaf & Friends, Inc.


12 11


Letter from the Publisher




Landstuhl Regional Medical Center A look inside the U.S. Army-run hospital in Germany where tens of thousands of U.S. war casualties have been treated since 2001


By David Perera


For Love and Country: A New Band of Brothers A fierce firefight in Afghanistan’s Shok Valley ended with 150 dead Taliban fighters and Silver Stars for 10 Green Berets at the center of the battle By Tom Breen

Procurement and Operations 46

The New Lightning The Pentagon forges ahead on the Joint Strike Fighter program, its largest procurement program to date


Countering Narcoterrorism Behind U.S. military efforts to cripple drug trafficking in Colombia and the narcoterrorism it helps finance


By Rich Tuttle


Danger in the Cybersphere

Plus, an interview with Rear Adm. Joseph Nimmich, commander of Joint Interagency Task Force South

The war against cyber attacks could be DoD’s most challenging yet

By John D. Gresham

By Rich Tuttle

Secretary Gates: Act II What to expect from Defense Secretary Robert Gates and his new boss


Littoral Combat Ships Does a rocky road or smooth sailing lie ahead for the Navy’s LCS program? By Michael Fabey

By James Kitfield

S p r i n g 2 0 0 9 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D


Educating their children Providing full college educations to the surviving children of fallen Army, Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps special operations personnel since 1980. Funding provided for tuition, books, fees, room and board.

Wounded Warrior Support Providing immediate ďŹ nancial assistance to severely wounded special operations personnel.

CFC # 11455







‘09 Procurement preview 65

Air Force: F/A-22 Raptor


Army: New Recon Helicopter

On the Homefront

By Bryant Jordan


The Coast Guard is stocking up on tools to strengthen port and harbor security efforts

By Christian Lowe

By Sara Michael


Marine Corps: CEOss Acquisition System


Navy: BAMS

By Sara Michael

Louder than Words

By Lee Ewing




ING 2009 SPR

in the


the ne xt for


Wh at’s

rike Joint St E R IGHT

F st D’S large Inside DOent program procurem


a g a in


Combat photographer Staff Sgt. Dominic Hauser of the Air Force’s 1st Combat Camera Squadron gets down and dirty on the job. See a photo essay of Combat Camera’s work starting on page 78.

Behind the Lens Stunning photos by the Air Force’s 1st Combat Camera Squadron

on the cover

s rothvaer d ofn B ret lor BanGr ee Be Valley


Port Security


Final Frame

PHOTO: Staff Sgt. Cecilio M. Ricardo Jr.

m terroris Narco

Th e

S p r i n g 2 0 0 9 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D



From ground-based digital messaging to space and cyberspace, no company in the information security industry is more synonymous with excellence and leadership. SafeNet provides innovative Type1 (classiďŹ ed) and Type 3 (CUI) encryption and authentication solutions to protect communications, sensitive and classiďŹ ed data, intellectual property, and digital identities. SafeNet has pioneered technology for virtually all forms of electronic information and communications security. For more information, please visit www.safenet-inc.com/government

www.defensestandard.com 2009 SPRING EDITION



4410 Massachusetts Avenue Suite 240 Washington, D.C. 20016 Phone: (202) 640-2137

14502 N Dale Mabry Hwy, Ste 305 Tampa, FL 33618 Phone: (813) 864-6360

The Soldiers’ Angels mission is to ensure #1>E1BIK  

K K535=25BK  that our military know they are loved and 

David Peabody Publisher

supported during and after their deployment into harm’s way.

Kelly Montgomery

Julie Bird


Managing Editor

Daniel J. Peabody

Samantha Gibbons

Vice President of Operations

Creative Director

Steven Zheutlin, Ph.D.

Al Gomber

Senior Advisor

Vice President of Sales

Drew Morris Homeland Security Advisor

Steve Sherwood Field Operations

Kate West Project Coordinator

>>E1<K*5@?BD Thomas Novak

Vice President of Business Development

Martin J. McAuliffe

Vice President of Government and Military Relations


K K535=25BK  

 Mark A. Wilson

Melissa Marketta Brenda Myers Desiree Diggins

National Accounts Manager

Joseph C. Bodiford General Counsel

Administrative Support

Writers: Tom Breen Lee Ewing Michael Fabey John D. Gresham

Bryant Jordan James Kitfield Christian Lowe Sara Michael

Soldiersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Angels >>E1<K*5@?BD

David Perera Rich Tuttle

Copyright 2008. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part is prohibited. The opinions expressed within this publication do not necessarily represent the views of the publisher. Defense Standard LLC assumes no responsibilites for the advertisements or any representations made in this publication. Defense Standard LLC in unable to accept, or hereby expressly disclaims, any liability for the consequences of inaccuracies or omissions of such information occurring during the publishing of such information for publication. Disclaimer: Neither the Department of Defense nor any other United States Government agency has approved, endorsed or authorized this publication in any form. No such inference is suggested, promoted or communicated in any manner.

MAY NO SOLDIER GO UNLOVED. MAY NO SOLIDER WALK ALONE. MAY NO SOLDIER BE FORGOTTEN. UNTIL THEY ALL COME HOME. Soldiersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Angels is a volunteer-based nonproďŹ t with over 30 teams and programs including the Adopt-a-Soldier program, Hero Flights, support for families of the deployed, handmade Blankets of Hope and laptop computers for wounded warriors, and honoring Americaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s fallen Heroes by awarding living trees to their families. At Landstuhl hospital, members of Soldiersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Angels Germany visit wounded warriors by family request and serve hundreds of patients each month with donations such as phone cards, clothing, and Blankets of Hope.

www.soldiersangels.org www.soldiersangelsgermany.org

UMUC outranks the competition

Eric Cooper n Sergeant, U.S. Army

UMUC Undergraduate, Criminal Justice

When you want to get ahead in the military—or get a head start on your post-military career—there are lots of education programs to choose from. But there is only one source that has been tested and proven by military servicemembers around the globe for over 60 years. That’s University of Maryland University College (UMUC). UMUC understands the demands of military life. And we’ve developed unparalleled student support services to help you start and finish your education successfully. ™Dca^cZVXXZhhidVYk^h^c\!ijidg^c\! a^WgVgnVcYiZX]c^XVahZgk^XZh! writing assistance and more ™&(%jcYZg\gVYjViZVcY\gVYjViZ degree and certificate programs

™Dca^cZdgdc"h^iZXaVhhZhVkV^aVWaZ VibdgZi]Vc&*%adXVi^dchldgaYl^YZ ™HX]daVgh]^eh!ÃcVcX^VaV^YVcY a monthly payment plan available ™CdH6I!<G:dg<B6IgZfj^gZY

Start advancing your career. Enroll today. Visit umuc.edu/defense Call 877-275-8682

University of Maryland University College Copyright © 2009 University of Maryland University College

Publisher’s Note


elcome to the Spring 2009 issue of DEFENSE STANDARD Quarterly. This issue takes you from a bloody battle in Afghanistan’s Shok Valley to the inspiring ceremony where the heroes of that battle were presented with Silver Star medals. We look at efforts to counter narcoterrorism and cyberattacks, and at critical new weapons systems including the Joint Strike Fighter and the Littoral Combat Ship. We visit patients and staff at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center and showcase some astonishing photos by the Air Force’s 1st Combat Camera Squadron. Tom Breen, whose knack for writing about honest-to-god heroes on these pages is unparalleled, is back for this issue with the story of the Shok Valley battle and the 10 Green Berets who received Silver Stars in its aftermath. He calls the Green Berets a modern-day Band of Brothers, today’s version of the soldiers immortalized in the Stephen Ambrose best-seller about the 101st Airborne’s Easy Company in World War II. Not since the Vietnam War have so many men from a single unit been honored with Silver Stars for their actions in a single battle. We also examine Department of Defense-led efforts to counter narcoterrorism and the drug trafficking that finances it in Colombia, the hemisphere’s cocaine capital. John D. Gresham explains what’s at stake and how Colombia, with behind-the-scenes help from the U.S., is gaining ground on the narcoterrorists. Gresham also delivers a Q&A with Rear Adm. Robert Nimmich of the U.S. Coast Guard, who talks about the drug interdiction efforts of Joint Interagency Task Force South.

James Kitfield explores the second act for Defense Secretary Robert Gates and how he is likely to guide the Defense Department in the Obama administration. Rich Tuttle looks at the special challenges of cybersecurity and the Pentagon’s efforts to counter cyber attacks. Tuttle, a DEFENSE STANDARD writer from the very first issue, also updates the latest in the Joint Strike Fighter program, including where things stand with the U.S.’s international partners. You’ll find quick updates on several servicespecific procurement programs: the Air Force’s F/A-22, the Army’s replacement recon helicopter, the Marine Corps’ CEOss acquisition system, and the Navy’s Broad Area Maritime Surveillance, or BAMS, system. And you’ll read about how the Coast Guard has repositioned itself to make U.S. ports and harbors safer in a post-Sept. 11 world. With these articles and more, we continue our tradition of bringing you compelling accounts of heroism and sacrifice, innovation and drive, and the critical partnership between the Department of Defense and the defense industry. No dry, boring trade journal pieces here. We appreciate your interest and support, and look forward to continuing to serve you in upcoming issues.

David Peabody Publisher

S p r i n g 2 0 0 9 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D 11



N A B W E aN

A harrowing six-hour firefight ends with 150 dead Taliban and 10 Silver Stars for a Green Beret unit

12 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D S p r i n g 2 0 0 9

PHOTO: Courtesy of traniningontheroad.com

By Tom Breen


ne by one, young and strong, they flow out of our nationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s vast prairies and coastal farms, mountains and one-horse towns, cities and villages, hell-bent on service -- not only to the higher forces of god and country -- but to each other. The old generals, who once were them, are in awe as this new crop of warriors fights ferociously in Iraq and Afghanistan. Just what is going on with this hip-hop, video-game, wild-bunch of a generation mostly in their 20s and 30s? This is supposed to be a generation deemed incapable, by many, of repeating the exploits and heroism of those coming before them. The truth is, they are as tough and combat-savvy as ever, say the older military people working with them.

S p r i n g 2 0 0 9 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D 13


Ten Green Berets from Operational Detachment Alpha 3336, 3rd Special Forces Group (Airborne) received the Silver Star for their actions during an April 6, 2008, firefight in Afghanistan. Lt. Gen. John F. Mulholland (center), commander of U.S. Army Special Operations Command, presented the Silver Stars during a December ceremony at Fort Bragg, N.C. From left to right: Capt. Kyle Walton, Master Sgt. Scott Ford, Staff Sgt. Dillon Behr, Staff Sgt. Seth Howard, Sgt. 1st Class Luis Morales, Lt. Gen. John F. Mullholland, Staff Sgt. David Sanders, Staff Sgt. John Walding, Staff Sgt. Ronald Shurer, Staff Sgt. Matthew Williams, Spc. Michael D. Carter, Col. Gus Benton II (3rd SFG commander), and Command Sgt. Maj. Terry L. Peters (3rd SFG command sergeant major). Also receiving Silver Star medals at the ceremony, for valorous actions in Afghanistan on Nov. 2, 2007, were members of ODA 3312 and 3214: Master Sgt. Frederick Davenport, Staff Sgt. Robert Hammons, Sgt. 1st Class Jacob Allison and Sgt. 1st Class Paul Fiesel. Receiving the Silver Star for actions in Afghanistan on Nov. 10, 2007, was Sgt. Gabriel Reynold. Receiving the Silver Star for actions in Iraq on July 27, 2007, were Capt. Kent Solheim, Sgt. 1st Class Benjamin Konrad and Capt. Brandon Griffin. Sgt. 1st Class Larry Hawks received the Silver Star for actions in Afghanistan on July 25, 2005. Schurer, Fiesel, Allison and Reynolds each received additional honors during the ceremony. The Silver Star Medal is awarded in recognition of a valorous act performed during combat operations while under direct fire from enemy forces. It may also denote an accomplishment of a heroic nature in direct support of operations against an enemy force.

14 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D S p r i n g 2 0 0 9

Think of the Navy’s 29-year-old Lt. Mike Murphy, a Con- Jumping Into an Ambush gressional Medal recipient, and 34-year-old Marine Maj. The air was frigid that morning when Walton, Walding, Doug Zembiec, the “Lion of Fallujah” and Silver Star recipi- and the other special-operations troops — accompanied by ent, young men who died from enemy fire in Afghanistan and about 100 members of the 201st Afghan Commando BattalIraq so others in their commands could live. Now we have the ion — arrived in the Shok Valley early in the morning aboard 10 Silver Star Green Berets from Fort Bragg’s Operational a half–dozen CH–47 Chinook helicopters. They spotted jagDetachment Alpha 3336 of the 3rd Special Forces Group ged rocks and icy streams below, and mud huts situated on (Airborne). clifftops several thousand feet up, according to official Army Awarded the stars in December at the Army’s John F. Ken- accounts. In some cases, the Chinooks landed, depositing nedy Special Warfare Center and School at North Carolina’s troops on the ground, but in others U.S. and Afghan comFort Bragg, the 10 are a modern Band of Brothers, fighting, mandos, loaded down with 60 pounds of gear, jumped a few the Army says, with the same tenacity, devotion and humility feet from copters that were prevented from landing by jutting that characterized the 101st Airborne’s Easy Company during rocks. Bracing for combat, the American and Afghan troops World War II. Easy Company won worldwide fame after their could not have predicted what awaited them. portrayal in a Stephen Ambrose book, and in an acclaimed Immediately upon landing, Walton’s head struck the 2001 HBO miniseries. ground after two bullets hit his helmet. He shook it off, and For ODA 3336, public recognition came roughly eight leaped into the battle. As the fight unraveled, Walton’s mom months after a vicious six–hour firefight in spring 2008 in near Indianapolis and dad in Florida went about their daily which as many as 40 American special forces and about 100 routines, unaware until much later that one of the fiercest fireAfghan commandos took on more than 200 Taliban insur- fights of the Afghan War was taking place. That was the way gents in the desolate, treacherous Shok Valley in northeast- it was throughout the day, with warriors’ families in places ern Afghanistan, along the Pakistani border. In its aftermath, like Athens, Ohio; Fredericksburg, Virginia; Casper, Wyoas many as 15 American and Afghan troops were wounded, ming; and Smithville, Texas, oblivious to what was going on. an Afghan interpreter slain, and countless Taliban insurgents Here they were, ordinary lives in America that were rolling killed. on as extraordinary deeds were unfolding literally a world While devotion to duty of all the troops involved in the 2008 firefight has been undisputed, the 10 men “When you go to help your buddy, you’re not thinking I of ODA 336 came away am going to get the Silver Star for this.” with the Silver Star — which recognizes a “val– Staff Sgt. John Wayne Walding orous act performed during combat operations while under direct fire from enemy forces” — for their particularly remarkable actions and reactions. Said team away. This juxtaposition, with the American people often in leader Capt. Kyle Walton in a December interview with the the dark as to the harsh reality of the conflicts in Iraq and Associated Press, “This is the story about Americans fight- Afghanistan, is the face of war in the 21st century. ing side by side with their Afghan counterparts refusing to The intent of Walton’s unit and the others that cold mornquit. What awards come in the aftermath are not important ing was to capture or eliminate Taliban insurgents belongto me.” ing to the Hzeb–e–Islami Gulbuddin (HIG) faction led by That is a theme of humility struck often in the months since Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, which has battled the Afghanistan the April 6, 2008, firefight: Those involved in the Shok Valley government for years. Security experts have linked them to firefight, to a man, appear uncomfortable basking in glory. widespread attacks on American and Afghanistan troops as Said Staff Sgt. John Wayne Walding, in interviews with the well as on countless Afghan civilians. As an aside, HIG, and AP and others, “When you go to help your buddy, you’re not others like it, can expect increasing attacks from U.S. special thinking I am going to get the Silver Star for this.” forces troops as the Obama administration begins to position But the Silver Star they did get, more of them for one unit itself in Afghanistan, the experts predicted. in a single incident than at any time since the Vietnam War, Now, with the fighting under way on that April day last according to Army officials. year, the six–hour battle took on epic, cinematic proportions. S p r i n g 2 0 0 9 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D 15

PHOTO: Spc. Michael S. Creech

PHOTO: Cpl. Sean Harp

PHOTO: Cherish Washington


16 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D S p r i n g 2 0 0 9

(Clockwise from left): In all, 19 soldiers from the 3rd Special Forces Group received Silver Stars in the Dec. 12 ceremony at Fort Bragg. Lt. Gen. John F. Mulholland pins the Silver Star on Staff Sgt. Ronald Shurer. Two soldiers from ODA 3336 speak with an Afghan army commando team leader through an interpreter during a cordon and search operation in the Khowst Province of eastern Afghanistan.

