September 2019 - Primer 1, Edition 1
About The goal of DecarbEurope is to engage decision-makers in policy and industry with solutions that can, in a cost-effective manner, decarbonise Europe at the scale and speed that is needed to achieve our climate goals. As an ecosystem of twenty sectors â€” and growing â€” the initiative connects technologies, policies, and markets. Partners of DecarbEurope commit themselves to common values of deep decarbonisation, cost-effectiveness, circularity, sector-coupling and consumer engagement.
Editorial Electric motors play a major role in all economic sectors (industrial, tertiary, residential, agricultural and in transportation), to deliver in a reliable and efficient way mechanical power to a huge variety of processes and services. The electric motor market has witnessed a major change in the last decades in several aspects: in structure, with company mergers contributing to a more global market, in content with energyefficiency policies, and in its economy due to increasing electricity prices, all aspects contributing to push the market towards more energy-efficient and sustainable products. Technological developments have led to the market introduction of very efficient motors with efficiencies well above the IE3/ NEMA Premium levels. The growing market penetration of Variable Speed Drives (VSD), also leads to large energy savings in systems with variable loads, besides providing improved reliability and quality control. The widespread application of energy-efficient motor systems translates into 3100 TWh of global electricity savings by 2040 (about 15% of the World motor systems electricity consumption). Motor system efficiency should be increased at least up to the level of the lowest life-cycle cost. Two major areas of growth for electric motors in the next decades are electric mobility for clean transportation and space heating/ cooling with high efficiency heat pumps. As a consequence, the share of electricity in final energy consumption is expected to
increase significantly. These two applications can play a major role in the new, low-carbon economy due to the fast decarbonisation of the electrical power sector. In both cases, a variety of benefits can be achieved such as the replacement of imported fossil fuels by renewable electricity, decrease of emissions both at local and at global level, as well as allowing the integration of variable renewable generation, since for example electric vehicle charging or heating and cooling of buildings can be used to balance supply and demand. The energy transition is only sustainable if material use is taken into account. The expected rise in the number of motors poses the question whether those motors have the potential to function in a circular economy to ensure ease of maintenance, repair and remanufacture. Research & Innovation support for rare earthfree motor development, as well as concepts such as Design for Recycling (DfR) can lead the way.
Anibal de Almeida, Professor at University of Coimbra, Institute of Systems and Robotics (Photo: Motor Summit 2018)
Motors power the energy transition Electric motors are a major component of the technological world in which we are living. A home today easily contains fifty electric motors. Apart from the obvious ones (the washing machine, vacuum cleaner and kitchen mixer), there are pump systems in the heating boiler, hot water boiler and dishwasher, as well as fan systems in bathroom ventilation, computer and microwave ovens. In industry, electric motors are even more widespread and often hidden in closed systems such as fans, pumps or compressors. In the energy transition, the role of electric motor systems will continue to grow, therefore making those systems highly energy efficient is imperative. The technology to make motor systems more energy efficient is available on the market and its adoption is mostly beneficial from a life-cycle costing perspective. A lot of progress has already been achieved: since 2011, minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for the major motor categories are mandatory in the EU, with new efficiency levels and categories updated in 2019. Nevertheless, there remains a savings potential that could be tapped into through better adoption of existing standards, more emphasis on a systems approach, accelerated replacement of existing motor stock and extension of MEPS to broader power ranges and product categories.
Indeed, an electric motor does not function in isolation: the motor driven unit consists of the electric motor, sometimes controlling equipment such as a soft starter or variable speed drive, supporting mechanical equipment (gear, belt, clutch, brakeâ€Ś) and the application it is driving (pump, fan, compressor). The motor system also includes all other components that suffer from energy losses while executing its function (water or air ducts, throttles, valves). Optimizing this entire motor system is the best way to minimize energy use and CO2 emissions.
Policy solutions 1.
Promote a systems approach. Assessing the energy efficiency of the entire motor system is difficult but could be achieved through mandatory motor system audits. A systems approach can also be promoted through propagation of energy management principles and through education and training initiatives. International standardisation should be further supported to facilitate the development of appropriate test methods, performance metrics and efficiency classifications.
