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THE HOME OF THE BRAVE A donation to the Fisher House serves our military and their families in times of need. Providing shelter and support during medical crises, Fisher House’s many “homes away from home” provide a comforting environment to injured service members, veterans, retirees and their families. While a loved one is undergoing medical treatment in an unfamiliar town, city or state, the offer of a welcoming refuge to help families stay close together is appreciated by the brave men and women who serve our nation with valor. Become a hero to someone special by contributing to the Fisher House today. For more information, call toll-free (888) 294-8560 or visit www.fisherhouse.org.
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©2007 Fisher House Foundation / Brendan Mattingly Photography / Don Schaaf & Friends, Inc.
Letter from the Publisher
The Face of Courage on the Battlefield Saluting women in uniform and how they got to where they are today By Sara Michael PLUS: The first two female recipients of the Silver Star since World War II By Nick Adde
Battlefield Medicine A look at some of the innovations that are saving lives in the war zone
By David Perera
28 The U.S. and the Philippines How the two old allies are reuniting to fight Al Qaeda in the Philippine jungles By Tom Breen PLUS: Special operations expert John D. Gresham on Operation Enduring Freedom - Philippines
Tanker Troubles The competition for the Air Forceâ€™s new aerial refueler drags on into 2009
PROCUREMENT and OPERATIONS 42
Americaâ€™s Logistics Leaders The Defense Logistics Agency finds new purpose in wartime By James Kitfield PLUS: An interview with the outgoing DLA director, Lt. Gen. Robert Dail
36 2 0 0 8 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D
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The Pentagon’s Secret Weapon How robust advances in C4ISR give U.S. forces the edge in battle By Rich Tuttle
Joint Tactical Radio System How JTRS brings new communications capabilities to the front By Rich Tuttle
’09 PROCUREMENT SPOTLIGHT 67
Air Force: Unmanned Aerial Systems By Lee Ewing
Army: Modular Force
By Tom Breen
Marine Corps: Communications By Bryant Jordan
Navy: Attack Submarines By Michael Fabey
ON THE HOMEFRONT 74
Helping Citizen Warriors Supportive employers go above and beyond for deployed Reserve and Guard members By Tom Philpott
2008 FALL EDITION
Courage on the Battleﬁeld
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Copyright 2008. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part is prohibited. The opinions expressed within this publication do not necessarily represent the views of the publisher. Defense Standard LLC assumes no responsibilites for the advertisements or any representations made in this publication. Defense Standard LLC in unable to accept, or hereby expressly disclaims, any liability for the consequences of inaccuracies or omissions of such information occurring during the publishing of such information for publication. Disclaimer: Neither the Department of Defense nor any other United States Government agency has approved, endorsed or authorized this publication in any form. No such inference is suggested, promoted or communicated in any manner.
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elcome to the Fall 2008 issue of DEFENSE STANDARD Quarterly. With this issue, we continue our tradition of bringing you deeply reported, richly written stories about the men and women of the U.S. military and the industry and innovation that supports them. Our cover story salutes the contributions of America’s military women and looks at how their roles have changed to reflect the 360-degree battlefield. Writer Sara Michael examines the successes and the sacrifices women have made over the years in this compelling report. Additionally, Nick Adde tells the stories of former Army Guard Sgt. Leigh Ann Hester and Army Spc. Monica Lin Brown, the only two women since World War II to have received the Silver Star, the nation’s third-highest combat decoration. Also in this issue, senior writer Tom Breen tells the little-known story of how U.S. Special Operations troops are teaming with the Armed Forces of the Philippines to root out Muslim terrorists with ties to Al Qaeda. Breen also reports about what the growing U.S. military presence in the Philippines means some 17 years after the Mount Pinatubo eruption closed the two major U.S. bases on the island nation. Noted author and military historian John D. Gresham, an acknowledged expert on Special Forces, adds some historical perspective with a look at the origins of Operation Enduring Freedom – Philippines. You’ll also find an in-depth report by senior writer James Kitfield into the new operational mindset of the Defense Logistics Agency and how it has transformed and energized the agency’s support of wartime operations. Don’t miss Kitfield’s exit interview with Army Lt. Gen. Robert Dail, who talks about what it took to remake the DLA into a more modern, combat-oriented organization. Critical advances in C4ISR and related procurement plans are examined by senior writer
Rich Tuttle, who also takes a look at the Joint Tactical Radio System. Advances of a different sort are explored by David Perera, who talks with military physicians and industry leaders about technological advances that are saving lives every day on the front lines in Iraq and Afghanistan. We also take a look at the long, contentious battle for the Air Force’s KC-X aerial tanker contract. Innovative employers are the focus of Tom Philpott’s first report for DEFENSE STANDARD. Philpott, the respected voice behind the weekly Military Update news column, reports on how employers nationwide are supporting National Guard and reserve members and their families during long deployments. Some are going so far as to continuing paying the citizen warriors’ salaries while they are deployed. We also explore major procurement priorities for 2009: the Air Force’s accelerated purchases of Unmanned Aerial Systems; the Army’s new Modular Force requirements; the Marine Corps’ focus on communications systems; and the Navy’s ongoing attack submarine buy. While we don’t know what the new year and a new administration in Washington will bring, we do know this: America’s military will continue to be the world’s premier fighting force and, with the support of the country’s defense industry, the world’s foremost innovators on the battlefield. This, too, we know: DEFENSE STANDARD will be there to tell their stories.
David Peabody Publisher
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PHOTO: Courtesy of Women’s Memorial Foundation
Members of the U.S. Public Health Service Cadet Nurse Corps at Sioux Valley Hospital, Sioux Falls, S.D., in 1943.
PHOTO: Courtesy of National Archives
Face of Somewhere in England in 1945, Maj. Charity E. Adams of the Women’s Army Corps (WAC) inspects the first contingent of African-American WACs assigned to overseas service.
PHOTO: Courtesy of National Archives
An Army nurse bandages the wrist of a wounded soldier in Korea in February 1951.
on the Battlefield
By Sara Michael
n the 17 months she spent in Iraq, Staff Sgt. Maggie Nelson waded in canals up to her chest, searched Iraqi women for weapons during night raids, and shared a table with top Sunni Arab leaders in Kirkuk. She’s been shot at; her vehicle hit a roadside bomb. She has sat around in an armored truck telling jokes with fellow soldiers in combat. Only rarely was Nelson, 45, a public affairs officer in the Oregon Army National Guard, reminded she’s a woman – usually when she noticed someone staring at
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PHOTO: Courtesy of Women’s Memorial Foundation
Navy Petty Officer 2nd Class Patricia Mescus repairs an A-4 jet at Kadena Air Base in Okinawa, Japan, in 1976.
her in the streets of Iraq. Like many of the women Nelson met in Iraq and Afghanistan, she was a warrior first, serving her country in roles blazed by the women who have served before her and with her, those recognized with top honors and the thousands who have filled the ranks with little fanfare over the years. “We’re just doing it,” said Nelson, who was headed back to Oregon recently after about 30 months of being deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan. “We’ve accepted the terms and the rules and we are ourselves.”
Pat Jernigan, now a retired Army colonel, is wearing the first pantsuit allowed by the Army in this 1977 award cer- Marine Corps Staff Sgt. Amanda Kokx hands out emony, where she is photographed with John Hughes, humanitarian aid to a local woman at a hospital then a senior Defense Intelligence Agency official. at Afghanistan’s Bagram Airfield in 2006. PHOTO: Courtesy of Pat Jernigan
PHOTO: Spc. Michael Zuk
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draft in 1973 began the all-volunteer force era, and an erosion of more barriers as the services reached to fill the ranks. The Navy began to accept women for aviation duty in noncombat aircraft, and the Coast Guard started taking women for regular active duty, according to the Women’s Research and Education Institute.
PHOTO: Senior Airman Julianne Showalter
In Iraq and Afghanistan, women helm units at nearly every level, assisting in raids and searching for contraband. They are working as combat medics, defusing roadside bombs, flying helicopters and constructing roads and bridges. In fact, about one in 10 of the U.S. troops serving in Iraq and Afghanistan are women. “They are doing a great job and really proving they are willing to do what they need to for the country,” said 1st Lt. Amanda Straub, a public affairs officer in the New Mexico Army National Guard. Straub spent time last year with two female combat medics in Afghanistan deployed with a National Guard combat team. Oregon Army National Guard Staff Sgt. Jo Turner and Spc. Cheryl Ivanov drove armored Humvees and provided medical support to the unit. “Those ladies lived it all, did it all, saw it all,” she said. Although Defense Department policy still technically bars women from being assigned to units whose main mission is to engage in direct combat, the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have become 360-degree battlefields. “Ground combat has come to them,” said retired Navy Capt. Lory Manning, director of the Women in the Military project at the Women’s Research and Education Institute. The total number of women on active duty has swelled to nearly 196,000, accounting for more than 15 percent of officers and 14 percent of enlisted members. As of August 2008, 112 women had died in the two wars, 600 had received Purple Heart awards for wounds sustained from enemy action, and two women had received the Silver Star for heroism, according to the Women’s Research and Education Institute. Women have continued to slowly open doors in the military, adding to the list of jobs they are performing and honors they are receiving. “Whatever we were allowed to do, we did it doggone well,” said Pat Jernigan, a retired colonel and board member of the U.S. Army Women’s Foundation. “We’ve been steadily proving we can do it.”
On the Front Lines
Decades ago, female four-star generals were unheard of and combat decorations for women were rare. When Jernigan joined the military in 1964, training for women looked more like “finishing school” than boot camp. They learned military traditions, history, how to march and how to best wear the skirt and pumps of their Class A uniforms. “The emphasis was to look like ladies and act like ladies,” she recalled. In 1948, when women became eligible to serve in regular active peacetime forces, their numbers and promotion opportunities were capped. Women couldn’t command men, and any woman who became pregnant was immediately discharged, according to the Women’s Research and Education Institute. The progression of emerging roles has been driven by societal change, women’s proven ability to perform the tasks, and by the military’s need for service members. The end of the
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Senior Airman Melissa Gallardore places retaining rings on a wheel from the main landing gear of an F-16 Fighting Falcon aircraft at Balad Air Base, Iraq, in March 2008. Gallardore is a crew chief with the 332nd Expeditionary Maintenance Squadron deployed from the Montana Air National Guard.
Advancements come in a time of crisis, said retired Air Force Brig. Gen. Wilma Vaught, president of the Women in Military Service for American Foundation, a nonprofit that operates the Women’s Memorial. When Vaught joined the military in the 1950s, the highest rank she could hope to achieve was lieutenant colonel. Until 1967, women were restricted to administrative duties, but she later became the first woman in the comptroller field to be promoted to brigadier general. “It was more than just what women would like to do,” Vaught
PHOTO: Staff Sgt. Aaron Allmon
said. “It’s what the nation has been required to ask them to that shattered barriers. “That’s when they realized you can’t do.” draw a line and say, ‘This is the line’ if you are in a combat In Iraq, for example, this has meant having women partici- support unit,” Vaught said. pate in the raids, because Muslim culture forbids women from More than 40,000 women were deployed for the Persian being touched by a man other than her husband. “Females are Gulf War. Fifteen women were killed, and two taken prisonvery, very much a part of ers of war. The idea of a this fight,” said Nelson, female prisoner of war who participated in the had been a paralyzing raids. horror and a rallying The decades-long decry for many advocatbate of the roles in which ing limited battle roles women should serve confor women. tinues even as women are That fear became a serving and dying in Iraq reality when then-Maj. and Afghanistan. Women Rhonda Cornum, an are still barred from poArmy flight surgeon, sitions on submarines was captured while reand specialties such as sponding to a helicopter infantry, armor and field crash in the 1991 war. artillery, but by all acShe suffered serious counts they are routinely injuries when her helifacing enemy fire. copter was shot down, The women who have Airman 1st Class Kara Dykes, part of the 332nd Expeditionary Security Forces’ and spent eight days in died in Iraq were often immediate reaction force, mans an M-107 sniper rifle at the entry control point captivity in Iraq. “Befor Balad Air Base, Iraq. on the front lines, serving fore her people thought, as military police, truck well what if a women is drivers, medics and engineers when their vehicles struck im- taken prisoner and sexually attacked, and that’s what happrovised explosive devices or their units were attacked by in- pened,” said Vaught. surgents. Among them: Cornum went on to serve a successful military career af—Lt. Ashley Huff, 23, who grew up in Louisiana and New ter the war faded from the headlines, Vaught noted. Now a Jersey, was leading a military police unit in Mosul, Iraq, in brigadier general, Cornum is the Army’s assistant surgeon September 2006 when she was killed by bomb exploding near general for force projection. her vehicle. Women’s service in the Persian Gulf prompted Congress —Maryland native Toccara Green was escorting and driv- to repeal the law banning women from flying in combat, but ing in convoys when the 23-year-old was killed by a roadside it wasn’t until two years later that the Defense Department bomb at a refueling stop in Al Asad, policy changed to allow women Iraq, according to news reports. to take those assignments. Then“There was a time —In January 2006, 25-year-old Defense Secretary Les Aspin also when you did so Jaime Campbell, a first lieutendirected the Army and Marine much and you ant with the Alaska Army National Corps to study opening more asweren’t recognized. Guard, was killed Jan. 7, 2006, when signments to women, according to It makes me feel so her Black Hawk helicopter crashed the Women’s Research and Educaproud to be part of near Tal Afar, Iraq. tion Institute. a change.” “There is no safe area,” said Brig. The wars in Iraq and AfghaniGen. Mary Kay Hertog, director of stan brought women even closer to - Army Master Sgt. security forces for the Air Force, direct combat, becoming a test of Shelina Pitt where she is responsible for planning women’s abilities under fire. “It’s and security for more than 30,000 acremarkable the things these young tive-duty and reserve security forces women are doing today in Iraq and worldwide. “I have women patrolling the streets of Baghdad Afghanistan,” said retired Army Lt. Col. Marilla Cushman, a just like their male counterparts.” spokeswoman for the Women In Military Service For America Memorial. “They all say, ‘I could do that because of my training.’” Path to Change Two women serving in those wars have received the Silver It was in Operation Desert Storm 18 years ago that women Star, the third–highest military honor – the first time women really began to assume close-combat duties, serving in roles 2 0 0 8 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D
PHOTO: Tech. Sgt. William Greer
have received the medal for valor in a combat mission since World War II. Sgt. Leigh Ann Hester, who was assigned to the Kentucky Army National Guard’s 617th Military Police Company, was recognized for her actions in leading a counterattack against insurgents near Baghdad in March 2005. Nineteen-year-old Army Spec. Monica Brown, a medic, received the Silver Star in 2007 for saving the lives of five wounded soldiers whose Humvee was struck by a roadside bomb in eastern Afghani-
stan. In July, then–Lt. Gen. Ann Dunwoody became the U.S. military’s first female four-star general and assumed command of the U.S. Army Materiel Command. “It’s a testament to her ability,” Jernigan said, “And the women that have gone before her that have done darn good.”
Laura Browder, an author and associate professor of English at Virginia Commonwealth University, expected to hear familiar stories of what motivated and inspired women in the military when she spent time with nearly four dozen female veterans for a series of narratives and photographs on display at the Visual Arts Center of Richmond. Instead she was struck by the range of experiences. Some women joined the military for college benefits while others were West Point graduates. Some were single mothers, others in dual military marriages. Most of the women, however, were passionate about their service, enthusiastic about being deployed and serving in combat zones. One woman called being with her unit in the insurgent stronghold of Fallujah, Iraq, the high point of her life. “It was very empowering for many of them,” Browder said. “They were doing jobs Congress decided they shouldn’t but they were doing them, and they were prepared to do it.” Although many said they have had to work harder to prove themselves, Spc. Rebecca Buck provides security on the perimeter outside an Iraqi police they also identified as soldiers first, women second, station in the Tarmiya Province in March 2008. Buck is an Army medic from Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion, 14th Infantry Regiment, 2nd Stryker Brigade Combat Team, 25th Infantry Division.
Women are eligible to serve in the regular active peacetime forces, as long as they don’t constitute more than 2 percent of the total force, and of that women officers can total no more than 10 percent.
Army women become eligible for aviation duty in noncombat aircraft.
Congress opens the remaining service academies to women.
More than 40,000 U.S. women are deployed for the Persian Gulf War. Two Army women are taken prisoner by Iraqis, and 15 U.S. military women are killed.
60 Years of Women in the Military
The 2 percent ceiling is lifted, and women are eligible for promotions above captain/lieutenant.
Women can enroll in the Coast Guard Academy.
The Navy assigns the first women to command a naval station and an aviation squadron. Congress repeals laws banning women from flying aircraft engaged in combat missions.
770 women deploy to Panama for Operation Just Cause. A female MP commands troops in combat-like operations, and women flying Black Hawk helicopters come under fire. The Navy assigns its first woman as Command Master Chief at Sea.
DEFENSE STANDARD Graphic: Samantha Gibbons
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PHOTO: Petty Officer 2nd Class Nardelito Gervacio
Browder said. Army Staff Sgt. Gail Miller struggled to be considered on the same level as her male counterparts 20 years ago in her early days as one of about 100 women in the 15,000-member 82nd Airborne Division. She kept her head down, she said, staying focused on her job and making sure not to look as if she were asking for any special favors. “As long as you work hard and do your job, your male counterparts will respect you,” said Miller, a 39-year-old single mother of three based at Fort Bragg, N.C. Now she meets teenage girls in her son’s Junior ROTC program pushing themselves just as hard as the boys, completing the same physical tests. “These are the next group of soldiers entering the military,” she said. “It’s a wonderful feeling.” For Army Master Sgt. Shelina Pitt, 39, the re- Petty Officer 3rd Class Cindy R. Skinner, an operations specialist, uses a telescopic alidade to report on surface contacts aboard the amphibious assault ship USS Escent accomplishments by her fellow female sol- sex in the Pacific Ocean in November. The Essex is the lead ship of the only forwarddeployed U.S. Expeditionary Strike Group. diers make her “walk around and stand tall.” “There was a time when you did so much and you weren’t recognized,” said Pitt, also stationed a dream she said was made possible by the women who at Fort Bragg. “It makes me feel so proud to be part of a served before her. change.” “Every one of those jobs paved the way and proved womStraub, the National Guard lieutenant in New Mexico, en are capable of it and opened up even more jobs,” she joined the military out of high school as a way to figure said. out what she wanted to do with her life and earn money for “I’m definitely a career person,” she added. “I’d like to college. She now is focused on rising through the ranks, get a star or two.” J
Congress repeals the law banning women from duty on combat ships. Women deploy on the USS Fox. The Army names a female Drill Sergeant of the Year for the first time in the 24-year history of the competition.
