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BTEC Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Diploma in Media For first teaching from September 2006 Issue 2 March 2007

Media

Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Diploma in

Specification


Edexcel Limited is one of the leading examining and awarding bodies in the UK and throughout the world. It incorporates all the qualifications previously awarded under the Edexcel and BTEC brands. We provide a wide range of qualifications including general (academic), vocational, occupational and specific programmes for employers. Through a network of UK and overseas offices, our centres receive the support they need to help them deliver their education and training programmes to learners. For further information please call Customer Services on 0870 240 9800 (calls may be recorded for training purposes) or visit our website at www.edexcel.org.uk

References to third party material made in this specification are made in good faith. Edexcel does not endorse, approve or accept responsibility for the content of materials, which may be subject to change, or any opinions expressed therein. (Material may include textbooks, journals, magazines and other publications and websites.)

Authorised by Jim Dobson Prepared by Duncan Fraser Publications Code BF017268 All the material in this publication is copyright Š Edexcel Limited 2007


Essential principles for delivering a BTEC This specification contains the rules and regulations along with the units and associated guidance to enable centres to deliver a programme of learning for the Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Diploma in Media. The qualification structures set out the permitted combination of units learners need to complete the qualification. Each unit sets out the intended outcomes along with the content and also includes advice and guidance regarding appropriate delivery and assessment strategies. The following generic principles need to be adhered to in order that a BTEC qualification is delivered to the appropriate standard. • The specification provides necessary information for the successful delivery and achievement of the units and the qualification as a whole. Consequently, the specification is of importance to the learner and tutor alike. The individual units may be delivered and studied in isolation but the learner and the deliverer should have access to the full information provided to support the programme of learning. • Centres need to make regular use of the Edexcel website (www.edexcel .org.uk) to ensure that they have the most up to date information. In particular, the requirements relating to the external verification of the qualification receive regular updates and appropriate information for centres is posted on the website. It is the responsibility of the centre to ensure that they are familiar with the latest BTEC NQF Level 2/3 (including Short Courses at Levels 1–3) Handbook and that they implement any related policy documentation which may have been posted on the website. • This specification contains details of the assessment and quality assurance procedures. It includes advice about Edexcel’s policy regarding access to its qualifications, the design of programmes of study and delivery modes. Centres must ensure that they conform to the policies outlined in the specification. • Centres are required to recruit learners to BTEC qualifications with integrity. This includes ensuring that applicants have appropriate information and advice about the qualifications and that the qualification will meet their needs. Centres should take appropriate steps to assess each applicant’s potential and make a professional judgement about their ability to be able to successfully complete the programme of study and achieve the qualification. • Centres are required to use the information in this specification to develop and deliver a programme of learning that will enable learners to achieve the grading criteria stipulated in the unit grading grids. Assessment assignments should ensure coverage of all criteria in the unit as set out in the Grading Grid for each unit. Assignments constructed by centres should be valid, reliable and fit for purpose, building on the application of the grading criteria. Centres should use a variety of assessment methods, including case studies, assignments and work-based assessments, along with projects, performance observation and time-constrained assessments. Further guidance relating to the setting of assignments is available in the Getting Started publication which is available on the Edexcel website (www.edexcel.org.uk). • Centres are encouraged to place emphasis on the practical application of the grading criteria, providing wherever possible a realistic scenario for learners to work with, and making maximum use of, practical activities and work experience. The creation of assignments that are fit for purpose is vital to the learner’s achievement and their importance cannot be over emphasised.


• These qualifications have been accredited to the National Qualifications Framework (NQF) and are eligible for public funding as determined by the DfES under Sections 96 and 97 of the Learning and Skills Act 2000. Details of the qualification units can be seen on the QCA Open Qualifications database (www.qca.org.uk). • The qualification titles feature in the funding lists published annually by the DfES and the regularly updated website www.dfes.gov.uk/. The NQF Qualification Accreditation Numbers (QANs) should be used by centres when they wish to seek public funding for their learners. The QANs for these qualifications are listed in Annexe A. • This specification is accredited by the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority until August 2009 and for certification of learners until August 2011. Edexcel may update this specification during its period of accreditation and centres need to refer to the Edexcel website for the latest issue of the specification. Centres that have not previously offered BTEC qualifications must apply for, and be granted, centre approval before they can apply for approval to offer the programme. When a centre applies for approval to offer a BTEC qualification they will be required to enter into an ‘approvals agreement’. The approvals agreement is a formal commitment by the head or principal of a centre to meet all the requirements of the specification and linked codes or regulations.


Contents

What are BTEC Firsts?