Connect energy and carbon savings with the circular economy. The energy transition leads to an increased use of material in electric motors. This can be made sustainable through the principles of the circular economy. They translate into design for easy maintenance and repair (which can double or treble the life of energy-efficient motors), reduced use of critical raw materials, strong end-of-life requirements and strengthened management systems.
Accelerate the replacement of the existing motor stock. The average life of motors below 7.5 kW is about 12 years, which increases progressively with power, reaching 20 years for motors above 75 kW. In the EU the vast majority of motors over 15 years old are either IE0 or IE1 (low efficiency levels). Therefore there is a significant and cost-effective energy savings potential.
Revise periodically MEPS regulation to reflect technological progress and set the right ambition level. The introduction of MEPS for motors at IE4 level is a positive step forward placing the EU in a leading position. However, the power range could be more ambitious starting with motors below 75kW (e.g. 7,5 kW) and going beyond 200 kW (e.g. up to 375 kW). The same applies for the efficiency of variable speed drives (IE3 instead of IE2) and the scope of products (add certain categories currently excluded, such as increased safety motors).
Reinforce market surveillance of existing regulation. There is a lack of capacity in the EU to check motor efficiency compliance. The INTAS project proposes a promising portfolio of measures to improve market surveillance of industrial projects, such as dedicated European task forces, notification to MSAs, cooperation among stakeholders and witness testing according to standardised procedures (see www. intas-testing.eu).
Support sustainable technologies for electric mobility. The number of electric motors in this sector is expected to grow exponentially, so the technologies used should use as little critical raw materials as possible. There are rare earth-free alternatives which can match the power and torque density required by the automotive sector, in combination with a high efficiency level, needed to maximise the range of the vehicle.
Electric motors and the applications they drive (pumps, fans and compressors) are the single largest use of electricity, consuming > 2.5 times as much as lighting.
Electric motor systems use over 50% of global electricity and around 70% of global industrial electricity.
With proper market surveillance, the new EU regulation for electric motors and variable speed drives should lead to at least 23 TWh savings per year.
Each kilogram of copper added to an electric motor to increase its efficiency will save up to 10 MWh electricity over the motorâ€™s lifetime.
The use of lower loss grade steels allows to increase the motors efficiency level. Simply by changing to a lower loss grade, an IE2 electrical machine can be brought up to the IE3 level. IE3 is the minimum energy performance standard in Europe today.
Electric motor-driven systems used in heat pumps and electric vehicles save a factor three or more in final energy compared to combustion technologies.
Electric motors are everywhere - a modern home contains at least 50 motors; a luxury car has over 100 motors of different sizes. Large factories can contain hundreds or thousands of motors.
40-60% of all motor systems would benefit from the proper use of Variable Frequency Drives (VFD) to improve the energy efficiency of industrial motor systems.
When coupled to storage systems such as building heating, water distribution or certain industrial processes, electric motors can provide highly responsive flexibility services to the electricity system.
When adequately designed and optimised, induction and synchronous reluctance technologies, which donâ€™t use any critical raw material, can provide as much specific power and torque as permanent magnet motors for use in electric vehicles.
Sources: OECD, IEA, 4E EMSA, Swiss Topmotors Program, ArcelorMittal, ECI, ReFreeDrive.
Interview Why are motors important to decarbonising Europe’s energy system? Motor systems utilize more than half of the world’s electrical energy so the efficiency of these systems is crucial. The components of motor systems (motors and variable speed drives) already have decent efficiencies, so the biggest effect will be on the system level. The third main part of a motor system - the driven equipment – is the next frontier for higher energy savings. For example, downthrottling is most often used as a regulation mechanism, but it wastes energy that could be saved by simply slowing down the motor. Pumps and fans are the best candidates for this. The extended product approach as defined in standards (IEC 61800-9-2) helps customers quantify the potential energy savings. How can Europe ensure leadership in efficient motor systems? Through standardization. For example, the EN 50598 series – standards on how to determine the efficiency of motor driven systems – was published in 2016 and has now been converted into global IEC standards: the IEC 61800-9 series. The next step will be to align this methodology with the application standards (fans, pumps, compressors etc.) so it will be possible to optimize on the entire system. By setting the standards, the European industry takes lead in the development.