The first women are promoted to three-star rank.
U.S. women aviators fly combat aircraft on combat missions for the first time in Operation Desert Fox.
A female enlisted Marine is killed in an aircraft crash in Pakistan, the first woman to die in Operation Enduring Freedom.
The first woman since World War II is awarded the Silver Star for combat action. She becomes one of 14 women in U.S. history to receive the medal. The first woman joins the prestigious Air Force Thunderbirds aerial demonstration team. She was also the first woman on any U.S. military high-performance jet team.
60 Years of Women in the Military
The USS Eisenhower is the first carrier to have permanent women crew members. Sixty-three women are initially assigned. More than 1,000 women serve in operations in Somalia between 1992 and 1994.
The Army promotes its first woman to lieutenant general.
The Air Force promotes a female pilot to brigadier general. Two female sailors are killed and several wounded in the terrorist attack on the USS Cole.
An Army lieutenant general becomes the first woman nominated and confirmed for four-star rank.
Sources: Women in Military Service for America Memorial Foundation Inc. and the Women’s Research and Education Institute’s sixth edition of Women in the Military: Where they Stand.
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Combat Heroes This Award doesn’t have anything to do with being a female. It’s about the duties I performed that day as a solider. - Army National Guard Sgt. Leigh Ann Hester
he quote is now etched in glass as part of the permanent display at the Women for Military Service to America Memorial at Arlington National Cemetery, Va. Leigh Ann Hester won’t do interviews – not with the mainstream media, not with publications that serve her colleagues in uniform. In fact, she has left the service and won’t even talk to the Kentucky National Guard public affairs people. But requests for her time continue to stream into the Guard’s PAO shop. Journalists want to tell the story of what transpired during that firefight in Iraq on March 20, 2005, after her convoy was ambushed by a contingent of about 40 insurgents. They want to hear, in her own words, how Sergeant Hester became the first woman to receive the Silver Star Medal – the Army’s third-highest honor for valor in combat – since World War II. By her silence, Hester has made it clear that she wants no part of any activity that would single her out above the male comrades in her unit, Richmond, Ky.-based 617th Military Police Company, Army National Guard, who fought alongside her and also earned honors for their actions. Whether Army Spc. Monica Brown of Lake Jackson, Texas, is deliberately following Hester’s example by staying mum about her own accomplishments is unclear. But indeed, Brown too shuns the media spotlight despite numerous requests. And like Hester, Brown too has earned the Silver Star for valor in combat. Still, the harrowing stories of their actions beg to be told.
Convoy Under Attack
According to an account published by the Army at the time Hester and her comrades received their awards, the unit was providing security for a convoy of 26 supply vehicles as it moved along a busy highway southeast of Baghdad, near the town of Salman Pak. The soldiers traveled in three Humvees with armor reinforcement. Besides the weapons each of the soldiers carried with their gear, the vehicles were armed with .50-caliber machine guns and Mark-19 grenade launchers. The third Humvee carried a combat medic. The soldiers noticed that dust was being kicked up among the trucks in front of them – a good sign that trouble was afoot, possibly an ambush or attack by an improvised explosive device (IED). “We knew something was wrong,” Staff Sgt. Timothy Nein,
18 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D 2 0 0 8
a squad leader who also earned a Silver Star that day (later upgraded to a Distinguished Service Cross), told the Army News Service. The soldiers soon noticed that the convoy vehicles were moving in evasive zigzag patterns, and heard the sound of gunfire. They quickly moved in, found themselves positioned between the insurgents and the convoy, and immediately became the focus of redirected enemy fire. The insurgents had stationed seven vehicles nearby, which they planned to use for a quick escape. But the three Humvees happened to move into a position between the attackers and their rides home, forcing them to stand and fight. A rocket-propelled grenade (RPG) struck the lead Humvee, injuring its machine gunner, Spc. Casey M. Cooper. Nein jumped out and began returning fire from a flank. “Nein’s vehicle took a direct hit Sgt. Leigh Ann with an RPG as soon as we made Hester that turn,” Hester told Army News Service in an interview. “I heard it hit, saw the smoke, but we kept pushing. I saw Staff Sgt. Nein jump out of the truck. As soon as I saw him jump out, I was right there.” Seeing the Humvee take the RPG hit, Hester joined Nein in the full-blown small-arms firefight that ensued. “I think I shot off three M203 (grenade launcher) rounds, and I don’t know how many M4 rounds I shot,” Hester said in the interview. “I know I hit one of the … gunners.” Together, Hester and Nein fired upon their insurgent attackers for some 45 minutes before the battle ended. The soldiers had killed 27 insurgents, wounded another six, and captured yet another. They also confiscated 22 AK-47 assault rifles, an array of rocket-propelled arms, and an AK-47 ammunition drum, as well as scores of banded and loose AK-47 rounds and hand grenades. Three soldiers were wounded; none died. Standing shoulder-to-shoulder in formation with her comrades from the 617th MP Company, Hester received her Silver
PHOTO: Spc. Jeremy D. Crisp
By Nick Adde
Honoring two female Silver Star recipients
2 0 0 8 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D
PHOTO: Spc. Micah E. Clare
Star during a ceremony at Camp Liberty, Iraq, on June 16, 2005. hind hers, Brown’s platoon sergeant yelled to her, “Doc, let’s In addition to Hester and Nein, Spc. Jason Mike also was awarded go!” a Silver Star. “Everyone was already out of the burning vehicle,” Brown Cooper, Spc. William Haynes II and Spc. Ashley Pullen re- later said in an interview with American Forces Press Service, ceived Bronze Star medals with valor devices; Sgt. Dustin Mor- “but even before I got there, I could tell that rison and Spc. Jesse Ordunez earned Army Commendation medals two of them were injured very seriously.” with valor devices. With the assistance of soldiers from the Military honors for Hester did not end there. In February 2007, damaged vehicle who were less severely inthe Army Women’s Museum at Fort Lee, Va., featured Hester’s jured. Brown immediately began working role in the Salman Pak ambush prominently in a new exhibit com- on their two badly hurt comrades – Stanson Smith and Larry Spray, both specialists. memorating women’s roles in the war on terrorism. Retired Air Force Brig. Gen. Wilma Vaught, the president of the Meanwhile, rounds from small-arms board of directors of the Women for Military Service to America fire continued to whiz past her, missMemorial at Arlington National Cemetery, says Hester only agreed ing by inches. “Another vehicle had just mato attend the Fort Lee ceremony when officials acceded to her request that every soldier involved in the operation that day was invited neuvered to our position to shield us as well, and that the display pay honor to their heroism on an from the rounds now exploding in the fire from the Humvee behind us,” equal footing with her own. “She felt she was just one of the soldiers and deserves no Brown said in the AFPS interview. more recognition than anyone else who was there that day,” “Somewhere in the mix, we started taking mortar rounds. It became a Vaught says. They agreed. At the display’s unveiling, Vaught says, each huge commotion, but all I could let member of the team was recognized by name. The exhibit itself myself think about were my patients.” In time, soldiers maneuvered features descriptions of everyone’s role, as well as reproductions Spc. Monica Lin another vehicle into a position of the awards they received. Brown Two months later, Hester left the service – largely, public af- where they could transfer Smith and fairs officers with the Kentucky Guard say, because of the constant Spray into them, move to a safer location and call for a medical evacuation. She continued to work demands from news media for her time. “She’s a soldier and a cop, not a media person,” says Dave Al- on the soldiers while instructing others who assisted by holding intravenous fluid bags. The attack ton, a civilian PAO for the Guard. She ended some two hours after it began; now works as a police officer somethe medevac helicopter arrived and where in Tennessee. “It became a huge picked up Smith and Spray. As much as Hester eschews the commotion, but all Both survived. limelight, Vaught believes her exI could let myself Vice President Dick Cheney pinned ploits mark a major milestone in the think about were the Silver Star on Brown’s chest durhistory of military women’s contribumy patients.” ing a March 20, 2007, ceremony at tions to the nation. Bagram Air Base, Afghanistan. “Regardless of her personal feel- Spc. Monica Lin Brown “Looking back, it was just a blur of ings, the fact remains [that] it was noise and movement. What just hapa significant event,” Vaught says. pened? Did I do everything right? It “She was there as a woman in direct combat, and more than upheld her end. She was a leader in was a hard thing to think about,” Brown told AFPS. Brown remains on active duty. She is still assigned to the saving lives. That’s the first time, to the best of our knowledge, there has ever been an incident like that.” same unit and would be hard to distinguish from any other soldier stationed at Bragg – except, perhaps, for the ribbon on her chest. Heroism Under Fire The precedents both women set, Vaught says, obliterate obTwo years after the Salman Pak incident, Spc. Monica Brown was riding in a convoy in the Jani Khail district of Afghani- stacles that would otherwise hinder future military women who stan’s Paktika province when insurgents launched a fierce attack wish to prove that they can meet a challenge or opportunity. Both validate “the argument that there is a place for women with small-arms and grenades. The 19-year-old combat medic from the Fort Bragg, N.C.-based 782nd Brigade Support Bat- in combat when they are trained and capable,” Vaught says. Both women, she says, received the recognition their acts talion, 4th Brigade Combat Team, 82nd Airborne Division, was deserved – not because they were female, because of what right in the middle. After an improvised explosive device struck the vehicle be- they did. J
Innovations revolutionize diagnosis and treatment of combat injuries
Battlefield Medicine By David Perera
20 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D 2 0 0 8
PHOTO: Lance Cpl. Brandi M. Carter
ir Force pararescueman Jason Cunningham saved at least 10 lives on an Afghan mountaintop in 2002 after their MH-47 Chinook crashlanded under heavy fire while on an ill-fated rescue mission during Operation Anaconda. He continued treating the wounded even after being shot through the lower back by a bullet that would drain the life out of him before a medevac helicopter could get to the chaotic scene. Senior Airman Cunningham posthumously was awarded the Air Force’s highest honor, the Air Force Cross, in recognition of his bravery and sacrifice. But Cunningham’s death also stands as a reminder that blood loss continues to kill soldiers, sailors, airmen and Marines who could have survived if the bleeding had been stopped on the battlefield. Similar scenes played out in the streets of Mogadishu in 1993 when soldiers were pinned down by Somali gunfighters, in Vietnam before the choppers could land, in wars stretching back millennia. One problem was medics couldn’t carry sufficient amounts of blood for frontline care because blood spoils quickly when unprotected. They could stuff gauze bandages into wounds and apply pressure, but in many cases they could only watch someone with curable wounds die. Better body armor helps, of course, but it also has concentrated devastating wounds to the arms and legs.
New tourniquets that can be applied with one hand are replacing old-fashioned belt tourniquets like this one.
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PHOTO: Chief Master Sgt. Don Sutherland
“When somebody gets blown up, they can have sometimes Surviving Blood Loss two, three, maybe all four extremities terribly injured or ampuMedics and battlefield doctors have a slew of technologies imtated in the field, and they will bleed to death before they get to proving the odds of survival. Forward surgical teams have laptopus,” said Air Force Maj. Gary sized digital imaging systems. Vercruysse, a theater hospital Rugged anesthesia machines trauma surgeon deployed in much smaller than hospital verBalad, Iraq. sions put soldiers under for surBut new options now availgery. Wounds vacuum-sealed able to battlefield medics are rather than sewn shut let surbeginning to change that. geons treat battle casualties with A second-generation blooda series of operations instead of a clotting bandage coated with single, stamina-testing marathon coagulant material can stop surgery. New pain-blockers rethe bleeding. Medics can now lieve suffering without risk of adcarry blood in heat- and colddiction. Databases track soldiers’ resistant boxes that allow them treatment from the front line to to give transfusions on the batLandstuhl Regional Medical Centlefield. And a new generation ter in Germany and the hospitals of redesigned tourniquets is in the United States, giving each Medical personnel carry an injured airman on a litter during saving limbs -- and lives. an exercise simulating battlefield conditions. The medics are physician fingertip access to their “The simplest of devices taking part in training, directed by the 3790th Medical Service patients’ record of treatment. Wing, that prepares personnel for treating the injured sometimes makes the great- Training But the major cause of prein a combat zone environment. est difference,” said Col. Dalventable death remains blood las Hack, director of the Army loss. With casualties continuing to pile up in two ongoing wars, Medical Research and Materiel Command’s combat casualty finding ways to stop the bleeding in the battlefield has become a top care research program. priority of military medicine and private industry partners.
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A similar story of collaboration underpins a second-generation blood-clotting bandage called Combat Gauze, manufactured by Wallingford, Conn.-based Z-Medica. The Army announced Oct. 15 it is buying 270,000 packages for the field. The story begins with Z-Medica’s first product aimed at staunching blood loss, granules of a volcanic mineral applied directly into wounds. Revolutionary when introduced to the battlefield in 2002, Z-Medica’s product was 100 percent effective at stopping hemorrhage. But it had nasty side effects, including second-degree burns caused by the physical reaction between the mineral and water molecules. Then, in 2003, University of California-Santa Barbara scientist Galen Stucky got a call from the Office of Naval Research. A chemist dedicated to studying interactions between inorganic molecules and organic matter, Stucky had research experience with the ZMedica mineral. Navy researchers wanted to know if he could do
PHOTO: Lance Cpl. Brandi M. Carter
After the casualties of Operation Anaconda, the Army was newly determined to solve the problem of blood transportation. Walter Reed Army Institute of Research officials tasked industry with finding a way to transport blood under extreme temperatures and keep it fresh for 24 hours. The transport mechanism had to maintain an internal temperature between 33 and 50 degrees Fahrenheit while the ambient temperature cooled to minus 4 degrees or heated up to 104 degrees. It also had to weigh no more than 6 pounds and contain no active machinery. “They showed us pictures of these soldiers – it’s like they’re carrying a house. Every ounce counts,” said George Flora, co-founder of Minnesota Thermal Science, a startup company formed specifically to develop a blood-transportation solution. The small company decided at first to concentrate on designing a temperature-resistant box. It didn’t quite work, in part because the prototype used water as a cooling agent. “They came back and told us we were half a [Celsius] degree too cold,” Flora recalled. The company went to work on a new solution, this time developing a proprietary fluid that would keep the internal box temperature stable. The key was to find a fluid resistant to temperature change – it takes 136 units of heat measured in British Thermal Units to convert liquid water to steam – and that would freeze at a precise temperature. Following months of experimentation, the company sent the institute a new prototype. It worked. “Then they said, George, can you make it last 48 hours?” Flora said. Later, they asked for a 72hour model. The final product can keep blood fresh up to 93 hours in extreme cold and 82 hours in extreme heat, he added. “We gave them as much as we could get in a 6-pound box,” Flora said. In 2003, Army Special Forces officially adopted the company’s box for blood transportation. In 2004, the Army named the company’s work one of the preceding year’s 10 greatest inventions. Throughout the process, the company worked closely with the Walter Reed Institute, Flora said. They did whatever they could to assist, “so that we were informed and that we weren’t just being shoved on some back shelf.”
Army Spcs. Lisa Dueker (left) and Cecilia Morales work on an Iraqi soldier wounded by gunfire in Mahmudiyah.
something about the heat reaction, ideally within six months. Stucky went to work and came up with a solution relatively quickly. “But we paid a price for that,” he said. The new product was only 80 percent to 90 percent effective, a large enough margin of fallibility to send Stucky on a new round of government-funded research. To come up with a better solution, he would have to understand exactly how to best trigger the cascading effect of blood clotting. Stucky wasn’t the only researcher examining how to induce clotting, but other efforts focused on blood proteins, a more expensive route. Stucky and his team of researchers zeroed in on investigating the properties of metal oxides. “Once we understood what were the key parameters, then we were able to say, ‘OK, I know what kind of material we need.’ ” That turned out to be a common clay mineral called kaolin. Coming up with a solution wasn’t just a matter of laboratory experimentation. Promising products found by Stucky’s team were sent to the Naval Medical Research Center for animal testing. “The in vivo tests are very expensive and they’re time-consuming. Consequently, we had to be careful that we gave them good suggestions,” he said. Meanwhile, Z-Medica was working on the problem as well. “It 2 0 0 8 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D
was also an issue that we were asking caregivers to pour granules first used in battle in the 1800s but eventually falling out of favor. into a wound, which was never done,” said Bart Gullong, chair- But 7 to 10 percent of battlefield deaths in Vietnam and Somalia man of the Z-Medica board. The presence of granules in the body were caused by profusely bleeding arm or leg wounds and could made wound healing awkward and likely have been averted by use of a tourniquet, according to the Defense there was the danger of pouring in too Department. much, causing severe burns. “The simplest of “They had a Army tourniquet from The company responded by packdevices sometimes World War II, used it for 50 years, and aging granules into a “tea bag,” then makes the greatest the reports from World War II said into a sponge. After Stucky hit on kadifference.” they didn’t work so well,” said Col. olin, however, Z-Medica managed to John Kragh, an Army Medical Corps impregnate the clotting agent directly — Col. Dallas Hack orthopedic surgeon and proponent of into gauze. Director, Army combat the devices. Mounting groundswell “The gauze was a brilliant way to casualty care research support for tourniquets, intensified go,” Stucky said. And there’s no way program by soldiers’ tendency to buy them he could have devised it himself, he through the Internet because the added. military’s basic training strap-and“I can come up with something on buckle unit clearly fell short, led to the bench stoop but that isn’t going to do the soldier any good on the field. It’s got to get to him, somehow, a re-evaluation. In 2004, the Army Institute of Surgical Research decided to test in a useful form. I’m not set up here to do packaging, do marketing commercially available products. It recommended acquiring the or do manufacturing,” he said. Combat Application Tourniquet, distributed by Greer, S.C.-based North American Rescue Products AT. Old Method, New Form The CAT, invented by former serviceman Mark Esposito of Ask military doctors for an important battlefield medicine innovation and one of the first things they’ll mention is the tourniquet, Golden, Colo., is designed for single-handed application so a soldier
PHOTO: Courtesy of SRI International
The Trauma Pod Operating Suite (surgery room)
can put it on himself. The Army surgeon general facilitated widespread re-introduction in 2005. Now, the CAT is part of every soldierâ€™s standard field issue. The device consists of an inner and outer band: The outer band wraps the tourniquet around the wounded limb while a rod tightens the inner band to cut off circulation. â€œThe bad devices arenâ€™t commonly used any more, and the effective ones are issued,â€? Kragh said. The Combat Application Tourniquet won an Army Greatest Invention of 2005 award. When Kragh was deployed to Bagdadâ€™s Ibn Sina Hospital in 2006, he used a reusable, pneumatic tourniquet made by Vancouver, Canada-based Delfi Medical Innovations during surgery. He communicated often with Delfi about ways the company could improve the product â€“ small changes, he said, that nonetheless made a big difference. For one thing, a cap on the pneumatic bladder fell off easily. â€œIt being the same color as the floor, you couldnâ€™t see it,â€? he said, and the surgical team wasted time scrambling for it on the floor when a patient was bleeding to death. Kragh recommended that the cap be attached with a leash. He also wanted the tourniquet to open with less force. â€œThey changed the [clamp] arc to be gentler, so thereâ€™s less force, more roll, to open up the tourniquet,â€? he said. â€œThey were fairly minor things, so we were able to get them out within a few months,â€? said Delfi President Mike Jameson.