1

BTEC First Diploma

1

BTEC First Certificate

1

National Occupational Standards

1

Key features of the BTEC Firsts in Media

2

Rationale of the BTEC Firsts in Media

2

Structure of the qualification

3

Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate in Media

3

Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Diploma in Media

4

Unit format

5

Units

7

Unit 1: Introduction to Media Industries

9

Unit 2: Research for Media Production

19

Unit 3: Introduction to Media Audiences and Products

29

Unit 4: Video Production

39

Unit 5: Audio Production

51

Unit 6: Print Production

61

Unit 7: Advertising Production

71

Unit 8: Interactive Media Production

81

Unit 9: Photography Techniques

91

Unit 10: Animation Techniques

101

Unit 11: Writing for the Media

111

Unit 12: Web Authoring

121

Unit 13: Factual Production for the Media

131

Unit 14: Reviewing Computer Games

145

Unit 15: 2D Computer Games

155

Unit 16: Digital Graphics

165

Unit 17: Media Production Project

175


Assessment and grading

185

Internal verification

185

External verification

186

Quality assurance

186

Approval

186

Risk assessment

186

Calculation of the qualification grade

187

Awarding a qualification grade

187

School and College Achievement and Attainment Tables (SCAAT) equivalence

188

Programme design and delivery

189

Mode of delivery

189

Resources

189

Delivery approach

190

Accreditation of Prior Learning (APL)

190

Meeting local needs

190

Limitations on variations from standard specifications

190

Access and recruitment

191

Restrictions on learner entry

191

Access arrangements and special considerations

191

The Edexcel BTEC Qualification Framework for the Media

sector

192

Further information

193

Useful publications

193

How to obtain National Occupational Standards

193

Professional development and training

194

Annexe A

195

QCA codes

Annexe B Grading domains

195

197

197

Annexe C

199

Key skills

199

Key skills mapping – summary of opportunities suggested in each unit

200


Annexe D National Occupational Standards

Annexe E Wider curriculum mapping

203

203

207

207


What are BTEC Firsts? BTEC qualifications are designed to provide specialist work-related qualifications in a range of sectors. They have been developed to provide the knowledge, understanding and skills necessary to prepare learners for employment and/or to provide career development opportunities for those already in work. Consequently they provide a course of study for fulltime or part-time learners in schools, colleges and training centres. They link to the National Occupational Standards for the sector, where these are appropriate, and are supported by the relevant Standards Setting Body (SSB) or Sector Skills Council (SSC). On successful completion of a BTEC First qualification, learners may progress into or within employment and/or continue their study in the vocational area.

BTEC First Diploma The Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Diploma is a 360 guided learning hour qualification comprising core and specialist units which cover aspects of knowledge, understanding and competency necessary for employment within the sector. As such the BTEC First Diploma offers a qualification which can extend a learner’s programme of study and provide vocational emphasis within their programme of study. Equally, the BTEC First Diploma offers a focused qualification for learners who wish to follow a programme of study that is directly related to their work experience, or to an aspect of employment that they wish to move into in due course.

BTEC First Certificate The Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate is a 180 guided learning hour qualification which offers a bite-sized opportunity for learners to experience a vocational qualification. The BTEC First Certificate offers a focused vocational qualification for learners who wish to follow a shorter programme of study related to an aspect of employment that they might wish to move into; or a taster qualification which can extend their programme of study and provide an initial experience of a vocational area. This will also enable learners to progress to a higher level qualification relevant to the sector.

National Occupational Standards BTEC Firsts are designed to relate to the National Occupational Standards (NOS) in the sector, which in turn form the basis of the National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs). BTEC Firsts do not purport to deliver occupational competence in the sector, which should be demonstrated in a work context. However, the qualifications provide much of the underpinning knowledge for the NOS, as well as developing practical skills in preparation for work and possible achievement of NVQs in due course. Each unit identifies relevant aspects of the NOS that are addressed by the outcomes and content of the unit. The Edexcel Level 2 BTEC Firsts in Media relate to: • Skillset National Occupational Standards for Camera, Editing, Sound, Lighting, Directors, Production, Radio Production, Interactive Media, and Photo Imaging and Photo Processing • E-skills National Occupational Standards IT Users • Print and Graphic Communications National Occupational Standards • Management Standards Centre National Occupational Standards in Managing Self and Personal Skills, and Working with People

BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007

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Key features of the BTEC Firsts in Media The BTEC Firsts in Media have been developed in the Media sector to focus on: • education and training for those who work or who are intending to work in the Media industry • providing opportunities for those who work or are intending to work in the Media industry to achieve a nationally recognised Level 2 vocationally specific qualification • providing opportunities for learners to gain a nationally recognised vocationally specific qualification to enter employment in the Media sector or to progress to higher education vocational qualifications such as the Edexcel Level 3 BTEC National in Media • providing opportunities for learners to develop a range of skills and techniques, personal qualities and attitudes essential for successful performance in working life.

Rationale of the BTEC Firsts in Media The Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and First Diploma in Media have been developed to give centres maximum flexibility in developing programmes suited to their own resources and the needs of their learners. The core units provide learners with the opportunity to: • develop the fundamental research skills which underlie all media production • gain a basic understanding of employment opportunities, job requirements, and working practices in the media industry • develop an understanding of how media products are constructed for specific audiences or markets. The optional technical and production units enable learners to start building the technical skills and knowledge relevant to a sector (or sectors) of the media industry. Learners who complete a First Certificate or First Diploma in Media will obtain a qualification which will enable progression to further study, training, or employment, and enable them to make informed choices with regard to a career in the media industry. They will also have developed media technology skills that may be applicable in other work situations. The Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and First Diploma in Media have been designed to contribute to the Sector Qualifications Strategy for the media industry through their close relationship to relevant National Occupational Standards.