Chaos reigned. With fire from rocket–propelled grenades, sniper rifles and machine guns pouring down on them from steep cliffs above, the Americans and Afghans, many of them wounded terribly, shot back from below and tended to their wounded. As one SOF veteran put it on an Internet blog, “One minute of sustained fire feels like hours; a six–hour firefight is unheard of especially when resupply is impossible [because of the remote location]. Our SOF carry extra ammo, but they had to be running low.” Wounded, “running low” and contending with temperatures near or below freezing, the Americans and Afghan commandos fought like lions, to quote Zembiec. On the other side, Taliban fighters, losing many of their men in the assault, fought on too. The injuries to the men of ODA 336 piled up. Sgt. Dillon Behr of Rock Island, Ill., was shot in the hip; Sgt. Louis Morales of Fredericksburg, Va., tended to Behr despite a bullet

And, as with any secretive special-ops mission, this one remained classified until the December awards ceremony when the public at large — and the hometowns of the Silver Star recipients — learned of the details.


Down in the north-central Texas town of Groesbeck, reporter David Stone of the Journal newspaper sprang into action, weaving a dramatic article about an epic moment when local boy Walding helped hold off the Taliban, also tending to his buddies, with a mangled leg dangling from his body. Walding now is the newest Groesbeck legend, joining Cynthia Ann Parker, kidnapped at age 9 by Comanches. Cynthia later gave birth to Quannah Parker, the last of the great Comanche chiefs, according to historians. Quannah later became a legend himself, buffalo hunting with Teddy Roosevelt, and building a two–story home with a verandah in Oklahoma. In honoring Walding and the others from Detachment 3336, Army officials at Fort Bragg point out that nine other Silver Star recipiWith fire from rocket-propelled grenades, sniper rifles ents from the 3rd Group and machine guns pouring down on them from steep were recognized that same day in December cliffs above, the Americans and Afghans, many of for a range of missions in them wounded terribly, shot back from below and Iraq and Afghanistan. “We tended to their wounded. don’t want people to forget the others,” said Sgt. 1st Class Jason Baker, an Army special–operations spokesman. One of those honored, apart from the Shok Valwound in his right thigh; Master Sgt. Scott Ford of Athens, Ohio, was struck in the chest and later in the left arm and ley firefight, was Staff Sgt. Robert Hammons of Huntsville, shoulder; and Staff Sgt. Walding took a bullet in his right Ala., who risked his own life to save that of a buddy in a fight in an Afghan village in November 2007, according to Army leg. Walding’s story is especially gripping. As he fought and documents. When he awarded the 19 Silver Stars (10 for the Shok Valhelped his wounded colleagues, he bent back his shattered leg, tying it to his upper thigh with a bootlace. Now, when ley firefight) in December, Army Lt. Gen. John F. Mulholland asked about the leg that later was amputated, he jokes, “Hey, Jr., the new commander of the U.S. Army Special Operations Command and a 30–year military man, recognized the ferocI am named for John Wayne.” With the wounded now desperate for help, Air Force F– ity of current–day special forces troops. “Imagine the Taliban 15s and Army Apache helicopters arrived, some from the commander thinking, ‘What the hell do I have to do to defeat Jalalabad area to the east, to drop munitions on the insur- these guys?’ ” he said, adding that what happened in the Shok gents’ lair. The bombing attacks allowed the Americans and Valley, and elsewhere in Afghanistan and Iraq, does not seem Afghan commandos to advance toward an ice–covered river- believable. But believe it, Mulholland said, it happens “every day.” bed, climbing aboard a bevy of helicopters that whisked them As for the men of ODA 3336, they are recovering from away. As they left, scores of insurgents’ bodies — perhaps as many as 150 — could be seen strewn about on ledges, and their wounds, and hoping to be redeployed to Afghanistan. Even Staff Sgt. John Wayne Walding, missing a leg, wants along the rocks. It was the stuff of movies and legends, hard to comprehend to go back. To go back with his Band of Brothers, 21st–century style. J even when living it. S p r i n g 2 0 0 9 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D 17

Part of a 2007 haul seized by the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Northland off the coast of Colombia. The seizure netted more than 2,400 pounds of cocaine and four bales of marijuana.

18 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D S p r i n g 2 0 0 9

PHOTO: Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Susan Cornell






The Pen tagon’s war aga work be inst terro hind the r extend scenes to s to Colo mbia, w break th here U.S e links be . troops tween d rugs and terror

By John D. Gresham

March 1, 2008: A pair of Colombian Air Force counterinsurgency aircraft fly to the border with Ecuador and deliver a precision airstrike onto a guerilla camp just inside the neighboring country. Sixteen terrorists are killed, including the second-in-command of the FARC – The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – People’s Army (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia – Ejército del Pueblo). Minutes later, a team of Colombian Special Operations Forces swoops in to recover evidence and find the mother load of intelligence: a working laptop computer filled with valuable information, including documents allegedly indicating the complicity of Presidents Hugo Chavez of Venezuela and Rafael Correa of Ecuador in supporting FARC operations against the government of Colombia.


July 2, 2008: Two helicopters bearing the markings of a humanitarian group sweep into a Colombian landing zone prepared by FARC rebels, ostensibly to move 15 kidnapped hostages to a new holding area. As the helicopters lift off, the cabin crews, actually Colombian special operations forces, suddenly turn on the FARC guards and subdue the guerillas without a shot. The perfectly executed deception freed the hostages, including Colombian politician Ingrid Betancourt, three American contractors and 11 Colombian soldiers after years in the hands of the FARC. Early December 2008: Sailors aboard a pair of U.S. Navy frigates from the 4th Fleet, the USS Rodney M. Davis and Samuel B. Roberts, intercept and board a pair of highspeed cargo boats. They seize more than 5.5 metric tons of cocaine from the two vessels.

t’s the stuff of movies, but these scenes are very much real-world, the culmination of two decades of effort by the United States, Colombia and other allies to combat the intertwined crimes of illegal narcotics trafficking and terrorism. S p r i n g 2 0 0 9 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D 19


PHOTO: Quarter Mater 1st Class Jonathan Page

(Below) A Coast Guard helicopter from Helicopter Interdiction Tactical Squadron in Jacksonville, Fla., maneuvers over a Coast Guard tactical training boat. After the pilots get the helicopter into position, a gunner aboard the helicopter will simulate shooting out the engines of the boat.

(Above) Sailors aboard the guided missile frigate USS John L. Hall and Coast Guardsmen from its embarked Law Enforcement detachment offload more than 3,000 pounds of cocaine to waiting U.S. authorities. The ship interdicted the cocaine shipment in the Pacific in early September.


ith drug trafficking becoming the primary means for financing terrorism over the past decade, nowhere have the lines of the battle against transnational terrorist groups been more clearly drawn than in the region overseen by U.S. Southern Command (SOUTHCOM). And nowhere are the U.S. stakes higher than in Colombia, still the region’s largest producer of cocaine, as well as the home of the long-running insurgency of the FARC. The U.S. military’s fingerprints are all over those efforts – sometimes publicly, as with the Navy drug interdictions; sometimes quietly, with special operations forces training and equipping Latin American militaries to battle powerful drug cartels. In this battle against narcoterrorism, the U.S. and its allies seem to be gaining an edge.

Narcotics and Terror

During the Cold War, Colombia, like most Latin American countries, had its own homegrown insurgency in the form of the FARC. Organized in the 1960s as an armed group with a Marxist-Leninist ideology, FARC is today a violent organization and considered a terrorist group by the U.S., Canada, European nations and Interpol. “We know that there is a FARC-based drug connection within the cocaine trade, and that they are also involved in kidnapping and extortion to finance their activities,” says Army Brig. Gen. Hector Pagan, commander of Special Operations Command South (SOCSOUTH), based at Homestead Air Reserve Base, Fla. The rise of cocaine as the U.S. recreational drug of choice in the 1970s and 1980s led to a massive increase in the finances and power 20 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D S p r i n g 2 0 0 9

of the drug cartels in Colombia. However, the rampage of terror in Colombia by cartel leaders like Pablo Escobar led to a hardening of governmental policy following his hunting and killing in 1993. The cartels in turn then partnered with the FARC and other terrorist groups for protection and support in the late 1990s. The FARC started cultivating and producing its own cocaine as a new stream of financing when post-9/11 antiterrorism legislation including the Patriot Act gave law enforcement many new tools to seize and restrict the laundering and movement of illicit funds worldwide. Colombian President Álvaro Uribe Vélez, after his inauguration in 2002, developed with American support what came to be known as “Plan Colombia.” A key component of Plan Colombia has been the buildup of Colombian armed forces, particularly those involved with counterinsurgency, counterterrorism and other special operations missions. But it would take U.S. special operations personnel and units of SOCSOUTH to show these forces how to operate against their narcoterrorist adversaries. The actual on-the-ground commitment of U.S. forces in Colombia and other nations is represented primarily by “economy of force” units, like the Army Special Forces and the Navy’s Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) teams. These teams take units of the Colombian military, which have been equipped with modern weapons and other tools, and help them develop professional and tactical skills through what are known as Foreign Internal Defense (FID) missions. FID missions involve targeted training engagements, teaching specific skills and tactics, usually with a strong base of professional military education and ethical/human rights conduct. The missions





Finish your degree, anytime, anywhere.

4OLEARNMORE CALL1.888.442.8372 ORVISITwww.tesc.edu

PHOTO: U.S. Navy

“By the end of this year, we would Wise said for suppliers such as Ultralife Narcoterrorism and EaglePicher, which he described as in anticipate we would have a product that will apply that U.S.-gained knowledge, leaving U.S. the “second tier” of military power could be delivered from a production forcesan out of the fray. suppliers compared with giants such as Saft, perspective. We are looking for The the challenge is two-fold. First, the opportunity to introduce it to a military thatAir Force’s 6th Special Operations Squadron Hurlburt Field, Fla., a full-time FID instruction companies must find a way to be cost- is interested,” he said. “At thisat time, unit, has been among U.S. forces teaching Columeffective since the primary material used in militaries are evaluating it in a lab setting, bianyou units key special operations aviation skills and CFx technology is also used for plasma and that is the stepping point before tactics screen displays and is heavily in demand. provide it to the warfighter. These thingsneeded to conduct raids and other covert missionsbut in the rugged terrain of Colombia and its neighSecond, they must overcome the military’s take time, and it is out on the horizon, bor nations -- techniques clearly in evidence during the very near horizon.” resistance to change. the March Brundage said CERDEC also is 1 raid in Ecuador and the July hostage “Some technologies are actually will bemission. In the process, the U.S. has helped purchased by procurement arms of the “hopeful” that the LiCFx technology rescue military, and they have almost a self- a major advance in military power. create a world-class special operations community in fulfilling inertia to keep buying the same “Up until now, everything we’veColombia, done capable of operations with no direct U.S. involvement. things over and over. If it costs more, they with carbon monofluoride technology has won’t buy it, even if it is better,” Wise said. shown great promise. That is why we“We are have provided them training in intelligence, logistics, communications, aviation, and facilitated “You’re dealing with the culture of the pursuing it,” he said. interagency support, but I believe the Colombian military. They don’t want to change.” The Army traditionally takes the lead on military is very capable of handling their internal He says companies such as EaglePicher technologies that involve equipment carried threats,” Pagan says. or Ultralife have about a one-in-five chance by soldiers, but CERDEC works closely During a counterdrug operation in the Eastern Pacific, USS Rentz crew members Photo: Sgt. Tyffanino L. Davis The results are clear. As of earlyStaff 2009, FARC in the next three years of persuading services andtoshares information combat a fireto setfive by suspected drug traffickerswith in another apparent attempt escape any towns of significant size, and most the and military that lithium carbon the on developments in therecovered pipeline. longer controls destroy evidence. During this operation, guided missile frigate Defense contractors are hard at work on new types of its members have retreated to small enclavesused in thedaily by of batteries to power equipment 37 kilos of cocaine and detained five suspects, who were turned over to authorities monofluoride is the way to go in terms of “The other services already are aware of CFx soldiers like these, patrolling a newly reconstructed mountains. for prosecution. U.S. Navy ships are routinely deployed to the Eastern Pacific and technology because we’ve been talking about it border checkpoint in Afghanistanʼs Nuristan portable power technology. Caribbean in support of the war on drugs. In addition, the U.S. is working to foster better coProvince. for some time now,” Brundage said. Audette is more optimistic. have long been a specialty of Special Forces “A-Teams,” and have been considered extremely successful with the military and constabulary forces in Colombia. The idea is that Colombia’s own personnel


D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D S p r i n g 2 0 0 9

operation between the military forces of Latin American nations. Every year SOCSOUTH runs an exercise called Fuerzas Comando, in which special operations forces from across the Western Hemisphere participate in a seven-day special operations skills

Narcoterrorism competition and seminar. “This exercise is a success story because when we first started it in 2004 only 13 countries participated,” Pagan says. “Now, the list of participating countries has grown to 23.” Today’s cocaine smugglers are primarily using two platforms for their transshipment efforts: so-called “go fast” boats, and low-profile semi-submersible craft. “Go-fasts” are powerboats able to carry anywhere from 1 to 6 metric tons of cargo. With sustained speeds above 40 knots, go-fasts can mingle with fishing and recreational boat traffic in coastal zones, especially around the Panama Canal, and then deliver their cargos directly to the U.S. or into Central America for delivery overland through Mexico. Two HH-65C Dolphin helicopters from Coast Guard Air Station Miami fly in formation over the Powered, low-profile semi-submersAtlantic Ocean, where drug traffickers regularly try to sneak their loot stateside via “go-fast” ible craft, meanwhile, can hold 6 to 7 met- boats and makeshift submersibles. ric tons of cocaine on single-use delivery missions. By using the cocaine as ballast, these craft can literally sneak under the radar to their destinations, where they are COM intelligence analysts estimated cocaine production in 2008 at then unloaded and abandoned. Maritime interdictions in the region are the job of Joint Inter- 500 to 600 metric tons, down from 800 metric tons in 2000. Minus agency Task Force (JIATF) South, which coordinates with SOUTH- the cocaine shipped through West Africa into Europe and other destiCOM’s component commands, including Rear Adm. Joseph Ker- nations, this leaves about 500 tons for shipment into North America. nan’s 4th Fleet, allied governments, and other U.S. governmental The estimated 230 metric tons seized in 2008 is a nearly 20 percent agencies including the Department of Homeland Security and the increase over the 188 metric tons seized in 2004, and a vast improvement from the single-digit annual seizures during the 1970s intelligence community. Coordination is critical. When Kernan stood up the 4th Fleet and 1980s. In the U.S., federal officials estimate cocaine supplies have diin 2008 (the first SEAL to ever hold such a command), he did so without any major warships or aircraft assigned to his command. So minished, resulting in rising prices and lowered purity for users. when a potential interdiction target is identified, JIATF South has to Most important has been the reduced flow of drug-generated money assess the potential value of the seizure. Smaller (1- to 2-ton ship- for terrorist groups like the FARC, which had to radically cut back ments) are sometimes left for other nations to deal with so the task its payrolls and operations. This may also explain why, when Interpol verified the contents of the FARC laptop seized during the force can focus on higher-priority loads of 5 to 8 metric tons. “If it’s the first case that comes along, we can’t [always] afford to 2008 Colombian special operations raid into Ecuador, documents let it [an intercept] go because I don’t know if I’ll get the next case,” were found indicating a $300 million transfer of funds from Chavez says Coast Guard Rear Adm. Joseph Nimmich, director of JIATF was pending. Along with its reduced flow of money, there have been other signs South. (See Nimmich interview, page 26.) Once the task force identifies an engagement target, it requests as- that the FARC may be on its way out of business. Recent SOUTHsets from SOUTHCOM and other governmental agencies – perhaps COM estimates have the FARC fighting force down to 6,000 to a Coast Guard HH-65C Dolphin helicopter with a stabilized sniper 10,000 personnel, from a 2002 peak of between 20,000 and 30,000. rifle to shoot out the motor of a “go-fast,” or a 4th Fleet frigate, with The laptop also reportedly contained member and donor lists, which should allow law enforcement agencies to erode the FARC even furSOCSOUTH personnel on board ready to board the craft. ther. “I believe that the FARC doesn’t have much left, and that the ColomDefining a “Win” So how are the U.S., Colombia, and their allies doing in the fight bian government and their military understand that they can finally see an end to the fight,” Pagan says. “I also think the Colombian governagainst cocaine and the FARC? In a recent interview with DEFENSE STANDARD, SOUTH- ment can see a future political environment beyond the FARC.” J 24

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D S p r i n g 2 0 0 9

PHOTO: PAC Dana Warr

War at Sea


RADM Joseph L. Nimmich PHOTO: U.S. Coast Guard

speaks with




ear Adm. Joseph Nimmich of the U.S. Coast Guard is the director of the Joint Interagency Task Force (JIATF) South, based at Key West, Fla. Tasked with coordinating a vast array of military, law enforcement and other governmental agencies, JIATF South is responsible

for stopping narcotics and other illicit trafficking from Latin America into North America, Europe, Africa and other destinations – another piece of the U.S.’s Pentagon-based counternarcotics efforts. Nimmich recently talked with DEFENSE STANDARD writer John D. Gresham about his organization, its mission, and recent developments in his area of responsibility. Edited excerpts follow:

Q: A: South?