If many of todayâ€™s advances sound prosaic â€“ even though theyâ€™re anything but â€“ potential advances sound like the stuff of science fiction. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency announced Sept. 29 it signed a contract with Siemens Healthcare to develop a portable device that would staunch deep limb wound bleeding using ultrasound waves â€“ a kind of high-tech tourniquet. A cuff-like device would first search for bleeding and then send a concentrated dose of high-intensity ultrasound waves prompting quick coagulation. Focused ultrasound has already proven effective during animal tests. The directed energy raises tissue temperature, causing it to shrink and small blood vessels to collapse. Tests show tissue can be safely heated to between 158 and 194 degrees Fahrenheit within 30 seconds. The deviceâ€™s acoustic properties also appear to push blood away from the injured area. DARPA has already developed automated bleed detection algorithms. Siemens said it should develop a prototype within 18 months. Meanwhile, SRI International of Menlo Park, Calif., wants more DARPA funding to move forward with what could be the most futuristic medical addition to the battlefield: a robot doctor. â€œIdeally the system would be completely automatic, autonomous, making its
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Other therapists For Quilty, own therapeutic decisions,”and said Thomas Low, the SRImotivation director ofto Low said. physicians pointed to the come to work each “We can address a number of serious battlefield injuries, tempomedical devices and robotics. With $12 million in DARPA day fund-is flexibility they are given to treat intensely ing, SRI conducted a two-year research and personal. development project rarily. We’re not trying to do definitive surgery,” he said. “We’re not aending spectrum of ailments. Her husband, Capt. Scott trying to install on a machine the intelligence of a surgeon.” in March 2007 andThe now is lobbying for military provides staff with the Quilty, lost an arm and a leg and Still, a robot could probably do better with some training and certification to do spent two years at Walter Reed front-line procedures than a soldier operating under several tasks. recovering. She wants the high-stress conditions, Low said. He cites a cricoOdds of So rather than just Survival being able patients she sees to live the life thyrotomy as an example; it involves puncturing to order an X-ray, for II, example, a her of n World War 30 percent the now enjoys. husband a large-bore hollow needle into a patient’s neck therapist could order it, read it Americans injured in combat died, deserves a chance “Everyone when the airway is obstructed. Frontline medics are and according send the topatient to Department figDefense for the way they want to live. If somewhat reluctant to perform a cricothyrotomy orthopedics, said Capt. Dora we come in here and do our jobs, ures. In Vietnam, the proportion dropped “and don’t do particularly well under fire,” he said. Quilty, an occupational therapist. we are giving to 24 percent. During the early years ofthem all the tools But a robot given an image of the airway can do so The barrier of health insurance they need to get where they want Iraq and Afghanistan, about 10 percent easily. “It’s putting a needle to a target, based on known to plague civilian doctors to be,” she said. the injured died, according to a December 2004 New imagery,” he said. is absent in the military setting. Dora Quilty works with England Journal of Medicine article. Col. Mark Mavity, comThe first two years of the project were just the That frees up military doctors patients at Fort Independence, a mander of the Balad Air Force Theater Hospital, said the in-thefirst phase of a research and development effort and paves the way for them to miniature apartment set up in the ater the survival in Iraq has always been at least 95 percent and that could last up to a decade, Low said. So far, offer most rate state-of-the-art treatments, staff edged memberscloser said. tooccupational the Trauma Pod team successfully demonstrated recently has 98 percent.therapy wing. A Amputees were getting the complete kitchen and a living a surgical procedure being controlled remotely by latest version of the C-Leg – a room with a couch, chairs and humans. table provide the setting for high-tech computerized artificial Robots already exist in the surgery theater, Low noted. And, he “substantially more” funds, Low added. recovering soldiers relearn said, automated external defibrillator devices in public places let leg The created idea by of aOtto robotBock medic– –the which SRI and DARPA calltoa “Trauskills needed for daily same day it went on the market, ma Pod” – becomes a lot more believable when it’s describedliving. as a laymen treat heart attacks with electric shocks by monitoring a vicJanze said.that recognizes patterns and Working in a familiar settingasalso Occupational therapist technician Capt. Dora at the right moment. machine does something simple a tim’s heart rhythm and firing Quiltyʼs husband recovered at Walter Reed after “The military takes care of its can help soldiers suffering from “Certainly it’s better than the alternative of arm dying,” result, such as putting a needle to a target. “This is not blue sky,” losing an and a he legsaid. in combat. J people,” Janze said. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
become a hero
to a hero
PFC Matthew Zajac, US Army, 2nd Infantry Division, Fort Carson, Colorado and his father, Mike, photographed at a Fisher House in San Antonio, Texas.
The Hero Miles program reunites families during times of tragedy by providing free air travel to wounded or injured service members, their families and loved ones. Since its inception four years ago, the public’s generosity has allowed us to distribute more than 15,000 13,000 free airline tickets, saving our heroes 20 million. and their families close to $17 Free Hero Miles tickets have been issued to fly service members home from military/VA hospitals and to transport loved ones to military medical centers while their wounded family members receive urgent care. But the program is completely dependent upon the caring of frequent flyers like you. Help reunite America’s heroes with their families this year by donating your frequent flyer miles to Hero Miles. It will leave you with a feeling that will send you soaring. For more information, visit www.fisherhouse.org and click on Hero Miles.
The Hero Miles program is grateful to our generous partners, including: AirTran Airways ( Alaska Airlines ( American Airlines ( Continental Airlines ( Delta Air Lines Frontier Airlines ( Midwest Airlines ( Northwest Airlines ( United Airlines ( US Airways Hero Miles is a program of the nonprofit Fisher House Foundation. More information on the Foundation can be found at www.fisherhouse.org. ©2007 Fisher House Foundation / Brendan Mattingly Photography / Don Schaaf & Friends, Inc.
The U.S. and the Philippines
Old allies join forces for war on terror
PHOTO: Petty Officer First Class Edward G. Martens
By Tom Breen
early 20 years after the United States shut down its bases in the Philippines, the American military has forged a striking new presence in the Southeast Asian archipelago of 7,100 islands and nearly 100 million people. From the mountains of northern Luzon to the jungles and pineapple plantations of Mindanao and elsewhere in the south, American forces continue to train Philippine soldiers and police to contend with a decades-old Islamic insurgency, as well as building bridges, schools and roads to win civilian support and assist the Philippine government. In addition, the United States rushes in to help when natural disasters occur, such as in June 2008 when hundreds died in a ferry-boat accident. Under orders from President Bush, the U.S. contributed supplies and food in the rescue efforts. In short, the U.S.-Philippines relationship is as strong as it was during the Cold War days. In moving back into the Philippines, U.S. forces not only help control an insurgency that has some links to Al Qaeda, although in reality is far less potent than in the Middle East, but have produced a forward-basing operation that serves U.S. interests throughout the region.
PHOTO: JO2(SW) Stacy Young
(Top) An Army Special Operations soldier leads a security assistance training session for Armed Forces of the Philippines troops. (Middle) U.S. Army Col. David Fridovich, right, stands alongside Maj. Gen. Ernesto Carolina, commander of the Philippinesâ€™ Southern Command, during a ceremony in Zamboanga City.
28 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D 2 0 0 8
PHOTO: Philippine Information Agency
(Bottom) U.S. forces and Filipino soldiers during the Balikatan joint military exercises at Crow Valley in Tarlac province, north of Manila.
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Liberation Front and the more extreme Abu Sayyaf. The Islamic rebellion is responsible for thousands of deaths since the 1940s, when the U.S. government granted the Philippines its independence. Moro is the Spanish word for Arab. Islamic clerics from the Middle East introduced the religion to the country several hundred years ago. By the time Spaniards reached Manila in 1571, the city was controlled by Muslim leaders. As for Abu Sayyaf, it reportedly began in the mid-1990s with funds from Osama Bin Laden’s brother-in-law, and, since then, has forged ties with Jemaah Islamiyah, an Al Qaeda branch responsible for bombing tourist spots in Bali, Indonesia. The current U.S. counterinsurgency mission in the archipelago is far different than it was during the Cold War years when thousands of American forces occupied two major bases and several smaller operations. Then, the United States used the Philippines to counter a possible Soviet threat throughout the region, devoting only minimal effort to helping battle communist and Muslim insurgencies in the country. Neither uprising at the time was considered by the Americans to be a major threat in the 1980s and 1990s. But even with a reduced presence, the American military once again clearly has become part of the Philippine cultural and security landscape. Also, unlike the Middle East, American troops can venture into public, usually without fear, and without body armor because Filipinos generally are fond of Americans, said longtime Philippine analyst Sol Jose Vanzi, based in Manila. Also, the Islamic insurgency in the Philippines is far less organized than it is in the Middle East, Vanzi and others said. The largest American presence is on Mindanao. There, American troops often can be spotted flying in and out of the country, U.S. Joint Special Operations Task Force–Philippines commander especially into Zamboanga on the western tip of the island, where Col. William Coultrup speaks to the media during a press briefing in Zamboanga City. the United States has a makeshift basing operation. On Mindanao, Muslims make up about 20 percent of the population, while training Filipino soldiers and police, on occasion have joined with only 5 percent throughout the country. Mindanao long has been the them to hunt down Islamic rebels, even though local law forbids center of the Muslim drive for independence, sometimes a peaceful such missions. A Philippine senator, Rodolfo Biazon, acknowl- effort, often not. In October, scores of replacement troops -- under the direcedged the reports that Americans have accompanied Filipinos on combat missions but called them “pure speculation.” Biazon, a for- tion of U.S. Army Col. Bill Coultrup, the head of Joint Special mer chief of staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines who has Operations Task Force - Philippines -- were seen swooping into trained at Fort Bragg, N.C., added in an interview that he welcomes the Zamboanga area. The troops were assigned to replace forces the growing U.S. presence and their help in handling the local Is- already in place in the Philippines, some of them arriving on Air Force C-17 Globemasters and C-130 Hercules, and others aboard lamic insurgency. Lt. Gen. Nelson Allaga, chief of the country’s Western Mind- commercial flights. “Our troops look forward to working with, and learning, from anao Command, echoed Biazon’s comments when he told the Mindanao Examiner newspaper recently that “we soldiers are benefit- the AFP,” as the Armed Forces of the Philippines is known, Couling from the training that the [Americans] are conducting for us.” trup told Philippine reporters at the time. From a briefing room inHe added that most civilians support the military and infrastructure side his operation’s headquarters at the Philippine military’s Camp Navarro in Zamboanga, Coultrup later told the National Defense projects spearheaded by Americans. U.S. troops, for their part, are situated mostly in western Mind- Industrial Association, “If we weren’t here, terrorist training camps anao island south of Manila, on the islands of Basilan and Jolo and would have a chance of flourishing in this area, and that’s what throughout the Sulu archipelago, where most of the Muslim popu- we’re trying to prevent. All you need is a few good [terrorist] trainlation live. Some training, however, also takes place on the main ers who can create the next round of suicide bombers.” And while the stated reason, by Coultrup and others, for the U.S. island of Luzon, because Muslim insurgents have staged attacks in presence has been to help Philippine troops stave off the decadesManila from time to time. The Islamic insurgents mostly operate under the banners of three long Muslim insurgency in the south that has been buoyed somegroups --- the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, the Moro National what by Al Qaeda since 9/11, a DEFENSE STANDARD analysis PHOTO: Philippine Information Agency
Beginning a few months after the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks by terrorists on the U.S. mainland, the American military has rotated in scores of troops to the Philippines, although only 1,000 or less remain at any one time, according to a range of sources here and in the Philippines. The numbers may be small, but the U.S. influence is large, adds an American military source who pointed to an exercise in June in which hundreds of American and Filipino forces, including U.S. Navy SEALS, worked together with few operational flaws. This is a country that likes and welcomes Americans; this place is not Iraq, Afghanistan, or Pakistan. Since early 2002 when American forces began arriving anew in the archipelago, special operations and regular troops, in addition to
30 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D 2 0 0 8
Post 9/11, the U.S. maintains about 1,000 troops in the Philippines, in part to help counter a small Islamic independence Paciﬁc movement and build a regional forward- Ocean basing operation. Areas of concern include: Manila
Areas of high insurgent activity
Areas of scattered insurgent activity
Although no Islamic insurgency operates in the capital, some attacks occur there from time to time, and U.S. troops train around Manila and elsewhere on Luzon.
This island, south of Manila, is the heart of the Islamic independence movement. 20 percent of the population is Muslim, compared Sulu with Sea 5 percent in the country as a whole. The Zamboanga area has the highest concentration of insurgents. The U.S. is building up its presence at Camp Navarro in Zamboanga City. CAMP
Many violent incidents, including Jolo attacks on Filipino troops, have occurred throughout the Sulu Archipelago, including the island provinces of Jolo and Basilan.
CAMP NAVARRO Mindanao Zamboanga City
Mindanao Sulu Sea Zamboanga City
Mindanao CAMP NAVARRO
The Philippines DEFENSE STANDARD Graphic: Samantha Gibbons
indicates that the United States also has furthered U.S. security interests by: • Positioning American troops on the ground in the Philippines to monitor the Muslim insurgency not only there, but across Asia, where the governments in such spots as Indonesia and Malaysia frown upon the presence of American forces. The Philippines also serves as a key spot for American forces, and intelligence operatives, to receive tips about terrorist operations throughout the Middle East because millions of Filipinos work in that region, and often pass information to relatives at home, analyst Vandi said. • Providing military protection for American and British oil workers laboring aboard rigs in the South China and Celebes Sea. • Laying the groundwork for the possible opening of new permanent bases in the Philippines, if needed, by positioning troops and equipment in country over a six-year period and aiding on local infrastructure projects. • Covertly taking soldiers from the Philippine military from time to time after training them, and placing them in terrorist-fighting trouble spots such as Indonesia, Malaysia and elsewhere in Asia, according to American trainers. In the last year, for example, Marines from the 3rd Battalion, 3rd Marines, at Kaneohe in Hawaii trained one unit of about 35 Philippine Marines that is intended to be used in covert operations beyond the archipelago. “I am told that Filipino soldiers in this group are rugged and fit and can fight anywhere,” said a Marine who is in direct contact with
the U.S. trainers. The Marine added that American and Philippine soldiers work easily together, minus language and cultural barriers. On a geopolitical scale, U.S. ties to the country’s military have remained strong even in the wake of the Philippine Senate’s 1991 rejection of the Philippines-U.S. Military Bases Agreement, resulting in the closure of all U.S. military bases in the country. Clark Air Base and the Subic Bay Naval Station, both north of Manila, were the largest. The closings -- which took place only a few years after the toppling of Ferdinand Marcos by the “People Power Revolution” in 1986 -- came about because the post-Marcos government felt obliged to focus on the country’s sovereignty. The government’s decision also appeased leaders of a communist guerrilla movement that had been percolating, and erupting from time to time, mostly on the main island of Luzon since the 1950s. “The smartest thing to do,” mostly to quiet the communist insurgency, was to ask the United States to shut down its bases, one Philippine analyst says. “But the truth is that most Filipinos always felt more secure with the American presence, not only for military reasons, but for economic reasons.” Indeed, Clark and Subic Bay pumped millions of dollars into the Philippine economy. The Muslim insurgency was another matter. Even before the United States granted the Philippines its independence in 1946, Muslim groups had been rebelling against the central government for independence in the south; most of the Muslim population had settled through the decades in islands far south of Manila, the coun2 0 0 8 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D
PHOTO: Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Chad J. McNeeley
©2008 Willard Marine
Regardless of the movement’s underpinnings, violent incidents try’s largest city, which now has about 10 million residents. Through the years, Muslim groups, operating from the south, often have been emerge from time to time, including the slaying of two Americans and a Filipino nurse kidnapped at Dos Palmos resort on the island tied to violence that extended as far as Manila and beyond. Thus, when the 9/11 attacks occurred, Filipinos worried about a of Palawan several years ago and killed in the rebel stronghold of violent reaction from the insurgents, spurred on by Al Qaeda, wel- Basilan island. These days, however, the comed U.S. military assistance, Muslim unrest has mostly quiwhether in the form of financial eted, which means, analyst Bakassistance or training. er says, that the setting up of a Since then, the U.S. military forward-basing operation in the certainly has assisted the counPhilippines occupies American try’s military and police fighting military thinking far more than Muslim insurgents in the south. does the fight against Muslim Even more importantly, the U.S. terrorists. has taken the opportunity to In the end, clearly, a continustore equipment in the country, ing presence in the Philippines from Humvees and aircraft to comes with few risks and nuweapons and grenades. merous benefits for the United “In effect, the United States States. Since 2002, when the has informally set up base opAdm. Mike Mullen, chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, United States returned to the erations without signing agreements,” says Rodger Baker, a mil- answers questions during an all-hands call with service mem- Philippines, casualties have been bers assigned to Camp Navarro in the Philippines. minimal, with few injuries and itary analyst at Stratfor, a private one combat death reported. In intelligence company in Texas. “In 2002, when the U.S. went rushing in there, it was initially with addition, the overall cultural milieu of the country allows U.S. forces an understanding that Abu Sayyaf had real links to Al Qaeda. But to conduct training there without fearing constantly for their safety. In Mindanao, for example, Americans often are seen socializthe U.S. very quickly figured that Al Qaeda was not a massive threat in the Philippines, and that the country itself does not fit in with the ing with Filipinos, sharing a San Miguel beer or two along with the area’s bountiful seafood. Sometimes, Americans even are observed overall Islamic country.” Indeed, Filipino Muslims seem more attuned to Christian culture singing with Filipino soldiers in a country where virtually every in the Philippines, where about 90 percent of the nation is Roman resident possesses a solid singing voice. (The joke once was that the Catholic, than to Islam. Muslim women, for example, often forgo daughter of former President Corazon Aquino, who helped topple veils, or other coverings, in favor of blouses and jeans, and men and Marcos, was the only Filipina with a bad voice.). In short, even with the long-standing Muslim rebellion still women generally do not seem as devoted to such rituals as calls to prayers and other Islamic customs. Actually, Baker and others say, festering in the south, the Philippines offers a haven for the the Muslim independence movement has more to do with econom- American military to forge a forward-basing operation that reics than with religiosity, because Muslims feel economically isolated sembles, at least in part, the permanent bases of Clark and Subic Bay in years past. J from the central government in Manila.
