What is iden4ty?
What is a logo?
Name + Logo = Iden4ty
What is a trademark?
A trademark is a sign. The sender of a trademark uses his mark to iden%fy himself to the world.
This he may do in one of 3 ways: • He may iden4fy himself as an ‘owner’ • As a ‘manufacturer’, or • Simply as the ‘sender’ of a message
â€˘â€ˆ All three types of identification can be seen on a typical London bus.
> the trademark above the radiator grille on the bus tells us that London Transport owns it. > Leyland will display its trademark saying that it made it
the trademark on the advertising streamer (bus T) tells us that the Tate Gallery is sending us a message.
Trademarks, or devices with the func4on of a trademark, have existed for at least 5,000 years.
This is an ancient monogram for Jesus that dates back to the ﬁrst century. It is an abbrevia4on derived from the ﬁrst three leWers (iota = i + eta = h + sigma = s) of the Greek word "Jesus." Scribes of that 4me period wrote a line or a bar over the leWers to indicate an abbrevia4on.
Some, such as ceramic marks, con4nue to be used today; others such as heraldic marks are o]en quoted or paraphrased in modern designs.
Even the ideas of the visual pun on a name was used in ancient ‘can4ng’ arms (language for class, profession or sect, i.e. pawn broker ‐ 3 balls).
‘Can4ng’ arms have a special relevance in the subject of trademarks. They are a coat of arms that make a visual pun on the owners surname.
The pawn broker’s sign, with its three balls stems from the coat of arms of the Italian medieval Medici family, which had six balls. The Medici were extremely rich and great lenders of money. For this reason the three balls from their coat of arms has become the symbol for pawnshops/brokers.
Bell’s Whisky The Bell’s Whisky miniature boWle is a modern three dimensional example of can:ng arms. The shape of the boWle is a pun on the dis4ller’s name.
Historically, trademarks have been primarily ‘senders’ marks which are more concerned with the person sending them than the receiver.
The historical forerunners of modern trademarks evolved from the ‘need’ and ‘desire’ for social iden9ﬁca9on.
These early equivalents of trademarks were used to state iden4ﬁca4on in 3 ways…
> SOCIAL IDENTITY… This is me > OWNERSHIP… I own this, > ORIGIN… I made this
mark (i): heraldry
Family’s statement = social iden4ty
Tradi4onal Coat of Arms
The Meissen trademark was originally the arms of the Duke of Saxony.
A more modern and recognisable heraldic sign.
SAAB‐SCANIA, SWEDEN. The griﬃn’s head is a reference to the arms of the country of Scania. At the beginning of the twen4eth century, the griﬃn’s head was used in a trademark for the truck manufacturer Scania. Later, a]er a merger, the griﬃn’s head was included in the Sabb‐Scania ﬁgure mark.
ALFA ROMEO, ITALY. The le] (heraldic right or Dexter) part of the arms shows the arms of the city of Milan. The right (heraldic le] or sinister) part shows the arms of the Duchy of Milan, essen4ally those of the Viscon4 family.
Some of BP’s logos from various decades of development.
Family’s mo4ve = desire/need
Modern versions of heraldry
Why did they wear the colours and display a coat of arms on their shields?
mark (ii): monograms
Individual’s statement = social iden4ty
Elizabeth Regina II
French Kings ini4al monograms
Pepe Le Bref
Louis VuiWon The monogram was created in 1896.
mark (iii): branding
Farmer’s statement = ownership
Farmer’s mo4ve = need
Hot irons are burned onto the hide of the caWle to protect them against the].
This broad arrow was the imperial brand used on English horses in 1346 during the Hundred Years’ War.
The text of the brand on the ox says: ‘Royal Agriculture Administra4on, 43’
This American caWle brand reads ‘two lazy two P’ or, as cowboys might say, ‘Too lazy to pee’.
mark (iv): earmarks
Shepherd’s statement = ownership
This ear marking system for sheep enables individual animals in a ﬂock to be iden4ﬁed. Earmarks must be placed in the oﬀ or right ear of a male animal and the near or le] ear of a female. All earmarks must be made using pliers and must not remove more than a third of the ear.
Shepherd’s mo4ve = need
A record of sheep earmarks was kept by policemen and farmers when finding lost or stolen sheep. This pocket book belonged to constable John Williams, stationed at Garndolbenmaen, and contains a record of sheep earmarks for the parishes of Clynnog, Dolbenmaen, Llanfihangel-y-Pennant and Penmorfa, Caernarvonshire
mark (v): farm marks
Farmer’s mark statement = ownership
Farmer’s mark mo4ve = need
These were used to mark the boundaries of the farmers land
mark (vi): ceramic marks
PoWer’s mark statement = origin
PoWer’s mark mo4ve = need/desire
A poWer may mark his bowl out of sheer pride.
mark (vii): stonemasons’ marks
Stonemason’s statement = origin
Stonemason’s mo4ve = need/desire The Scossh Stonemasons’ who built the ‘Canton Viaduct’ were paid by results, and as each laid a stone in place, he chiseled his mark on it. These marks were used as a guide for payment.
mark (viii) : hallmarks
Silversmith’s statement = origin
Bri4sh hallmarks on a silver tray from 1924.
The Standard mark for sterling silver
Silversmith’s mo4ve = need/desire
mark (ix): printers’ marks
Printer’s mo4ve = need/desire
Printer’s statement = origin
The world’s ﬁrst printers’ mark was used by the printers who took over some of Johann Gutenberg’s typefaces a]er a court case. Printers’ marks were not legally protected; this mark was later adopted by several other printers. Johann Fust & Peter Schoﬀer, Mainz, Germany, 1457.
Aldus Manu4us' ﬁrst device, featuring the famed dolphin and anchor mo4f.
Conqueror ll (LAID)
mark (x): watermarks
Papermaker’s statement = origin
LEFT: The watermark used on Johann Gutenberg’s bible.
RIGHT:This watermark is where the term ‘foolscap’ originated.
mark (xi): furniture marks
Chair maker’s statement = origin
Chair maker’s mo4ve = need/desire
Now it’s your turn! Research further: • Collect a ‘range’ of logos/marks with short informa4ve annota4ons. Include historical and contemporary examples. Use a variety of techniques to record them. Arrange the examples found into the categories that we have discussed today. • Find your ‘Maternal’ and ‘Paternal’ Coat of Arms. • Find the Coat of Arms for Blackburn and the town where you live.