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One of the famous Marshals of the Soviet Union Georgiy Zhukov once said that a state would face a great challenge in a war in case it was not capable to rebuff an air attack. Since 1940 the experience of naval combat operations has shown that the main enemy for the Navy is aircraft and missiles, which can be used by different platforms. Up to 60% of losses the Navies of the belligerents suffered from aircraft assault. That tendency continued after the WWII and even was increased in local conflicts and wars. The air operations during the "Musketeer" operation, conflicts in the Middle East and war in Vietnam have shown that being developed, the aircraft became the main factor to fight the enemy Navy at the sea. The wide combat use of aircraft at the sea led to the development of naval air defense systems. This article is devoted to the Fleet AD systems designed in the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. THE BEGINNING The history of the Fleet air defense systems in the Soviet Union started after the WWII. In forties and fifties of the last century a very new weapon system, the missile, emerged. The first missiles appeared in Fascist Germany and were implemented in some combat operations. Apart from the V-l aircraft-type missile and V-2 ballistic missile the Germans invented the "Wasserfall", "Rheintochter", "Encian", "Schmetterling" AA missiles at a range of fire from 18 up to 50 kilometers and they were used to rebuff air raids by the Allied aviation. After the WWII the United States of

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ARMS Defence Technologies Review

America and the Soviet Union actively embarked on the development of AD systems. USA were very deeply involved in the development and as a result in 1953 the "Nike Ajax" AA system was fielded in the Army and Air Force. The "Nike Ajax" 's range of fire was 40 kilometers. The Navy received the "Terrier" AA system with the same firing range. The fielding ofthe AA missile systems at the surface ships was caused by the appearance of the jet aviation in the end of forties. Due to the high speed and altitude the jets could be hardly stroked by the surface ship AA artillery.

The Soviet Union considered the development of AA systems as a paramount task. That's why since 1952 the (-25 "Berkut" (SA-l according to NATO classification) AA system was fielded around Moscow. However usually the Soviet anti aircraft systems that were mainly consisted of interceptors and AA artillery could not prevent the continuous violations of the country's airspace by the numerous American reconnaissance aircraft. That situation lasted up to the end of 1950-s when the Soviet Union fielded the (-75 "Volhov" mobile AA missile system (SA-2 according to NATO classification) with tech-


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AIR DEFENSE nical characteristics that provided interception of any aircraft of that time. Later in 1961 the USSR Air Defense Units were equipped with the C-125 "Neva" low-altitude AA missile system that could engage a target at a range of 20 kilometers. The AA systems in the Soviet Union spring exactly from the above mentioned anti-aircraft missiles due to the fact that AA systems initially were developed and fielded in the Army and Air Defense Units. The idea was to unify the ammunition, in other words the missile. At the same time abroad ad hoc Fleet AA systems were usually developed. The M-2 'Volhov-M" (SA-N-2 according to NATO classification) AA missile system was the first one designed for the Soviet Fleet and installed at the cruisers. The system was developed from the C-75 AA missile system fielded in the AD units. The works on marinization of the AA system were led by Chief Designer 5. Zaytsev. Chief Designer P. Grushin from the "Fakel" Navy Design Centre was in charge of missile development. At the end the system appeared to be cumbersome one. Radio command guidance system made the "Korvet-Sevan" antenna station too big and the B-753 two-stageIiquid-propellant-jet-engine SAM of considerable dimensions needed the proper launcher and ammunition depot. Furthermore a missile needed to be fueled with oxidizer prior to the launch, and as a result the fire power potential left something to be desired. As far as the combat stock is concerned it was too small- only 10 AA missiles. The M-2 "Volhov-M" was fielded at the "Dzerzhinsky" project 70E experimental ship. However the system was in a single copy and never deployed at other ships in spite of being officially passed into service in 1962. Later on the AA system was deactivated and never used.

Volna AA Missile System at large antisubmarine ship

Development Centre under the direction of Chief Designer I. Ignatyev since 1955. The system was based on the Army Air Defense System C-125. P. Grushin was in charge of improving the missile. The development prototype was tested at the "Bravy" project 56K destroyer. The fire power potential (estimated) was 50 seconds between the salvos, maximum range of fire was from 12 up to 15 kilometers depending on the altitude of a target. The M-1 "Volna" consisted of double-girder stabilized guided launcher equipped with the feed and loading system, "Yatagan" command and control system, 16 B-600 5AMs, stored in two underdeck ammunition magazines, and maintenance equipment kit. The radarhoming B-200 missile had two stages

and gunpowder booster and sustainer engines. The warhead consisted of several sensor fuses and 4500 prefragmented elements. Antenna station had five antennas: two small for approximate aiming, one for commands transmitting and two antennas for tracking and accurate aiming. The M-1 "Volna" was a single channel aiming AA system, it means that other targets servicing was impossible until the first target engagement. Furthermore in case of large ranges the degradation of accuracy took place. However for that time the anti-aircraft system appeared to be effective. In 1962 it was fielded at the "Komsomolets Ukrainy" project 61, 61M, 61MP and 61ME large anti-submarine ship as well as the "Grozny" project 58 and "Admiral Zozula" proj-

Volna AA Missile System at large antisubmarine ship

M-1 "VOLNA" ANTI-AIRCRAFT MISSILE SYSTEM Almost at the same time with the development of M-2 AA system the M-1 'Volna" (SA-N-1 according to NATO classification) anti-aircraft missile system had been under development at the "Altair" Research and