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The Evolution of Operation Enduring Freedom – Philippines
“Conduct security assistance operations to enhance interoperability between the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) and the armed forces of the United States. Support the AFP in their fight to deny and defeat terrorist activities….”
he fall of 2001 following the devastating terrorist attacks of 9/11 was a busy time for the U.S. military, as they set out on their first overseas efforts to hunt down Mission Statement for Operation Al Qaeda and its affiliate terrorist orEnduring Freedom – Philippines ganizations. Most Americans recall the liberation of Afghanistan in an impressive seven-week campaign that ended in Taliban surrender at the gates of Kandahar. However, there was lamic insurgent groups in the southern Philippines had become another counter-terrorism campaign being fought at the same time, such a threat that the Philippine government finally was willing fought in and among the islands and jungles of the Philippine Ar- to allow U.S. forces back into their country. It took most of a dechipelago. This was Operation Enduring Freedom – Philippines cade of discreet military-to-military contact between the U.S. and (OEF-P), and it remains one of the most successful counterinsur- Filipino government to rebuild the relationship enough to enable gency operations run during the first years of the Global War on a long-term deployment of trainers and advisers to the southern Philippines. Terrorism. What became OEF-P actually was actually an extension to an existing bilateral training exercise, Balikatan (“shoulder-to-shoulSetting the Stage Even before Spain had ceded the island territory to the U.S, an der”) 02-1, and continued a Mobile Training Team (MTT) mission ongoing insurgency was being waged by Muslims in the southern that had predated 9/11. The planned OEF-P mission objectives Philippines against the predominately Catholic-based government were: • Surveillance and control of Abu Sayyaf transit/supply routes, in Manila. Tribes like the Moros, based on islands like Mindanao, Basilan, and Jolo, regularly rose up against U.S. occupation forces. supporting villages and access to key personnel. • Train with Filipino military and interior security forces to Following World War II, the insurgency largely was kept in control by the repressive policies of dictator Ferdinand Marcos. His fall at build professional skills and strengths. • Support and advise operations by Filipino strike teams in the the end of the Cold War, however, allowed the Muslim insurgents Southern Philippines. to begin anew. • Eliminate the ability of Al Qaeda, Abu Sayyaf, and other terThroughout the 1990s, the Muslim groups, including Abu Sayyaf (Arabic for “Father of Swordsmith”), were responsible rorist groups to move through the Philippines to their desired tarfor a number of bombings, kidnappings, assassinations, and other get areas throughout the world. • Deny the terrorists direct or indirect support from sympathizacts throughout the Philippines, including in Manila. Abu Sayyaf and other Filipino insurgent groups also entered into the growing ers, outside terrorist groups and supportive nation-states. • Wage psychological and civil affairs campaigns to separate radical Islam network that included Al Qaeda in the 1990s, taking a partnership role in operations. One such plan, by 1993 World the insurgency from the local population. In addition to deploying training and advisory personnel, the Trade Center bomber Ramzi Yousef, to kill Pope John Paul II, bomb 12 airliners, and fly another airliner into CIA headquarters at U.S. also began major transfers of surplus equipment and weapLangley, Va., was supported by another Filipino Islamic insurgent ons. In 2002 alone, this included a C-130 Hercules transport plane, 5 UH-1 transport helicopters, 300 2 ½-ton trucks, a pair of 82-foot group, Jemaah Islamiyah (Arabic for “Islamic Congregation”). By the time of the 9/11 attacks, Abu Sayyaf and the other Is- Point-class patrol cutters, and 15,000 M-16 combat rifles. 2 0 0 8 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D
Joint Task Force 510
For the first deployment of Joint Task Force (JTF) 510 in 2002, the U.S. Pacific Command standing deployable Special Operations Forces (SOFs) headquarters, the Special Operations Pacific commander Air Force Brig. Gen. Donald C. “Donnie” Wurster, had a variety of forces around which to build his Philippine force. While OEF-P I was planned as a training and advisory operation, that does not mean that the forces engaged were just a collection of rear-echelon schoolhouse personnel. Instead Wurster selected a hard core of 1,200 warfighters, composed mostly of Special Operations Forces (SOFs), including the following: 3rd Battalion/1st Special Forces Group (Airborne) – The core of the OEF-P training and advisement effort formed around 160 Special Forces soldiers (Green Berets). These were formed into a number of Operational Detachment Alphas (ODAs) of the 1st Special Forces Group (Airborne) out of Fort Lewis, Wash. Built around 12-man teams with personnel trained in planning,
Despite some ups and downs in the numbers and strengths of the various Islamic insurgent groups, Operation Enduring Freedom - Philippines has been seen as an unqualified success.
engineering, demolitions, communications, medical skills, and the local languages, ODAs specialize in military-to-military training and professional development, along with their own impressive combat skills. SEAL Team Seven – Sea Air Land (SEAL) Team Seven, based at Coronado, Calif., contributed a number of SEALs and support personnel to provide a maritime component for OEF-P. 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment – To support the overall OEF-P effort, the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (SOAR – “the Nightstalkers”) supplied a small force of their highly modified helicopters, including the superb MH-47 Chinook. 353rd Special Operations Group – Based at Kadena Air Base on Okinawa, the 353rd provided a variety of aircraft and personnel. These included HH-60G Pave Hawk search and rescue helicopters, MC-130 tanker/transports, pararescue jumpers and combat air controllers. 112th Signals Battalion – Based at Fort Bragg, N.C., the 112th was the premier SOF communications provider of radio, satellite, telephonic and other communications bandwidth. The rest of the U.S. military stepped up to provide small units and sometimes just individual specialists to flesh out JTF 510. These included Marines, Navy construction engineers, Army civil affairs and psychological warfare personnel, medical teams, and of course, a solid base of intelligence professionals.
34 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D 2 0 0 8
In February 2002, JTF 510 began to flow into the southern Philippines, joining their Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) counterparts from the Southern Command, commanded by Lt. Gen. Roy Cimatu. They began operations by establishing bases for logistics, training and communications. These included an airfield on Basilan Island built by a Navy mobile construction battalion, along with assorted forward operating locations. Along with the airfield on Basilan, JTF 510 built almost 50 miles of roads, improved a port facility and dug 25 new wells in just eight months. With the bases and supply lines established, JTF 510 went into a period of hard training and patrolling, getting everyone used to the operating areas of islands like Basilan, Mindanao and Jolo. In addition, the operation had a significant “hearts and minds” component, including Operation Smiles. Operation Smiles was composed of 20 combined U.S./Filipino teams with medical personnel fanning out across Basilan providing health services to more than 18,000 civilians. They then conducted more than 20 Medical Civil Action Projects (MEDCAPs), which provided $100,000-plus in donated medical equipment and supplies, along with improving 14 schools, seven medical clinics, and three hospitals. In just one day in one village with a population of 1,200, JTF 510 MEDCAP personnel pulled 260 teeth, made 26 cataract referrals, and did 740 medical examinations. While the JTF 510 and Philippine forces worked hard to win over the local populace, they had a more kinetic approach toward Abu Sayyaf and the other Islamic insurgent fighters. Over the previous few years, Abu Sayyaf had financed their operations by kidnapping foreigners and collecting ransoms. Therefore, the initial U.S./Philippine response was an aggressive program of patrolling and intelligence collection, much of it coming from local citizens who preferred the attentions of the newly interested Manila government to that of the insurgents. This was followed by a growing number of raids upon Abu Sayyaf camps and strongholds, which began to rapidly thin their ranks by the end of 2002. Sadly, OEF-P I did not come without losses. On Feb. 22, 2002, a 160th SOAR MH-47 crashed on a flight between Basilan and Mactan, killing eight personnel. In addition, not all the raid operations went perfectly, as was seen near Zamboanga on Mindanao when the AFP attacked an Abu Sayyaf camp trying to rescue a number of Western hostages. While a number of Abu Sayyaf insurgents were killed and hostages freed, two American prisoners were killed. Overall, however, the successes of JTF 510 and its Philippine military partners opened the way for even more effective operations in the years that followed. In July 2002, JTF 510 transitioned into Joint Special Operations Task Force – Philippines (JSOTF-P), reflecting the change to a long-term commitment to Operation Enduring Freedom. Today JSOTF-P continues to operate in the southern Philippines. Despite some ups and downs in the numbers and strengths of the various Islamic insurgent groups, Operation Enduring Freedom -- Philippines has been seen as an unqualified success. It also provides the U.S. and its allies with a template for future Global War on Terror campaigns, as America begins to move toward the second decade of the conflict. J
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(Right) Northrop Grumman’s KC-45 tanker tested its refueling boom with an Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) aircraft July 18 as Northrop and its European partner Airbus continued to press for a contract to build tankers for the U.S. Air Force.
KC-X Tanker Competition for $35 billion contract on hold, but far from out of fuel
-1, a khaki-colored, twin-engine A330, sits today on a Tarmac in Dresden, Germany, sealed tight against the weather, waiting. The graceful giant of a jetliner was supposed to be the lead plane in a new generation of U.S. Air Force KC-45 refueling tankers. European aircraft maker Airbus pulled the plane off its production line in Toulouse, France, just days after winning a $35 billion contract on Feb. 29, 2008, to build 179 refueling tankers for the Air Force. Airbus flew D-1 to Dresden on March 4 to begin the first stages of conversion into a refueling tanker. But conversion work was halted before it even began. On March 11, Airbus’ arch rival, Boeing, filed a formal protest of the contract award with the U.S. Government Accountability Office. The filing required the Air Force to issue Airbus a stop work order.
36 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D 2 0 0 8
It was a last, desperate effort by Boeing to snatch back the lucrative Air Force tanker contract it has been trying to snag since 2002. And the protest paid off. On June 18, the GAO issued a 69-page decision siding with Boeing. GAO contract examiners concluded that the Air Force “had made a number of significant errors that could have affected the outcome of what was a close competition between Boeing and Northrop Grumman.” Northrop was the American prime contractor in a partnership with Europe’s EADS, the parent company of aircraft maker Airbus, in an often bitter two-year competition against Boeing to win the tanker contract. Now the battle would have to be fought over again. For the Air Force any tanker delay was bad news. The service flies more than 450 tankers that now average 47 years old. The GAO ruling seemed likely to delay the start of work on a new fleet of tankers for several months.
PHOTO: Courtesy of Northrop Grumman
PHOTO: Courtesy of Boeing
(Left) Boeing’s first 767 tanker, destined for the Italian Air Force, achieved a milestone March 5 when it transferred fuel to a B-52 for the first time in flight.
The Tanker Competition By the Numbers
The workhorse of the Air Force’s tanker fleet, the KC-135, has been operational since 1957. Here’s how the two competitors vying to replace it compare with the current tanker:
Today’s Tanker Air Force
KC-135 PHOTO: David H. Lipp
Then in September, bad news got worse. Defense Secretary Robert Gates announced that the tanker competition would be postponed until a new president – and most likely a new defense secretary – is in office in 2009. Gates’ decision could push the first new tanker’s arrival back by as much as four years, estimates Gen. Norton Schwartz, the Air Force chief of staff. The turn of events sparked outrage in Alabama, where a tanker contract victory for Northrop meant Airbus would build a new aircraft assembly plant at Brookley Field, a former World War II-era Air Force base in Mobile. The plant itself would create 1,500 new jobs. And its demand for aircraft parts and other supplies and services was projected to create an additional 5,000 jobs, according to the Mobile Airport Authority, which owns the Brookley property. Now all that was on hold.
Gates’ decision evoked a bitter blast from Sen. Richard Shelby, R-Ala. “This was a blatant, politically motivated decision, driven by the political and emotional hysteria generated by members of Congress who wanted a Boeing win no matter what.” Shelby added, “It is now clear that acquiring the best tanker for the warfighter was less important than saving Boeing jobs.” Boeing and its supporters, on the other hand, were ecstatic. A new tanker competition “will ensure delivery of the right tanker to the U.S. Air Force and serve the best interests of the American taxpayer,” company officials said. Rep. Rick Larsen, D-Wash., whose district includes Boeing’s big aircraft assembly plant in Everett, hailed Gates’ decision as “great news for Boeing’s workers.” He urged the next president and defense secretary “to take into account how the tanker decision will affect our defense industrial base.” In theory, at least, the competition between Airbus and Boeing was supposed to determine which company’s plane best met the Air Force’s needs. But both companies quickly focused on a more potent political issue: Jobs. And each aimed its sales pitches as much at Congress and the public as at the Air Force. Boeing said if it won, building tankers would create or preserve 44,000 jobs building what was at one time called the KC-767. Many would be at Boeing plants, but many others would be at more than 300 companies in more than 40 states that would supply aircraft parts. Northrop pledged to create 48,000 jobs in 230 companies in 49 states. Such promises raised the political stakes enormously.
38 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D 2 0 0 8
The Competitors Boeing
How They Measure Up Air Force KC-135
Northrop Grumman KC-45
136 ft 3 in
159 ft 2 in
192 ft 11 in
41 ft 7 in
57 ft 1 in
130 ft 9 in
156 ft 1 in
197 ft 10 in
Max Fuel Load
more than 200,000 lbs
SOURCE: boeing.com and northtropgrumman.com
DEFENSE STANDARD Graphic: Samantha Gibbons
And politics now is blamed for the contract stalemate.
In an appearance before the House Armed Services Committee, Gates said there is too little time left for the current administration to hold a new tanker contest “that will be viewed as fair and competitive in this highly charged environment.” Gates called for a “cooling-off period” and a new tanker competition overseen by the next administration. In Alabama, “we try to stay optimistic,” said Claudia Zimmermann of the Mobile Area Chamber of Commerce. But the delay is a blow to companies statewide. Firms such as Engelhard Specialty Chemicals of Huntsville, Westland Aerospace of Tallassee, and Goodrich of Foley had been gearing up to do business with Airbus. “When did people decide that jobs in Seattle, Washington, are worth more than jobs here?” Alabama Gov. Bob Riley demanded in a Sept. 25 address to Mobile-area Realtors. But it’s not just Alabama jobs that are in abeyance. The tanker delay means uncertainty for companies across the country. In Ohio, General Electric workers were to assemble the engines that would power the KC-45. Work is also suspended for California companies Sargent Fletcher, which makes refueling systems, and Parker Aerospace, which installs them. Smiths Aerospace of Grand Rapids, Mich., was to build aircraft flight management systems, and AAR Cargo Systems of Livonia, Mich., was to make the plane’s cargo loading equipment. A few firms, such as Honeywell Aerospace and Rockwell Collins, were selected as major subcontractors by both Northrop and Boeing. For them, the question isn’t so much whether they will land tanker contracts, it’s when. Phoenix-based Honeywell was to make the KC-45’s collision avoidance systems and other avionics. Rockwell of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, was to supply the plane’s radio equipment.
While Northrop’s subcontractors stew, Gates’ order for a new tanker competition revives the multibillion-dollar hopes of Boeing’s team, which includes Connecticut-based firms GE Aviation Systems and engine maker Pratt and Whitney; Dallas-based Vought Aircraft; and engine component maker Spirit Aerosystems of Wichita, Kan. “Boeing lives to fight another day,” said Christopher Hellman, a military policy and budget analyst at the Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation. It might be a distant day. “The delay could easily exceed a full year,” Hellman said. But that would give Boeing time to make major changes in its bid, perhaps proposing a larger aircraft, one closer in size to the Northrop-Airbus plane. Boeing’s tanker was based on its 767-200 aircraft, a midsize, wide body, twin-engine airliner. In commercial use since 1982, the 767-200 is 159 feet long and has a 156-foot wingspan. As a tanker, it can carry about 200,000 pounds of fuel. The Airbus plane, a modified A330-200, is 196 feet long and
has wings that span 198 feet and can carry 250,000 pounds of fuel. The A330 dates to 1993. The A330 can offload fuel more quickly and can carry more cargo than the 767, factors that the Air Force appears to have favored. The GAO later ruled that the Air Force had weighed those capabilities unfairly against Boeing. The GAO also said the Air Force erred “by informing Boeing that it had fully satisfied a key performance parameter objective relating to operational utility, but later determined that Boeing had only partially met this objective.” Amazingly, the Air Force didn’t tell Boeing of this revised opinion, the GAO said. On other contract matters, the GAO said the Air Force had been sloppy, but not necessarily wrong. In September, John Young, the Pentagon’s underBuying a new secretary for acgeneration of quisition, technolrefueling tankers ogy and logistics, has been a top Air revealed another Force priority – and factor that led the stumbling block – Air Force to select since 2002. the Northrop-Airbus tanker: Airbus wanted $12.5 billion for the first 68 aircraft, compared with Boeing’s $15.4 billion bid. Young said that the smaller Boeing tanker should have been cheaper, not more expensive than its larger Airbus rival. But Young, too, conceded that the Air Force did a poor job of explaining its priorities to Boeing, and that was pivotal in Boeing’s bid protest.