How will the digital and circular economy impact the motors sector? Variable speed drives are by their very nature digital and will perform as intelligent sensors very close to the process, opening possibilities for further system level energy optimization. Digitalisation also opens opportunities for new business models and services like predictive maintenance. The circular economy initiative will first impact the motor side. There the challenge is to achieve a balance between the efficiency and material requirements e.g. on the use of rare earths. The impact on variable speed drives is different and here the main challenge will the balance between liability and durability on the one side and recyclability and reparability on the other side. How can motor systems deliver flexibility services in smart grids? In current design, the possibilities for demand flexibility are low. However, many applications exist where the requirements are not always carved in stone â€“ for example it is possible to reduce the fan speed in a HVAC system if there is not enough power available without immediately impacting the comfort of people in the affected areas. Pumping systems in water treatment can also have interesting flexibility potentials.
Jesper Jerlang, Standardization Manager, Business Development, Danfoss Drives (Photo: Jesper Jerlang)
Success stories GRAVEL PLANT Switzerland HASTAG (ZĂźrich) AG is a company in the construction material sector located in Northeast Switzerland. The raw gravel stockpile and the gravel plant are connected via a conveyor belt that is 153 metres long and transports approximately 700 tonnes of raw gravel per hour to a height of 46 metres. The old 150 kW motor built in 1981 was replaced by a new high-efficiency motor IE4. The specific energy consumption per tonne of material was cut by 10%. The savings achieved (4000 francs per year) paid back the investment in 4.2 years.
SLAUGHTERHOUSE Denmark The slaughterhouse in Horsens, Denmark, processes more than 20,000 pig carcasses daily, demanding high performance of all machinery. Danish Crown has approximately 1,000 variable speed drives installed throughout the plant, controlling everything from simple conveyor belts to more advanced applications. The slaughterhouse went in 2016 through a big motor replacement project combined with automation drives. The new solutions save 30,000 EUR annually.
MANUFACTURING PLANT Switzerland IVF Hartmann AG manufactures medical products. Three pumps of efficiency level IE1 were responsible for 5% of the electricity consumption of the plant, i.e. 170 MWh/year. These were replaced by three new pumps IE4 efficiency level, cutting the electricity consumption by more than 30%. The payback time is four years, saving more than 8000 CHF per year.* These 15 kW pumps are very intensively used (4400 to 5400 hours per year). * Topmotors Best Practice No. 07
BELFAST AIRPORT Northern Ireland The airport installed variable speed drive controls on the 28 fans on the air handling units covering 35 – 40 % of the main airport. The investment was paid back in less than a year, while improving comfort conditions for the customers. The airport saves 1 million kWh per year, representing €112,000 annually.
PHOTOS (Opposite) HASTAG (Zürich) AG - Switzerland. Source: Topmotors Best Practice No. 08 (Above) Airport solutions. Source: Danfoss Drives
Improving market surveillance Given the enormous numbers of electric motors sold in the EU, setting up a system for compliance verification is challenging. The INTAS project (www.intas-testing.eu) proposes a promising portfolio of measures to improve market surveillance of industrial projects: • Set up a dedicated European market surveillance task force. • Establish a mandatory notification to market surveillance authorities for certain product categories. • Foster cooperation with national stakeholders. • Allow market surveillance authorities to conduct market surveillance actions at manufacturers’ site. • Insert clauses to deter circumvention. The US system for market surveillance could also be used to identify good practices, such as a website for reporting non-compliant motors, random compliance testing and fines for non-compliance.
The extended product approach A system approach should be followed to minimise the energy losses in all components, including both the motor driven unit and the application (for example, a pump or compressor) and all the mechanical connections in between. Given the complexity of such a procedure and the unique character of each application and its load, promoting motor system efficiency is not a straightforward task. One potential path forward is to actively promote the standard for the extended product approach (IEC 61800-9), as well as the development of a software tool that can assist in implementing this standard. Another complementary possibility is to promote motor system efficiency via Energy Management Systems. The upcoming new version of the Technical Specification on rotating electrical machines (IEC 60034 Part 31 - Application guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient motors including variable speed applications) will also contribute to make further progress in this field.