What exactly is Joint Interagency Task Force

JIATF South is nearly 20 years old. It started out as a DoD task force in ’89, and has been a Coast Guard command now for about 14 years. It was originally an exclusively Department of Defense command to stop illicit and narcotics trafficking, but over time evolved to have the inter-agency process with it. We have also, over time, brought in our international partners like Colombia, El Salvador, Peru, Ecuador, Brazil and Argentina into our operations. If I had to give you the “elevator speech” of what JIATF South does, it matches national capabilities with national authorities. So while DoD has the capabilities, they often don’t have the authority. Law enforcement, Customs, Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), Coast Guard have the authorities; they often don’t have the capabilities.


D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D S p r i n g 2 0 0 9

Q: A:

What is the task force’s area of responsibility?

The Western Hemisphere, from a western boundary of 120° West in the Pacific, to an eastern boundary of 27° West in the Atlantic. That gives us 42 million square miles of ocean that we look at, though obviously we have areas that are more focused than others.

Q: A:

I understand that in addition to illegal trafficking to North America, you also deal with smuggling to Africa? What I look at is primarily the distribution of illicit cargo, in this case primarily cocaine, coming out of the region where it’s developed or grown – Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia – and going to Africa. Then from there east to Asia, Australia and New Zealand, and north to Europe.



.*-*5"3: (1-800-645-4827) "650 ()0.& (3&/5&34 (.0503$:$-& (#0"5 7^\T^f]Ta½baT]cTa½bP]SQ^PcR^eTaPVTbPaTfaXccT]cWa^dVW]^]PUÄ[XPcTSX]bdaP]RTR^\_P]XTbP]SPaTbTRdaTScWa^dVW8]bdaP]RT2^d]bT[^ab8]RcWT6482>?a^_Tach0VT]RhS^X]VQdbX]TbbPb6482>8]bdaP]RT0VT]RhX]20<0<8=9=H>:B3DC<^c^aRhR[T R^eTaPVTXbd]STafaXccT]Qh6482>8]ST\]Xch2^\_P]hB^\TSXbR^d]cbR^eTaPVTb_Ph\T]c_[P]bP]SUTPcdaTbPaT]^cPePX[PQ[TX]P[[bcPcTb^aX]P[[6482>R^\_P]XTb6^eTa]\T]c4\_[^hTTb8]bdaP]RT2^“6482>6T]TaP[8]bdaP]RT2^“6482>8]ST\]Xch2^“6482> 2PbdP[ch2^CWTbTR^\_P]XTbPaTbdQbXSXPaXTb^U1TaZbWXaT7PcWPfPh8]R6482>Pdc^X]bdaP]RTXb]^cPePX[PQ[TX]<Pbb6482>FPbWX]Vc^]32!&%—!(6482>


Overall, what can you say about JIATF South’s results in 2008? I think we continued to take out traffic in a significant portion of the transit zone. Clearly, there has been a steady increase in the cost and a decline in the quality of cocaine in the United States, and much of that is due to what we take out. We’ll finish the year at around 230 metric tons of cocaine that were seized as a result of the work that JIATF South did. Each year continues to get better, better due to interagency cooperation, the ability to develop and maintain strong [human intelligence] reporting, and finally our ability to access and utilize more national technical [remote sensing and listening] means.

Q: A:

ing in 2009?


Do you see continued growth in the use of unmanned and remote sensing systems to provide you with greater coverage in those areas?

What do you see happen-

Drug traffickers use low-profile semi-submersible craft as one means of getting cocaine from Latin America to the U.S. The powered craft can hold up to 7 metric tons of cocaine, sneaking under radar before being unloaded and abandoned at their destination.

Our strategic goals start out with working with partner nations to prevent the “go-fasts” [high-speed cargo boats] from running up along the littorals in the Central American area. That allows me to fight the fight I do best against the semi-submersibles, fishing vessels and those types of things that require more time, communications and intelligence necessary for an appropriate end game. So, we’re working with both the State Department and Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs under the terms of the Merida Initiative with Central American nations. My second goal is to work with our European allies, who have clearly been in this fight from the very beginning. It’s the Dutch, French, British, as well as the Canadians, who have increased the assets here under my tactical control. Third is to keep the focus for the nation to have DoD and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) provide the maximum number of assets they can. I still have more intelligence and more actionable cases than I have assets to interdict with. All three of those will make some moderate improvements in our work, but the real answer is to continue to develop a main awareness over the regional maritime situation. My goal is to get to a point in time where I am inside the decision cycle of the narco-traffickers, as opposed to them being inside my decision cycle, and that I


don’t necessarily go for the first case I see, but I go for the best case with every asset I have.

PHOTO: Courtesy of DEA

Q: A:

D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D S p r i n g 2 0 0 9


Clearly, yes. It does not matter to me whether the assets carry a sensor that has a human being attached to it or not. That’s not just in terms of U.S.-owned sensors either. I’m also looking at working with private-sector sensors mounted on commercial ships and aircraft. There’s no reason with cooperative engagement links that some of those sensors couldn’t be integrated into my situational picture in real time. I’m primarily looking at shipboard radars that travel the Panama Canal. If I could knit those into a picture, I should be able to almost eliminate the “gofasts” going right through the region because I will see each and every one of them.

Q: A:

You’re also seeing use of semi-submersibles as transports. Can you talk a little bit about that? These are low-profile vessels called selfpropelled semi-submersibles. The reason they’re semisubmersibles and not submersibles is they still are airbreathers. They have not been able to go to a system of an

Powering Vehicles

Powering ering Li fe

Powering Military

Powering Aerospace

Quallion LLC is the proud recipient of the 2007 Frost & Sullivan Award for Technology Innovation in Lithium Ion Power Sources for Medical, Military, & Aerospace Applications.

Powering Medicine

Quallion’s new 48.8 V Matrix™ Module (4.2kg) comes in 7.5Ah, 9.5Ah and 12.5Ah configurations.

Since 1998, Quallion has delivered custom battery solutions for demanding applications. From medical implants to high voltage power supplies, Quallion leads the Lithium ion battery industry in safety, reliability and performance. Drawing upon its unique ties to the Japanese Lithium ion battery market, Quallion now offers new battery solutions to the military for vehicles, aircrafts, UUVs, UAVs, and stationary back-up power. Enabling technologies such as the Matrix™ Battery Design, Zero-Volt™ capability and SaFE-LYTE™ offer proven battery solutions that can pass the most aggressive test conditions, including full crush and constant overcharge.

This 28V, 38Ah Matrix™ pack offers a drop-in replacement for high power or high energy for military applications.

Quallion LLC | 12744 San Fernando Road | Sylmar, CA 91342 | info@quallion.com

www.quallion.com (818) 833-2000

Narcoterrorism process that made those seizures possible?


That’s exactly what JIATF does. We use all of the intelligence, agencies that are available, and I’m here focused on this one threat vector. We start with the potential from [human intelligence] from many sources, a few that gather together as a queuing. It [takes] both organizational and national capabilities to identify, to detect that entity, and then to start vectoring in the end game. At the end of the day, my task, as directed by the National Interdiction Command and Control Plan, is to do the detection and monitoring, and then transfer the authority of the contact of that vessel to a Coast Guard admiral either in Miami or in San Francisco. The result should be a very smooth, coordinated hand-off in situations where we use DoD assets like the ships and aircraft of the U.S. 4th Fleet. PHOTO: Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Todd Frantom

electric motor, battery-driven, charged by a diesel generator and be able to actually submerge the vessel. We, in fact, have already taken advantage of one that was captured, and have a second one, that is a more current model, that we will run around Key West next year to exploit. The idea is to be able to better equip our assets with the tools necessary to detect semi-submersibles.


Can you talk a little about your target set, and what sorts of developments you see in the future?


I think that we’re going to continue to see the necessity of dealing with this type of an asymmetric threat, both internationally and nationally. The ability of a 40-foot, multiengine boat to operate almost indistinguishably A team attached to the USS Samuel B. Roberts embarks on a French frigate during vessel board, search and seizure training during Panamax 2007. Military and civil forces from 19 from every other recreational vessel, along with countries participate in the U.S. Southern Command multinational exercise. The government the problems that you’ve got where they are of Panama co-sponsors the exercise, held in the coastal waters of Panama and Honduras. smuggling migrants from the Bahamas though Cuba, and into the United States with impunity – all of these things are challenges we’re going This is typical of the asymmetrical threats we see through- to be facing in the future. out the world, and probably the 21st century challenge is how do we determine and find that threat while not interfering with legitimate commerce. That said, I am thoroughly What do you want to say in summary on JIATF South convinced that as we do this, we will be able to eliminate and its mission today? the semi-submersible threat. The question then is, how much of the product flow will go back into commercial CONEX containers, aviation assets, and the next generation of semiI think what we need to understand is that narcotrafficksubmersibles? ing is really just the primary illicit trafficking, but that the venues and avenues they use, along with the relationships they’ve developed to move cocaine, can be used for any type of payload. So while we are creating an environment where the street cost of cocaine is going up, You had some pretty impressive bulk seizures we are also protecting the United States from all of the different threats on the high seas in 2008. Can you provide some insight into the that it has coming from this region. J

Q: A:


30 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D S p r i n g 2 0 0 9



arely does a leader’s valedictory offer a glimpse into the future as well as the past, but such was the case when Robert Gates stepped to the podium at the National Defense University on Sept. 29, 2008. Anticipating the upcoming change of administration and his expected passing of the Pentagon torch, he recalled the lessons from his short but eventful tenure as a wartime secretary of defense. Many defense experts and military leaders now see that speech as a harbinger of how Gates will realign the Defense Department in an Obama administration. While the presidential campaigns and a war-weary country were focused on the issue of withdrawing U.S. forces from Iraq, for instance, Gates stressed the need to send more troops to a war in Afghanistan that might prove even more of a long-term challenge given that country’s poverty, difficult terrain and tragic history. Gates also pointedly criticized a ponderous and “ever more baroque” acquisition system that routinely takes a decade or more to design and produce major weapons systems that are often gold-plated and too expensive to buy in adequate numbers. Gates even took a thinly veiled swipe at his predecessor Donald Rumsfeld’s vision of “transformational war,” warning against “idealized” and “triumphalist” notions of future conflict “where adversaries can be cowed, shocked, or awed into submission, instead of being tracked down, hilltop by hilltop, house by house, block by bloody block.” Yet Gates hammered on one theme most forcefully, and many experts believe it will largely define his remaining tenure as secretary of defense. Time and again he 32 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D S p r i n g 2 0 0 9

Now that he’s staying, Secretary Robert Gates can forge ahead in reshaping the Pentagon

PHOTOS: (Left) Cherie Cullen; (Right) Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Chad J. McNeeley


By James Kitfield

(Top left) Defense Secretary Robert Gates and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs Adm. Michael Mullen are now reporting to a new commander in chief. (Top right) Newly sworn-in President Barack Obama waves to the crowd at the conclusion of his Jan. 20 inaugural address.


e specialize in the developing, designing, testing and manufacturing of advanced tactical equipment and ballistic body armor. Our ballistic advanced combat equipment consists of: an upper torso protective vest unit, extended face and neck armor, a set of easily attached components (to extend protection to the shoulders and upper arms), and the lower tactical outer protective shorts. Our designers and engineers are constantly creating, modifying, enhancing and fine-tuning all of our combat equipment. This is not only to satisfy the immediate and urgent need of the Marine, airman or soldier, but to assure each item is perfectly suited to their individual tactical needs, working as well in the deserts of Iraq, the mountains of Afghanistan, or jungles of the Philippines. All of our products are crafted to U.S. military specifications and rigid federal standards with care and precision and are unmatched in reliability.




PHOTO: Petty Officer 1st Class Chad J. McNeeley

criticized the Pentagon’s “Next-War-Itis” mentality that values future modernization of conventional forces over the imperative of fighting and winning the counter-insurgency wars of today and the foreseeable future. “Apart from the Special Forces community and some dissident colonels, for decades there has been no strong, deeply rooted constituency

President Obama and Vice President Joe Biden met with Gates and all the service chiefs at the Pentagon within days of taking office. Here, Obama is flanked by, from left, Gen. Norton Schwartz, the Air Force chief of staff; Gen. George Casey, the Army chief of staff; Marine Gen. James Cartwright, vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff; and Adm. Mike Mullen, chairman of the Joint Chiefs.

inside the Pentagon or elsewhere for institutionalizing our capabilities to wage asymmetric or irregular conflict – and to quickly meet the ever-changing needs of our forces engaged in such conflicts,” Gates told the audience at the National Defense University. “Yet think of where our forces have been sent and engaged over the last 40-plus years; Vietnam, Lebanon, Grenada, Panama, Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq, the Horn of Africa, and more. In fact, the first Gulf War stands alone in over two generations of constant military engagement as a more or less traditional conventional conflict from beginning to end. As then-Marine Commandant Charles Kurlak predicted 10 years ago, instead of the beloved ‘Son of Desert Storm,’ Western militaries are confronted with the unwanted ‘stepchild of Chechnya.’”

The Gates Agenda

In that farewell address, many defense experts believe they glimpsed the agenda Gates is likely to pursue in an Obama administration. Operationally, the focus will remain on the delicate shift of forces from the Iraqi theater to Afghanistan. Programmatically, he will try and wring greater efficiencies and responsiveness from a procurement system that is too cumbersome and costly for the hard military and economic times to come. Culturally, Gates seems certain to push for a rebalancing between American “hard” and “soft” power, with a renewed emphasis on nation-building, training of indigenous security forces, economic development, and strategic communications capabilities. Above all else, he 34 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D S p r i n g 2 0 0 9

seems intent on striking a better balance between the lop-sided emphasis on conventional capabilities, and what he sees as the inadequate attention given to counter-insurgency and asymmetric warfare. “Gates represents a Tectonic shift away from Rumsfeld’s view of the military as being primarily about fighting big wars with big machines, and his ideas about technological transformation, net-centric warfare, ‘shock and awe,’ and all those tired Rumsfeld canards,” said retired Maj. Gen. Robert Scales, former commandant of the Army War College. “Gates sees nothing wrong with advanced technology, but he obviously understands that the future of warfare is not big wars but rather irregular wars. And Gates realizes that even after seven years of counter-insurgency war, the defense establishment and culture are driven by the Cold War emphasis on big programs and bureaucratic institutions. In his pragmatic way, Gates is trying to focus the system on fielding technologies optimized for irregular warfare and keeping soldiers and Marines alive on today’s battlefields.” In pursuing that agenda, Gates will likely benefit from the mandate bestowed upon him by President Barack Obama. When he succeeded Rumsfeld in late 2006, by contrast, Gates inherited a losing war in Iraq and a commander-in-chief whose low approval ratings already made him something of a lame duck. Both factors constrained Gates’ ability to force change on a reluctant Pentagon. With the backing of a popular new president, Gates now has the political capital and time to implement lasting reforms and enforce tough decisions. “When Gates became secretary of defense, his top three priorities had to be Iraq, Iraq and Iraq,” said Andrew Krepinevich, president of the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments in Washington. “When you added Bush’s early lame-duck status, there was relatively little Gates could do that the services couldn’t wait him out on. Now under Obama, Gates will have both the opportunity and the challenge of aligning our defense posture with his vision, and with the realities of the economic crisis.” As to the nature of that vision, Krepinevich believes that if Gates were totally candid, he would indeed say that the United States confronts an era of persistent, irregular conflict. “And the armed services have failed to recognize that fact, or institutionalize the hard lessons of the past eight years,” said Krepinevich. “They’d rather get back to focusing on conventional warfare, because they are more comfortable with it.”