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Antenna Past af OSA-M AA missile system fielded at missile speed baat

kilometer-range-of- fire were called ship self-defense missile systems.

ect 1134 missile cruisers and upgraded destroyers project 56K, 56A, 57A_ Later on in 1965 and 1968 the M-l "Volna" was upgraded and equipped with a new missile B-601 which was able to engage a target at a range of 22 kilometers. In 1976 "Volna" was upgraded once more and named "Volna-P". The system was enhanced with highly resistant to jamming system. In 1980 when sheeps were needed to be protected from lowflying anti-ship missiles, the system was deeply upgraded and named "Volna-N" armed with the B-601M SAM. The upgraded command and control system provided the engagement both low-altitude targets and surface targets. Gradually the M-l AA system became a Multipurpose Air Defense System. According to the main technical characteristics and combat effectiveness the "Volna" AA missile system was comparable to the "Tartar" AA missile system made

Launcher afOSA-M AA missile system

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ARMS Defence Technologies Review

in the United States of America for it's Fleet. However the Soviet made AA system lost on range of fire against the last modifications of the American "Tartar" AA missile system. Today the "Volna-p n is fielded at the "Smetlivy" large anti-submarine ship project 61 based in the Black Sea Fleet. In 1987-1995 the ship was upgraded in accordance with the project 01090 and armed with the "Uran n anti-ship missile system. Currently the ship has been reclassified to the destroyer class. There was no classification of the Fleet Air Defense Systems at the beginning. However in the beginning of sixties the Fleet AD systems were classified as following: systems with range of fire above 90 kilometers were called long range AA missile systems, up to 60 kilometers - medium range AA missile systems and up to 30 kilometers short range AA missile systems_ AA misSile systems with 20

"OSA-M" AA MISSILE SYSTEM The first "OSA-M" (SA-N-4 according to NATO classification) ship selfdefense missile system was developed in 1960 by Scientific Research Centre #20. at the beginning this AA missile system was developed in two variant: for Army and Navy. The Fleet system was planned to be used to engage both air and surface targets at a range up to 9 kilometers. Mr. V. Efremov was appointed as a Chief Designer. Initially the missile was planned to be equipped with homing device, however, at that time it was technically very hard to implement the idea as well as the cost of the missile was estimated as very high_ As a result the missile was equipped with radar guidance system. nOSA-M" used the same 9M33 SAM as the AA missile system developed for the Land Forces and as far as command and control unit is concerned the unification rate was 70%. The canard missile had one-stagetwo-mode solid propellant engine. The warhead was equipped with a radio proximity fuse_ The distinguishing feature of the Fleet version of this AA missile system was the location of it's own radar unit 4P33 in the integrated antenna station together with target tracker and command transmission station. The radar unit provided the target acquisition at a distance from 25 up to 50 kilometers (it depends on the altitude of a target). Therefore the AA missile system was able to detect and engage targets itself. The combat reaction time was decreased subsequently. The "OSA-M" AA missile system consisted of the ZiF-122 launcher, which two ramps in-down position were housed in a cylindric magazine.ln battery the ramps moved up with two AA missiles on them. The missiles were housed in four rotating drums, five missiles in each. The tests of the "OSA-M" AA missile system took place in 1967 at the OS-24 project 33 experimental ship (the re-built light cruiser "Voroshilov" project 26 bis). Afterwards the system was tested up to 1971 at the leadeng ship project 1124. After a lot


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AIR DEFENSE of weaponization works had been done, in 1973 the 'OSA-M" AA missile system was passed into service. Due to its perfect technical characteristics and operating convenience the AA system became a popular Fleet anti-aircraft missile system. The system was fielded not only at big surface ships like the "Kiev" project 1143 heavy aviation cruiser and the "Nikolaev" project 1134B large anti-submarine ship as well as at the "Bditelniy" project 1135 and 1135M frigates, but also at smail-displacement ships, like small anti-submarine ships, gUided missile boats. In 1975 the modernization of the 'OSA-M" AA missile system began with the aim to decrease the altitude of a target engagement from 50 meters up to 25 meters. The modernized version was named "OSA-MA" and passed into service in 1979. the system was fielded at the "Slava" project 1164 and 11641 missile cruisers as well as the "Kirov" project 1144 nuclear powered guided missile cruisers. In the beginning of 1980-s the second stage of modernization took place. The AA missile sustem was designated as "OSA-MA-2". It was able to engage a target at an altitude of five meters. The technical characteristics of the Russian "OSA-MA-2" anti-aircraft missile system can be compared with French "Crotale Naval" wich was developed in 1978 and one year later passed in to the service. The French 'Crotale Naval" AA system has a lighter missile and is based on a unified launcher with guidance control unit, however it does not have its own target acquisition radar. At the same time the "OSA-MA-2" was significantly not up to the American "Sea Sparrow" AA missile system, especially in range of fire and rate of fire. 'OSA-MA-2" was not up to the British "Sea Wolf" in simultaneous target handling capacity. Today the 'OSA-MA" and "OSAMA-2" anti-aircraft missile systems are fielded at the "Marshal Ustinov", "Varyag" and "Moskva" project 1164 and 11641 gUided missile cruisers, the "Kerch" and 'Ochakov" project 1134B large anti-submarine ships, four frigates project 1135, 113S2 and 1135M, two Bora Class guided missile hovercraft (project 1239), 13 missile

boats project 1134, 11341 and 11347, two the Gepard class frigates (project 11661K) and 20 small anti-submarine ships (project 1124, 1124M and 1124MU).