Buying a new generation of refueling tankers has been a top Air Force priority – and stumbling block – since 2002. That year, the Air Force arranged with Boeing to lease 100 refueling tankers in a deal that reached $29 billion in lease costs and maintenance contracts. The deal was approved by three of four needed congressional committees before it was assailed as overpriced and blocked in the Senate Armed Services Committee by Sen. John McCain, R-Ariz. A subsequent investigation uncovered contract improprieties that led to prison sentences for former Air Force weapons buyer Darleen Druyun, who was hired by Boeing after approving the lease deal, and Boeing’s chief financial officer, Michael Sears, who hired Druyun. Boeing also hired two of Druyun’s relatives. Stung by the “Boeing tanker scandal,” the Air Force was forced to start over. This time it decided to use competition to ensure fairness in the selection of a new refueling tanker. But controversy continued to dog the tanker program. The contest between Boeing and Northrop quickly grew rancorous. 2 0 0 8 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D
PHOTO: Courtesy of Boeing
Each company accused the other of receiving illegal gov- built in Alabama, Gov. Riley replied, “Absolutely.” ernment subsidies. Each claimed the other used more foreign But Boeing’s backers are equally adamant. components. Boeing claimed to Rep. Norm Dicks, D-Wash., a have 50 years of experience buildlong-time Boeing champion in the ing tankers, but Airbus derided BoeHouse, already has his battle plan. “It ing’s entrant as “a paper airplane,” would also be my intention to assure insisting that a successful tanker that a new selection process correctly based on the 767 had yet to fly. identifies the real Air Force requireUsing different measures, each ments and also takes into considercompany claimed to offer “a better ation factors such as the subsidies value for the warfighter.” that are provided to Airbus aircraft by Vitriol increased with each new European governments, unfairly taking jobs away from U.S. aerospace development -- Northrop’s win in workers,” Dicks said Sept. 10. February, Boeing’s protest in March, From the adjacent congressiothe GAO’s ruling in June and then nal district, Rep. Larsen pledged to Gates’ decision in September. “encourage a new administration to Last summer Sen. Maria take into account how the tanker deCantwell, D-Wash., blocked Sencision will affect our defense indusate confirmation of Michael Dontrial base.” And Sen. Patty Murray, ley to be Air Force secretary. She D-Wash., stated bluntly, “the Airbus cited her dissatisfaction with the tanker did not meet the Air Force’s Air Force decision not to award the needs.” tanker contract to Boeing. With the rival factions already In September, Shelby, Alabama’s rearming, is it possible to conduct senior senator, charged that Gates’ a competition award a contract that decision to cancel the Northrop will survive a challenge? contract and order a new competiProbably not, said Rep. John tion “clearly placed politics and A unique feature of the KC-767A is its refueling receptacle, shown on top of the plane’s forward Murtha, chairman of the House Debusiness interests above the interests of the warfighter.” Mobile’s con- section. fense Appropriations Subcommittee. gressman, Rep. Jo Bonner, R-Ala., So he proposed a compromise: Buy said he was “outraged by the Department of Defense’s deci- tankers from both companies. sion to cancel this program,” and called it irresponsible in a So far, the idea’s not very popular, even Murtha, D-Pa., time of war. concedes. “Boeing doesn’t like it, and I don’t know if Northrop likes it. The Defense Department definitely doesn’t like it,” Murtha Fight or Compromise? Northrop, meanwhile, has tried to emphasize the positive. said. “But let me tell you something, we are not going to have It was Air Force mistakes, not Airbus deficiencies, that tankers if we don’t do that, I’m convinced.” Unless both comcaused the contract to unravel, company officials stressed. panies get to share the lucrative tanker deal, “there will be a “Nothing in the GAO report refutes the fact that the Northrop protest no matter who wins the next competition.” Murtha included language in the 2009 Defense AppropriaGrumman KC-45 is the most capable tanker and is ready now to go into production,” said Paul Meyer, Northrop’s vice pres- tions Act directing the Pentagon to study the feasibility of a “dual buy.” ident for air mobility systems. Gates warned that a dual tanker buy would add billions of Chief executive Ron Sugar vowed to “continue to pursue with determination and commitment the opportunity to ulti- dollars to the program’s cost. The Defense Department would mately provide a superior tanker product to our warfighters.” have to manage two procurement programs instead of one, And once again, Airbus and Boeing partisans began pre- and the Air Force would have to buy two sets of maintenance equipment and train two sets of maintainers, pilots and crew paring for renewed battle. In Mobile, Zimmermann of the Chamber of Commerce members. Gates said he would recommend a presidential veto if Consaid “we keep supporting Northrop Grumman and EADS. We believe they have the best tanker. It’s been flown and tested gress approves a dual tanker buy. But Gates is likely to be gone and hopefully the Defense Department will be able to pick the as defense secretary long before a dual buy could be arranged. And Murtha and the congressional allies of Boeing and Airproduct that they deem best.” Asked in September if the Air Force’s next tanker will be bus will still be there. J
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America’s Logistics Leaders The Defense Logistics Agency transforms itself, bringing a new operational mindset to wartime logistical support PHOTO: Petty Officer 2nd Class Seth Peterson
By James Kitfield
Navy Seahawk helicopters transfer Defense Logistics Agency-procured supplies during an underway replenishment.
nside a modern headquarters building at Fort Belvoir, Va., Defense Logistics Agency officials hold a classified briefing each week to update their operations in support of a globe-spanning U.S. military. Computer-generated maps track in real-time the lifeblood of military forces at war: fuel, food, clothing, spare parts, medical supplies and construction materials. DLA Logistics Liaison Officers who are embedded with frontline forces in Iraq and Afghanistan report in over secure video and audio lines, alongside service logisticians. Commanders of DLA field activities covering Europe, the Pacific and the Middle East update a supply-and-demand equation that moves 5.2 million items, 54,000 requisitions and 8,200 contract actions each day. If the weekly DLA operational updates resemble an Operations
Center mission brief at a major military command, the similarity is not coincidental. The demands of the post-9/11 era have thoroughly transformed this onetime wholesale buying agent, warehouse “box kicker” and all-around bean counter. Today the DLA operates as a one-stop military supply chain manager supporting combat forces in far-flung theaters around the world. “Our job is linking what the industrial and supply base can deliver with what the warfighters need, when and where they need it, and there is an art to understanding both the commercial and military sides of that business,” said Claudia Knott, director of acquisition management at DLA. “Whether you’re talking food, fuel, spare parts or clothing, the U.S. armed services cannot go to war today without the Defense Logistics Agency.” It wasn’t always so. While DLA has supported U.S. military forces in every conflict of the last 40 years, in the past it was largely viewed as a wholesale procurer of generic commodities like fuel and food, with little presence in operational theaters or understanding of “retail” military logistics where the rubber hits the off-ramp. In some cases, the service material and logistics commands even came to view DLA as a competitor. Sure it was able to use its position as the bulk buying agent for all the armed services to leverage low costs on some commodities, but what did DLA really know about the art of military logistics and combat support? That role as wholesale buyer and warehouse operator, without a distinct brand or unifying mission, also permeated the old Continued on p. 48
PHOTO: Petty Officer 1st Class Carmichael Yepez
Sailors take a break to eat a Meal, Ready to Eat (MRE.) The Defense Logistics Agency's Research and Development Program helps develop new items and packaging for troop rations.
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For an Exclusive Interview with the outgoing dla Director, Lt. Gen. Robert Dail, Turn to Page 42.
As director of the Defense Logistics Agency, Army Lt. Gen. Robert Dail was responsible for providing the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps and other federal agencies with a variety of logistics, acquisition and technical services in
PHOTO: Courtesy of DOD
peace and war. These services include logistics information, materiel management, procurement, warehousing and distribution of spare parts, food, clothing, medical supplies and fuel, reutilization of surplus military materiel and document automation and production.
Lt. Gen. Robert Dail
Speaks with DEFENSE STANDARD By James Kitfield
When a leader was needed to help guide the Defense Logistics Agency’s post-911 transformation, the Pentagon reached into its senior operational ranks. Prior to becoming the director of DLA, Army Lt. Gen. Robert Dail served as the deputy commander of U.S. Transportation Command, and he had led military logistics units at every level of command, from platoon to corps. In his own mind, Dail’s mission was clear: Change the fundamental ethos at DLA from that of a wholesale buyer to a direct combat support agency. DEFENSE STANDARD checked in with Dail on the eve of his Nov. 13 retirement for a look back on his two eventful years at the helm. Edited excerpts follow.
: Despite supporting the U.S. military to the tune
of $35 billion in sales in 2007, DLA is not that visible in operational theaters. How do you explain exactly what the agency does?
: I’ll give you a great example. I recently saw an
aerial photo of the USS Ronald Reagan (aircraft carrier) steaming in the Arabian Gulf. Alongside the Reagan was a U.S. Navy supply ship conducting underway replenishment. There were helicopters working the sterns
44 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D 2 0 0 8
of both ships, transferring repair parts, general supplies, and food. Mid-ships there was a fuel line transferring over 1 million gallons of fuel. DLA was the purchaser and provider of all those supplies, material and fuel. We just partnered with the Navy to make delivery across the last tactical mile to that ship. That gives you an idea of how DLA has changed in the last decade from a wholesale procurement agency to the Defense Department’s single supply-chain manager. We connect the national industrial supplier base to warfighters anywhere in the world.
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INTERVIEW with Lt. Gen. Dail
Continued from p. 44
: Isn’t that a pretty dramatic change for an agency that for de-
cades was viewed primarily as a bulk item purchaser and warehouse operator?
: Along the way the level of DLA’s sales and services skyrocket-
ed from $25 billion in fiscal 2003, to $42 billion in fiscal 2008, yet your workforce remained relatively constant at 22,000 people. How did you manage such a surge in activity without having to increase your workforce?
: I’ll be frank, coming from TRANSCOM I had to work hard to
convince a lot of long-time DLA employees that my job was to operationalize this agency, and that the essence of our job was now a combat support mission. It wasn’t good enough any more for DLA to manage wholesale logistics with wholesale metrics and standard contracts. Instead we had to measure our performance by the Navy’s fleet readiness, or by Air Force flying hours, or by Army operational readiness. We had to adopt the warfighters’ metrics, and that required a cultural change at DLA that I worked constantly to communicate and reinforce every day for the past two years. Coming from U.S. Transportation Command I had kind of a unique perspective, and I was assigned here specifically to bridge that cultural gap and mold DLA into a more cohesive, national logistics enterprise.
: What drove DLA to undertake such a fundamental transformation?
: When I arrived DLA was coming off three major events that to-
gether formed the catalyst for change. The first was the Global War on Terror itself. That demanded transformation not only from DLA, but from the armed services themselves. In Desert Storm (in 1991), for instance, I fought a war at the corps and division level with clear battle lines between the front and rear. The war we’re fighting today in Iraq and Afghanistan is a war of (smaller) Brigade Combat Teams and Special Forces units spread throughout entire countries. The national logistics enterprise I spoke of has to direct exterior supply lines into those countries and out to those small, scattered units. So the very nature of the war helped change our concept of support.
: What were the other catalysts for change?
: When I got here we were just fielding the Enterprise Resource
Planning (ERP) and Enterprise Business Systems (EBS) capability, becoming the first large-scale organization in the Department of Defense to field the advanced software and enterprise capability they represent. Those systems allow commanders to directly manage supply and purchasing globally for the very first time. That’s meant a lot to us. Finally, the 2005 BRAC (Base Realignment and Closure Commission) directed DLA to break down the wall between wholesale and retail logistics, and to make DLA the sole supplier and distributor to our military depots. In a very short time those three catalysts set the table for me to extend DLA activities all the way to forward operating bases around the world, whether they’re in Iraq, Afghanistan or Okinawa.
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PHOTO: Debra Bingham
Dail tours the H-46 helicopter production line with John Gant, head of production at Fleet Readiness Center East at Cherry Point, N.C. The DLA provides supply, storage and distribution support for maintenance activities at the center.
: We leveraged the supplier industrial base and used it to deliver
our goods and services. That model actually started back in the early 1990s thanks to the entrepreneurial spirit of our Philadelphia Supply Center. They contracted with large medical supply vendors, and linked the vendor’s existing distribution and supply systems directly to U.S. military hospitals and clinics. I was a young officer at Fort Bragg at that time, and I remember some of America’s greatest firms suddenly delivering directly to the front door of the 82nd Airborne Division. I thought that was a pretty good deal. So we have expanded that model. Every galley and cafeteria in the Defense Department today has direct service from commercial vendors who are also world-class distributors of food to commercial markets. We recently expanded that model into fuel, where we now have large-scale fuel distributors delivering directly to warfighters. Leveraging that industrial capability allowed us to deliver increased support without increasing our workforce. And the warfighters love it, because they get the best that commercial industry can offer, at the lowest price, and with more delivery options to mitigate against operational risk. Everyone wins.
INTERVIEW with Lt. Gen. Dail
: Aren’t there risks associated with putting so much of
the responsibility for supporting war-time forces in the hands of private contractors?
: Frankly, there are some sensitive areas that are central
to U.S. warfighting capability that do need to remain in-house. Retail tactical-level logistics in small tactical fighting forces, or in ships afloat, should be retained in house to the degree possible. There are certain specialty warfighting capabilities associated with nuclear weapons or related materials, for instance, that should also be retained. At the level of logistics support above the numbered fighting forces and major commands, however, you don’t need someone in uniform performing many of those logistics tasks. We spend an awful lot of money ensuring that every soldier, sailor, airman or Marine is trained and ready. We don’t need to divert that scarce national treasure to logistics responsibilities that are best performed by professionals in the commercial industry who already operate existing global distribution networks.
: Aren’t there war zones that are either too dangerous or too difficult for commercial vendors to operate in?
: Well, take Afghanistan as an example. That’s a land-
locked country nearly 10,000 miles from the United States, and it has no ports, railroads or oil refineries to speak of. It has a very limited road network. Yet we’ve been able to support and sustain a Joint Coalition Task Force there through a network of commercial supply chains, freeing the task force commander from having to divert scarce forces to execute the logistics mission.
: In anticipating future demand, have you factored in in-
dications that the Joint Staff and U.S. Central Command are considering a shift in forces from Iraq to Afghanistan?
: I will tell you that we have already put in place actions
that anticipate increased demand (in Afghanistan), just in case the national leadership decides to change our troop posture. With our DLA people now embedded forward with combatant commanders and joint task forces, we are able to better anticipate those decisions and capture changes in demand ahead of time. And along with our vast commercial supply network, we have already taken steps to respond to those anticipated changes.
: Are there other ways that the demands of wartime have made DLA a more responsive supplier?
: Yes. For example, when Secretary of Defense [Robert] Gates decided last year that the No. 1 focus of the department would
be delivery of MRAP [Mine Resistant Ambush Protected] vehicles to our fighting forces, DLA embedded our professionals in the MRAP Joint Program Office and with the original equipment manufacturer, and linked our cataloging process with all the new parts on the MRAP so that soldiers and Marines could order repair and replacement parts quickly. That rapid response forged a new model of embedding and integrating logistics into Program Management Offices for critical combat systems, and we’re going to see more and more of that model in the future. Another example was the integration of the supply and transport networks to meet increased demand for fire-retardant uniforms. Along with PEO Soldier and TRANSCOM, DLA forged a more responsive partnership to meet that mission requirement, and we’re going to see that happen again and again in the future. Those two examples demonstrate how we have changed and adapted to new technologies and an adaptive enemy, and they represent the new azimuth of how we’re going to execute our mission in the future.
: We’ve noted that you often talk of military logistics as a “national level enterprise.” What do you mean?
: We really do have a national-level enterprise now. For in-
stance, I was talking with the chairman of the Joint Chiefs this morning, and we discussed this enormous supplier base and supply network that are funneling all sorts of commodities to our military forces around the world. Within that enterprise you have DLA, U.S. Transportation Command, the Material Commands for all the armed services, and commercial supply and distribution systems. Increasingly we have integrated those capabilities through advanced information technology, privatization initiatives and modern distribution processes. Together they’ve created this national level enterprise that I talk about, which can be pulled down to wherever in the world operational forces are executing a mission. The enormous scope of that supply network provides our operators with top performance and tremendous agility, because they have multiple, redundant sources and routes of supply that mitigate the risk that any one route will be closed or denied to them.
: So the art of military logistics really has been fundamentally transformed?
: This is a unique time. I tell people all the time, after the
three years I spent at TRANSCOM and two years here at DLA, I truly believe that what has occurred in military logistics in recent times has been enormously historic. And we will never go back to the old way of doing things. Because we will never want to go back and pickup all that money we left on the table from cost savings and efficiencies. We need to leave it there so the Defense Department can use it to focus on the warfighters. J 2 0 0 8 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D
Continued from p. 42
Extending the Enterprise
PHOTO: Airman 1st Class Nicholas Pilch
To extend the DLA enterprise further into the operational realm, culture of DLA. Far-flung supply and distribution centers operDLA established logistics liaison officers with major combatant ated largely as stand-alone enterprises, with relatively little stracommands to offer support recommendations and anticipate supply tegic or emotional connection to DLA central. “In the past DLA field activities kind of viewed themselves demand, beginning in the initial planning phase of operations and as a loosely grouped band of holding companies, and when us continuing all the way through campaign execution and into susguys from headquarters would go out to the field for a visit, we’d taining operations. DLA support teams were also embedded with hear the comment, ‘Hey, the guys from DLA are here,” said Jeff front-line support units in Afghanistan and Iraq to track deliveries Curtis, director of Strategic Planning and Enterprise Transforma- and fluctuating requirements for critical supplies. DLA experts were tion at DLA. “They weren’t exactly rogue operations, but they likewise dispatched to work with Program Management Offices to largely went their own way. They didn’t pull in parallel with DLA better anticipate the need for replacement parts on the 1,312 weapheadquarters or other entities. It took awhile to change that cul- ons systems DLA supports. “We don’t have a huge footprint forward, but our liaison and ture, but today the big driver of this organization is the concept support teams located in all the major of ‘one DLA team.’ A lot of the intheaters act as DLA’s eyes and ears on ternal finger-pointing of the past has operations, and they give us a crucial been dispensed with.” feedback loop so that the military reAs with the transformation of quirements of our customers remain so many government and miliclosely aligned with what the industrial tary agencies, the catalyst for that base and our vendors are delivering,” change was the Sept. 11, 2001, tersaid Knott, director of DLA acquisition. rorist attacks and the “global war “If there was one thing I would want on terror.” Suddenly, DLA had both even more of, it’s that face-to-face cona unifying mission and renewed tact that brings us closer to our customsense of purpose – provide holistic ers.” solutions to whatever support probThe operational importance of that lems warfighters confronted. Given rapid feedback loop, and of a more the unconventional nature of the dynamic and responsive supply syscounter-insurgency campaigns that tem, became evident early in Operation developed in both Afghanistan and Iraqi Freedom. As attacks with roadside Iraq, and the need to support other bombs and improvised explosive devicglobal military operations, it soon es (IEDs) steadily increased, accounting became clear that those logistics for the majority of U.S. deaths and serichallenges would prove significant ous wounds in Iraq, commanders on the and require a new operational mindground realized that nearly all service set at DLA. members in theater needed the fire-reTo underscore that point, Army tardant uniforms previously reserved for Lt. Gen. Robert Dail, an operator only a very limited number of military who had previously served as depThe Defense Logistics Agency supplies as much as 3.7 uty commander of U.S. Transpor- million gallons of fuel each day to forces serving in specialties. “What began as a small increase in tation Command (TRANSCOM), Iraq. the requirement for fire-retardant uniwas chosen to lead DLA through its forms quickly expanded exponentially, most recent period of change and transformation. to the point where nearly all the uniforms we field needed to be fire “I’ll be frank, coming from TRANSCOM I had to work hard retardant,” said Knott. Because DLA had long acted as the Defense to convince a lot of long-time DLA employees that my job was Department’s single provider of uniforms, she said, it was able to to operationalize this agency, and that the essence of our job was use its contractor relationships to quickly ramp up production of the now a combat support mission,” Dail told DEFENSE STANDARD. The global war on terror, he stressed, had fundamentally fire-retardant material, have it cut and sewed into new uniforms, changed the role of DLA. “It wasn’t good enough any more for and then rapidly distributed to operational theaters. “That example DLA to manage wholesale logistics with wholesale metrics and shows the value of having a single supply-chain manager who can standard contracts. Instead we had to measure our performance react quickly to changes in the operational environment, rather than by the Navy’s fleet readiness, or by Air Force flying hours, or the various services having to go to multiple vendors to try and bring by Army operational readiness. We had to adopt the warfighters’ about the change themselves.” The deadly threat posed by IEDs caused DLA to scramble once metrics, and that required a cultural change at DLA that I worked again in 2007. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates stated publicly constantly to communicate and reinforce every day for the past that year that the acquisition of Mine Resistant Ambush Protected two years.”
