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BA2
IDENTITY



What
is
iden4ty?



What
is
a
logo?



Name
+
Logo
=
Iden4ty



What
is
a
trademark?



A
trademark
is
a
sign.

 The
sender
of
a
trademark

 uses
his
mark
to

 iden%fy
himself
to
the
world.



This
he
may
do
in
one
of
3
ways:
 •  He
may
iden4fy
himself
as
an
‘owner’
 •  As
a
‘manufacturer’,
or
 •  Simply
as
the
‘sender’
of
a
message



â€˘â€ˆ All three types of identification can be seen on a typical London bus.

> the trademark above the radiator grille on the bus tells us that London Transport owns it. > Leyland will display its trademark saying that it made it

and..


>

the trademark on the advertising streamer (bus T) tells us that the Tate Gallery is sending us a message.


HISTORICAL
EXAMPLES



Trademarks,
or
devices
with
the
 func4on
of
a
trademark,
have
 existed
for
at
least
5,000
years.



This
is
an
ancient
monogram

 for
Jesus
that
dates
back
to
 the
first
century.
It
is
an
 abbrevia4on
derived
from
 the
first
three
leWers
(iota
=
i
 +
eta
=
h
+
sigma
=
s)
of
the
 Greek
word
"Jesus."
Scribes
 of
that
4me
period
wrote
a
 line
or
a
bar
over
the
leWers
 to
indicate
an
abbrevia4on.



Some,
such
as
ceramic
marks,

 con4nue
to
be
used
today;
others
such
as
heraldic
marks
are
o]en
 quoted
or
paraphrased
in
modern
designs.



Even
the
ideas
of
the
visual
pun
on
a
name
was
used
in
 ancient
‘can4ng’
arms

(language
for
class,
profession
or
sect,
 i.e.
pawn
broker
‐
3
balls).



‘Can4ng’
arms
have
a

 special
relevance
in
the
subject

 of
trademarks.

 They
are
a
coat
of
arms
that
make
a
visual
 pun
on
the
owners
surname.



The
pawn
broker’s
sign,
with
 its
three
balls
stems
from
the
 coat
of
arms
of
the
Italian
 medieval
Medici
family,
which
 had
six
balls.

 The
Medici
were
extremely
 rich
and
great
lenders
of
 money.
For
this
reason
the
 three
balls
from
their
coat
of
 arms
has
become
the
symbol
 for
pawnshops/brokers.



Bell’s
Whisky
 The
Bell’s
Whisky
 miniature
boWle
is
a
 modern
three
 dimensional
example
 of
can:ng
arms.
 The
shape
of
the
boWle
 is
a
pun
on
the
 dis4ller’s
name.


Historically,
trademarks
have
been

 primarily
‘senders’
marks
which
are
more
 concerned
with
the
person
sending
them

 than
the
receiver.



MOTIVATION



The
historical
forerunners
of
 modern
trademarks
evolved
 from
the
‘need’
and
‘desire’
for

 social
iden9fica9on.




These
early
equivalents
of
 trademarks
were
used
to
state
 iden4fica4on
in
3
ways…



>
SOCIAL
IDENTITY…
 







This
is
me
 >
OWNERSHIP…
 







I
own
this,

 >
ORIGIN…
 







I
made
this



mark
(i):
heraldry



Family’s
statement
=
social
iden4ty


Tradi4onal
Coat
 of
Arms


The
Meissen
trademark
 was
originally
the
arms
of
 the
Duke
of
Saxony.


A
more
modern
 and
recognisable
 heraldic
sign.



SAAB‐SCANIA,
SWEDEN.
 The
griffin’s
head
is
a
 reference
to
the
arms
of
the
 country
of
Scania.
At
the
 beginning
of
the
twen4eth
 century,
the
griffin’s
head
 was
used
in
a
trademark
for
 the
truck
manufacturer
 Scania.
Later,
a]er
a
merger,
 the
griffin’s
head
was
 included
in
the
Sabb‐Scania
 figure
mark.


ALFA
ROMEO,
ITALY.

 The
le]
(heraldic
right
or
 Dexter)
part
of
the
arms
 shows
the
arms
of
the
city
of
 Milan.
 The
right
(heraldic
le]
or
 sinister)
part
shows
the
arms
 of
the
Duchy
of
Milan,
 essen4ally
those
of
the
 Viscon4
family.




Some
of
BP’s
logos
from
 various
decades
of
 development.