"SHTORM" M-ll AA MISSILE SYSTEM In 1961 in Scientific and Research Centre #10 Chief Engineer G. Volgin embarked on the development of The Launch of 5HTORM AA Missile

MAIN TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOVIET AND RUSSIAN FLEET AA MISSILE SYSTEMS Name

M-l "Volna"

M-l "Volna"

Passed into Service

1962

1968

1969

NATO Classification

SA-N-1A

SA-N-1B

SA-N-3A

4000 lS000

4000 22000

6000 33500

100 10000

100 14000

100 2S000

2

2

2

V-600

V-601

V-611

2

2

1

Solid Propellant

Solid Propellant

Solid Propellant

923

980

1840

S,89 0,38/0,55

S,95 0,38/0,55

6,17 0,65

-700

730

900

600

700

800

High Explosive with with Ready-Made Elements

High Explosive with with Ready-Made Elements

High Explosive

Range of Fire (m) Min.: Max.: Operating Altitude Min.: Max.:

M-11 "Shtorm"

Simultaneous Target Handling Capacity (number oftargets) Simultaneous Target Handling Capacity (number of missiles) Designation of Missile Number of Stages Type of Engine AA Missile Launching Weight (kg) Missile Dimentions (m) Length: Diameter: AA Missile Maximum Speed (m/sec) Maximum Target Speed (m/sec) Type of warhead Warhead Weight (kg) Guidance System C2 system Antenna Station Tracking Range (km) Launcher Designation

60

72

125

Beam-Rider Guidance System

Beam-Rider Guidance System

Beam-Rider Guidance System

YATAGAN

YATAGAN

GROM, GROM-M

4P90

4P90

4P60

ZiF-l01

ZiF-l0l or 102

B-189/ B-187 /B-192

Pedestal Mount Trainable Launcher

Pedestal Mount Trainable Launcher

Pedestal Mount Trainable Launcher

Number of Launching Ramps

2

2

2

Combat Stock per One Launcher

16

16 or 32

48/24/40

Firing Interval (sec)

50

30

50

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Antenna Past of Shtorm AA missile system fielded at large anti-submarineship

"Grom-M", which was specially designed for the large anti-submarine ships, was able to proVide command and control not only over anti-aircraft missiles but also the "Metel" anti-submarine missile system. The tests of the M-ll "Shtorm" were conducted at the 0(-24 experimental ship. In 1969 the system passed into sevice. Due to the powerful warhead the anti-aircraft system prOVided effective both air and surface target engagement level with 40 meter accuracy. The 9M317M radar was able to track and detect small targets flying at very low altitudes and lock a missile on the target. However despite its outstanding technical characteristics the M-11 "Shtorm" AA system could a multipurpose AA system specially for the Soviet Union Navy. M-11 "Shtorm" (according to NATO classification SA-N-3" was designed to engage high-speed-all-altitude targets at a distance of 30 kilometers. Its main elements were the same as the elements that were used in the "Volna" anti-aircraft missile system. However the dimensions of some elements were slightly increased. The fire could be done in salvo of two missiles with the interval between salvos of 50 seconds. The two-ramp and stabilized system

Shtorm AA missile system fielded at large anti-submarineship

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ARMS Defence Technologies Review

mas mounted on the B-189 pedestal with underdeck magazine for storage and feeding the missiles. The magazine consisted of four drums with six missiles in each. The B-6l1 one-stage-solid-propellant engine SAM had 150 kg. high explosive warhead which was eqUipped with a radio proximity fuse. The "Grom" radio command and control system included the 4P60 antenna station that consisted of two couples of target and missile tracking parabolic antenna and a command transmission antenna. The updated version

be housed only at the ships with displacement over 5500 tons. The system was fielded at the "Moskva" and "Leningrad" (project 1143) helicopter carriers and also at the large anti-submarine ships projects l134A and 1134B. In 1972 the modernized "Shtorm-M" AA missile system was put into service. The system has 100-meter low limit of target engagement as well as it is able to engage high-altitude targets including receding target engagement. Later on in 1980-1986 the system was a subject of deep modernization and named "Storm-N". The system received a new missile - B-6llM. The missile was able to engage low-flying anti-ship missiles. Some ships (project 1134B) were armed with this AA missile system. Taking into account main technical characteristics the M-ll "Storm" anti-aircraft missile system was at the same level with American "Terrier" and British "Sea Slag". However the Soviet made AA missile system lost some points in weight and range of fire at the end of 60-es the beginning of 70-es, when in West some new anti-aircraft systems were put in inventory. In addition Western made anti-aircraft missiles were eqUipped with semi-active guidance systems that time, Today the M-l1 "Storm" anti-aircraft missile system is fielded at two large anti-submarine ships - "Kerch" and "Ochakov" (project 1134 B), both