Defense Budget Crunch

The severity of the economic crisis is likely to force change whether the services want it or not. Congressional leaders are already signaling to Gates that he will have to reign in annual defense spending that has nearly doubled in real terms over the past decade. If emergency supplemental budgets for fighting wars in Iraq and Afghanistan are added in, for instance, the United States is spending more on defense today than at any time since World War II. The eye-popping size and vague nature of those supplemental requests also represent a major and growing irritant on Capital Hill. Often the supplementals include procurement spending, for instance, that is only tangentially related to ongoing conflicts. “Gates should bring some discipline back to the defense budget process, because for eight long budget years the Department has relied

become a hero

to a hero

PFC Matthew Zajac, US Army, 2nd Infantry Division, Fort Carson, Colorado and his father, Mike, photographed at a Fisher House in San Antonio, Texas.

The Hero Miles program reunites families during times of tragedy by providing free air travel to wounded or injured service members, their families and loved ones. Since its inception four years ago, the public’s generosity has allowed us to distribute more than 15,000 13,000 free airline tickets, saving our heroes 20 million. and their families close to $17 Free Hero Miles tickets have been issued to fly service members home from military/VA hospitals and to transport loved ones to military medical centers while their wounded family members receive urgent care. But the program is completely dependent upon the caring of frequent flyers like you. Help reunite America’s heroes with their families this year by donating your frequent flyer miles to Hero Miles. It will leave you with a feeling that will send you soaring. For more information, visit www.fisherhouse.org and click on Hero Miles.

The Hero Miles program is grateful to our generous partners, including: AirTran Airways ( Alaska Airlines ( American Airlines ( Continental Airlines ( Delta Air Lines Frontier Airlines ( Midwest Airlines ( Northwest Airlines ( United Airlines ( US Airways Hero Miles is a program of the nonprofit Fisher House Foundation. More information on the Foundation can be found at www.fisherhouse.org. ©2007 Fisher House Foundation / Brendan Mattingly Photography / Don Schaaf & Friends, Inc.

on supplementals not only to fund the wars, but to fund a lot of ‘business as usual’ as well,” Gordon Adams, the former associate director for national security at the Office of Management and Budget, wrote recently on National Journal magazine’s Web site. “It’s high time to restrict supplemental funding requests to needs that are truly unanticipated and not likely to be repeated, and that no longer applies for much of our spending on Iraq, where costs are predictable and coming down.” A reduction in the size of the supplemental requests, coupled with a flattening of the defense budget that many experts anticipate as a result of the economic crisis, will put tremendous pressure on the Pentagon to find cost savings. Ongoing counter-insurgency combat operations that have strained the Army and Marine Corps in particular, however, have largely taken personnel and force structure cuts in those services off the table. In fact plans are under way to increase infantry forces by 92,000 troops in an attempt to increase “dwell times” between combat deployments. The fact that counter-insurgency operations are manpower-intensive, coupled with the belief of many experts that the United States will face no conventional military competitor for many years to come, leads some experts to believe that any force structure cuts necessitated by tight budgets will have to come out of the Navy and Air Force. Gates alluded to that possibility in his speech to the National Defense University. “In making the risk assessment associated with near-peer competitors, and in judging where we can make tradeoffs, it is important to keep some perspective,” he said. “It is generally agreed, for example, that the U.S. Navy has shrunk too much since the end of the Cold War – a view I share. But it is also true that in terms of tonnage, the battle fleet of the United States Navy, by one estimate, is larger than the next 13 navies combined – and 11 of those 13 navies are allies or partners. No other navy has anything comparable to the reach or combat power of a single American Carrier Strike Group.”

Weapons Programs Threatened

Gates also declared in his speech that “we cannot expect to eliminate risk through higher defense budgets, to, in effect, ‘do everything, buy everything.’ Resources are scarce. …We must set priorities and consider inescapable tradeoffs and opportunity costs.” Until Gates completes the next Quadrennial Defense Review, and goes through a full defense budget cycle under an Obama administration, it’s impossible to know what tradeoffs he will make, or which programs will be most affected. Ongoing combat operations, however, have taken off the trading block two other traditional pools of defense spending – “readiness” and “operations and maintenance” accounts. That suggests the anticipated belt-tightening is likely to be felt disproportionately in conventional weapons modernization programs. Already Gates has famously wrestled with the Air Force over his decision to cap the F-22 fighter program at 180 aircraft, though he has not yet closed the production line. A number of experts believe Gates’ firing of the Air Force secretary and chief of staff was intended at least in part as a signal to service leaders not to contest his procurement decisions too forcefully. Other programs frequently mentioned by experts as threatened by cuts include the Army’s Future Combat Systems, the Marines’ am36 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D S p r i n g 2 0 0 9

phibious warfare vehicle and V-22 Osprey aircraft, the Navy’s DDG1000 destroyer, the Air Force’s C-130J and C-17 air transports, some portion of the Joint Strike Fighter program, and ballistic missile defense systems. Of course, as Gates reorients Pentagon procurement toward systems optimized for ongoing counter-insurgency operations, some programs will almost certainly continue to flourish. Likely candidates include unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), up-armored Humvees, Mine Resistant Ambush Protected vehicles (MRAPs), systems to counter roadside bombs, and numerous intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) programs. Indeed, as a former career intelligence officer and director of national intelligence, Gates retains a keen interest in intelligence-related systems, and he has signaled an intention to reorganize the National Reconnaissance Office. Gates has also suggested that the Air Force

PHOTO: Cherie Cullen

Gates testifies before the Senate Armed Services Committee a week after Obama’s inauguration. Gates was nursing an injured arm during the hearing.

develop a lower-cost close air support aircraft that can be deployed in large numbers, and easily purchased by lower-tech partners. He has likewise increased spending on Special Operations forces, and called for a greatly increased capacity for training and equipping indigenous security forces in other countries threatened by insurgents or terrorists. “It’s increasingly clear that the United States simply does not have the resources anymore to sustain $600 billion-plus annual defense budgets, and there is almost no one left in our political system who wants to keep throwing money at the Pentagon,” said Loren Thompson, a defense industry consultant and chief operating officer at the Lexington Institute. Given that both Obama and Gates share a conviction that the military procurement process is overly complex and wasteful, he said, Gates will probably be willing and able to cut some traditional weapons programs. “One thing we’ve learned about Gates is that he runs a tight ship, and he’s willing to make tough choices,” said Thompson. “In that regard he’s the opposite of Donald Rumsfeld, who had a reputation for being difficult personally, but he rarely fired any one. Gates is not difficult on a personal level, but as soon as he thinks some official is not working out or marching in step, they are gone.” J

Intrepid Fallen Heroes Fund Paying tribute to and supporting those who have sacrificed for our nation.

The Center for the Intrepid was built through donations from more than 600,000 Americans. Their generosity expresses the profound appreciation America has for the gallant servicemen and women who defend its freedom. This Center is dedicated to the severely wounded military heroes who deserve no less than the best rehabilitative care for their selfless sacrifice. 1-800-340-HERO www.fallenheroesfund.org Intrepid Fallen Heroes Fund One Intrepid Square West 46th Street and 12th Avenue New York, New York 10036

LANDSTUHL Regional Medical Center

Last Stop Before Home Behind the scenes at the Army hospital where war-wounded get a fighting chance By David Perera



38 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D S p r i n g 2 0 0 9

PHOTO: Courtesy of U.S. Army

wo waves of the wounded and sick from Afghanistan and Iraq will be delivered today through the front gate of this U.S. Army-run hospital in western Germany. Two sets of blue, school bus-sized ambulances will carry stretcher-bound troops and contractors fresh from the airstrip of nearby Ramstein Air Base Second Lt. Emily Hanson treats a patient at Landstuhl Regional Medical and deliver them into the hands of a multiservice and Center, where more than 46,000 servicemembers have been treated since civilian assemblage of orderlies, doctors and nurses. the beginning of Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom. The number of new patients is nowhere near what it once was; the stream of warriors with their arms or legs blown off, their internal organs punctured, their “That’s what we want,” he says. “The less numbers we see, the brains turned to pulp by bomb blasts is thankfully a comparative better things are going downrange.” trickle. The largest military medical facility outside of the United States, During the worst weeks of the troop surge in Iraq in mid 2007, Landstuhl is just six hours air time north of Iraq. Wounded warriors about 1,200 new cases were admitted per month. Now, while to- are sent here after being patched up at field hospitals. It’s a hub, day’s planes have yet to touch down, triage nurse Navy Cmdr. a place to clean out wounds, check for traumatic brain injury, adRichard Gallaway estimates that about 600 new patients come here minister physical therapy and most often send patients onward for monthly. Well awake despite having started his shift at 4 a.m., Gal- long-term care in the United States. Inpatients usually stay here just laway pores over paperwork describing incoming patients’ symp- two to four days before they are U.S.-bound. toms, mapping out where in the medical center to send them. These Overall hospital admissions are at their lowest level since Janudays, thankfully, outpatient cases also outnumber inpatient admis- ary 2004, but medical personnel warn that the numbers almost cersions by more than ever. tainly will climb again should troop numbers expand in Afghani-

Designed for Combat Medicine The M-Turboâ&#x201E;¢



The M-Turbo provides unprecedented durability with high performance image resolution in the toughest of environments. Shown here in crisp detail is an image of a catheter insertion in an internal jugular vein. Â&#x2030;4POP4JUF *OD"MMSJHIUTSFTFSWFE4VCKFDUUPDIBOHF.

stan. â&#x20AC;&#x153;When the war kicks up, weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re of course going to get a lot more,â&#x20AC;? Gallaway says. Caregivers describe Landstuhl as the middle point of an hourglass funnel. Patients come in from everywhere and theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re sent back out to everywhere, too. During this period of relative calm, Landstuhl is also the eye of a storm.

Starting to Mend

Gallaway says he remembers only a single day in his two years of duty at Landstuhl when an ambulance didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t disgorge new patients. Just a few days earlier, Army 1st Lt. Joshua Darnell was on one of those buses, his stretcher handed down from the ambulance onto a gurney by rubber-gloved medics congregated at the hospitalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s emergency entrance. Recuperating today from surgery in a second-floor ward, Darnell wonders whether he will lose his lower right arm. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m getting pretty good doing things with my left hand,â&#x20AC;? he says, his face strawberry red from the flash of a suicide-bomber explosion five days earlier in Hutal, Afghanistan (just northwest of Kandahar), his eyebrows partially singed off. The explosion threw him to the ground after a blinding burst. Everything turned white, Darnell remembers. â&#x20AC;&#x153;I took a couple of seconds to regain my breath, started trying to push myself up and noticed that my right arm was just dangling in the mud â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a complete open fracture on the arm, it was just barely hanging,â&#x20AC;? he recollects in a quiet tone. Darnellâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s right arm is shattered,

held together with a metal device thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s all rods and bolts connecting remaining healthy sections of bone. This is Darnellâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s third day here; by the next night, heâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll be in a military hospital in Georgia, near his wife and parents. There, surgeons will decide whether they can put in an artificial joint, fuse the existing bone, â&#x20AC;&#x153;or whatever,â&#x20AC;? Darnell adds without emotion after a miniscule pause. This is the third year Army 1st Lt. Andrea Ruff has spent as a ward nurse. When she first arrived at the hospital, â&#x20AC;&#x153;We were totally full,â&#x20AC;? she says. â&#x20AC;&#x153;You worked all the days you were scheduled to work and got called in to work the day you werenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t.â&#x20AC;? Ruff asked to be posted to Germany. â&#x20AC;&#x153;I figured what better place to take care of soldiers, just one spot removed from where it happens,â&#x20AC;? she says. It was a request prompted by her younger brother joining the Army and being tagged to go into combat. â&#x20AC;&#x153;It could be him in a second in one of these beds,â&#x20AC;? she says, then

PHOTO: of U.S. Army PHOTO: Courtesy David Perera

Landstuhl Regional Medical Center

Army 1st Lt. Andrea Ruff delivers medicine to Army Sgt. 1st Class Ammama Luoangketh.

exhales deeply. â&#x20AC;&#x153;And here I am.â&#x20AC;? Army Sgt. James Bryant still suffers from a wound received in the bad old days of fighting in Ramadi, Iraq, during 2006. A sniperâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s bullet hit him and he fled by swimming in a canal with 80 pounds of field gear still on his back, herniating three discs. He had hoped to avoid surgery but now heâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s recovering from one. Navy Lt. Cdr. Mitchel Ideve




#/.6%.)%.4 %!394/53%





3!&% 25''%$ 2%,)!",% 0/24!",% &,%8)",% -!$%).4(%53!







Landstuhl Regional Medical Center

PHOTO: Courtesy of U.S. Army


Army Secretary Pete Geren visits wounded soldiers at Landstuhl in western Germany in September 2008.

wants him to walk as far down the hallway as he can. Ideve is a physical therapist with a realistic assessment of his job. “The things we do cause pain. It can’t be helped. But we like to come back and tell patients that PT [physical therapy] means ‘pretty terrific,’ ” he says. Ideve gets Bryant a walker and Bryant swings himself slowly out of bed. Ideve straps an orange belt around Bryant’s abdomen, grabbing the belt firmly in back. Together the two edge out of the room into the hall. Don’t grab tightly onto the walker, Ideve advises, just push it along. They get about 10 yards down the hall and turn around. “This may be a Percocet moment,” grunts Bryant.

Continuum of Care

Before combat operations ramped up in earnest earlier this decade, Landstuhl was basically a quiet community hospital focused on outpatient care, say people who recall life before war here. Even after casualties from Iraq and Afghanistan began appearing in earnest, at first each busload of patients was a mystery until the doors were thrown open. A patient’s medical record from downrange might not have been any more detailed than a list of symptoms written with a Sharpie pen on a patient’s leg. “Maybe they’d have a piece of paper with them, if they were lucky,” says Navy Cmdr. Dr. Fred Lindsay, the latest head of the De-

ployed Warrior Medical Management Center, the hospital unit created in January 2004 to rectify that situation. Unit members now access electronic records of each incoming patient, informing doctors of what’s coming long before the airplane’s wheels are down. It prevents patients from slipping through the cracks. Military physicians call it a “continuum of care,” a steady line of documented medical attention ensuring the next stage can immediately build on predecessors’ work. It’s one reason the odds of surviving a battle injury are better than ever before; as high as 98 percent, according to some military physicians. DWMMC removes the elements of spontaneity from patient receiving and makes it more routine, “which is very important when you’re receiving 40 people a day,” Lindsay says, talking quickly with the air of a very busy person. He’s dressed in green operating room scrubs (he’s also an ear, nose and throat surgeon) and he wolfs down two Burger King fish filet sandwiches as he speaks, eyes darting back and forth. On his desk is a bowl full of candy and a half-empty bottle of aspirin. The system isn’t perfect, Lindsay allows – there are in fact a couple different medical databases DWMMC staff might need to access to gain the most comprehensive medical picture of an incoming patient. It would be nice if the applications could talk to one another, but they can’t. And, ideally, inputting new information could be done by barcodes or scanning

A MATTER OF DEGREES Whether transporting lifesaving blood supplies, vaccines or pharmaceuticals to our troops in the sweltering heat of the desert or the numbing snow of the mountains, there is little tolerance for temperature deviation. That’s why the Army relies on AcuTempThermal Systems. Offering small, passively regulated units to large actively powered containers, AcuTemp provides reliable temperature management solutions to meet the critical logistical demands and mission objectives of a globally deployed force. AcuTemp temperature management solutions. Actively powered thermal pallet shippers Mobile refrigerators/freezers t Passively regulated carrying cases t t

AcuTemp.com/Defense 2900 Dryden Road • Dayton, Ohio 45439 USA 866.312.0114

Landstuhl Regional Medical Center rather than manual data entry. Anything can be made better – but even as it is, DWMMC underpins “the best medevac system in the world, in the history of time,” Lindsay says matter-of-factly. Hospital operations themselves have undergone significant change during wartime. “We have a lot more advanced equipment and clinical skills that are available here, as well as manpower,” says Army Lt. Col. Dawn Garcia, head nurse in the intensive care unit. Patients show up with more critical injuries than in the past, she notes. In mid -2007, the hospital for the first time gained American College of Surgeons certification as a Level II trauma center. Level I is the highest designation. Garcia says the hospital staff has racked up lessons learned. Nurses are particularly careful to monitor for hospital-acquired pneumonia, particularly with ventilator patients whose lungs are especially vulnerable. Prevention is as simple as propping up a patient’s head and brushing teeth, but skipping those everyday tasks could be a deadly oversight. Caregivers also screen each patient for signs of traumatic brain injury. Better body armor means many once-fatal bomb blasts are survivable, but the shock waves they send to the brain can have cumulatively bad effects. Landstuhl was among the first medical facilities to recognize TBI. They’re also careful to note symptoms of combat stress. “Nobody comes back untouched from a war,” says Army Col. James Griffith, the chief Army chaplain and a Presbyterian minister.