Family’s
mo4ve
=
desire/need


Modern
versions
 of
heraldry


Why
did
they
wear
the
 colours
and
display
a
coat
of
 arms
on
their
shields?



mark
(ii):
monograms



Individual’s
statement
=
social
iden4ty


Elizabeth
Regina
II


French
Kings
ini4al
monograms


Pepe
Le
Bref



Louis
VuiWon
 The
monogram
was
 created
in
1896.



mark
(iii):
branding



Farmer’s
statement
=
ownership



Farmer’s
mo4ve
=
need


Hot
irons
are
burned
onto
the
hide
of
 the
caWle
to
protect
them
against
the].


This
broad
arrow
was
the
imperial
 brand
used
on
English
horses
in
1346
 during
the
Hundred
Years’
War.


The
text
of
the
brand
on
the
ox
says:
 ‘Royal
Agriculture
Administra4on,
43’


This
American
caWle
brand
reads
 ‘two
lazy
two
P’
or,
as
cowboys
 might
say,
‘Too
lazy
to
pee’.



mark
(iv):
earmarks



Shepherd’s
statement
=
ownership


This
ear
marking
system
for
sheep
enables
individual
animals
in
a
flock
to
 be
iden4fied.

 Earmarks
must
be
placed
in
the
off
or
right
ear
of
a
male
animal
and
the
 near
or
le]
ear
of
a
female.
All
earmarks
must
be
made
using
pliers
and
 must
not
remove
more
than
a
third
of
the
ear.



Shepherd’s
mo4ve
=
need


A record of sheep earmarks was kept by policemen and farmers when finding lost or stolen sheep. This pocket book belonged to constable John Williams, stationed at Garndolbenmaen, and contains a record of sheep earmarks for the parishes of Clynnog, Dolbenmaen, Llanfihangel-y-Pennant and Penmorfa, Caernarvonshire


mark
(v):
farm
marks



Farmer’s
mark
statement
=
ownership



Farmer’s
mark
mo4ve
=
need


These
were
used
to
mark

 the
boundaries
of
the
farmers
land



mark
(vi):
ceramic
marks



PoWer’s
mark
statement
=
origin



PoWer’s
mark
mo4ve
=
need/desire


A
poWer
may
mark
his
 bowl
out
of
sheer
pride.



mark
(vii):
stonemasons’
marks



Stonemason’s
statement
=
origin



Stonemason’s
mo4ve
=
need/desire
 The
Scossh
 Stonemasons’
who
 built
the
‘Canton
 Viaduct’
were
paid
by
 results,
and
as
each
 laid
a

stone
in
place,
 he
chiseled
his
mark
 on
it.
These
marks
 were
used
as
a
guide
 for
payment.



mark
(viii)
:
hallmarks



Silversmith’s
statement
=
origin


Bri4sh
hallmarks
on
a
silver
tray
 from
1924.


The
Standard
mark
for
 sterling
silver



Silversmith’s
mo4ve
=
need/desire



mark
(ix):
printers’
marks



Printer’s
mo4ve
=
need/desire



Printer’s
statement
=
origin


The
world’s
first
printers’
 mark
was
used
by
the
printers
who
took
 over
some
of
Johann
Gutenberg’s
 typefaces
a]er
a
court
case.
Printers’
 marks
were
not
legally
protected;

 this
mark
was
later
adopted

 by
several
other
printers.

 Johann
Fust
&
Peter
Schoffer,
Mainz,
 Germany,
1457.



Aldus
Manu4us'
first
 device,
featuring
the
 famed
dolphin
and
 anchor
mo4f.




Conqueror

Conqueror ll (LAID)

Conqueror ll


mark
(x):
watermarks



Papermaker’s
statement
=
origin


LEFT:

 The
watermark
used
on
 Johann
Gutenberg’s
 bible.


RIGHT:This
watermark
is
 where
the
term
 ‘foolscap’
originated.


mark
(xi):
furniture
marks



Chair
maker’s
statement
=
origin



Chair
maker’s
mo4ve
=
need/desire



Now
it’s
your
turn!
 Research
further:
 •  Collect
a
‘range’
of
logos/marks
with
short
informa4ve
 annota4ons.
Include
historical
and
contemporary
 examples.
Use
a
variety
of
techniques
to
record
them.
 Arrange
the
examples
found
into
the
categories
that
we
 have
discussed
today.
 •  Find
your
‘Maternal’
and
‘Paternal’
Coat
of
Arms.
 •  Find
the
Coat
of
Arms
for
Blackburn
and
the
town
where
 you
live.



History of TradeMarks