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~'~I:~~ DEFENSE are enlisted to the Russian Black Sea Fleet. C-300F "FORT" ANTI-AIRCRAFT MISSILE SYSTEM C-300 F "Fort" (SA-N-6 according to NATO classification) was the first long-range Soviet AA missile system that was able to provide Simultaneous Target Handling Capacity. The system was created by the "Altair" Research and Development Institute. The reason of the long-range missile development in the Soviet Union was caused by the intention of the leading Western countries to engage enemy targets at a longer distance as well as the appearance of than up-to-date antiship missiles that were able to launch them from the standoff distance. Another reason was to create the Joint Air Defense of Naval Force. New anti-ship missiles were characterized by high speed, highly-maneuverable capabilities, stealth technologies and had very high damage affect. So, the available fleet anti-aircraft systems were not effective especially in case of mass launch. Therefore the main task was not only to increase the range of fire but also to increase fire power potential. The C-300F "Fort" AA missile system was based on the C-300 AA missile system that was fielded in the Soviet Union's Air Defense Units. The naval version had the same missileB-500P one stage SAM. The system was designed to engage highspeed- maneuverable pinpoint targets (in particular the "Tomahawk" and "Harpoon" anti-ship missiles) at all altitudes from 25 meters up to operational ceiling of all aircraft as well as to destroy anti-ship missile air carriers and jammers. For the first time in the world Soviet engineers implemented the fly-out method and jamresistant multichannel control which was planned to track simultaneously up to 12 targets and engage simultaneously up to six air targets. Moreover the 130-kilogram missile warhead was able to engage surface targets at a distance of radar horizon. The C-300F "Fort" AA missile system was equipped with illuminating and gUidance radar with phased array antenna which prOVided not on-

FORT AA Missile

System

MAIN TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOVIET AND RUSSIAN FLEET AA MISSILE SYSTEMS M-ll "Shtorm-N"

S-300F "Fort"

Passed into Service

1980

1983

1990

NATO Classification

SA-N-3B

SA-N-6A

SA-N-6B

6000 35000

5000 75000

5000 93000

100 25000

25 25000

25 25000

6

6

Name

Range of Fire (m) Min.: Max.: Operating Altitude Min.: Max.: Simultaneous Target Handling Capacity (number of targets) Simultaneous Target Handling Capacity (number of missiles) Designation of Missile Number of Stages Type of Engine AA Missile Launching Weight (kg) Missile Dimentions (m) Length: Diameter: AA Missile Maximum Speed (mlsec)

S-300F "Fort"

2

12

B-611M

B-500P

1

1

1

Solid Propellant

Solid Propellant

Solid Propellant

1840

1665

1900

6,17 0,65

7,25 0,51

7,5 0,52

48H6

900

2000

3000

Maximum Target Speed (m/sec)

800

1300

2800

Type of warhead

High Explosive

High Explosive

High Explosive

125

133

143

Beam-Rider Guidance System

Track-via-Missile Beam-Rider Guidance System

Track-via-Missile Beam-Rider Guidance System

GROM-M

FORT

FORT

Warhead Weight (kg) Guidance System C2 system Antenna Station Tracking Range (km)

4P60 50 B-187 I B-192

B-203/B-2041 B-203A

B-2041 B-203A

Pedestal. gUided Mount

Pedestal, gUided Mount

Pedestal, guided Mount

Number of Launching Ramps

2

2

2

Combat Stock per One Launcher

16

160r 32

48/24140

Firing Interval (sec)

50

30

50

Launcher Designation Launcher Type

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Iy the SAM guidance but also target location of high-altitude targets. The combined SAM guidance method was implemented in the command and control system. At first the control was executed by radar and at the final stage by a semi-active airborne radio direction finder. Due to new components that were used in the solid-propellant engine the SAM became lighter then the missile used in the "Shtorm" AA missile system, but at the same time C-300F "Fort" AA missile got range of fire three times as big as "Shtorm" had. Due to the vertical launch system the preset firing intervai appeared to be three seconds and pre-launching time was significantly decreased. Transporter-launcher containers with SAMs were housed under the deck in rotating magazines with eight missiles in each magazine. To decrease the number of starter openings on the deck every magazine had one missile hatch. When SAM is launched the magazine rotates automatically and a second missile missile is put in firing position. The revolving system negatively affected to the weight of the vertical launch system which became also very bulky. Due to this fact the C-300F "Fort" AA missile system was fielded at the ships with displacement more then 6S00 tons. The System was tested at the "Azov" large anti-submarine ship in 1975. Officially C-300F "Fort" was put into service in 1983. The "Kirov" and "Slava" (projects 1144 and 1164) guided missile cruisers were armed with C-300F. In the end of eightFORTAA Missile System at Missile Guided Cruiser