48 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D 2 0 0 8
D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D
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At its core logistics remains a numbers business, and one figure in particular reveals the transformation under way at DLA: In the past eight years the level of its activities in support of military operations has skyrocketed from $25 billion in fiscal 2003 to $42 billion in fiscal 2008. Yet the DLA workforce has remained relatively constant in that timeframe at roughly 22,000 personnel, both military and civilian. DLA has managed that nearly doubling of output largely through automation and privatization of the military supply chain, two key enablers that increasingly have come to define the new DLA. Through an Enterprise Business Systems modernization initiative, DLA has applied modern business practices and state-of-the-art information technologies to supply-chain management. Computers using advanced metrics now track each stage of a supply order from requisitioning, processing, warehousing, shipping, consolidation overseas, and finally customer receipt. Transparency and automation are used throughout the process to continually whittle away ineffi-
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ciencies and lag times. “Our primary focus is connecting warfighter demand and supply with the utmost precision, and that requires the ruthless pursuit of time-bounded actions at each stage of the process,” said Scott. “In the past our system would kick out a purchase request, for instance, with a standard lead time to complete the transaction. Not anymore. Today each request carries a time stamp indicating exactly when the warfighter needs the material, and we measure ourselves and our vendors by that standard.” The DLA supply chain rises to that challenge, he said, through
PHOTO: Cpl. Alicia Garcia
(MRAP) vehicles was the Pentagon’s top priority, and he earmarked $1.1 billion in emergency funds for the program to rush more of the heavily armored vehicles into the field. Because there was no time to conduct field tests and meticulously calculate “meantime between failure” for thousands of MRAP replacement parts, DLA officials worked directly with the MRAP Program Management Office to try and anticipate demand and develop spare part replenishment packages for the MRAP. DLA officials in Iraq then worked closely with units fielding the MRAP to identify unforeseen shortages, establishing an “expedited request” process to hurry critical parts to the field. Though the shortcuts taken to rapidly push vehicles into the field led to a number of surprises, by June 2008 USA Today reported that U.S. fatalities in Iraq were down almost 90 percent, due in no small part to the MRAPs. “We’ve always supported the warfighters, but having support teams forward in the field -- with the tools to rapidly reach back to DLA central -- gave us the ability to respond much quicker than in the past, and to have the kind of strategic intelligence that leads to better forecasting of demand,” said Linda Stacy-Nichols, chief of customer and order support for the DLA. “Since we set up a Customer Interaction Center which is manned 24/7, we have processed over 1,000 expedited requests, for instance, many of them associated with the MRAP.” To improve response times further, DLA also developed “deployable depots” that can be fielded close to the action on short notice. The largest such DLA depot now operates out of Kuwait in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. When Hurricane Ike was bearing down on the Texas Gulf Coast last September, DLA also dispatched a deployable depot to Houston to dispense water, tents, cots and other supplies to the Federal Emergency Management Agency. “Whether in wartime or during a natural disaster, the deployable depot construct lets us rapidly stand up a forward distribution hub that marries our expertise in demand planning with a traditional warehousing and distribution capability,” said Mike Scott, executive director of material policy, process and assessment. “That eliminates the long shipping lead times we had in the past that are just unacceptable today.”
Marines in Al Asad, Iraq, put new rotor blades provided by the Defense Logistics Agency on a CH-46E Sea Knight helicopter.
high-fidelity transparency. “In our new Fusion Center we can put a computer curser on any node in the supply chain, and literally watch the metrics for an order change in front of our eyes, in real-time,” said Scott. “As opposed to the past, when we would typically have a huge number of people involved in each transaction, today the process is so automated that manual intervention by DLA personnel is necessary at very few points along the way. That’s what we mean by ‘delivering supply chain excellence.’ ” While DLA officials hone their ability to oversee and manage that process, increasingly they are contracting the entire supply chains from private industry. That model was first tested in the 1990s when DLA’s Defense Supply Center in Philadelphia contracted with large medical supply vendors to use their existing distribution systems to deliver directly to military hospitals and clinics around the world. Today that model largely defines how DLA does business, overseeing discreet commercial supply chains that are delivering fuel, food, medical supplies, uniforms and construction material directly to forces in the field. “We like to say that DLA will go as far forward [with commercial supply chains] as the services want,” said Knott. “Our vendor supply chains go from the oil refinery to the skin of the airplane or ship that needs the fuel. In Iraq we go all the way to a central fuel hub in-country, and from there the services take it to forward operating bases. Our food supply chain goes all the way from where the vendor acquires the product to where he delivers it to all the mess halls in Iraq and Afghanistan. So our strategy is to acquire whole supply
chains, and allow commercial industry to do what it does best – seamlessly deliver its products to buyers.” An added advantage to the model is that vendors who already deliver commodities to places such as Iraq and Afghanistan typically know the lay of the land and local customs. Most rely on local workers. On the other hand pricing operations in a war zone into a commercial contract is a challenge unto itself, and one that DLA has made a specialty, establishing a Center for Excellence to teach the nuances of writing and auditing such contracts. “Relying on prime vendors is an exceptionally good way to manage logistics operations, because they use local people, they are not viewed as strangers or outsiders, and they understand how to operate in these countries and environments,” said Knott. “Pricing those operations is much different, however, than pricing a [Continental United States] contract. When you’re delivering to a dining facility in Fort Carson, Colo., for instance, you don’t have to worry about bandits, or insurgents, or losing whole truckloads or even convoys of materials. You don’t have to worry about strikes during religious holidays you haven’t heard about. You don’t generally have to worry about truck drivers being shot. So making a ‘fair and reasonable’ determination of a fixed price for such services requires a lot of skill from our contract writers.” Meanwhile back at Fort Belvoir, DLA planners are already anticipating a strategic shift in U.S. military forces from Iraq to Afghanistan in the coming year, and calculating the likely impact on support requirements. The higher elevations, for instance, could raise demand for warmer clothing and certain types of medication. It could affect the “mean time between failure” for parts on weapons systems such as helicopters. The snows of the notorious Afghan winters and more U.S. forces in theater may require DLA to open more supply routes to ensure against potential blockage due to bad weather. In other words, DLA planners now wrestle with exactly the kinds of operational issues that military logisticians have always confronted, but which this one-time generic bulk buyer and “box kicker” rarely had to worry about in the past. “This is a unique time,” Gen. Dail conceded. “I tell people all the time, after the three years I spent at TRANSCOM and two years here at DLA, I truly believe that what has occurred in military logistics in recent times has been enormously historic. And we will never go back to the old way of doing things. Because we will never want to go back and pickup all that money we left on the table from cost savings and efficiencies. We need to leave it there so the Defense Department can use it to focus on the warfighters.” J
Vice Admiral Alan Thompson Meet the new DLA director Thompson, the Defense Logistics Agency’s 16th director, is no stranger to the DLA. From September 2001 to July 2003 he commanded the Defense Supply Center in Columbus, Ohio, which procures maritime and land
Thompson most recently served as commander of Naval Supply Systems Command. He also is a former director of Supply, Ordnance and Logistics Operations for the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations; command-
PHOTO: Courtesy of DOD
weapon systems parts.
ed the Fleet and Industrial Supply Center in Norfolk, Va.; and was the first staff corps officer selected for the Chief of Naval Operations Strategic Studies Group. At-sea assignments include service as the supply officer for the USS Chandler and the USS Dwight D. Eisenhower. Thompson assumed his new DLA duties in a Nov. 19 ceremony at Fort Belvoir, Va.
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command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance
PHOTO: U.S. Army
Soldiers set up the One System Remote Video Terminal ahead of an exercise at Fort Dix, N.J., part of the largest Future Force C4ISR & Networking Technology Demonstration to date by the U.S. Army Communications - Electronic Research Development and Engineering Center (CERDEC) .
America’s Secret Weapon Advances in technology give commanders better eyes, ears and lethality in battle
t is the hallmark of the new American way of war. It is credited with helping put the U.S. on the path to victory in Iraq, and it is being leveraged in Afghanistan. Its very success, however, is prompting adversaries and potential enemies of the U.S. to look for ways to defeat it. It is C4ISR – command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance. It is, simply put, a way to understand what is happening and to react so quickly that an enemy can’t respond. Sensors gather information (the “ISR” part) that is then analyzed, organized and presented to commanders for action (the “C4” part). One current iteration is ODIN, a U.S. Army initiative in Iraq to counter the threat of the roadside bombs known as
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By Rich Tuttle improvised explosive devices, or IEDs. It apparently also has been used in other applications, such as helping Special Operations forces. ODIN – which stands for Observe, Detect, Identify and Neutralize – has received kudos for the way it links sensortoting manned and unmanned aircraft and different ways of acting on the information they provide. Its ability to persistently stare at an area, for example, allows detection of changes like recently disturbed earth, which could indicate an attempt to bury an IED. ODIN became operational in July 2007. But while the equipment it uses has been described by the Army, it’s a sensitive effort and examples of its success are hard to come by. It’s possible, however, that it helped win the Battle of Sadr
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PHOTO: Grazyna Musick
City earlier this year. The battle in the largely Shiite quarter of Baghdad erupted in March after insurgents began firing rockets into the Green Zone, where the Iraqi government and U.S. Embassy are located. After Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al Maliki gave the OK to strike, U.S. forces engaged the insurgents. One aspect of the fight involved unmanned aerial vehicles. By keeping the area under constant surveillance, U.S. forces were able to track movements of militia members and fire on them. It was the first use of UAVs by a brigade-level force, according to a recent CBS News “60 Minutes” interview with Army Gen. Ray Odierno, the commanding general in Iraq, and several of his colonels. Persistent surveillance was the key, said Col. John Hort. “In
Military officials look over digital maps and imagery at the Central Technical Support Facility.
some cases, we would wait four, six, even 10 hours to do the engagement because we didn’t want to kill the guy, we wanted to go after the whole group, the company chain of command if you want to call it that, where they would pick up the rail, drive in their vehicle, go to another location, and do an after action review on what they did. “Once they got to that site, that’s when we [did] the engagement,” he said. “Sometimes that took six, eight, 10 hours to wait. That’s what the Predator [UAV] allowed us to do. It truly preyed on the enemy.” Two thousand U.S. troops engaged 4,000 insurgents, according to CBS. It said that 700 of the enemy were killed, with six American deaths. “It’s my opinion, at the brigade level, that the cease–fire was declared [in April] because [the insurgents] really didn’t have a whole lot left to throw at us,” Hort said.
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Such successes have prompted Defense Secretary Robert Gates to reprogram $1.2 billion in Pentagon funds for new sensors and aircraft to press the current advantage in Iraq. Congress likes the idea, and U.S. forces in Afghanistan are in line for a similar ISR boost.
Tailored Battle Network
ODIN is “part of a broader revolution in war which has to do with both guided weapons and a battle network designed to search out and find targets,” says Robert Work of the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Analysis in Washington. With such a system, he says, “You can elect to prosecute the targets any way you want. You can put a bullet on them, or you can send out a team to capture people, or you can jam a specific part of the spectrum so that an IED won’t go off. You can do all sorts of stuff. “What you have seen in Iraq,” he says, “is the assembly of a very tailored battle network in which ISR and guided weapons and Special Operations Forces and general purpose forces all work very closely together to find targets and then [hit] them.” Among key systems used by Task Force ODIN, – a battalion under the 25th Combat Aviation Brigade operating from Camp Speicher near Tikrit, Iraq – are Warrior-A UAVs built by General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Inc., C-12 aircraft from Hawker Beechcraft, and Shorts–360 planes from Short Brothers plc of Belfast, Ireland. The Warrior–As of Task Force ODIN’s Alpha Company carry electro-optical/infrared or synthetic aperture radar payloads, as well as laser range finder-designators and laser target markers, the Army says. Some C–12s of TF ODIN’s Bravo Company have been retrofitted as either Medium Altitude Reconnaissance and Surveillance System (MARSS–II) or Aerial Reconnaissance Multi-Sensor (ARMS) platforms, according to the Army. Sierra Nevada Corp.’s Integrated Mission Systems unit says the focus of ARMS is on “find, fix and finish.” C–12s fitted with another package called Highlighter yield change-over-time information on terrain beneath their flight paths. A modified Shorts–360 airframe, called Constant Hawk, also operated by Bravo Company, “provides a forensic backtracking capability for analysts in their effort to detect the origins of specific anti-Iraqi or anti–coalition attacks,” the Army says. Analysts from TF ODIN’s Aerial Reconnaissance Support Team monitor the flow of information from all the sensors. Warriors, ARMS and MARSS–II are included in the Pentagon ISR reprogramming. Also included are video systems that can display continuous motion, and a system that merges sensor inputs to automatically keep an area under surveillance for extended periods. The latter is called Persistent Surveillance and Dissemination System of Systems (PSDS2). Supplied by Raytheon Co., it can tap into a variety of sensors to tell video cameras to check
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out a certain area to help determine if anything of interest is happening there. If so, it alerts commanders to take action. “It has absolutely in theater saved lives,” says Jack Harrington, vice president for Command and Control Systems at Raytheon. The specifics are tightly held, but Harrington says that when soldiers go into action, PSDS2 gives them the “ability to see better, know better and have better situation awareness. I think that’s been a huge, huge impact.” Beyond Iraq, C4ISR was central to the missile shoot–down by a U.S. ship of an errant American spy satellite last February. The effort involved government agencies and labs, as well as Lockheed Martin and Raytheon. Gen. C. Robert Kehler, commander of Air Force Space Command, says it was a fine lesson “in the power of cross–domain integration” – an emerging thrust that uses C4 to link ISR assets generally associated only with the separate domains of air, land, sea, space and cyberspace. The shoot–down, Kehler says, pulled “non-traditional sensors together with traditional sensors, allowing a shooter – in this case in the maritime domain – to be in the right place at the right time to take a shot in the right way, so that an intercept could occur, so that following that intercept those same sensors could go back to doing their job on assessing what had happened, and the cycle went on.”
PHOTO: U.S. Army
An engineer installs communications equipment in a PM (Project Manager) C4ISR vehicle as it is prepared for testing.
The big impetus for current C4ISR programs was 9/11. They boomed as the Pentagon pulled nearly every lever to quickly move R&D programs to operational use. New efforts, like ODIN, have popped up since then. Oth-
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PHOTO: Jim Hinnant
ers, like WIN–T (the Army’s Warfighter Information Network showed how to add guided weapons, but stressed human conTactical, being developed by General Dynamics and Lockheed trol. And this, with Web-based applications and Internet proMartin) and the NATO Air Ground Surveillance System (un- tocols, has turned out to be much more dynamic – and safer der development by AGS Industries) will probably continue to – than the old Soviet conception, Work says. For instance, he gather steam, according to the market research firm Forecast says, unmanned aircraft today carry missiles with precision guidance, but they can’t be launched until humans give the International. Overall, however, most of the acceleration in C4ISR pro- OK. It’s not clear where all this will lead, Work says, but he susgrams has been completed, Forecast says. “Systems needed by the troops have been introduced and fielded. Technologies that pects the old Soviet idea of machine control will resurface. “I were once 10 years away are now only two or three years away think they were just ahead of their time,” he says. Intelligent machines, advanced robotics and highly reliable automatic from completion. ...” target recognition softForecast looked at ware – all under devel213 programs and 25 opment – point to a day companies, and projwhen machines will ects a global C4ISR detect, analyze and atmarket of some $64 tack. billion from 2008 Meanwhile, Work through 2017. In 2008, says, adversaries have it values the market at reacted in three ways $11.6 billion. But it to the enormous U.S. sees a steady decline advantage in ISR netafter that to $3.4 bilworking and guided lion in 2017. Over the weapons. 10–year period that “The first is to disrepresents an $8.26 bilperse, like in Afghanilion, or approximately stan and Iraq – blend 71 percent, decrease in into the population, market sales. don’t make yourself a But some companies will do well. Forecast Ernest Chaney, CERDEC’s senior command representative, and Sgt. Joseph target, don’t mass, and projects that Raythe- Kesner discuss the C4ISR systems carried on board a Humvee at Camp Arifjan, don’t allow the American ISR to find you.” on, General Dynam- Kuwait. Second, “if you can’t ics, AGS Industries, duplicate the scale of Northrop Grumman conventional guided weapons, then go after nukes. That’s exand Thales will be the leading five companies in the field. actly what North Korea and Iran are trying to do. They want to It figures: • Raytheon will get 13 percent of the 10–year market, or deter the assembly of the ISR network.” Third is the reaction of countries like China, “which have $8.2 billion. • General Dynamics will come in second with a 6.8 percent the money to compete with [the U.S.] in this regime, but they do it asymmetrically.” Instead of buying aircraft carriers to sink market share, or $4.3 billion. • AGS industries will be in third place with a market share U.S. aircraft carriers, for instance, they develop other ways to defeat them. of 6.6 percent, or $4.2 billion. ODIN has prompted a reaction in a more unlikely place – the • Northrop Grumman is projected to be fourth with a 3.7 percent share worth $2.4 billion. Pentagon. In addition to being part of a broader revolution in • Thales will be fifth with 3.6 percent or $2.3 billion. warfare, it is an aspect of the continuing evolution of the command and control of close air support. The Army has been unhappy with Air Force close air support in Iraq, and has turned Back to the Future The guided weapons battle network revolution actually be- to things like ODIN to take up the slack. The Air Force has scrambled to meet Army demands by gan in World War II, says CSBA’s Work. The British had the first true version in the Battle of Britain in 1940, but it lacked stepping up production of UAVs and cranking out more UAV guided weapons. Soviet planners in the 1980s envisioned such pilots and sensor operators. It also thinks it should operate all weapons run by machines. Operation Desert Storm in 1991 UAVs in the theater. But the Army likes ODIN because it’s an
58 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D 2 0 0 8
PHOTO: Russ Meseroll
Army system, and it works. The back–and–forth has been going on for decades. “The Army in a perfect world would like every platoon commander to have his own Predator,” says Ben Lambeth of RAND Corp. “The Air Force view is, ‘Look, only if it’s centrally managed by a single authority for air, a single airspace control authority who is the Air Component Commander, can that asset offer maximum leverage across the theater in the interests of the Joint Force Commander.’” He says that if the Army had its way, “you’d have a proliferation of these assets that are basically owned by the individual company commander for his problem, and his problem only. So if there were more pressing needs elsewhere in the theater, that platform would not be available. Under the Air Force command and control arrangement, it would be.” Lambeth says he tends to agree with the Air Force A warfighter Information Network-Tactical Increment Two test vehicle awaits view because “there’s a more compelling logic to it.” movement instruction during the WIN-T technology demonstration at Naval But disagreements will probably be with us for a Air Engineering Station in Lakehurst, N.J. while. Gen. Merrill McPeak, who retired as chief of staff of the Air Force in 1994, has said there’s no more cording to Lambeth. McPeak has been one of President–elect emotionally charged issue among the military services than Barack Obama’s senior military advisers. the question of who gets to do what, where and when, acStay tuned. J
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Program promises true interconnectivity among the services, but can it deliver?