PHOTO: David Perera

‘You Hear So Much’

Navy Reserve Lt. Cmdr. Mitchell Ideve, a physical therapist, assists Army Sgt. James Bryant during the soldier’s first walk after back surgery. Bryant was wounded by sniper fire in Ramadi, Iraq, and had surgery for three herniated discs.

Chaplains meet every new inpatient as they’re unloaded from the ambulance, reassuring each one that they’re safe now. More likely than not, warfighters will have trouble sleeping, Griffith says. They’ll be prone to recurrent, intrusive thoughts and nightmares. “It’s common for people to have night sweats for awhile,” he adds. Griffith tells his chaplains they should encourage warfighters to speak about their time downrange; turning experience into stories normalizes what happened.





42 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D 2 0 0 8

How have the readiness and proficiency of soldiers providing combat care improved? Through a comprehensive training program developed by PEO STRI and supported by CSC under the U.S. Army Medical Simulation Training Center contract. With nearly 100,000 students having trained at 19 sites around the world, the survivability of combat casualties has significantly improved. Count on us for the resourceful training solutions needed for mission success.

Landstuhl by the Numbers As of early 2009:

2,837 18 64 10,616 9,434 1,182

Total personnel Number of intensive care unit beds* Number of inpatient non-ICU beds** Number of combat casualties treated from wars in Afghanistan and Iraq

Casualties from Iraq Casualties from Afghanistan

In a recent typical day:

19 14 6.2 1,226

New patients admitted Patients undergoing surgery Patients in ICU Meals served


Total number of patients treated since the start of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, including outpatients * with a reserve capacity of 10 or more ** with a reserve capacity of 34 or more

It helps the patients start to feel like themselves again. Griffith, Garcia and others say they’re also careful to monitor their own staff for signs of burnout. Ruff said after her first year here she found herself coming down with a case of secondary trauma stress disorder, or as most people call it, “compassion fatigue.” “You hear so much,” she says. Ruff said she didn’t want to turn to her family – they couldn’t understand anyway and she didn’t want to explain in any detail the suffering she saw while her brother was deployed. In the end she turned to coworkers for support. Seared into her memory is the case of two ambushed soldiers. She had met them previously during a training exercise in which they played war casualties, only this time it wasn’t fake. One soldier had shrapnel wounds down the side of his head and the other lost a leg. “They’re all important patients, but it just made it extremely real. … It’s real anyway, but I knew these people,” Ruff says. Griffith, the chaplain, says he goes through similar experiences. As the father of a 22-year-old, it’s hard not to identify with many of the young men admitted to the hospital, he says. A rare chance to see someone broken made whole again can make his day. He recalls a badly disfigured soldier with his jaw blown off who 18 months later came back as a normal-looking military aide. That was a good day, he says. But not the best. The best days, he says, are when no new patients show up at all. J


Custom Kits & Consolidation • Biomedical Repair • Research & Design • Rehabilitation Equipment



HALO WOUND & CHEST SEAL 2/PACK A high performance occlusive dressing designed to work on patients with heavy perspiration or very wet environments.

ECHELON 1_________ Halo Wound & Chest Seal, 2/pack Quickclot Combat Gauze Nonin Onyx 3500 Fingertip SPO2 Monitor PMI LAD Litter MSOC ITK Kit Conmed Defibrillator Pads



ECHELON 3_________ GE Dash 4000 GE Mac 5500 Ferno Powerflexx Cot Radlink SR-130D CR Pro 2000 Digital X-Ray Reader Newport Ventilator

IMPACT EMV PLUS VENTILATOR • Pressure & volume ventilation modes. • Built-In Masimo SPO2 • Electronic control and monitoring of all functions.

ECHELON 2_________ Impact EMV Plus Ventilator Zoll M-Series CAS 750 Innova Sound Doppler/Ultrasound Portable Field Operating Table

• 10 hour internal battery

ECHELON 4_________

• Altitude compensation in real time

Proprio 5000 System MS F Squat Monitored Rehab System Concept 2 Model C Indoor Rower with Monitor

• Daylight visible LCD and LED screen • For use with infant, child and adult

| CONTACT JACK GRAHAM AT 800.764.0636 OR 760.597.5500 | WWW.PROGRESSIVEMED.COM 008 F E N SASH E SST. TA|NVISTA, D A RCA D 292081 44 D E 2460 Shipping available to APO’s & FPO’s

Wiley X Combat Gloves are



the most in demand gloves in the field and the first flame-resistant hard-knuckle gloves available to our troops. High-performance protection. Dexterity-enhanced


Everything you need to ensure the ultimate in flexible fit and functionality.

CAG-1 Combat Assault Gloves Injection-molded knuckle protector for impact/abrasion resistance. FR ASTM 6413 and ASTM F 1790 Fabric Cut Resistance compliant. Treated goatskin construction for flexibility. Kevlar weave for cut/flame protection. Approved gloves on ACGL (Authorized Combat Glove List). Leather reinforced in high-wear areas.

Foliage Green CAG-1 GS-07F-0554N Cage Code 3U037

STORIES FROM THE BATTLEFIELD Dear Wiley X, I am currently deployed to Iraq. During a firefight I was wounded, getting hit in the hand by an AK-47 round. I was wearing your gloves with the hard knuckles. After the mission, I was rushed to the hospital. The doctor told me that if I had not been wearing your gloves I would have lost my whole hand. Instead, I just had tissue and ligament damage. Thank you for your product! It saved my hand and allowed me to continue the fight over here. Thank you again. CPL. U.S. Army Mosul, Iraq


The New

LIGHTNING Joint Strike Fighter



ed Martin

of Lockhe

By Rich Tuttle


Airpower is critical to American security, but relying solely on old systems from a past century will not suffice.” – President Barack Obama

46 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D S p r i n g 2 0 0 9

he Pentagon’s most expensive aircraft acquisition program, the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter -- with a life cycle cost of nearly $1 trillion over 30 years for 2,443 U.S. jets, and international partners potentially building another 1,000 -- appears to have the backing of key defense players in the new Obama administration, industry and Pentagon leaders say. A top executive of Lockheed Martin, the F-35 prime contractor, says his recent discussions with incoming Pentagon officials indicate “strong support for the program.” Tom Burbage, executive vice president of Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Co. and general manager of F-35 JSF Program Integration, stressed in an interview before Obama’s inauguration that the assessment was his personal opinion. “The senior folks that are coming into the new [Pentagon acquisition, technology and logistics] position and the new secretaries of the services are going to be people that are familiar with the program -- not probably current on the program, but familiar with it.” The veteran executive also notes that the program was formulated under an-

other Democratic president, Bill Clinton.              “We don’t anticipate -- based on the strength of program, where we are right now, and the fact that most of the international partners are making decisions this year on buying the airplane -- any kind of a major disruption to the program with the new administration,” Burbage says. Maj. Gen. Charles R. Davis, F-35 Program Executive Officer, echoed the sentiment in an early January interview. He acknowledges that decisions are coming on other big Pentagon programs: Will the Air Force buy more F-22s? Will the Navy buy more F-18s? But, he says, “Right now, I honestly do not see pressure to take money from the F-35 to fund these other programs.” That could change, he says, but “I will just tell you, as the initial planning work for the 2010 to 2015 budget has begun within the Department of Defense, there has been an attempt by the Air Force to increase their [F-35] buys.” The Department of Defense, meanwhile, “has, in their initial planning documents, increased the number of buys of F-35s across all three services” through 2015.

Powering Freedom.


Our F135 engine has been the only engine powering the F-35 flight tests from the beginning. Its design is derived from the highly reliable Pratt & Whitney F119 currently powering the F-22 Raptor. The F135 is the most powerful fighter engine ever built, delivering 40,000 pounds of thrust. And now we’re primed to start production deliveries. Pratt & Whitney. Powering Freedom.

The Eagle is Everywhere.™ www.pw.utc.com

PHOTOS: Courtesy of JSF Program Office

Long-Term Funding

One reason new administration officials are expected to generally approve the program is that funding and schedules were carefully laid out for years into the future after Lockheed Martin beat Boeing to launch the program in the mid-1990s. The plan has been for the F-35 to replace a range of jets in the U.S. arsenal, as well as in the arsenals of other countries. Initial operational capability is set for 2013. Officials say that big changes anywhere along the line by any country would mean big budget increases. The complexity of any such changes, and the tight planning of the program, can be seen in the outcome of the fiscal 2009 budget request for the F-35, to be known as the Lightning II. The request included $2.6 billion for 16 jets, eight for the Navy and eight for the Air Force (an additional $3 billion was requested for R&D). Congress gave the Pentagon more for the F-35 than the Pentagon requested in FY ’09. But Congress deleted two planes, one from the Navy and one from the Air Force, to help pay for continued development of an alternate engine. DoD doesn’t want the General Electric/Rolls-Royce F136 engine, preferring to go only with the F135 engine built by Pratt & Whitney. (The other major industrial partners are Northrop Grumman and BAE Systems.) DoD regularly deletes F136 funding, while Congress regularly restores it. Congress thinks having two engines would make for a stronger program because it would ensure continued competition and innovation -- like the Great Engine War of the 1980s between GE and P&W. (This thinking doesn’t extend to the airframe because it’s not practical. Lockheed Martin has made the required plant and equipment investments, and no one else could afford a similar investment today.) The Pentagon thinks the program is stronger in tight budget times with only one powerplant. But it has to go along with congressional wishes and continue to fund development of the F136. The Pentagon’s long-term plan today includes zero funding for the F136. The new Pentagon team may, or may not, change this position.

Higher Unit Costs

The challenge at the moment is that when funding for the F136 comes out of the F-35 program, it comes out of airplanes, and that makes unit costs goes up. Today, because of several kinds of seemingly minor changes, projected unit costs of all three F-35 variants will be higher than planned by the first multiyear production buy in 2015. The conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL) model for the U.S. Air Force will cost nearly $70 million each; the short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) type for the U.S. Marine Corps will cost around $85 million; and the carrier variant (CV) for the U.S. Navy will cost $85 million to $90 million. The numbers are higher than the current cost of an F-16, one of the jets the F-35 will replace in the U.S. and abroad. But Davis contends that starting from scratch to build brand-new Block 50 or Block 60 F-16s would mean paying upward of $70 million apiece. And in terms of capability per dollar, he says, the F-35 is superior. He also says it is significantly cheaper to build the F-35 than separate types of new jets. More than 4,400 F-16s have been built for 24 countries. With the current backlog of orders, production is expected to continue at the low rate of two to four airplanes a month until 2011. Lockheed Martin is pitting the F-16 against products of other fighter manufacturers in several big international competitions, including one in India. A win there or in other countries would add several more years 48 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D S p r i n g 2 0 0 9

aerospace energy defense RTI is one of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest producers of titanium and the S UPPLIER OF C HOICE of titanium mill products for the Joint Strike Fighter - JSF program. We are proud to provide this C R I T I C A L S T R A T E G I C M A T E R I A L in support of defense and freedom around the world. RTI is headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania





to the life of the F-16 production line at Fort Worth, Texas -- and ease the transition to F-35 production.

PHOTOS: Courtesy of Lockheed Martin

Economies of Scale

(Top) Two factory workers attach panels to the forward fuselage of an F-35 Lightning II fighter at Lockheed Martin’s Fort Worth factory. (Bottom) An F-35B is assembled in an Electronic Mate and Alignment System fixture before installation of its horizontal and vertical tails.

50 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D S p r i n g 2 0 0 9

F-35 program supporters say economies of commonality and scale constitute its strength, and help protect it from rash budget cuts. The commonality argument is that building three types -- CTOL, STOVL and CV -- with parts that are mostly the same keeps production and life cycle costs down. The scale argument says high production rates cut the cost per airplane and help offset fixed prices of costs like labor and factories. Production rates are expected to increase quickly: The current one-per-month rate is slated to go to one a day, and possibly more, over the next six years. Budget cuts would also disrupt a big 2009 flight test program, another reason cuts are seen as unlikely. Three jets are flight testing now, and 10 more are slated to join the program this year. One is the first airplane equipped with a full set of avionics, the sensors that, among other things, allow an aircraft to pick out and identify adversaries from long range. This F-35, a STOVL jet, came out of the factory in January and is expected to make its first flight this summer. Meanwhile, the Cooperative Avionics Test Bed, a modified Boeing 737, was slated early this year to begin a series of flights to validate the performance of all F-35 sensor systems before they are flown on the fighter itself. In addition, the dovetailing of the U.S. F-35 development and production program with F-35 programs of international partners is expected to help deflect any attempts to make big changes. Several partners slated to make major decisions this year: • The U.K. — the primary international partner, whose Royal Air Force and Royal Navy are buying STOVL variants to replace aging Harriers — was expected to announce in mid-March whether it would move ahead with plans to purchase two operational test jets. A decision to buy all its planned 138 airplanes would come later. British industry’s participation in the program is heavy, and typical of other countries’. BAE Systems, GE Aviation, Martin-Baker, MBDA and Rolls-Royce all are involved. • Australia is expected to decide whether to commit to the program before midyear. Assuming the decision is positive, it would be the first international partner to receive operational jets. • The Netherlands, like the UK, has selected the F-35 as its next fighter jet. If the Dutch Parliament decides to go ahead with acquisition, the Netherlands is expected to purchase one operational test jet this year and a second in 2010. Norway has chosen the F-35 for its next fighter, but has not yet committed to an acquisition schedule. Denmark was expected to decide early this year whether to go with the F-35 or a competing fighter. • Italy’s government is expected to decide by mid-year whether to approve a plan for a second final assembly and checkout facility, in addition to the one at Fort Worth. Italian defense planners want to buy STOVL jets for their new carrier, as well as CTOL fighters to replace aging land-based jets. Major industry players are Alenia Aeronautica and Avio. Two other partners, Canada and Turkey, are tracking according to plan but have no significant milestones for the first half of 2009. Israel and Singapore are coming aboard. Israel has signed documents for 25 F-35s, and Singapore is expected to act similarly this year or next. Several other countries, including Spain, Greece, South Korea and Japan, are said to have expressed interest, but made no commitments. J

best of both worlds

By consistently incorporating proven technologies from GE and Rolls-Royce, the F136 engine is meeting the evolving demands of the F-35 Lightning II program. Designed for maximum flexibility, the F136 is also positioned for unmatched mission accomplishment in harsh, demanding environments around the world. For more information, visit ge.com/aviation or rolls-royce.com.

0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010 10101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010 01010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 10101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010 01010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 1010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 10101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010 01010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 10101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010 01010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 10101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010

Danger in the The Pentagon’s war against cyber attacks could be its most challenging yet

By Rich Tuttle

52 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D S p r i n g 2 0 0 9

Cybersphere I

n a behind-the-scenes battle potentially as massive and all-consuming as the response to the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the Pentagon is ratcheting up its fight against the threat of potentially crippling cyber attacks. The Pentagon’s war against cyber threats to U.S. defense networks is being fought on two fronts. Defense officials must not only handle thousands of daily attacks, disruptions and annoyances from an array of sources around the globe. They also must organize for the long haul and come up with a system that goes beyond the sometimes ad hoc responses of today. The threat is equivalent to a “9/11 kind of event,” says Steve Hawkins, vice president of Raytheon’s Information Security Solutions unit, “probably not in loss of life but in loss of economic stability and other aspects.” A multipronged terrorist attack that includes a cyber attack is not out of the realm of possibility, he adds. It’s hard to tell exactly how the Pentagon’s cyber defense efforts are playing out because cyber security is a sensitive topic. “This sort of thing is closely held. It’s very sensitive,” says Barry Watts, a senior fellow at the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments in Washington. “Even being clear about what organizations are involved, there is sensitivity about that.” Still, the big picture is clear – but it reveals a conundrum. The goal of a common, uniform architecture allowing all military computers to talk easily to one other, and thus

The SectĂŠraÂŽ Edgeâ&#x201E;˘ is the only SME PED that switches between an integrated classified and unclassified PDA with a SINGLEKEY press.