Antenna Past of FORT-M AA Missile System at Heavy Nuclear-Powered Cruiser

46 • ARMS Defence Technologies Review


- - - - - URAGAN AA Missile

ies of the last century a new SAM, 48H6, was developed by the "Fakel" Design 8ureau for the C-300F AA missile system. SAM was unified with C-300 PM for Air Defense Units and had 120-kilometer range-of fire. New SAMs were fielded at the "Kirov" guided missile cruiser. In 1990-s the export variant of the AA system appeared. It was named "Rif". Later on the C-300F was upgraded and designated as "Fort-M" where lighter antenna station and up-to-date command and control system were used. Nowadays "Fort-M" is fielded at the "Pyotr Velikiy" heavy nuclear-powered cruiser. Beside this cruiser, the "Fort" AA missile system is fielded at the "Marshal Ustinov", "Varyag" and "Moskva" (projects 1164 and 11641) guided missile cruisers. The further modernization is said to be done in the near future with the aim to decrease the dimensions of SAM. The modernization will positively effect combat effectiveness and increase SAM combat stock four times. ANTI-AIRCRAFT MISSILE SYSTEM M-22 "URAGAN" Almost at the same time with "Fort" AA system the development of the short-range Anti-Aircraft Missile System M-22 "Uragan" (SA-N-7 according to NATO classification) started. The range of fire was planned to be up to 2S kilometers. The development of the AA system was conducted in "Altair" Research Institute under the leadership of Chief Engineer G. Volgin. According to the tradition the missile of the M-22 "Uragan" AA system was unified with the "BUK" AA system that was in service in the Army. "Uragan" is designed to engage different air targets at all altitudes including low-altitude and high-altitude targets, which fly from different directions. For this purpose the AA system has modular structure that provided 12 targeting channels on board of a ship and made the system easy in service. "Uragan"was planned to be fielded not only at new combat ships but also insted of old anti-aircraft missile system "Volna" after the up-grade of some old ships. The destingushing feature of the new AA system was the "Oreh" (Nut) command and control station with semi-

System

MAIN TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOVIET AND RUSSIAN FLEET AA MISSILE SYSTEMS S-300 FM M-22 "Uragan-Tornado Name "Fort-M" "Uragan" 1990s 1990s 1983 Passed into Service (development) NATO Classification

SA-N-6C

SA-N-7

Range of Fire (m) Min.: Max.:

8000 120000

3S00 25000

Operating Altitude Min.: Max.:

10 25000

10 15000

Simultaneous Target Handling Capacity (number of targets)

6

6

Simultaneous Target Handling Capacity (number of missiles)

12

12...18

48H6E2

9M38(M)

1

1

1

Solid Propellant

Solid Propellant

Solid Propellant

AA Missile Launching Weight (kg)

1800

690

Missile Dimentions (m) Length: Diameter:

7,5 0,52

5,55 0,4

AA Missile Maximum Speed (m/sec)

3000

1100

Maximum Target Speed (m/sec)

2800

850

High Explosive

High Explosive

High Explosive

143

70

70

Radio-Command With Semi-Active Guidance

Semi-Active Radar

Semi-Active Radar

Fort-M

ZR900reh

Tornado

Designation of Missile Number of Stages Type of Engine

Type of warhead Warhead Weight (kg) Guidance System C2 system

9M317M

OP-3

Antenna Station Tracking Range (km) Launcher Designation Launcher Type

B-203A

MC-196

Vertical-launch revolver type

Pedestal, guided Mount

Vertical-launch honeycomb system

6

1

36

Combat Stock per One Launcher

46

24

36

Firing Interval (sec)

4

12

Number of Launching Ramps

5(55)2010 • 47


active guidance system. "Uragan" did not have its own search and detection equipment, the initial information regarding a target was received from the Radio Detection and Ranging equipment of a ship. By The missile gUidance was provided by a target illumination searchlight control radar and the number of targeting channels depended on the number of that radars. The feature of the AA system is that the launch of a missile is possible only after hominghead lock-on. That is why the M-22 "Uragan" AA system used a singlegirder launcher MC-196. The use of the single-girder launcher decreased the reload time in comparison with "Volna" and "Shtorm" AA missile systems. The estimated gap between salvos was 12 seconds. The underdeck depot housed 24 anti-aircraft missiles. The 9M38 single-stage missile has two-mode solid-propellant jet engine and 70 kg high-explosive warehead with contact and proxim-

ity radio fuse. The former is used for surface targets and the latter for air targets. The tests of "Uragan" were conducted in 1976-1982 at the "Provorny" large anti-submarine ship. In 1983 the AA missile system was put into service and was fielded at the 'Sovremenny" (project 956) destroyers. Prior to putting into service the 'Uragan" AA system was armed with upgraded missile 9M38M1 which was unified with the 'BUK-M1" AA missile system used in the Army. By 1990 another missile 9M317 - was developed and tested. The missile could be used both naval "Uragan" and Army "BUK-M2" anti-aircraft missile systems. The missile was able to engage cruise missiles more effectively and had extended range of fire up to 45 kilometers. At that time the use of single-girder launchers were considered to be outdated and vertical-launch missile systems appeared. Therefore a new anURAGANTORNAOOAA Missile System Mock-up

lIIuminoting Light of URAGAN AA Missile System

URAGAN (SHTIL) AA Missile System

48 •

ARMS Defence Technologies Review

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ti-aircraft system "Uragan-Tornado" with the upgraded vertical-launch 9M317M missile was developed. The missile has new target seeking device, new solid-propellant jet engine with gas-dynamic system, that provides the missile inclination to a target right after the launch. The continuation of development and further tests of the AA missile system were failed to be continued due to the collapse of the Soviet Union. In the end of 90-s Russia inked the agreement with China to build some destroyers project 956E, which were armed with the export version of the M-22 anti-aircraft missile system named "Shtil". Between 1999 and 2005 the Chinese Navy received two ships project 9S6E and two ships project 956EM armed with the "Shtil" AA missile system. Today Russian Navy has only seven destroyers project 956 and 956A which are armed with the "Uragan" system. Today a new version named 'Yer


----=-----(Hedgehog) is said to be under development for the Russian Navy. The system is planned to be armed with the vertical-launch 9M317M missile.