Motor maintenance and refurbishment Maintenance, re-use and refurbishment of energy efficient machines must be given priority over replacement as part of the circular economy concept. An important consideration, however, is that relevant energy savings potential exists in the renovation of the older, less efficient motor stock. Because the energy consumption during the use phase is dominant in the life cycle impact and cost of a motor, waiting for replacement until a motor fails will not be the best option if higher efficiency models have become the standard on the market. An early replacement of an electric motor is often paid back in a very short time by improved energy efficiency, reduced maintenance costs, and avoided outages and their associated losses. Apart from this consideration, if an effort is made to extend the useful life of an energy efficient motor, care should be taken to at least maintain the existing efficiency level and to avoid compromising its reliability. Proper predictive maintenance based on condition monitoring can be a good base to work from. An international standard defining the circular economy requirements for electric motors has been published in January 2019 (IEC 60034 â€“ Part 23:2019, Rotating Electrical Machines: Repair, Overhaul and Reclamation). The standard ensures that repaired machines meet their original rated performance figures and satisfy the requirements of the circular economy.
Accelerated replacement of less efficient motor stock The average lifetime of motors is usually accepted to be: • Up to 7.5 kW: 12 years • 7.5 – 75 kW: 15 years • 75 – 250 kW: 20 years The first tier of EU motor efficiency standards was enforced from 2011 at IE2 level. We can accordingly expect that 30% of small motors, around 50% of medium motors, and over 60% of large motors in current operation were purchased before that date and are still below IE2 level. Much bigger amounts apply to the IE3 motor regulation which was enforced in 2015. Therefore there is a significant energy and economic savings potential.
Motors age and size distribution. Source: Topmotors
Up until 2014, Topmotors assessed 4124 separate motor systems in 18 Swiss factories. The analysis showed that 56% of all motors and their respective systems were older than their expected operating life time (some were twice the expected age).
Developing powertrains for electric mobility free of critical raw materials So far, permanent magnet technologies using rare earths have dominated the landscape of electric mobility due to their high power and torque density, as well as their high efficiency. The number of electric motors in this sector is expected to grow exponentially. However, rare earths have the highest risk of disruption in the EU supply among all critical raw materials (CRM), according to the European Commission list of CRMs. Therefore, there is a concern on the viability of this technology for mass production. Research and development of rare earth-free alternatives should be supported. The performance ratios achieved by their permanent magnet counterparts can be reached and even exceeded. Initiatives such as ReFreeDrive (H2020 EU funded project, www.refreedrive.eu) are pushing the boundary of the current induction and synchronous reluctance technologies, achieving unprecedented values of power and torque density, combined with the highest efficiency levels. Further support for innovation and industrialisation of rare earth-free technologies would help the European industry to go through the critical raw materials bottleneck in electric mobility. .
World landscape Over the past decade the worldwide electricity use by electric motor driven systems has grown steadily from 43-46% to 53%. This electricity use (10,700 TWh in 2014) corresponds to the combined electricity consumption of China, USA and EU approximately. Industry is the main sector with a share of 60% (6 000 TWh).
Efficiency levels in IEC 60034-301 (2014) standard for 50Hz, 4 pole motors
Recognition of the contribution of motors to the global electricity consumption has led to the introduction of MEPS (minimum energy performance standards) in most industrialized countries. The efficiency classes for Direct-on-Line (DOL) motors are defined in IEC 6003430-1. This standard is widely accepted as the global standard making efficiency classes comparable worldwide. It defines classes IE1 to IE4, with growing efficiency.