By Rich Tuttle
he idea of the Joint Tactical Radio System, or JTRS, is a good one: A family of software-based radios to replace a plethora of legacy radios and allow members of the U.S. military services to achieve the old dream of easily talking to one another. The radio system works by using a different “waveform,” or signal-sending system, for each domain -- land, sea and air. An Army soldier in a foxhole could talk to a Navy pilot overhead by selecting the “air” waveform; a sailor off the beach could talk to the soldier by choosing the “land” waveform; an Air Force pilot could talk to the sailor by selecting the “sea” waveform, and so on. The plan has been to use JTRS to “link the power of the Global Information Grid (GIG) to the warfighter in applying fire effects and achieving overall battlefield superiority,” says the JTRS Joint Program Executive Office. The JTRS network would “improve information sharing, collaboration and situational awareness” and thus allow “more rapid and effective decision making and execution on the battlefield,” according to the Government Accountability Office (GAO). It would, among other things, work with legacy radios, which would ultimately be phased out, the GAO says in an August report. The radio system upgrade was considered so basic that the very design of some new weapon systems, including the Army’s Future Combat Systems, depended on it.
The stakes were high but the technology seemed to be in hand when the program was launched in 1997. But something
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PHOTO: Cpl. Daniel R. Benn
J T R S
Joint Tactical Radio System
JTRS is intended to help simplify the job of coordinating close air support missions, among other things. Here, Maj. Rick A. “Rico” Uribe, a forward air controller assigned to Company B, 1st Battalion, 23rd Marine Regiment, coordinates close air support as aircraft ordnance hits in the background in Fallujah, Iraq, during a 2004 battle.
happened on the way to meeting the requirement -- the terror attacks of Sept. 11, 2001. One result was that troops in Afghanistan and Iraq needed radios right away. In the 2003 invasion of Iraq, for instance, they used whatever they could get, including legacy radios and cell phones. JTRS development took a back seat. And development was hampered by unforeseen difficulties. The National Security Agency, for example, charged with protecting U.S. government information systems among other things, worried that JTRS’s very heart, its software, might be vulnerable. What if an enemy picked up a JTRS on the battlefield and listened in? What if a hacker broke the code? How would we know? But the Pentagon wanted to keep JTRS alive until such problems could be solved. With two wars raging and no time to waste, it asked industry to come up with an interim solution. It said, “What do you guys have off-the-shelf” that can run the
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A JTRS JPEO business model has demonstrated what the office calls “significant cost savings.” The model stresses “software reuse and upgrades, and fosters competition in production.” But GAO says the cost of integrating JTRS with some existing weapon systems may also be high, meaning it might not be possible to put more of them in each combat unit, as has been planned. And because the updated legacy radios should last for 10 or 15 years, the Pentagon may have to strike a balance between capability and cost if it wants to introduce JTRS without an early phase-out of the older radios, GAO says. It might have to decide whether the priority is replacing legacy radios, or putting JTRS into network-dependent systems like FCS.
Weapons for Today
The calculations may have been complicated by Defense Secretary Robert Gates’ recent shake-up of the Air Force -- he fired the Soaring Costs secretary and the chief of staff for, in his view, not putting enough But with JTRS development under way at the same time, the emphasis on weapons to win today’s battles. The Army got the Pentagon must balance message and began early “the investment in both spin-outs of some of FCS current and future radios components, including -- a dynamic proposition two from JTRS. given that needs change The Pentagon restrucand future capabilities do tured JTRS in 2005, a not necessarily proceed move that deferred some predictably,” GAO says. capabilities but allowed The dollar figures more time for developspeak for themselves. ment. But it also delayed When JTRS development initial fielding of one began in 2002, the PenJTRS component, the tagon planned to spend Ground Mobile Radio, about $3 billion on the by five years to 2011. This prompted some usprogram over fiscal years ers who were planning on 2003-2007 -- $1 billion for development and test- Boeing is the prime contractor for the Army’s Ground Mobile Radios, buying GMR to purchase known as JTRS GMR, a software-programmable radio system that ing and $2 billion to begin provides mobile military users with secure, multichannel voice, data, legacy radios instead, only increasing the overprocurement. Spending imagery and video communications. all demand for tactical on legacy radios was expected to be relatively low, and then dry up as JTRS came online. radios. The Army and Marines wanted to spend about $235 million beIn 2007, the JTRS office established an incremental approach. The number of waveforms was cut from 32 to 11 under “Incretween fiscal 2003 and 2007 on older radios. But instead of $3.2 billion for JTRS and Army and Marine leg- ment 1,” allowing more focused development. Following this, acy radios, the actual number was about $8.3 billion -- $5.7 billion upgrades will be developed for the “next wave” of JTRS capabilifor legacy radios and $2.5 billion for JTRS development. ties. One task will be to identify “targeted software upgrades to The amount spent on development and production of tactical each of [the] current hardware sets.” The goal is to “ ‘thicken’ the radios over the last five years is definitely an attention-getter -- tactical network.” $12 billion. This, says GAO, is comparable to spending in that JTRS program managers face several challenges, the GAO period on Future Combat Systems ($10.4 billion) and production says: completing development, living with tight budgets, and comof Virginia-class submarines ($10.8 billion). ing up with a fielding strategy for tactical radios. It says JTRS is In terms of individual radios, a legacy type runs about $20,000. “making progress,” but “must still overcome technology hurdles, A JTRS, while more capable, may cost 10 times as much. size and power constraints, and security architecture issues.” J PHOTO: Courtesy of Boeing
J T R S
JTRS operating system, called SCA for Software Communications Architecture, says Greg Giaquinto of Forecast International, a market research firm. SCA, he says, is similar to Windows Vista or XP. If a legacy radio can run SCA, it can run the JTRS waveforms. And when JTRS radios eventually come on line, the old modified radios will be able to talk to them. The JTRS-light souped-up legacy models aren’t perfect. In fact, no current radios meet all the requirements for SCA certification. Two handheld radios do meet some of the basic criteria. They are acceptable because they are less vulnerable than full JTRS radios, whose very sophistication increases their chance of being compromised, Giaquinto says. They’re also less capable, but they’re a welcome step in the right direction, and are being bought in large numbers.
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Who’s Who and What’s What in JTRS A number of components and contractors are part of the Joint Tactical Radio System. Here’s a summary: Ground Mobile Radio Prime contractor: Boeing. The company marked availability of engineering development model (EDM) systems on Sept. 17 and says the final phase of EDM integration is under way. “Providing the new [EDMs] on schedule took a committed effort by Boeing and its partners Rockwell Collins, BAE Systems, and Northrop Grumman,” says Ralph Moslener, Boeing JTRS GMR program manager. A decision on whether to enter full-rate production is slated for the summer of 2010. Initial operational capability (IOC) is planned for 2011. Airborne and Maritime Fixed Site Prime contractor: Lockheed Martin. AMF will be integrated into air, maritime and fixed site platforms for the Air Force, Navy and Army aviation. A production decision in slated for 2011, and IOC would occur in 2014. Consolidated Interim Single-Channel Handheld Radios (CISCHR) Contractors: Thales and Harris. Two current handheld radios -- Thales’ PRC-148 and Harris’ PRC152 – have been modified to operate with other radios. “NSA certified and considered ‘JTRS approved,’ [and] they are presently deployed in ... Iraq and Afghanistan,” the JTRS office says. Thales Communications AN/PRC-148 JEM
General Dynamics Manpack
Handheld, Manpack, Small Form Fit (HMS) Prime contractor: General Dynamics C4 Systems. This set, intended to give soldiers video, voice and data, will work with equipment now used by civilian and military land, air and maritime forces. It will also support three Army Future Combat Systems elements -- the Intelligent Munitions System of smart mines, the Unattended Ground Sensor system, and the Non-Line of Sight Launch System. A production decision for one of three HMS pre-engineering development models, Small Form Fit C(V1), is slated for 2009.
Multifunctional Information Distribution System (MIDS) JTRS Prime contractors: ViaSat and Data Link Solutions. A main goal is to increase the ability to work with Link 16, which allows ships and aircraft to exchange information. The final qualification portion of the MIDS JTRS System Development and Demonstration phase is under way. Testing to assure compliance with NSA security rules started in July 2008 and should wind up early next year. A production decision is planned for the spring of 2009.
Network Enterprise Domain NED’s purpose is to develop waveforms for legacy and transformational systems as well as network management and software “to fully enable JTRS’ mobile, ad hoc networking capability.” This effort, according to the JTRS office, “is the heart of the interoperable networking capability of JTRS.” NED, says Greg Giaquinto of market research firm Forecast International, is “not the sexy part, it’s the brains, the deal breaker -- getting the software to actually work, getting the software to be safe so you can’t hack into it. That’s where they’re going to be spending a good majority of their money, on software development.”
J T R S
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Global Hawk image is courtesy of Northrop Grumman.
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’09 AIR FORCE Spotlight
UAV Spending Soars To Meet Insatiable Combat Needs
By Lee Ewing
PHOTO: Senior Airman Miranda Moorer
an upswing in the MQ-9 Reaper,” Voss he Air Force will increase aerial systems to Iraq and Afghanistan. “My concern is that our services are said. “And then also the Global Hawk. spending for procurement of unmanned aerial systems still not moving aggressively in war- … Those three aircraft are what you’re (UAS) from $1.224 billion in fiscal 2008 time to provide resources needed now mainly seeing procured by the Air to $1.383 billion in fiscal 2009, a new on the battlefield,” Gates said April 21 Force.” The upward trend in UAS spendFrost & Sullivan market study forecasts. at the Air War College at Maxwell Air The projected FY 2009 procure- Force Base, Ala. “I’ve been wrestling ing will continue in the near term, Voss said, because the Air ment total includes Force has a short$700.6 million for the age of these systems. Northrop Grumman “So they’re trying RQ-4 Global Hawk, to pick it up and get $445.7 million for production going and the General Atomup those numbers as ics MQ-1 Predator, much as they can, $215.7 million for because the need is the General Atomthere. Now the quesics MQ-9 Reaper and tion is whether or not $20.5 million for the the need is going to Battlefield Air Targetcontinue at the rate it ing Micro Air Vehicle has been.” (BATMAV) program, After peaking at which uses the Aero$1.383 billion in fisVironment WASP III cal 2009, the study micro air vehicle. The Air Force was seeking $700.6 million in fiscal 2009 for procurement of Northrop forecasts that Air Over the same pe- Grumman’s Global Hawk, part of a total unmannned aerial systems request of Force spending on riod, the study esti- $1.38 billion. procurement of UAS mates that Air Force UAS Operations and Maintenance for months to get more intelligence, sur- will gradually decline to $1.098 billion (O&M) spending will rise from $102 veillance, and reconnaissance assets into in fiscal 2016. “There’s going to be a surge in the million to $105.2 million and UAS Re- the theater. Because people were stuck search, Development, Test and Evalua- in old ways of doing business, it’s been procurement for a couple more years, tion (RDT&E) spending will go up from like pulling teeth. While we’ve doubled and then more of a maintenance trend: this capability in recent months, it is still Replacing what needs to be replaced and $336.7 million to $356.5 million. meeting the needs that are going to be Total Air Force UAS spending, includ- not good enough.” Lindsay Voss, an industry analyst out there,” Voss said. ing procurement, O&M, and RDT&E, In replacing UAS, the service likely will rise from $1.663 billion in fiscal with Frost & Sullivan and author of the 2008 to $1.844 billion in fiscal 2009, study, “U.S. Unmanned Systems Mar- will seek greater capability, she said. then gradually decline to $1.356 billion ket,” said in an interview that Air Force The Predator B is one example. “The spending on UAS procurement has been Air Force … is looking for a replacement in fiscal 2016, the study estimates. for the Predator B,” she said, adding that The increases are due to the virtually increasing for about five years. “Basically, there was a huge upward the contenders include the highly classiinsatiable demand from combat commanders and strong prodding from De- trend for procurement starting in about fied General Atomics Predator C, which fense Secretary Robert Gates, who has 2003 and it’s kind of gone up that way will offer new capabilities, and the BAE urged the services, particularly the Air just because of procurement of the Systems Mantis advanced technology Force, to accelerate fielding of unmanned MQ-1 [Predator] … and now kind of demonstrator. J 2 0 0 8 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D
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’09 ARMY Spotlight
Modular Force Faster, More Compact, Still Lethal By Tom Breen
PHOTO: Spc. John Crosby
ow that the U.S. Army’s money from the Bell program likely plans. So far, the Army has received $141 billion budget request may be used for other modular-support 2,500 of the vehicles, with plans to for 2009 has won the ap- categories, especially for those to up- buy another 900 in this budget and proval of the president and Congress, grade and re-equip National Guard and subsequent ones, said Peter Keating, a spokesman for General Dynamics Land the service is charging toward its goal of Reserve units. Systems, the main conmaking combat units tractor for the program. leaner and faster as The Stryker is light and demands abroad conmobile, but has sufficient tinue without apparfirepower to counter enent letup. The Army emy assaults. The Stryker calls its approach is named in honor of Army modularity. Spec. 4 Robert Stryker, The ultimate goal who received the Medal for 2011 and beyond: of Honor in the VietTrim brigade combat nam War, and Pfc. Stuart teams to 3,000 or less Stryker, who received the -- from 3,400 to 4,000 Medal in World War II. now -- to make them The men are not related. more self-sufficient As the Army’s moduand able to assemble larity efforts increase, quickly when conflict Defense Secretary Robert calls. The requireArmy Staff Sgt. Hank Moreno, a sniper with 4th Battalion, 9th Infantry RegiGates has ratcheted up ment grows out of ment, pulls security duty in front of a Stryker combat vehicle during an infilthe ongoing wars in tration into Rawad, Iraq. The Army plans to buy another 900 Strykers in 2009 the pressure on the Army and beyond. and the other services to Iraq and Afghanistan. upgrade equipment for To meet its modularAmong the programs falling under the entire force. Special priority is beforce goals, the Army, in a major procurement move monitored closely by the $9.3 billion umbrella, according ing placed on upgrades for Army Nathe defense industry, has set aside $9.3 to Army spokesman Dave Foster, are tional Guard and Reserve units, which billion of its $141 billion budget. Modu- the Stryker vehicles and their procure- continue to operate with second-rate lar equipment categories include “Move, ment; modifications to M1 Abrams equipment including body armor, acShoot, Communicate, Intelligence-Sur- tanks; Abrams tank upgrades; sustain- cording to several sources familiar veillance, Force Protection and Strike.” ment and modifications for Bradley with the Army’s thinking. Further, once Barack Obama moves The $9.3 billion will be used across Fighting Vehicles; M4 carbine weapa broad range of programs, and will call ons; M119 Howitzers, Light Weight into the White House, the Pentagon upon the services of thousands of Army (155MM, Towed); medium tactical ve- likely will step up efforts in Afghanicontractors, according Army budget of- hicles; utility trucks; and night-vision stan, meaning the entire force needs to be better equipped. Obama indicated ficials. Some of the $9.3 billion appears thermal weapon sights. General Dynamics, a major Army repeatedly throughout the election to have been targeted toward an Army plan to build hundreds of armed recon- contractor, will lead the way in many campaign that he would increase the troop commitment to Afghanistan. If naissance helicopters with Bell Heli- of the programs. The Stryker Light Armored Vehicle that happens, much of the burden likecopter, but the Army and the Pentagon scrapped the program in October. Now, is at the heart Army’s modularization ly will fall upon the Army. J 2 0 0 8 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D
’09 MARINE CORPS Spotlight
Keeping Contact Corps Upgrades Tactical Communications
By Bryant Jordan
PHOTO: Department of Defense
he Marine Corps’ commu- own, and it’s designed against the Joint ity to commanders in the field, Redding nications and electronics Tactical Radio System requirements,” said. Meanwhile, the Corps is continubudget for the coming year Rand said. “It’s been widely deployed – just over $500 million -- is a mere (and) ... it has access to a range of tech- ing to pump millions into a system for shadow of the roughly $2 billion of nologies, including satellite, UHF and deployed Marines to establish secure just two years ago. But whatever other more. It’s multiband, multimission in voice, data and video communications limitations the Corps faces at a time of one package, and it’s software defined, among commanders, including in joint and coalition environshrinking budgets, it is ments, Redding said. committed to maintainToward that goal, ing and improving critithe Corps expects to cal communications for spend $12.8 million its troops. From tactical next year on the Tacradios for small unit mistical Data Network sions to mobile satellite Data Distribution terminals deployed with System-Modular, or a Marine Expeditionary TDN DDS-M. That’s Force headquarters, the just a portion of a Corps is pumping mil$375 million contract lions next year into systhe Corps awarded tems intended to keep General Dynamics in the information flowing March, to acquire the and Marines communisystem over time. cating. The system conThe Corps will spend A Marine assigned to Combined Anti-Armor Team, Task Force 2nd Battalion, 7th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division, uses a Harris Falcon III AN/PRCabout $18 million in fis- 152(C) handheld radio to keep in contact during an August 2008 mission in nects Marines to essencal 2009 for additional Afghanistan. The Corps is pumping about $18 million in fiscal 2009 into com- tial tactical networks wherever they deploy, purchases of lightweight munications upgrades. Scott Butler, the comtactical radios that can be mounted on vehicles or carried by so it is upgradeable as technologies pany’s C4 Systems vice president of computing technologies, said in March hand, says Capt. Carl Redding, a Corps change.” The Corps also intends to upgrade when the contract was awarded. The spokesman at the Pentagon. The radio substantially enhances command and its satellite communications capabili- modular nature of the system has Maties by spending $7 million on improve- rines excited because it gives them a control at the small-unit level. Ben Rand, a spokesman for Harris ments to the Phoenix Tactical Satellite more tactically flexible asset. “By acquiring a more modular asset Corp., the Rochester, N.Y., manufac- Terminal, a mobile, multiband, superturer of the system, said the Marine high-frequency communications trans- base, tactical units will no longer be reacquisitions include the company’s mitter. The system can operate over quired to load out their whole network Falcon III AN/VRC-110 vehicle radio both commercial and military super- structure, but can rather deploy with system, along with handheld Falcon III high-frequency satellites. The upgrade networking modules tailored to the unit AN/PRC-152C units – two to a vehicle will give the Phoenix a new Ka band and mission, with the option to expand -- and a kit for linking the handheld ra- capability, which is less costly for the capability modularly when forward Corps than leasing commercial band- units are absorbed by larger headquardio to the vehicle system. “The -152 we developed on our width, while also giving more flexibil- ters,” Redding said. J 2 0 0 8 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D