ANTI-AIRCRAFT MISSILE SYSTEM "KINJAL" In the beginning of 80-s the "Garpun" and "Exocet" anti-aircraft missiles were fielded in the navies of the Unitaed States of America and other NATO countries. This forced the Russian Navy Command to expedite the development of a new generation self-defense anti-aircraft missile system. The engineering of the AA missile system started in Scientific Development and Production Center "Altair" in 1975 under the "Kinjal" (SA-N-9 according to NATO classification) designation. The chief of the project was S. Fadeev. The 9M3302 missile was developed in Design Bureau "Fakel" under the leadership of P. Grushin. The missile is unified with the "TOR" self-propelled AA missile system that is used in the Army. To get high performance of "Kinjal" the designers used the key features of the "Fort" long-range AA missile system. In particular the differential radar with electronically-controlled-beam phased array antenna, vertical launch, revolver-type launcher with eght missiles. To increase the endurance, like "OSA-M" has, a in-built omnirange radar was included in the system. The radar is housed in the 3P9S antenna post. The radio command and control system was used which distingushed by its high accuracy. In 60x60 degrees volumetric coverage the AA system is able to simultaneously engage up to four high-altitude targets by eight missiles. A television-optical tracking system was used to increase jamming resistance. The 9M330-2 single stage AA missile has solid-propellant jet engine with gas-dynamic system that provides a missile inclination towards a target right after the launching. The estimated period between salvos is three seconds. The "Kinjal" AA missile system can have threefour the drum-type 9C95 launchers. The tests of the "Kinjal" AA missile system were held since 1982 at the "MPK-l04" small antisubmarine warfare ship, which was built under proj-

MAIN TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOVIET AND RUSSIAN FLEET AA MISSILE SYSTEMS Name

"Osa-M"

"Osa-MA-2"

Kinjal

Passed into Service

1973

1980-s

1986

NATO Classification

SA-N-4A

SA-N-4C

SA-N-9

1500 9000

1500 10000

1500 12000

SO 6000

5 6000

10 6000

Range of Fire (m) Min.: Max.: Operating Altitude Min.: Max.: Simultaneous Target Handling Capacity (number of targets) Simultaneous Target Handling Capacity (number of missiles) Designation of Missile

4 2

2

8

9M33

9M33

9M330-2

1

1

1

Solid Propellant

Solid Propellant

Solid Propellant

AA Missile Launching Weight (kg)

127

127

165

Missile Dimentions (m) Length: Diameter:

3,15 0,21

3,15 0,21

3,1 0,35

Number of Stages Type of Engine

AA Missile Maximum Speed (m/sec)

800

800

850

Maximum Target Speed (m/sec)

420

-500

700

High Explosive

High Explosive

High Explosive

15

15

14,5

Type of warhead Warhead Weight (kg) Guidance System C2 system

Beam-Rider Beam-Rider Beam-Rider Guidance System Guidance System Guidance System 4P33

4P33

3P95

ZiF-122

ZiF-122

CM-9

Girder, extendable, gUided

Vertical-launch honeycomb system

Antenna Station Tracking Range (km) Launcher Designation

Girder, extendable, gUided

Number of Launching Ramps

2

2

4...8

Combat Stock per One Launcher

20

20

32 ....64

Firing Interval (sec)

30

30

3

5(55).2010 • 49


KINJAL AA Missile System

KOMAR-GIBKA AA Missile System Mock-up

ect 1124K. Rather complicated design of the anti-aircraft missile system lagged the end of the tests, so it was put into service only in 1986. As a result some combat ships that were planned to be armed with the "Kinjal" AA missile system, were not able to get it, like the "Udaloy" large antisubmarine warfare ship (project 1155). "Kinjal" was not fielded at the "Novorossiysk" aircraft carrier (project 11433), "Frunze" and "Kalinin" nuclear-powered guided missile cruisers (project 11442), however, the places for further installation of the AA systems were reserved. The "Admiral Chabanenko" large antisubmarine warfare ship (project 11551), "Baku" aircraft carrier (project 11434) and "Tbilisi" aircraft carrier (project 11435), as well as "Petr Velikiy" nuclear-powered guided missile cruisers (project 11442), "Neustrashimy" corvette (project 11540) were armed with the "Kinjal" AA missile system. Beside the aircraft carriers project 11436 and 11437 were planned to be armed with the system. In accordance with technical assignment of "Kinjal" the system should have the same weight and dimensions parameters as "OSA-M" self-defense AA system has. However they failed. That is why the anti-aircraft system can be fielded only at ships from 1000 up to 1200 tone displacement. If one compares the "Kinjal" AA missile system with the same class Western made systems, like American "Sea Sparrow" and British "Sea Wolf 2", it is getting clear that "Kinjal" is second to former in main tactical characteristics, but is equal to the latter one. Today the "Kinjal" AA missile system is fielded at eight ships project 1155 and 11551, "Petr Velikiy" nuclear-powered guided missile cruisers (project 11442), "Kuznetsov" aircraft carrier (project 11435), two corvettes project 11540. the system under designation "Klinok" is offered to foreign customers. COMBINED AIR DEFENSE SYSTEM Along with production of antiaircraft missile systems the development of combined artillery-missile anti-aircraft systems were in proces in the Soviet Union. In the be-