Unified Secure Voice and Data in the Palm of your Hand General Dynamicsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; SectĂŠraÂŽ Edgeâ&#x201E;˘ is the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s first NSA-certified Type 1 ruggedized smartphone, developed for the National Security Agencyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s SME PED (Secure Mobile Environment Portable Electronic Device). This compact and lightweight device allows users to protect classified and unclassified voice and data communications from one easy-to-use handheld device.



See the live demonstrations at the 2009 Unified Information Assurance User Conference and Training event May 27-28, 2009 in Las Vegas. www.gdc4s.com/userconference Š 2009 General Dynamics. All rights reserved. SectĂŠra and Edge are trademarks of General Dynamics. HAIPE is a registered trademark of the National Security Agency. All other product and service names are the property of their respective owners. Microsoft product screen shot reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation. General Dynamics reserves the right to make changes in its products and speciďŹ cations at any time and without notice.

PHOTO: Capt. Carrie Kessler

1010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 10101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010 01010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 10101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010 01010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 10101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010

Air Force Lt. Col. Tim Sands (left), Capt. Jon Smith and Lt. Col. John Arnold monitor a test in the Central Control Facility at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. The Centrol Control Facility oversees electronic warfare mission data flight testing. Portions of the mission could expand as the Air Force stands up a numbered air force focused on cybersecurity.

to more quickly blunt attacks from cyberspace or any other domain, merely increases the risk of penetration. Once a single site is successfully invaded, all could be open to attack. Military officials know this, but say, “ ‘We’ve just got to bite the bullet and [develop such a network] and then learn how to defend it,’ “ according to Richard Sterk of the market research firm Forecast International in Newtown, Conn. “It’s a real Catch-22.” To some extent, “the bad behavior of the services in continuing to have a lot of stovepipe systems may not be all that bad because it makes it harder” for an enemy to get in, says Watts. But he agrees that the trend is away from stovepipes. The Army, for instance, wants to eventually field its Future Combat Systems program, which would link various weapons with the intent of achieving battlefield dominance. It has had funding, schedule and other problems, but if it does become operational, Watts says, FCS will help “push the U.S. military much more toward a single, integrated, networked system.” Today, the military sees all kinds of intrusions into all kinds of networks. Even the unclassified e-mail of Defense Secretary Robert Gates has been hacked into. Most intrusions aren’t serious, but they’re worrisome because hackers might be able to glean classified information. The military isn’t alone. Vast quantities of information are being sucked daily from U.S. industrial, banking, academic and government sites – terabytes worth of data, according to Mike McConnell, director of national intelligence under President George W. Bush. A terabyte is 1 trillion bytes, or 1,000 gigabytes. McConnell doesn’t mention the frequency of this loss, but to put it in some perspective, the entire collection of the Library of Congress totals about 83 terabytes. Worse, he says, is the possibility that terrorists could invade sites not just to steal information, but to do damage. In one scenario, says James Lewis of the Washington-based Center for Strategic and International Studies, U.S. forces might be turned against each other. “We don’t know how sophisticated some of our opponents are, and we don’t want to find out the hard way that they had more capabilities than we thought.” China and Russia are thought to have been behind some attacks. 54 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D S p r i n g 2 0 0 9

The sites of defense and intelligence agencies are generally safer than those of commercial counterparts because these agencies have a tradition of security. But the U.S. government still is “not organized and focused to be able to address” cyber threats “in the most comprehensive way,” McConnell says. At the Pentagon, people fight over who’s in charge. One point of contention is authority to operate in cyberspace – is it the military, or the intelligence community, or both? Some argue that because the Title 50 law protects U.S. citizens from scrutiny by government intelligence assets, only those with authority under that law should be in charge of anything associated with it, according to Gen. Kevin Chilton, commander of U.S. Strategic Command (STRATCOM). But he says the military often uses Title 50 assets in combat operations. RC-135 and U-2 intelligence collection platforms, for instance, are used by U.S. Central Command. “That, as we look forward into the cyber domain, is a model that I would advocate for.” Others disagree. “Getting all those guys to cooperate” today, let alone on a cyber security system for the future, won’t be easy, says analyst Watts. A bright spot today, says Lewis of CSIS, is the joint effort of STRATCOM and the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA). A basic STRATCOM mission, Chilton says, is defending the Global Information Grid, or GIG -- “the set of addresses that end in ‘dot-mil’ for military, or ‘dot-s-mil’ for classified military.” The “dot-gov” sites of other government organizations and “dot-edu” sites of the university and science establishment are defended by the Department of Homeland Security, which is also charged with keeping an eye on cyber security government-wide. The National Security Agency, which has some of the strongest network-security capabilities in the government, defends intelligence community sites. Defense of “dot-com” sites is up to the private sector. DoD, Homeland Security and NSA activities were organized by McConnell’s office under the Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative, which President Bush signed in January 2008. CSIS says the initiative isn’t really comprehensive and is hampered by unnecessary secrecy. It is nevertheless seen as a good start, but probably will be modified by the Obama administration. Obama on Feb. 9 named Melissa Hathaway, cyber coordination executive to the Director of National Intelligence under the Bush administration, to head a 60-day review of government cyber security. The White House said the review is intended to develop a framework “to ensure that U.S. government cyber security initiatives are appropriately integrated, resourced and coordinated with Congress and the private sector.” In any case, the military network today is operated by STRATCOM through one of its units, the Joint Task Force for Global Network Operations (JTF-GNO), which is under Army Lt. Gen. Carroll F. Pollett at DISA. DISA’s job is to ensure that proper procedures are being used to protect the Defense Department’s portion of the network. Chilton

Wherever the U.S. military goes, we go too.

Satellite networks Wireless networks Baseband networks Network control software Media asset management software Network monitoring services Field support services Depot management Logistics engineering Information assurance engineering and more...

Communications are vital to mission success. That’s why we work side-by-side with the U.S. military to provide end-to-end communications systems and services that help warfighters operate, even in the harshest conditions. From software and hardware to experts in the field, DataPath delivers – with experience, innovation and speed. For more information, visit www.datapath.com or e-mail us at info@datapath.com.

Copyright 2007 DataPath, Inc. All rights reserved

1010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 10101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010 01010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 10101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010 01010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 10101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010

PHOTO: Tech. Sgt. Cecilio Ricardo

has said the task force guidelines and restrictions include security mea- ordination executive for the Office of the Director of National Intelsures, firewalls and outline what people shouldn’t be doing when using ligence, calls it a “multidecade approach.” The companies got a total of $30 million in January to begin the effort. DoD computers. John Slye, principal analyst for INPUT, an information technolDISA’s standards, and its “ability to unplug a command if there’s a problem that doesn’t appear to be addressed,” have “really made a big ogy market research company based in Reston, Va., says the defense portion of the government cyber security market is projected to grow difference” on the military side, Lewis says. from $3.3 billion in 2008 Another positive step to $4.8 billion in 2013, an by the military, he says, impressive rate of 8 peris the Common Access cent a year. Card, or CAC. It doesn’t The overall govern“look directly like cyber ment information techsecurity,” but “by maknology market will go ing people authenticate from $7.4 billion in 2008 themselves with this to $10.7 billion in 2013, card to get on a DoD but its rate of growth network, it’s reduced has slowed from a prethe number of successvious high of 7 percent ful penetrations.” to 10 percent a year to Today, says Lewis, the current 4 percent bethe services each have cause funding has been cyber commands, with shifted to support to the the Navy’s supposedly wars in Afghanistan and coming out on top. The Iraq. The defense cyber Defense Department’s At Barksdale Air Force Base, La., Capt. Jason Simmons and Staff Sgt. Clinton Tips upsecurity market is growNetworks and Informadate antivirus software that will guard against cyberspace hackers. The Air Force’s ing because the Pentagon tion Integration office is cybersecurity efforts will be coordinated by a numbered air force operating under wants to protect networks thought to have an assurthe Air Force Space Command. as it continues to build the ance effort to validate the GIG. security of software, but, But while the market is big and growing, companies typically look like the services, it does have cyber security programs. “Some are long term,” Lewis says, “like one focused on supply chain issues, and some for niches. “When people talk about cyber security these days, you are immediate, such as the Defense Industrial Base Group,” which has hear lots of billions of dollars,” says Jim Summers, senior vice president and general manager of the Government Solutions Division of around 40 private sector members. The group is “a cooperative activity and it mainly is centered SafeNet Inc., in Belcamp, Md. “But there are bits and pieces that get around sharing the threat -- if something happened to you, get it out parceled out. That’s what we work on.” SafeNet, which often teams with bigger companies in cyber quickly, back to the government and to your industry partners,” says Raytheon’s Hawkins. “It’s a team of partners who compete every day, programs, specializes in information assurance. This involves but we all understand the seriousness of protecting each others’ capa- defending the systems information travels over, as well as the information itself. bility and what that means to the country.” Industry faces four big challenges in the defense end of cyber Another measure of the Pentagon-industry effort to get a better handle on the problem is a new program being carried out by seven security, according to Summers. First, nearly every kind of inforcompanies working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects mation moves over the Internet, and “there’s a vulnerability that Agency. It involves establishment of a “national cyber range,” which comes along with that.” Second, more and more defense informaDARPA says will “provide revolutionary, real-world simulation en- tion systems are being used on mobile platforms -- Humvees and vironments from which organizations can develop, field and test new aircraft, for instance – further increasing vulnerability. Third is a need for speed, he says. As information prolifer‘leap-ahead’ concepts and capabilities required to protect U.S. interests ates, so does the demand to move it faster and faster. Fourth is a against a growing, worldwide cyber threat.” The seven companies are BAE Systems, General Dynamics, demand to share data. Since various defense users do this under Johns Hopkins University’s Applied Physics Lab, Lockheed Martin, different security policies, Summers says, industry’s job is help to Northrop Grumman, SAIC and Sparta. Melissa Hathaway, cyber co- merge the policies and ease the flow. J 56 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D S p r i n g 2 0 0 9

2 0 0 8 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D


PHOTO: Petty Officer Kenneth R. Hendrix


After a rocky start, will smooth sailing lie ahead for these coastal combat ships?

By Michael Fabey

58 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D S p r i n g 2 0 0 9


aybe the USS Freedom, the Navy’s first Littoral Combat Ship, should be renamed the USS Rocky. The Navy’s LCS program was certainly on the ropes a year ago as ship cost estimates more than doubled and the service canceled ship contract awards. Asked if he thought the Navy could knock the ship out of its fleet, Joe North, vice president and LCS program manager for Lockheed Martin, one of the two contractors for the project, replied, “Absolutely.” But with the November commissioning of Freedom – LCS-1 – the program has come back swinging. “If they can keep the cost between $550 million and $600 million per ship, they should get to keep the numbers of ships they want,” said defense analyst James McAleese of McAleese and Associates. “It’s affordable and operational. But it was critical that they commissioned the ship before the change in administration.” That price is nearly triple what the ships were supposed to cost and more than the $460 million cap recently imposed by Congress – a ceiling delayed until ships

PHOTO: Courtesy of Lockheed Martin


ILLUSTRATION: Courtesy of General Dynamics

procured in fiscal 2010 and later. Groups like the Congressional Research Service, Congressional Budget Office and U.S. Government Accountability Office wonder whether the price can be kept under control. The Congressional Budget Office estimates the first two ships could cost about $700 million each – and later models could be about $550 million each. The Congressional Research Service puts the total price tag for the desired 55-ship buy at $29.4 billion. But pinpointing the total costs is like nailing jelly to the wall. The Navy cannot release its projections for total acquisition cost, said program manager James Murdoch, because that could provide the competitors unfair insight into their respective LCS programs. But, he added, the Navy is keeping a close eye on development and the related costs and keeping Congress abreast of the program’s progress. In his November 2008 report, naval affairs specialist Ronald O’Rourke of the Congressional Research Service noted that Navy leadership praised program officials for the oversight demonstrated in terminating the contracts for LCS-3 and LCS-4 in 2007. It’s rare for any service to take such a drastic step so far along in the program. With the cancellations, the Navy was signaling its commitment to keeping a lid on costs. The Navy and the Pentagon are keeping the course. The Navy’s planned LCS force accounts for nearly a fifth of its desired fleet of 313 ships. Congress approved $1.02 billion for two of the vessels, which Murdoch called “a new breed of U.S. Navy warship.” The Navy’s other vessels are designed to operate mostly against former Soviet Union deepwater fleets in oceans or similar type of environments. The service really has no other ship that can get into shallow waters closer to the coast to

This page: The open architecture electronics suite on the General Dynamics LCS facilitates a wide range of missions, the manufacturer says, while incorporating stealth technology to increase survivability. Opening page:(Top) U.S. Navy sailors aboard the littoral combat ship USS Freedom lay out mooring lines as the ship enters a lock on the St. Lawrence Seaway in Montreal. (Bottom) The USS Freedom, the nation’s first littoral combat ship, was commissioned in Milwaukee, Wis., on Nov. 8, 2008.

PHOTO: Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Katherine Boeder

The crew of the littoral combat ship USS Freedom mans the rails during her commissioning ceremony at Veterans Park in Milwaukee, Wis. Freedom is the first of two littoral combat ships designed to operate in shallow water environments to counter threats in coastal regions.

battle terrorists, guerrillas or others engaging in the new kind of warfare confronting U.S. forces. The Navy now has to worry more about protecting strategic chokepoints and vital economic sea lanes against threats such as speedboats, quiet diesel submarines and various types of mines. The ship offers everything the Navy now lacks to fight those battles – speed, agility and greater versatility. The LCS is about the size of a Coast Guard cutter. It has a maximum speed of more than 40 knots, compared with about 30 knots for the Navy’s larger ships. The shallow draft allows it to operate in coastal waters and visit ports inaccessible to bigger ships, the Congressional Research Service points out. Each ship has a reconfigurable payload – or mission package – with various sensors, weapons and manned and unmanned vehicles that can be changed out quickly depending on the mission, Murdoch notes. In May 2007 the Navy awarded contracts to two industry teams — one led by Lockheed Martin, the other by General Dynamics — to design two versions of the ship, with options for each team to build up to two ships each. Lockheed designed a semi-planing steel monohull for LCS-1. General Dynamics focused on an aluminum trimaran hull for LCS-2, the CRS notes. Steel can add more strength – but also more weight. But the two designs essentially provide the same ship characteristics, experts say, which is why the Navy and Pentagon are thinking of keeping both contractors and splitting the buy. Each was assigned another ship, LCS 3 and 4, the two ships canceled because of rising costs. Of the seven LCSs funded in the fiscal 2005-2008 defense budgets, five were later canceled. The cost estimate for LCS-1 grew from $215.5 million in the fiscal 2005 budget to $531 million in the FY 2009 budget. The estimate for LCS-2 jumped from $213.7 million in fiscal 2005 budget to $507 million in fiscal 2009. For now, McAleese said, the Navy wants to keep both contractors in the competition. “They’ve ended up with a much better ship,” North said. “A stronger ship – a ship that will last longer. And she’s a fighter.” Still, Congress rescinded $337 million in fiscal 2008 for the program, effectively canceling the funding for the ship procured that year. The program through FY 2009 now includes four ships: LCS-1, LCS-2, and two more. The Navy wants money for three more for fiscal 2010. Some stated reasons for the cost growth, the Congressional Research Service




Supporting the Children of Fallen Heroes through your support. Make your tax-deductible donation today at www.thatothersmaylive.org

Tax ID # 88-0487308

PHOTO: Courtesy of General Dynamics

ple were surprised,” he said. “We says, include: the Navy’s aggresweren’t. That’s how we designed sive schedule; cost-plus contracts; it.” unrealistic initial cost estimates; And, he said, “The propulsion new construction standards; bad system was like a dream.” reduction gear manufacturing; But questions remain. steel price run-ups; and poor sub“Given the shifts that have now contractor oversight. occurred in the announced acqui“We reached a point in the desition strategy for the follow-on velopment where we understood ships in the LCS program, why where we had to go,” said North, should Congress have confidence adding the new fixed-price conthat the acquisition strategy for tracts will keep costs in line. these ships will not shift again at Murdoch said the Navy would some point?” O’Rourke asks in “continue to drive efficiency and The General Dynamics littoral combat ship, Independence, his report. cost reduction as these ships enter is being built at the Austal USA shipyard in Mobile, Ala. This January 2008 photo shows the ship with its forward gun The Congressional Research serial production.” Service and GAO question whether The ship is scheduled to be de- mounted and the bridge structure largely complete. the increases in hull prices through livered later in the year. Its success the earlier part of part of this deso far through some 4,000 nautical miles of tests and trials has shown just how effective an LCS can cade could cut into money needed to develop and deliver the mission packages. But the Navy says rising ship prices, program be, according to the Navy and Lockheed Martin. The ship has maneuvered in the water as advertised, they say. restructuring and the focus on cost will in no way impede on the It’s designed to handle even better in rougher seas, and that’s LCS mission set. “Mission capabilities will not be reduced,” Murdoch said. what happened during the trials, North said. The ship also didn’t even need tugboats to get in and out of “The mission packages and sea frames combine to provide the port, as other larger Navy vessels would, North said. “Other peo- necessary warfighting capability to the future force.” J

TAIC is proud to serve as one of the newest “Primes” supporting Marine Corps Programs Associates sociates Technology Technology Technology Associates Associates

TAIC is a professional and IT services corporation founded in 2000 with local facilities in the Washington DC Metro area, poration International International International Corporation Corporation Headquarters in Carlsbad CA and satellite offices across the nation. We support the Corporation Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, Army, and other DoD and Civilian Federal Agencies providing Operations Center, IA, T&E, Acquisition and Operational Logistics, Asset Management, GIS, Disaster Response and Intel support services.