The main motor MEPS worldwide cover motors in the range of 0.75 - 375 kW at IE2 and/or IE3 level. The introduction of MEPS has pushed the market towards higher energy efficiency motors, whilst simultaneously removing the worst products from the market. In regulated markets motors of higher efficiency classes IE3 and IE4 are now readily available on the market and can be delivered in a large variety of nominal output power and poles. The price of IE3 premium motors is 15%-20% higher than the less efficient IE2 class. The price of the next generation IE4 motors is 15%-25% higher than IE3 motors . This evolution of the world market towards higher motor efficiency levels generates a positive business outlook for motor suppliers, through extra revenues, and for end-users, through lower total cost of ownership. There is a potential for the efficiency of electric motor driven systems to increase by 35% between 2017 and 2040 . For this the majority of motorsâ€™ energy use in 2040 will need to come from the superpremium efficiency IE4 level, with the remainder at IE3 level. To ensure this development governments will need to continue applying and strengthening MEPS. The EU acts as first mover and has recently revised the motor MEPS to make a first step towards tier level IE4: for 75 â€“ 200 kW motors the minimum level will be raised to IE4 (2, 4, 6 poles) per mid-2023. Other changes include a wider scope in power range (0.12-1,000kW) and type of motors, and a minimum efficiency level for variable speed drives of IE2 (0.75 â€“ 1,000 kW).
While the efficiency of individual electric motors has risen due to globally co-ordinated national policies, there is an opportunity to access very significant further reductions in energy consumption by addressing the electric motor driven system. Motor MEPS must be coupled with the increased application of variable speed drives (VSDs) and the driven applications like pumps, fans and compressors. To effectively access this potential, governments, industry and standardization bodies should co-ordinate activities to develop relevant standards and regulations for these electric motor driven systems.
Sources  Topmotors Market Report 2018; Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE, May 2019, www.topmotors.ch/en/market; Maarten van Werkhoven, TPA advisors Netherlands & Rita Werle, Impact Energy Switzerland.  World Energy Outlook 2016, IEA, Paris.
Making DecarbEurope solutions work together Motors are present in multiple DecarbEurope solutions: appliances, demand response, electric vehicles, goods transport, passenger transport, building automation and heat pumps. Also electric generators used in wind power and cogeneration share the same technology as motors. Multiple appliances are now regulated by the Ecodesign directive and many of them use motors, such as air conditioners, air heating and cooling products, comfort fans, circulators, dishwashers, washing machines, refrigerators and freezers, vacuum cleaners and ventilation units. These products have to combine the efficiency of multiple components, including motors, to deliver the required system efficiency. Heat pumps have improved their efficiency continuously in the last years. Multiple factors have played a role here but with no doubt the use of high efficiency motors in combination with variable speed drives has contributed significantly to such progress. A relevant portion of the heat pump market is regulated by the Ecodesign directive, as indicated above. Transport in all its forms is called to become climate-neutral in the next decades. Stricter CO2 emission standards for cars and vans have recently been set in the EU, targeting >30% reduction in CO2 by 2030 compared to 2021 levels. Electrification is a basic,
economically efficient strategy, which will impact significantly the number of electric motors in use. A sustainable and reliable material supply is a key consideration, as the use of critical raw materials should be minimised or avoided. Demand response will be increasingly valued in an electricity landscape dominated by variable renewables. The bulk of electricity consumption at industrial level takes place in motors (fans, pumps, compressors and conveying belts) which could be modulated within certain limits, notably in those applications where product or thermal storage capacities exist. Also, at buildings level, in combination with automation and control systems, heating and cooling powered by heat pumps can deliver relevant demand response capacities.
Acknowledgments • Anibal de Almeida, Professor at University of Coimbra, Institute of Systems and Robotics • Martin Doppelbauer, Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. - Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT) • Jos Habets, Engineer Electrical - Solution Expert & Installation Responsible, Sitech Services • Sigrid Jacobs, Expert for Electrical Steels, ArcelorMittal Global R&D • Jesper Jerlang, Standardization Manager, Business Development, Danfoss Drives • Thomas Marks, Tim Marks, Association of Electrical and Mechanical Trades • Rudolf Moos, Co-Founder & CDO | Breuckmann eMobility • Maarten van Werkhoven, TPA advisors Netherlands • Rita Werle, Impact Energy Switzerland
Editorial - Motors power the energy transition - Policy solutions - Facts - Interview - Success stories - Improving market surveillance - Th...
Published on Sep 24, 2019
Editorial - Motors power the energy transition - Policy solutions - Facts - Interview - Success stories - Improving market surveillance - Th...