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República Bolivariana de Venezuela Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Educación Universitaria Instituto Universitario de Tecnología Antonio José de sucre Extensión Mérida

Air Pollution Deliana Torres 21.181.923 Gabriela Vergara 23.719.045 Deisy Pulgar 20.439.533


Air Pollution The name of air pollution generally applies to changes that have harmful effects on living organisms and the material elements, and not to other alterations harmless. The main mechanisms of air pollution are industrial processes that involve combustion, in industries such as automotive and residential heating, which generate carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, among other contaminants. Similarly, some industries emit harmful gases in their production processes, including chlorine and hydrocarbons have not made complete combustion.


The main sources of air pollution are: • Motor vehicles • Factory and industry • Domestic Incinerators (gas stoves and kitchen) • Grinding of materials in factories and quarries. • Use of solvents and volatile substances in industries • The cigarette Also, the gas that pollutes the air tends to damage the ozone layer, which protects us from the sun.


Motor vehicles

The cigarette

Factory and industry


Gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere Since the 1960s, it has been shown that (chlorodifluoromethane) have potentially negative effects: they contribute very significantly to the destruction of the ozone layer in the stratosphere, as well as the greenhouse effect. Montreal protocol ended production of most of these products. • Used in refrigeration and air conditioning by its strong driver are released to the atmosphere at the time of the destruction of old appliances. • Used as a propellant in aerosols, a part is released each use. Aerosols used henceforth substitute other gases such as CO2.


Carbon monoxide It is one of the products of incomplete combustion. Is hazardous to humans and animals, since it fixes the hemoglobin in the blood, preventing the transport of oxygen in the organism. It is also odorless, and when you feel a slight headache it is too late.

Carbon dioxide The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is steadily increasing due to the use of fossil fuels as an energy source and it is theoretically possible to show that this fact is responsible for producing an increase in the temperature of the Earth - greenhouse.


Sulfur dioxide The main source of sulfur dioxide emission to the atmosphere is the combustion of sulfur containing coal. Acid rain is formed when the moisture in the air combines with the nitrogen oxide or sulfur dioxide emitted from factories, power plants and vehicles that burn coal or oil. This chemical combination of gases with the water vapor to form sulfuric acid and nitric acids, substances that fall on the ground in the form of rain or acid rain.

Nitrogen monoxide Also called nitrogen oxide (II) is a colorless and slightly soluble in water produced by burning fossil fuels in transport and industry. It oxidizes very rapidly into nitrogen dioxide, nitric acid and subsequently in thus producing acid rain.


Methane Methane, CH4, is a gas that is formed when organic matter decomposes under conditions where oxygen is scarce, this is what happens in the marshes, in the swamps and rice fields in tropical humid countries. Also occurs in the process of digestion and defecation herbivores. Methane is a greenhouse gas planet Earth as it increases the heat retention capacity of the atmosphere. Ozone O3 Ozone is a natural constituent of the atmosphere, but when its concentration is higher than normal gas is considered a pollutant. The plants may be affected in their development by small concentrations of ozone. The man is also affected by ozone at concentrations between 0.05 and 0.1 mg kg, causing irritation of the nose and throat, and dry mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract


Effects of atmospheric gases into the atmosphere • Weather effects: contaminants generally rise or float away from their sources without accumulate to dangerous levels. The patterns of winds, clouds, rain and temperature can affect the rate at which contaminants move away from an area. Weather patterns that trap air pollution in valleys or on the ground can move, damage clean environments distant from the original sources. • The greenhouse effect: prevents a part of the heat received from the sun, the atmosphere and then leave the space. This heats the surface of the earth. There is a certain amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that are absolutely necessary to heat the earth, but in due proportion. Activities such as burning carbon-based fuels and increase that proportion increases greenhouse. Many scientists believe is occurring due to global warming.


• Damage to the ozone layer: Ozone is a form of oxygen O3 found in the earth's upper atmosphere. Damage to the ozone layer is mainly produced by the use of chlorofluorocarbons. The thin layer of ozone molecules in the atmosphere absorbs some of the ultraviolet rays before they reach the ground surface, whereby it becomes possible life on earth. Ozone depletion produces higher levels of ultraviolet radiation on earth, thereby endangering both plants and animals.


Some contaminants come from natural sources • Forest fires emit particles, gases and chemicals that evaporate into the atmosphere, are called volatile organic compounds, also known • ultrafine dust particles created by erosion of the soil as the water and weather loose soil layers increase the levels of suspended particles in the atmosphere. • Volcanoes spew sulfur dioxide and large amounts of pulverized lava rock known as volcanic ash. • The methane is formed in the process of decay of organic matter and damage the ozone layer. Can accumulate in high concentrations in the ground or mixed with other hydrocarbons such as forming gas pockets.


Forest Fires

Volcanoes


Adverse health effects Many studies have shown links between pollution and health effects. Increases in air pollution have been linked to decreases in lung function and increases in heart attacks. High levels of air pollution directly harm people with asthma and other lung or heart disease. The level of risk depends on several factors: • The amount of pollution in the air, • The amount of air we breathe at a given time, • The overall health. Other less direct ways in which people are exposed to air pollutants are: • Consumption of food contaminated with air toxics have been deposited where they grow; • Consumption of water contaminated with airborne substances, • Contact with soil, dust or water contaminated


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