24/7/365 support with personnel with critical certifications and clearances or - 2008 Government Government Government SectorSector -Sector 2008 -- 2008 2008

Visit us at www.taic.net



2/20/09 7:41:05 PM

Global Leader for High-Performance Instrumentation Radar Systems BlueMax™ G6—Industry-leading Instrumentation Radar System typically used for radar cross section (RCS) measurements indoor or outdoor, near-field or far-field, static or dynamic, surface-to-surface, ground-to-air, air-to-ground and air-to-air.

SARBAR™ G2—Hand-held, X-band, real-time, real-aperture, imaging radar system capable of generating high-resolution, two-dimensional, spotlight radar images with 1-inch resolution at a rate of 10 images per second.

XSTAR™—The Ultimate Instrumentation Radar System for flight-test range Test and Evaluation (T&E) support, is an X-Band CW radar providing high-precision, simultaneous tracking of multiple (~100) targets, unambiguous in Range (>400 km) and Doppler (12 km/s) at 100-Hz update rates.

KNOWBELL™—The industry standard for scientifically accurate, highly-reliable, extensively programmable, RCS and RadarImaging signal processing software.

BlueImage R/T™—Real-time, R&D, T&E and production-level testing of RCS and Radar-Image Signatures with a high-speed, advanced data plotting, statistical analysis and image-processing workstation.

STAR STAR Dynamics Dynamics Corporation Corporation 4455 4455 Reynolds Reynolds Drive Drive • Hilliard, • Hilliard, OhioOhio 43026 43026 sales@stardynamics.com sales@stardynamics.com

’09 AIR FORCE Preview

F-22 Raptor New capabilities extend fighter’s reach By Bryant Jordan


PHOTO: Senior Master Sgt. Thomas Meneguin

s the F-22 Raptor approach- R&D. Barring a quick change of heart tle space makes it a powerful offensive es a critical time in its ac- by the Pentagon, long-lead suppliers will system against ground targets, he said. The plane also can fire a new Raythequisitions life, a new capa- soon cease producing F-22 parts. Meanbility appears to be emerging beyond the ing, according to Winslow Wheeler, an on-built missile that intercepts and destealth qualities for which the plane was analyst with the Center for Defense In- stroys missiles in the early launch phase, formation and staunch critic of the F-22, Thompson said. While the F-15 and the designed – the ability to morph. Suddenly Lockheed Martin’s F-22 is the Air Force and Lockheed are doing a F-35 Lightning II (Joint Strike Fighter) looking more chameleon than raptor, with full-court press to push for more buys. He would be just as capable of carrying and firing the missile killers, the advocates touting new or Raptor’s stealth means it can planned capabilities for the get closer to enemy launch sites aircraft, including crossundetected. platform communications, The plane is, he said, intrinintelligence, surveillance sically more capable than the and reconnaissance assets, F-15 or F-35 in intercepting a reconfigured bomb bay low-flying missiles. “That’s that will let the plane carry why Japan is interested in it,” eight 250-pound bombs inhe said. Australia and Israel stead of the two thousandalso have shown an interest in pounders it now carries, Raptors, and if the current ban and the ability to destroy on F-22 exports can be lifted – missiles in the early launch entirely possible in the current phase. And if that’s not enough, there are the jobs Two U.S. Air Force F-22 Raptor aircraft fly in trail behind a KC-135R economy -- the plane would the program represents in Stratotanker aircraft after inflight refueling during a training mission off have international customers the coast of Florida. and contracts. more than 40 states. Lockheed’s F-22 spokesFighter plane, spy plane, bomber and economic stimulus package argues the program’s longevity has more man, Rob Fuller, said the company is all in one: The F-22 has become a plane to do with pork-barrel politics and corpo- further expanding Raptor capabilities with a two-way datalink system that will for all seasons. And it’s going to need all rate lobbying than its ability to perform. But Loren Thompson, an aviation de- let the plane collect and share informaof the advocacy it can muster going into next year as budget-cutting Pentagon lead- fense analyst with The Lexington Group tion across platforms and up and down ers look to ax programs. The program has in Virginia, said the F-22 program “has the chain of command, improving situbeen plagued by cost overruns for years. been preserved through six administra- ational awareness in real time. And plans are to build into the Raptor The Government Accountability Office tions because it was recognized that a says per unit cost of the plane – now at stealthy, highly maneuverable fighter was the architecture necessary to integrate $350 million if you count research and required to maintain global air dominance. additional datalink capabilities down the road, he said. development funds, about $191 million if That requirement has not changed.” Fuller would not discuss foreign Existing and planned requirements you don’t -- has more than doubled since the program began in 1991, which is why have improved its capabilities, he be- sales. “Any sales of F-22s to other countries the planned fleet has shrunk steadily from lieves. Its communications system essentially makes the plane “a flying antenna,” would be determined by the U.S. gov750 to the current 184. The Air Force is now funded to buy he said, able to pick up radio signals ernment,” he said, “which includes the the last 60 planes to fill out the fleet by across the spectrum. And its ability to U.S. Air Force, Department of Defense, the end of 2011, for a total estimated deliver up to eight small-diameter bombs the State Department and of course, it is program cost of $66.9 billion including while flying stealthily into an enemy bat- subject to congressional approval.” J

S p r i n g 2 0 0 9 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D 65


Dedicated to the research and development of Mission Critical Eyewear.


Committed to delivering the optimum solutions for every mission.


Made in the U.S.A. to protect American troops around the world. “I have been wearing various goggles throughout my 24 years of Military Service. These are definitely the best that I have had the opportunity to wear. They are incredibly clear & offer a wider field-of-view. They work well with NVGs also. During strenuous training and without treating them, the lenses did not fog up. These seal really well, no problems with debris entering the sides during high winds or A/C work. Great… absolutely the best… !” – Gunnery SGT, E.F.


NSN 4240-01-547-6218 (FOLIAGE GREEN)

w w w . r e v i s i o n R E A DY. c o m

? ; E E ; A @  5 D ; F ; 5 3 >  7 K 7 I 7 3 D®


’09 ARMY Preview

Eye in the Sky It’s round 3 for the replacement recon helo By Christian Lowe


PHOTO: Staff Sgt. Jacob N. Bailey

n the world of baseball, it’s three strikes AH-64 Apache attack helicopters, CH-47 Chi- Sales said, adding it was unclear when a Kiowa replacement will finally take flight. nook transports and UH-60 Blackhawks. and you’re out. To that end, the Army issued a request for Similarly, top Army budget officials say the So for the Army’s program to purchase a replacement for its fleet of reconnais- nearly $500 million in ARH funds allotted for information in November to entice industry sance helicopters, it might as well be bases fiscal 2009 were given back to the service for back into the program. The earlier award for loaded, two outs, with a full count in the bot- what could be its third and final try to purchase the ARH was given to Bell Helicopter-Textron, which beat out Boeing for the program. a manned light reconnaissance helicopter. tom of the ninth. Army officials declined to specify As wartime use has prematurely which companies sent in new profatigued the OH-58 Kiowa Warrior to posals, but a top aviation planner said the airframe’s limits, and battle-damthere were a number of takers. age losses stretch the service’s ability “It was quite the smorgasbord,” to equip cavalry units for deployment, said Col. Randy Rotte, a top aviation the Army has felt for the last several planner in the Army Chief of Staff’s years it was in a good position to office. “You had stuff that was modireplace the fleet before the number fications of things that are currently of airworthy Kiowas dwindled to a flying to completely new stuff.” trickle. But with the Pentagon’s sudOne of the elements that may cause den cancelation in October of the manufacturers headaches is a change $6.2 billion Armed Reconnaissance in the requirement for the new heliHelicopter program – inked in 2005 copter from the previous ARH specs. -- service officials have been forced The Army continues to push for a replacement for its venerProgram officials say they are lookto scramble in a new direction. able OH-58 Kiowa Warrior recon helicopter, which is wearing “The bottom line is there is still a out ahead of schedule because of heavy wartime use. Here, ing for something that can hover at requirement, and in coordination with Army 1st Lt. Paul Laborde (left) talks with a Kiowa pilot during a an altitude of 6,000 feet at 95 degrees Fahrenheit – a nod to lessons learned that there’s also a recognition that with search for weapons caches near Sinjar, Iraq. from operations in Afghanistan and the delay there’s something we’ve got “We’ve been able to keep all of the funds Iraq. to do with our Kiowas,” said Army Brig Gen. The ARH program called for a capabilWilliam Crosby, Program Executive Officer from the ARH,” said Col. Vance Sales, depfor aviation. “We’re going back and looking at uty chief of staff in the Army’s budget office. ity to hover at 4,000 feet in hot conditions, the capabilities that are out there and trying to “Those funds are being reinvested within the a 2,000-foot difference that industry experts capability and the capability gap for mitigating say is a capabilities leap. fine-tune our path ahead as we go forward.” “Because of that altitude and temperaAfter a Nunn-McCurdy budgetary breach the termination of the ARH.” Sales said the money will be split among ture, that is pushing today’s current technolfor the ARH program, Pentagon acquisition chief John Young sent Army aviation offi- three programs, with about $38 million spent ogy to the extreme limits,” Sales said of the cials back to the drawing board for the second on upgrades to the current fleet of Kiowas 6,000-foot hover requirement. “Big [size] time in nearly 10 years of trying to replace to keep them going until 2025, around $50 works there in those environments well, the 1970s-era Kiowa. In early 2004, then- million slotted for a new helicopter develop- but to get it smaller to meet the needs of the Pentagon chief Donald Rumsfeld canceled the ment program, and the rest going to pay for manned light reconnaissance, that’s a chalservice’s first shot at a new bird, the RAH-66 a new Apache battalion in the Army National lenge. “So only those with some technological Guard. Comanche, calling it a Cold War relic. “We’ll continue to move through that in edges to it can attain that in the time frames But in recognition of the service’s need to replace Vietnam-era helicopters, the Army a metered fashion until the program reestab- without creating another Comanche program was allowed to reinvest billions of Comanche lishes itself back on course for a new material again, which we don’t want to do, with 10 to money back into its aviation fleet, buying new solution for a light attack recon” helicopter, 15 years of R&D,” Sales added. J

S p r i n g 2 0 0 9 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D 67

’09 MARINE CORPS Preview

CEOss purchasing model streamlines Marine Corps acquisition


By Sara Michael

PHOTO: Courtesty of TAIC

Here’s how CEOss works: Marine Corps vices, Mitchell said. “That doesn’t always rom software to weapons, the equipment needs of the Systems Command personnel in need of provide us with the best services or a comU.S. Marine Corps are be- services or equipment meet with Mitch- petitive marketplace.” As a prime vendor, TAIC is leading ing handled through a business model that ell’s office to flesh out requirements and streamlines acquisition, making it more ef- a cost estimate. Acquisition officials draft a team of 18 subcontractors, including ficient for the government buyers and the a request for quotations and post it to the Northrop Grumman, BAE Systems and appropriate prime vendors pre-selected to EG&G. TAIC was recently awarded a vendors. $1.3 million task order The Commercial Ento monitor and develop terprise Omnibus Supautomatic test systems port Services, known as for ground, aviation and CEOss, is a vehicle for logistics communities in securing contractor supthe Marine Corps. port based on a process Alan Chvotkin, execthat takes days, rather utive vice president for than months. the national trade group “We have this quick Professional Services turnaround time that is Council, said there are unprecedented in the Mamore than 200 IDIQ fedrine Corps,” said Patricia eral contracts, but what Mitchell, director of the is unique about CEOss is Marine Corps Systems the “sophisticated” elecCommand’s Acquisition tronic portal used to post Center for Support Services, which supports the The CEOss business model provides program management support for the Marine the task orders. CEOss also includes acquisition workforce. Corps Systems Command to speed acquisition of systems like the Assault Breacher “Inception to award in 20 Vehicle. Combat engineers will use the ABV, also known as Grizzly, to safely breach a period each year where the prime contractors days – that’s a pretty im- minefields and other complex obstacles. can review and remake pressive time line.” their teams, which he said keeps the conThe indefinite-delivery/indefinite quan- compete for the work. The vendors have five days to discuss tracts fresh. tity (IDIQ) model secures contractor work So far, 921 task orders have been awardfor 1,300 government customers across the details with the government customer. two dozen offices. Task orders are issued Then the companies that decide to bid on ed totaling nearly $1.64 billion, Mitchell through blanket purchase agreements with the work are given the final request and five said. In fiscal 2008, 207 task orders were is33 prime vendors, each of which has as- more days to prepare a proposal. Proposals sued totaling about $400 million. are then submitted and the award is made. sembled a team of subcontractors. It’s hard to predict what the next several “It’s typically a nice, tidy four-week pro“It’s a focus on the command mission [and] the folks providing support to the cess,” said Eugene Felts, TAIC’s director of months to a year will hold in CEOss, bewarfighters,” said Pat Regan, senior vice business development for the government cause acquisition officials are now working president and general manager for the gov- sector. “Other vehicles similar to this typi- on forecasting for the next year. “We expect a continued level of support ernment sector at Technology Associates cally take six months to a year to award.” Before the creation of CEOss in 2002, in the future,” she said, “which will be a International Corp., or TAIC, which was tapped as a prime vendor through a 10- the Marine Corps Systems Command had a combination of renewals of existing task small pool of vendors ready to provide ser- orders as well as new work.” J year, $500 million contract.

S p r i n g 2 0 0 9 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D 69



Reliable and easy to operate, the SEA GIRAFFE AMB is designed to build total situational awareness, provide decision superiority and gain the initiative in countering any hostile approach.

SEA GIRAFFE AMB provides a full range of nonconflicting functions for simultaneous Air/Surface Surveillance, 360˚ rocket/artillery/mortar alert and weapon location, navigation and gunfire support.

If Giraffe can’t find it, it isn’t there.

the ocean, the SEA GIRAFFE AMB Multi-role Surveillance Radar perceive every conceivable air and surface threat.