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’09 NAVY Spotlight
N avy Wants to Double Production Rate
By Michael Fabey
Tomahawk tests in the Gulf of Mexico. iding high in the wake of finan- and operational milestones. The tests were a first for the sub class. Sub costs, excluding some of the recial and operational successes, “Completing the Tomahawk flight tests the Navy’s Virginia-class attack search and development, are dropping to submarine program is enjoying acclaim the about $2 billion per boat, about a fifth lower brings us a significant step closer to the program’s full-rate production decision in service has rarely enjoyed in the acquisition than earlier in the decade. The builders reengineered sub parts, 2009,” said David Johnson, recently selected of the service’s prized undersea boats. The service is under the gun, too, facing saving manpower and materials, said Dan for rear admiral and Virginia-class program a major shortfall in its submarine force if it Goure, Navy expert for the Lexington Insti- manager. “The Virginia class was conceived tute, a noted think tank just outside Wash- and designed as a multipurpose warship, and fails to buy the boats fast enough. The Virginia is the latest class of the ington, D.C. “This is an example of how these flight tests are another indication of the significant capabilities a Virginia Navy’s nuclear-powered attack submarine brings to the fight.” submarines – the service’s most In May 2008 the program comversatile marine asset, used for pleted two other milestones – the patrols, spy missions and procommissioning of the Virginiatection. It started funding four class USS North Carolina and the Virginia-class subs in 1998 to final hull welds of the Virginiareplace the Cold War-era Los class submarine New Mexico – Angeles-class subs. when the hull sections are joined The service asked for $2.1 bilto form a single unit. It was the last lion in fiscal 2009 to finish up the major milestone before the ship’s 11th Virginia-class boat; the Navy christening. already has spent about $756 mil“We’re on track to deliver the lion for the sub. PHOTO: Ricky Thompson, Electric Boat ship eight months ahead of schedThe Navy’s 2009 request cost of building each Virginia-class attack submarine has ule,” said Becky Stewart, vice also included $719.8 million to The fallen about 20 percent over 10 years. president of submarine programs procure certain key components for Northrop Grumman Newport News. The for the 11th sub and seven more the Navy Navy programs should be done,” he said. Besides the $2.7 billion the Navy bud- boat is set to be delivered in 2009. bought under multiyear contracts running In August, General Dynamics’ Electric geted in fiscal 2007 for Virginia-class subthrough fiscal 2013. What the Navy hoped is that in approv- marines, the service also requested $3.4 bil- boat delivered the Virginia-class sub New ing the money Congress would also sanc- lion in fiscal 2008 and about $3.5 billion in Hampshire eight months ahead of schedule. “We reduced the time between when the tion full-rate production of two of the “ship fiscal 2009. The service expects a lot for its money, ship enters the water and when it’s delivered submersible nuclear,” or SSN, boats per counting on the nuclear-powered Virginia- from 14 months on the first ship to less than year. “The operational risks of allowing the class to launch Tomahawk cruise missiles, six months,” said John Casey, president of SSN force to drop below 48 are unaccept- gather intelligence, insert special operations the company’s Groton Yard, where the ships able,” Ronald O’Rourke, a Navy expert for forces and conduct an array of missions no are built. Few thought the Virginia-class program the Congressional Research Service, report- one can talk about – all undetected. “Virginia-class submarines provide a would see such success. It forced two longed to lawmakers earlier this year. Unless sub production nearly doubles brand-new flexible, stealthy platform for term competitors – Northrop Grumman and to two per year by early next decade, the employment of the Tomahawk Weapon Electric Boat – to form a true partnership and Navy’s attack sub fleet would likely drop System,” Capt. Rick McQueen, program build each sub simultaneously, with the two manager for Naval Air Systems Com- yards focusing on different boat parts. to 41. Goure said the partnership has worked: The odds that lawmakers would approve mand’s (NAVAIR) Tomahawk Program Ofthe production-rate increase improve as the fice, said in September shortly after the USS “They have been competitive and it’s helped submarine builders meet cost-cutting goals Virginia – SSN 774 – completed multiple the program.” J 2 0 0 8 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D
Citizen Warriors And Their Bosses
Spc. Kesha Stocks (center left) hugs Master Sgt. Cynthia Carlucci during a welcome home ceremony at the National Guard Armory in Lawrenceville, N.J. Both are members of the New Jersey National Guard’s 50th Personnel Services Battalion.
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oger Orton, a sergeant first class in the Utah Army National Guard, got a shock after he told his bosses at Robinson Transport, a coalhauling company in Salina, Utah, that his unit would be called up for duty in Iraq. Orton and two other employees serve in Battery A, 222 Field Artillery and expected to be gone at least a year. Kim Robinson, the company president, and his sister, Lorraine Smith, told Orton they would support him any way they could. As a long-time employee, Orton wasn’t surprised by the owners’ expression of support. But then the Robinsons discussed the matter privately and decided their company could do more for warriors going to fight for their country: They would pay their spouses $1,000 a month each during the deployment.
TOP PHOTOS: Getty Images; BOTTOM PHOTO: Courtesy of National Guard
Employer Support Goes Above and Beyond
By Tom Philpott
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PHOTO: Spc. Andrew Garnett
“I told them I didn’t need the $1,000,” Orton recalled. “As an E-7 with 34 years in the Guard I was making a pretty good wage. They said, ‘Don’t worry about it. This is what we’re doing for your wife to ease any pain, any pressure, so she doesn’t have to worry while you’re gone.’ ” The company of 130 employees so far has paid the extra cash to seven Guardsmen since 2005, including a young truck driver who had
Soldiers from the Pennsylvania Army National Guard inspect the remains of a car they stopped after observing three suspected insurgents attempting to plant improvised explosive devices on the side of the road in Bayji, Iraq.
been on the payroll only three months before he deployed. “That’s $12,000 a year to each of us, plus they would not drop our health insurance or life insurance, so we were double insured,” Orton said. Orton did not end up deploying to Iraq, though he later shipped out to Afghanistan. But while the rest of his battery was in Ramadi, Iraq, Orton was mobilized to take care of their families from unit headquarters in Richfield, Utah. While there, Orton mentioned to Robinson that those soldiers in Iraq lacked an Internet system to keep in touch with families. A short time later Kim gave him a check for $5,000 to buy broadband service. Orton was stunned. “I said, ‘Kim, are you sure?’ He said, ‘That’s a small price we pay for freedom.’ He has said that to me a million times.” Said Robinson: “I thought: They’re over there fighting for our freedoms, worrying about their lives. I thought about their families, their children and a lot of stuff they’re missing out on. ... It’s tough.”
Robinson Transport was one of 15 employers nationwide to be recognized last September with a 2008 Freedom Award, the top honor from the National Committee of Employer Support of the Guard and Reserve (ESGR). But ESGR’s executive director, J. Gordon Sumner, said the depth of support being shown by employers large and small reflects a “tremendous aura of patriotism” that has remained strong
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Measures of Support
One sign that employer support remains strong, said Sumner, is that reserve components are meeting or exceeding recruiting and retention goals.
“If families didn’t feel they were supported [by] employers, it would be real easy for them to say, ‘Hey look, you can’t do this anymore. We can’t live like this.’ But they are not” saying that, said Sumner. Another yardstick is the number of employers being nominated by Reserve or Guard members for special ESGR recognition. Last year the organization received 1,100 nominations for the Freedom Award,
PHOTO: Tech Sgt. Erik Gudmundson
since 9/11. Some companies as large as Union Pacific of Omaha and Dominion Resources Inc., of Richmond, Va., offer a pay differential and continue benefits to employees while they are mobilized. Others have been praised for supporting returning wounded troops, for sending “care packages” and phone cards to deployed troops, or for including families of deployed members in company gatherings including picnics and parties. Evidence of the tightening strain on employers from wars in Iraq and Afghanistan “really hasn’t bubbled up yet,” said Sumner, “remarkable” given how heavily the nation has relied on Guard and Reserve forces since 9/11. As of August 2008, almost 500,000 reserve component members had deployed to combat zones, supplying 27 percent of battle forces over the last seven years. Additional Reserve and Guard members have been mobilized for homeland disasters such as hurricanes, pushing the total deployed past 700,000. Multiple deployments of key personnel might tempt some employers to extract a toll from military volunteers. But a powerful and comprehensive law, the Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (USERRA), protects Reserve and Guard members. Disputes still arise daily between employers and employees, usually because one doesn’t understand what USERRA requires. It forbids employers from discriminating or taking any adverse action against a current or prospective employee due to military service, status or obligations. Employers must reinstate a Guard or Reserve member returning from active duty to the same job they would have if they had been continuously employed, or to a job of equal seniority and pay. Employees have obligations under the law as well. They must meet five criteria to protect their reemployment rights, including notifying employers before they leave for active duty. They must seek rein“They take care statement in a timely of my family when manner, based on I’m gone. He does a length of deployment. lot of things [that For example, those are] out of reach deployed 181 days or for me.” longer have 90 days from discharge to let — Sgt. Micharl Echiverri employers know they on appreciating his employer’s continued want their jobs back. support of him and his The ESGR is a Defamily while he is overseas partment of Defense entity to educate employers and reservists about USERRA and to encourage compliance by publicly recognizing employers who exceed their legal responsibilities in supporting their employees. ESGR also tries to resolve disputes before formal complaints are filed with the U.S. Department of Labor, which enforces USERRA.
Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve aircraft and crews join their active-duty counterparts in the skies over Iraq. Here, Col. Charles “Spider” Dorsey taxis alongside a New York Air National Guard F-16 Fighting Falcon prior to takeoff from Joint Base Balad, Iraq.
he said. “This year we had 2,200 nominations -- a 97 percent increase of people talking about how great their employers are doing.” Part of that is the fruit of an ESGR outreach effort that uses more than 4,500 volunteers across the country to interview businesses, explain USERRA and ask them to sign a “Statement of Support” publicly declaring they back Guard and Reserve employees. In fiscal 2007, nearly 12,000 employers signed the statement. In 2008, ESGR collected 30,000 signatures, four times the annual average collected before 9/11. “These corporations are making it a Kodak moment where they use this to show publicly their [support]. They are just proud to do it, and we make a big deal out about it,” said Sumner. Reserve and Guard members, or their employers, can call ESGR’s 24-hour support center at 800-336-4590 to make a complaint or to get advice. In fiscal 2004, the center handled 6,000 complaint cases. By 2007, the number had fallen to 2,600, and stayed at that level in fiscal 2008. Most cases, Sumner said, are resolved in a day with a phone call or an e-mail. Usually, it’s “an education issue where one side or the other just didn’t understand requirements of the law,” he said. Most employer complaints involve employees who wait until the last minute to tell bosses they’re leaving. That doesn’t violate the law but it’s not fair to employers “who have to sacrifice to allow you to serve,” Sumner said. A spokesman for the Labor Department, which also has stepped up 2 0 0 8 D E F E N S E S TA N D A R D
PHOTO: National Guard
its own outreach program to educate employers on USERRA, said it “The other thing that had a huge impact is the secretary of defense opens on average about 1,350 investigations a year for alleged viola- [Robert Gates] made the 12-month mobilization policy” so fewer tions. That is up about 400 cases compared to year 2000, but it’s only soldiers, families and employers have their lives interrupted for 18 half the number of investigations opened during the first Persian Gulf months, which Vaughn called extreme. “If we had continued like we War in 1991. were in 2005, we would have had really significant problems with Only a third of those investigations will uncover evidence to sup- our force.” port a USERRA violation. “Most employers want to do the right Vaughn said he and Lt. Gen. Jack C. Stultz, chief of the Army Rething. … A lot of these disputes are due to a lack of understanding,” serve, “work employers pretty hard” to support citizen soldiers. The said the Labor official. feedback is positive, particularly from large corporations, Vaughn said. More than 127,000 Reserve and “The big employers especially Guard members have gone to war say, ‘We want to give your guys more than once since 2001, presentfirst priority because we know ing their employers with a special you’re going to give us a drugburden. Sgt. Michael Echiverri, free, disciplined individual.’ The 50, with 4th Battalion, 87th Field big guys are having so much Artillery Regiment of the Hawaii trouble hiring those kinds of peoNational Guard, left for Kuwait in ple today that they are willing to late October on his third wartime support periodic deployments.” tour. There to see him off from Fort It’s been more challenging Hood, Texas, was his employer for small employers and self-emBob Barrett, president of Coastal ployed Guardsmen and reservWindows of Waipahu, Hawaii. ists, Vaughn conceded. And by Echiverri has worked for Barrett for their nature, he said, Guard and 10 years as a delivery driver, taking Reserve members can leave bigvinyl frame windows and doors to ger holes in communities when job sites. away because a disproportionate “We have to replace him with number are volunteer firefighttwo people, he’s so self-sufficient ers, emergency medical techniand good with customers,” Barrett cians, highway patrol officers said. “We really miss him when and coaches, he said. he’s gone.” Sumner said large businesses Echiverri nominated Coastal are financially more able to supWindows for a Freedom Award beport their employees during decause during his deployments Barployment. But when key employrett stayed in touch with Echiverri ees are absent, any size company and his family. Coastal also will can feel it. close any pay gap if military pay National Guardsmen from the 50th Personnel Services Battalion, “Take a large company that falls below company wages. 250th Personnel Services Detachment and the Afghan National makes left-handed weegee nuts. Echiverri said he nominated Army Embedded Training Team (Task Force Phoenix) march through A production manager has reCoastal for the award because Lawrenceville, N.J., during a welcome home ceremony. sponsibility for 10 to 20 people to of how Barrett has stuck by him make X number of nuts during a through years of deployments. “They take care of my family when I’m gone. He does a lot of things shift. When two to four members are called up, that individual has [that are] out of reach for me,” said Echiverri. lost 20 percent or more production capability. So you have to look at “The biggest thing is love and support,” said Barrett. “It’s kind of it as a small business within a large business.” like how you treat a family member.” Vaughn seemed a little surprised himself that there hasn’t been a spike of USERRA complaints given that, before 9/11, nobody was ready for “a long-term conflict that took soldiers away on a rotational Meeting Challenges Lt. Gen. Clyde A. Vaughn, director of the Army National Guard, basis.” “We’ve all been catching up real, real fast over the last seven said employer support for his 333,000 soldiers has improved “fairly dramatically” in recent years as the Guard rebalanced its force to years,” Vaughn added. He said he is proud of how the nation -- service personnel, communities and employers – has responded. make deployments shorter and more predictable. But Samuel F. Wright, a retired Navy captain, attorney and expert “We stabilized the demand … and we don’t have as many people deployed,” Vaughn said, noting that 50,000 Army Guard personnel on USERRA, said he is skeptical of claims that today’s employers are more supportive of Reserve and Guard employees. currently are deployed, about half the number mobilized in 2005.
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Wright conceded he has no data to support his skepticism except year. Another change requires civilian employers and pension plans the individual cases filed in federal court for USERRA violations. They suggest employers are trying various ways to get around the law, he to extend some USERRA benefits to families of Reserve and Guard said. Some are converting reservists’ jobs to contractor status so they members killed in service or so seriously disabled they cannot return are not required to rehire or to maintain benefits during deployment. to work, even with reasonable employer accommodations for their disOther employers have tried to fire Guard or Reserve members before abilities. The changes apply to deaths or disabilities on or after Jan. 1, 2007. they deploy or to use company restructurReserve and Guard members, and eming schemes as an excuse to avoid rehiring In 2004, the ESGR ployers, should contact ESGR first with returning employees. handled 6,000 any problem, Sumner said. ESGR can’t get Yet Wright conceded his perspective is complaint cases. involved after a complaint goes to the Labased on individual lawsuits, not the kind By 2007, the numbor Department of Labor or to an attorney. of data the Labor Department or ESGR ber had fallen to At Robinson Transport, the company’s collect that might detect a trend but, so far, 2,600 and stayed offer of an extra $1,000 a month while have not. at that level in deployed has encouraged several employ“Maybe I’m too negative but if the em2008. ees to try to join the Utah Guard. “For 27 ployer did all that the law required, or even years, they’ve done nothing but treat me more,” Wright said, “then there should be with respect,” said Roger Orton, adding he no case.” Congress this year strengthened the USERRA in a couple of ways is proud of his company. For his part, Kim Robinson said he’s never been as moved as when by passing the Heroes Earnings Assistance and Relief Tax Act (PL 110245). One provision allows small business employers a tax credit of up a general at a Sept. 12 Washington, D.C., reception for Freedom Award to 20 percent on wage differentials paid to employees called to active winners shook his hand and he came away holding a medallion in the duty. For example, if the military pays a member $1,000 a month less shape of a dog tag. It had three stars on one side. Embossed on the other side were the than his civilian wages, an employer who closes that monthly gap can claim a tax credit of $200 a month. It applies only to employers with words, “Warrior Citizen: Presented for Excellence.” “I’ll cherish that forever,” he said. J fewer than 50 workers and covers pay differentials of up to $20,000 a
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Army Spc. Eric Waddle takes a break while providing security at a school under construction in Iraqâ€™s Al Awad region. PHOTO: Spc. Daniel Herrera
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