50 •

ARMS Defence Technologies Review


- - - - - ginning of 80-s in Tula Instrument Design 8ureau, the 2C6 "Tunguska" self-propelled air defense system was invented. "Tunguska" has 30mm guns and two-stage anti-aircraft missiles. It was the first in the world the series-produced combined gun-missile anti-aircraft system. Based on the "Tunguska" AA system the desicion to develop a naval version of a short range AA system to effectively engage high-altitude air targets including anti-ship missiles in shadow zones of missile AA systems as well as to substitute AA small-caliber gun systems. The development of the naval version, that was designated as 3M87 "Kortik" (CADS-N-l according to NATO classification), was assigned to Tula Instrument Design Bureau. The Chief Designer, who was responsible for the development, was A. Shipunov. The system consisted of one command-and-control unit with a radar and from one up to six modules. Each combat module was made as a turret that is able to rotate 360 degrees, and had two 30-mm automatic guns A018 with 6-burrel rotating unit, Iinkless ammunition feed magazines for 30mm rounds and two launching units with four missiles in a unit, tracking radar, missile guidance station, TVOptical system and instrument compartment. There are 24 additional AA missiles in a under-turret compound. The 9M311 two-stage radiocommand AA missile(SA-N-11 according to NATO classification) has solid-propellant jet engine and high explosive-rod warhead. It was fully sutable for use at the "Tunguska" AA system used in the Land Forces. The "Kortik" anti-aircraft system is able to engage pinpoint maneuver air targets at a distance of 1.5 up to eight kilometers and then to keep on inflicting demage on the target using 30-mm guns. The tests of "Kortik" took place in 1983 at the "Molniya" speed boat which was specially redesigned under project 12417. The tests with combat firing showed that the AA system was able to engage consequently up to six targets during one minute. The "Positiv" or similar radar was needed to execute the target assignment. In

1988 "Kortik" was officially put into service. The aircraft carriers project 11435,11436, 11437 as well as two last nuclear-powered guided missile cruisers project 11442, one large anti-submarine ship project 11551 and two corvettes project 11540 were

armed with the 3M87 "Kortik" anti-aircraft system. At the beginning they planned to substitute AK-630 anti-aircraft gun with "Kortik" however the plannes were failed as the dimensions of the combat module would be increased in two times.

KOMAR¡GIBKA AA Missile Syrtem

MAIN TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOVIET AND RUSSIAN FLEET AA MISSilE SYSTEMS Name

3M87 "Kortik"

3M89 "Palash"

"Palitsa" 2010 (development)

Passed into Service

1988

2005 (under tests)

NATO Classification

CADS-N-l

CADS-N-2

1500...8000 500...3000

1300...8000 500...3000

1200... 20000 500...4000

10...4000 5...1500

5...6000 5...1500

5...15000 5...1500

Range of Fire (m) Missiles: 30-mm guns: Operating Altitude Missiles: 30-mm guns: Simultaneous Target Handling Capacity (number of targets) Time Between Salvos, sec

08.10.10

Designation of Missile

9M33

9M33

9M330-2

Gun Rate of Fire, rounds/min

10000

10000

10000

Missile Designation

9M311

9M337 "Sosna-R"

5736

Number of Stages

2

2

2

Solid Propellant

Solid Propellant

Solid Propellant

60

30

74,5

2,63 0,17

2,32 0,13/0,072

3,2 0,09/0,076

Type of Engine AA Missile Launching Weight (kg) Missile Dimentions (m) Length: Diameter: AA Missile Maximum Speed (m/sec)

900

900

1300

Maximum Target Speed (m/sec)

700

700

1000

High ExplosiveRod

High ExplosiveRod

Rod

Type of warhead Warhead Weight (kg)

9

5

20

Radio

Laser Beamrider

Radio

Number of Launching Ramps

8

8

Combat Stock per One Launcher

24

Guidance System

30-mm Gun Designation Number of Barrels

AO-18

AO-18KD

AO-18KAD

2x6

2x6

2x6

5(55).2010 • 51

l.


(2 Post of KORTIK AA Missile ond Gun System

KORTIK-M AA Missile and Gun System

When Russian made "Kortil" was put into service, there were no similar anti-aircraft sysytems that were developed abroad. As a rule, the missile and gun anti-aircraft systems were developed separately. The Russian made system can be compared in missile unit with the RAM anti-aircraft self-defense system that was co-developed by Germany, USA and Danmark and was put into service in 1987. Today "Kortik" is fielded at the "Kuznetsov" aircraft carrier, "Pyotr Velikiy" heavy nuclear-powered cruiser, "Admiral Chabanenko" large antisubmarine warfare ship and two "Neustrashimy" class corvettes. In 2007 when the Steregushchy class corvette (project 20380) was put into service it was also armed with the "Kortik-M" modernized version (In this version the weight of the system was significantly decreased). In 1990 "Kortik" was offered abroad under the "Kashtan" designation. Today it is fielded at two Chinese corvettes project 956EM.