’09 NAVY Preview

BAMS Unmanned ISR system moves into demo phase By Lee Ewing


ILLUSTRATION: Courtesy of Northrop Grumman

he Navy is moving closer to buy 68 RQ-4Ns, says Chuck Wagner, a every day, providing constant intelligence, gaining the global persistent Navy spokesman. The cost of each fully surveillance and reconnaissance of the intelligence, surveillance and equipped BAMS aircraft is expected to be world’s oceans and coastal areas. BAMS includes a wide array of advanced reconnaissance capability comsensors, on-board data fusion and manders have long sought as the communications links intended to Broad Area Maritime Surveillance transmit the data gathered almost (BAMS) unmanned aerial system instantly to operational commanders program advances through its sysaround the world. tem development and demonstraBAMS missions include maritime tion (SDD) phase. surveillance, collection of enemy orThe Navy awarded Northrop der of battle information, battle damGrumman an 89-month, $1.16 age assessment, port surveillance, billion contract for SDD in April communications relay and support 2008. In August, the Government of maritime interdiction, surface Accountability Office denied a warfare, battlespace management Lockheed Martin protest challengand targeting for maritime and littoing the award, clearing the way for ral strike missions. Northrop Grumman to proceed. Advanced sensor systems enable Early this year, service and conthe BAMS aircraft, which typically tractor officials began a series of will fly at 55,000 feet, to detect, track reviews designed to ensure the proand automatically identify surface gram progresses smoothly. ships. Its Multi-Function Active SenThe program’s main composor active electronically scanned arnent is the RQ-4N unmanned aerial ray radar (AESA) system is designed system, a derivative of the battleto maintain 360-degree surveillance tested Northrop Grumman Global of hundreds of ships, even when the Hawk RQ-4B. First flight of the w aircraft descends to a low altitude to is scheduled for fiscal 2012, with The RQ-4N unmanned aerial system, a derivative of initial operating capability set for Northrop Grumman’s Global Hawk, will be the main com- closely examine a target of interest. A key component of the Navy’s 2015, says Tom Twomey, Northrop ponant of the Navy’s Broad Area Maritime Surveillance, FORCEnet network-centric warfare Grumman’s business development or BAMS, system. First flight is scheduled for fiscal 2012. concept, BAMS complements the director for BAMS. service’s manned P-8A Poseidon Northrop Grumman is the prime Multi-Mission Aircraft (MMA), which are contractor on the BAMS team. Subcon- about $55 million, according to Twomey. tractors include Raytheon, L3 CommuWhen the system is fully operational in intended for lower-altitude ISR and strikes nications, Aurora Flight Sciences, Rolls- 2019, Twomey says, three to four aircraft against submarines and surface vessels. Royce, Sierra Nevada and Vought. During typically will be assigned to each of five The Navy is expected to buy 108 MMA the SDD phase, the industry team will orbits controlled by pilots in five or more systems, produced by a Boeing-led team. Together, the 68 BAMS UAS and 108 produce two RQ-4N prototypes for the strategically located tactical operations Navy and a third for Northrop Grumman, centers. The RQ-4N’s ability to fly for MMA will replace the Navy’s aging fleet Twomey says. In the production phases up to 34 hours enables the Navy to keep of about 300 P-3C Orion maritime patrol of the BAMS program, the Navy plans to an aircraft on station in each orbit all day, aircraft, Twomey says. J

S p r i n g 2 0 0 9 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D 71

PHOTO: Petty Officer 3rd Class Melissa Hauck

A Coast Guard Maritime Safety and Security Team (MSST) patrols the San Francisco Bay in a 25-foot response boat. The Coast Guard established MSST antiterrorism teams to better protect maritime assets.


Stocks Its Security Toolbox


efore the aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reagan returned to San Diego last fall after a six-month deployment, a high-tech Coast Guard system combed the waters for potential threats and monitored the area to keep it clean. Using sonar and roving vehicles, the Underwater Port Security System detects and tracks intruders, basically serving as underwater eyes and ears for the Coast Guard. This portable system is just one of several tools the Coast Guard has added to its arsenal since the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in a push to meet a changing security threat and keep a close watch on the nation’s ports and coastline. In addition to adding cutting-edge technology, the Coast Guard has undergone major organizational shifts since 9/11 to better position the agency to respond to its shifting role. “Port security isn’t just about the pieces of hardware,” said Kenneth McDaniel, deputy division chief for the maritime security counterterrorism division in the Coast Guard’s Office of Counterterrorism and Defense Operations. “It’s about the total programmatic approach to providing underwater security. That includes public awareness campaigns, working with other law enforcements, and then it goes to the other end of the spectrum of new high-tech technology we deploy.” With each Underwater Port Security System costing about $1 million, putting one at each of the nation’s sea ports wasn’t an option. Instead, the Coast Guard developed six mobile systems that can be deployed in higher-threat situations, McDaniel said. In 2006, for example, the system was used to comb New York City’s East River before President Bush visited the United Nations General Assembly. When not deployed for a specific event, the systems are placed anywhere around the country. The system has two components, developed with a combination of government and commercially available technologies. The first part, the Underwater Inspection System, uses divers or remotely oper72 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D S p r i n g 2 0 0 9

Port security takes on a new urgency after the terror attacks of Sept. 11

By Sara Michael

Š 2009 Northrop Grumman Corporation


E9 ALAE=<GE9AF9O9 =F=KK& Northrop Grumman is a global provider of C4ISR systems, which enhance maritime security, marine and navigational safety, search and rescue efforts, and environmental protection. Under the U.S. Coast Guardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Nationwide Automatic Identification System (Nationwide AIS), we will provide a two-way maritime digital communication system that will continually transmit and receive voiceless vessel data, including vessel identity, position, speed, course, destination, and other data of critical interest for navigation safety, marine mobility, and maritime security. www.northropgrumman.com

PHOTO: Petty Officer 3rd Class Melissa Hauck

ated vehicles (ROVs) to inspect the water, as well as piers and ship hulls. The ROVs are used when it is too dangerous or difficult for the divers to hit the water. “If I secure a pier for an important event, the first thing I have to do is make sure someone hasn’t put a bomb under that pier before the event started,” McDaniel said. An Echoscope, a device developed by New York-based firm Coda Octopus, enables the ROVs to navigate structures in turbid waters and produces 3D sonar images. The technology, packaged for the Coast Guard as one part of the overall system, was developed to be easily used by one person and with minimal training, said Angus Lugsdin, senior vice president of market development for Coda Octopus.

Coast Guard Petty Officer 1st Class Thomas Schuster heaves a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) into the water at the Marine Corps Recruit Depost. The highly maneuverable underwater video and data robot takes 3D sonar images used in pier sweeps, vessel sweeps, and search and recovery missions. It also is used to detect explosive devices.

The technology allows the Coast Guard to ensure that an entire area has been scanned, resulting in GPS-referenced data and video, making it safer and more efficient than relying on divers alone, he said. “It’s making the operations significantly easier,” he said. The second piece is the Underwater Anti-Swimmer System, which uses sonar to monitor under water around specific targets such as piers or vessels and “gives us that invisible fence in the water,” McDaniel said. “Once we complete the inspection we consider that spot sanitized or clean, and we need to make sure it stays clean.” The anti-swimmer system, parts of which are developed by Seattle-based Kongsberg Underwater Technology Inc., uses sonar to detect structures under water. “You have more eyes in the water; it’s a wide swath,” said Jeff Condiotty, program manager for the underwater security systems at Kongsberg. The idea with the Underwater Port Security System is to avoid using divers for monitoring, McDaniel said. Once dive teams are in 74 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D S p r i n g 2 0 0 9

the water, it’s harder to track and detect unwanted activity, and even harder to then dispose of explosives.

Legislated Changes

The Coast Guard’s tools for assessing and monitoring the water around the ports and harbors fulfill requirements outlined in the 2002 Maritime Transportation and Security Act, a broad, sweeping measure that called for shoring up port security. The act created Maritime Safety and Security Teams, which protect ports and shorelines, and prompted the Coast Guard to develop security plans and surveillance systems. The law also required the Coast Guard to ensure more vessels are equipped with identification transponders, as well as build up the capability to track inbound and outbound vessels. Most domestic and foreign commercial vessels are now equipped with Automatic Identification System (AIS) transponders, an international standard and technology that transmits ship name, course, speed, registration and other information. The transponders make it easier for the Coast Guard to communicate with ingoing and outgoing ships and build histories on the vessels, such as where they have been and what they are carrying. “It helps us begin to understand any potential threats or risks,” said Cmdr. Keith Ingalsbe, the Coast Guard’s project manager for the Nationwide Automatic Identification System. Now the Coast Guard is pulling all that AIS data together into the NAIS, which broadens the scope and adds coverage. Previously, there was no complete picture of what was out in open waters, Ingalsbe said. The first phase, completed in September 2007, provided data reception at 58 ports, allowing the Coast Guard to track more than 6,000 vessels and 50,000 messages a day, Ingalsbe said. In January, the Coast Guard awarded a contract, potentially valued at $68 million, to Northrop Grumman to build the core of NAIS for nationwide receive and transmit capabilities, the second phase of the program. The main part of the contract, valued at $12 million, will be to build this core data exchange in three sectors: Delaware Bay, Hampton Roads, Va., and Mobile, Ala. Future phases will expand the coverage nationwide. “They didn’t have the capability to put it all together,” said Mike Twyman, vice president of the Northrop Grumman Information Systems’ Integrated Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence systems operating unit. “This really now provides the foundation.”

Quicker Response

The 9/11 terrorist attacks, and subsequent disasters like Hurricane Katrina, made clear the need for a more efficient command structure in the Coast Guard to ensure personnel were ready to respond. Over the last several years, the Coast Guard merged operational field commands into what are called sectors, which brought together duties such as maritime safety, search and rescue and law enforcement previously handled by separate operational groups. The sector reorganization integrated command and control functions under a local commander, Coast Guard officials said, to improve training, customer service and control of assets in each of the more than 30 sectors.

Global Hawk image is courtesy of Northrop Grumman.

UP HERE YOU NEED SENSOR MANAGEMENT The Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) relies on Curtiss-Wrightʼs Sensor Management Unit (SMU) to gather, manage, store and re-transmit critical data to ground stations quickly and reliably. Whether your airframe uses a legacy interface or a high-speed, technologically advanced sensor/ payload, our SMU is the right solution. Our product facilitates data management from all airborne payload sensors by incorporating support of various I/O interfaces. Our air-cooled, rugged SMU chassis is packaged with multi-node processing units that support Fibre Channel, GbE, ECL, 1553, RS-422/485/232, and RS-170 Video. Our SMU has the performance and bandwidth to keep your mission airborne. To learn more about Curtiss-Wrightʼs proven UAV flight critical technology and system integration capabilities, email us at SMUinfo@curtisswright.com or call (661) 257-4430. Visit us at our website, www.cwcembedded.com/UAV.

Innovation In Motion. cwcembedded.com

T H AT W O N ’ T L E T Y O U D O W N .

Sensor Management Unit Curtiss-Wright’s Sensor Management Unit (SMU) product line is part of our Network Centric Computer family. The SMU system consists of advanced multi-node processor boards, various legacy and high-speed interfaces, on-board solid state storage, and an optional video compression board. The SMU’s 6U VME and cPCI backplane provides a high bandwidth fabric interconnect between heterogeneous bus architectures and high-speed processing nodes to enable flexible, optimized parallel processing and data transfer.


DE AD LY SCE NA RIO S A N D R E W F. K R E P I N E V I C H Pr es id en t , Ce nt er fo r St ra te gi c an d Bu dg et ar y As se ss me nt s

“KREPINEVICH is one of the most insightful voices we now have on national security issues. You can read this book—or we can go on learning the hard way.”


military correspondent, The Washington Post, and author of Fiasco

“This provocative book must be read by our nation’s leaders, and those who are charged with protecting us now and into the next decade.”


author of The Strongest Tribe www.bantamdell.com

BANTAM Wherever books are sold

Petty Officer 2nd Class James Clea and Petty Officer 1st Class Ryan Jennings monitor the Automatic Identification System at Maritime Intelligence Fusion Center Atlantic in Virginia Beach, Va.

PHOTO: Petty Officer 3rd Class Mark Jones

A military futurist explores war in the 21ST century.

“It allows the Coast Guard to really coordinate and speak to the community with one voice,” said retired Vice Adm. James Card, who spent about 40 years in the Coast Guard. In the summer of 2007, the Coast Guard stood up the Deployable Operations Group, or D.O.G., which brought together tactical response personnel under one command, rather than being supervised by several districts spread across the country. D.O.G. forces are made up of about 3,000 personnel from 12 Maritime Safety and Security Teams, as well as the maritime security response, tactical law enforcement, port security and national strike teams. These specialized forces, under the command of Rear Adm. Thomas Atkin, can be rapidly deployed anywhere. “They took some of those lessons learned and said, ‘We can do this better,’ ” D.O.G. spokesman Lt. Cmdr. Charles Hawkins said of the response after Katrina, adding the Coast Guard was already leaning toward deployable units after 9/11. “It has streamlined the organization and given everybody a common focus,” said Ray Brown, a retired Coast Guard captain who works as an adjunct professor of homeland security at Daniel Webster College in Nashua, N.H., and a consultant for Total Security Services International Inc. “I think that they are proactive and their presence is seen and that is good.” As the Coast Guard shuffles commands and adopts high-tech tools, officials work to balance the need for security with the need to keep the ports prosperous, said Rear Adm. James Watson, director of the Prevention Policy Directorate, which develops and monitors maritime security programs. Much like airport passenger screening, maritime security initiatives cost the public and the industry, Watson said. “That’s been a big challenge,” he said, noting that the years after 9/11 were a time of growth in the maritime industry. One answer to this struggle is better technology, Watson said, which will streamline inspections and give the Coast Guard greater communication with other agencies and the industry. “That increases safety and security, and it also can be used to facilitate commerce,” he said. Coast Guard officials also have to consider the changes in perspective with the actual threat to the nation’s ports, McDaniel said. “You have to apply the appropriate amount of resources to the threat,” he said, adding that other low-budget tools like public awareness and outreach to port and harbor stakeholders also can be effective security measures. “Our enemies are smart, thinking people,” he said, “And we have to be smart, thinking people and use all of our assets and resources.” The nature of the Coast Guard’s organization – illustrated in the motto Semper Paratus, or “Always Ready” – has served the agency well in adapting quickly to the post 9/11 environment, said Card. “All of these organizational changes have allowed the Coast Guard to be more nimble, more responsive,” he said. “A lot of things have changed in the Coast Guard, but the main character of serving the public stays the same.” J

Are you hitting your


with an annual publication? Unlikely!

The Better Choice: DEFENSE STANDARD Quarterly An “annual publication” may look pretty on the coffee table but does it really provide the impact your company needs in a highly competitive marketplace? Marketing professionals across the globe agree the most effective advertising strategy includes repetitive, targeted impressions, not the once-peryear, limited approach that an annual publication provides.

14502 N Dale Mabry Hwy, Ste 305

Tampa, FL 33618

(813) 864-6360

It’stimetocomeovertoDEFENSESTANDARD Quarterly. Make your presence felt. Act today to ensure your participation in DEFENSE STANDARD Quarterly 2009 Summer Edition. Time is a factor and placement is limited. Call one of our representatives today for a prompt and courteous consultation at 202-640-2137 ext 109.


Two soldiers, one Iraqi and one American, on patrol in Ameriya. Photo by Staff Sgt. Manuel Martinez

78 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D 2 0 0 8

BEHIND the LENS Images from the front lines from the Air Forceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 1st Combat Camera Squadron

2 0 0 8 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D


Staff Sgt. Lopaka Mounts, an Air Force pararescueman from the 331st Air Expeditionary Group, is hugged by a grateful resident during search-andrescue operations after Hurricane Ike. Photo by Staff Sgt. James L. Harper Jr.


he images of war are forever emblazoned in their memories — and in ours, thanks to their dramatic photographs.

The photographers of the Air Force’s 1st Com-

bat Camera Squadron deploy around the world to document the lives of Navy, Army, Air Force and Marine active-duty and reserve forces. Carrying M4 carbines as well as digital camera equipment, they capture images from exercises, global crises and humanitarian operations worldwide.

Photo by Staff Sgt. Jason Robertson

Here we present some of the squadron’s favorite photos.

(Middle) Army 1st Sgt. Shane Chapman yells for a medic to treat an Iraqi civilian injured in a car bomb explosion in Mosul. (Bottom) Navy F/A-18 Super Hornets from VFA-31 deploy heat flares during a December 2008 combat patrol over Afghanistan.

80 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D S p r i n g 2 0 0 9

Photo by Staff Sgt. Aaron Allmon

A Belgian F-16 Fighting Falcon on combat patrol in Afghanistan. Photo by Staff Sgt. Aaron Allmon

â&#x20AC;&#x153;This was my third deployment to Iraq ... The weather was frigid and the rain never stopped. However, soldiers braved the cold and continued to clear the area of land mines and improvised explosive devices. ... When I was not photographing serious operations, I would document soldiers goofing around. I took this photograph of the engineers on one such occasion. It was early morning and they were warming up by the fire.â&#x20AC;? - Master Sgt. Andy Dunaway

The sun sets behind a C-17 Globemaster III at Joint Base Balad, Iraq, as soldiers line up for their flight home. Photo by Tech Sgt. Erik Gudmundson



2009 Spring Edition  

DEFENSE STANDARD 2009 Spring Edition

2009 Spring Edition  

DEFENSE STANDARD 2009 Spring Edition