52 • ARMS Defence Technologies Review

In 1994 the production of "Kortik" was totally over but at the same time Tula Instrument Design Bureau together with "Ametist" Design Bureau embarked on the development of a new combined anti-aircraft system that received the "Palash" designation (CADS-N-2 according to NATO classification). When it was designed the main principles and schemes, used in "Kortic", were implemented. The distinguishing feature is a new jam-resistant command-and-control system based on small-size digital computer and the "Shar" optical-electronic gUidance system with TV, IR and Laser channels. The gUidance can be executed using organic ship-in built radar stations. The A-289 combat module consists of two upgraded AO-18KD six-barrel 30-mm AA guns, two launching units for four AA missiles each and commandand-control unit. The two-stagesolid-propellant-jet-engine 9M337 "Sosna-A" anti-aircraft missile has the beam guidence system at the initial stage of flight and after it is guided by laser. The tests of "Palash" took place in the city of Feodosiya and in 2005 it was installed at the R-60 "Molniya" missile boat, project 12411. The tests of this anti-aircraft system were conducted until 2007 with some breaks. Finally at that year it was officially put into service. It is worth to mention that only artillery tests of the AA system were conducted. As far as AA missile is concerned the system was supposed to be armed with the "Sosna-R" missile only for foreign customers. Finally

the works and tests of the "Palash" were over and the attention of the commanders of the Russian navy was focused on a new combined anti-aircraft system. The new AA system was designated as "Palitsa". Tula Instrument Design Bureau is engaged in to the development of this system. The "Palitsa" AA system is based on the mobile "Pantsir-Cl" anti-aircraft system which is used in the Army Air Defense units. There is no much information regarding this system. However, it is known that anti-aircraft guns remain the same - AO18KD, the AA missiles are 57E6 twostage hypersonic missiles which are able to engage targets at a distance of 20 kilometers and integrated three-dimensional search radar. The guidance system has radio-command guidance. The command-andcontrol system has target-track radar with phased array antenna and optical-electronic station. "Palitsa" was said to have very good fire power potential and is able to engage up to 10 targets during a minute. It could not be ruled out that the "Palitsa" anti-aircraft system is going to be installed at the "Gorshkov" frigate project 22350 which is now under construction. VERY SHORT-RANGE ANTIAIRCRAFT MISSILE SYSTEMS Talking about naval anti-aircraft systems it is necessary to mention man-portable SAM weapon. Since 1980s the Army used man-portable SAM weapon systems, like "Strela2M", "Strela-3", later "lgla-1", "Igla", "Igla-C", were fielded at small displacement ships and speed boats and utilized as one of means to fight against enemy aircraft. It was naturally occurred as this kind of weapon for these ships is not a main one, and on the other hand it is impossible to arm such ships with a fully-featured AA system due to the dimensions of the latter. Usually, the man-portable SAMs were stored in a special room in a ship and in case of air assault the crews were deployed in particular places on the deck of a ship being ready to repel the attack from the air. As far as submarines are concerned the crew also have such SAM


- - - - - systems which are stored in a special room as well. Apart from it, the special turrettype AA systems, MTU type, were developed for the Navy. They have from two up to four AA missiles. The use of such AA systems significantly increased the fire power of manportable SAMs as they were able to engage air targets by several AA missiles. The operator manually executed azimuth and elevation guidance. Such AA systems were fielded at a great number of Soviet and later Russian Navy, starting from speed boats up to large landing ships, as well as fleet auxiliary vessels. In 1999 Design Bureau "AltairRatep" in cooperation with other enterprises embarked upon the "Gibka" system. The Navy demanded cutting-edge AA system that can use the same missiles as Army manportable SAM weapon systems utilize, but should have remote command-and-control station and modern sight systems, as manual control is not possible every time in combat. In 2001-2002 the first very shortrange anti-aircraft system was developed and tested. The ready-made parts and elements, that were produced by the Russian defense industry enterprises, were used in this system. During the tests the engineers managed to provide AA missile guidance when rocking as well as to conduct a salvo of two missiles at one target. In 2003 the "Gibka-956" AA system was produced and was planned to be fielded at a destroyer, project 956. However, due to financial matters the further use of the system was failed. In 2005 in accordance with Navy's order, OAO "Ratep" under the leadership of Designer-in-Chief A. Zhil'cov embarked upon the development of very short-range antiaircraft system "Komar", which used the missiles of the "'gla' man-portable SAM weapon. Plus some elements and principles of "Gibka" were used as well. After the tests the first turret-type launcher was installed at the "Astrakhan" small artillery ship project 21630 (the ship was put into service in 2006). today one more "Komar" AA system is installed at the "Admiral Kulakov"

large anti-submarine ship project 11S5 (the ship is under modernization). In future the "Komar" AA system is planned to be installed at all

small ships and speed boats of the Russian Navy. ~J Leonid Karyakin PALASH-PALMA AA

Missile and Gun System

MAIN TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOVIET AND RUSSIAN FLEET AA MISSILE SYSTEMS Name Passed into Service

"Polimer-Redut"

"Komar"

2000-s (development)

2006

1000 5000 I 135000

500 6000

5 20000 I 35000

500 6000

NATO Classification Range of Fire (m) Min.: Max.: Operating Altitude Min.: Max.: Simultaneous Target Handling Capacity (number of targets) Simultaneous Target Handling Capacity (number of missiles) Designation of Missile

2 9M96/9M96M

9M342

Solid Propellant

Solid Propellant

333/420

11.7

Number of Stages Type of Engine AA Missile Launching Weight (kg) Missile Dimentions (m) Length: Diameter:

1,63 0,072

AA Missile Maximum Speed (mlsec) Maximum Target Speed (m/sec) Type of warhead

570 750 11000

320...400

Aimed

High Explosive

24

2,5

Radio-Radar Homing

Passive IR

Vertical-launch, honeycomb

Guided Turret mount

Number of Launching Ramps

16

4....B

Combat Stock per One Launcher

16

4....8

Warhead Weight (kg) Guidance System C2 system Antenna Station Tracking Range (km) Launcher Type

Firing Interval (sec)

5(55).2010 • 53


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russiannavy-airdefence