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BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007


Structure of the qualification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate in Media The Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate in Media consists of one core unit plus two specialist units that provide for a combined total of 180 guided learning hours (GLH) for the completed qualification. Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate in Media Unit 2 Unit

Core units Research for Media Production

GLH

Level

60

2

Specialist units

4

Video Production

60

2

5

Audio Production

60

2

6

Print Production

60

2

7

Advertising Production

60

2

8

Interactive Media Production

60

2

9

Photography Techniques

60

2

10

Animation Techniques

60

2

11

Writing for the Media

60

2

12

Web Authoring

60

2

13

Factual Production for the Media

60

2

14

Reviewing Computer Games

60

2

15

2D Computer Games

60

2

16

Digital Graphics

60

2

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Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Diploma in Media The Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Diploma in Media consists of three core units plus four specialist units that provide for a combined total of 360 guided learning hours (GLH) for the completed qualification. (NB: core units 1 and 3 are 30 guided learning hours each.) Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Diploma in Media Unit

GLH

Level

1

Introduction to Media Industries

30

2

2

Research for Media Production

60

2

3

Introduction to Media Audiences and Products

30

2

Unit

4

Core units

Specialist units

4

Video Production

60

2

5

Audio Production

60

2

6

Print Production

60

2

7

Advertising Production

60

2

8

Interactive Media Production

60

2

9

Photography Techniques

60

2

10

Animation Techniques

60

2

11

Writing for the Media

60

2

12

Web Authoring

60

2

13

Factual Production for the Media

60

2

14

Reviewing Computer Games

60

2

15

2D Computer Games

60

2

16

Digital Graphics

60

2

17

Media Production Project

60

2

BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007


Unit format All units in Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First qualifications have a standard format which is designed to provide clear guidance on the requirements of the qualification for learners, tutors, assessors and those responsible for monitoring national standards. Each unit is set out in the following way. Unit title The unit title is accredited by QCA and this form of words will appear on the learner’s Notification of Performance (NOP). In BTEC First qualifications each unit consists of 30, 60, 90 or 120 guided learning hours NQF level This is the level of study of the qualification as determined by the National Qualifications Framework (NQF). Guided learning hours Guided learning hours is ‘a notional measure of the substance of a unit’. It includes an estimate of time that might be allocated to direct teaching, instruction and assessment, together with other structured learning time such as directed assignments or supported individual study. It excludes learner-initiated private study. Centres are advised to consider this definition when planning the programme of study associated with this specification. Unit abstract The unit abstract is designed to give the reader an appreciation of the value of the unit in the vocational setting of the qualification as well as highlighting the focus of the unit. It provides the reader with a snapshot of the aims of the unit and the key knowledge, skills and understanding developed while studying the unit. The unit abstract also emphasises links to the sector by describing what the unit offers the sector. Learning outcomes Learning outcomes state exactly what a learner should ‘know, understand or be able to do’ as a result of completing the unit. Unit content The unit content identifies the depth and breadth of knowledge, skills and understanding needed to design and deliver a programme of learning sufficient to achieve each of the learning outcomes. This is informed by the underpinning knowledge and understanding requirements of the related National Occupational Standards (NOS). The content provides the range of subject material for the programme of learning and specifies the skills, knowledge and understanding required for achievement of the pass grading criteria. Each learning outcome is stated in full and then the prescribed key phrases or concepts related to that learning outcome are listed in italics followed by the subsequent range of related topics. The unit content section will often have lists of topics that provide the range of the subject material required to be covered in order to meet the grading criteria. Subject material maybe further detailed by lists enclosed within brackets or an elongated dash which provide the defined elements of the specific topic item. Where the subject material list includes an ‘eg’, it should be noted that this provides an indicative range of material to support the specific topic item.

BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007

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Grading grid Each Grading grid contains statements of the criteria used to determine the evidence that each learner must produce in order to receive a pass, merit or distinction grade. It is important to note that the merit and distinction grading criteria refer to a qualitative improvement in the learner’s evidence. Essential guidance for tutors This section is designed to give tutors additional guidance and amplification on the unit in order to provide for a coherence of understanding and a consistency of delivery and assessment. It is divided into the following sections: • Delivery — explains the content and its relationship with the learning outcomes and offers guidance about possible approaches to delivery. This advice is based on the more usual delivery modes but is not intended to rule out alternative approaches. • Assessment — provides amplification about the nature and type of evidence that learners need to produce in order to pass the unit or achieve the higher grades. This section should be read in conjunction with the grading criteria. • Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications — sets out links with other units within the qualification. These could be used to ensure that learners can relate different aspects within the qualification and offer opportunities for integration of learning, delivery and assessment. Links to the Occupational Standards will be highlighted here. • Essential resources — identifies any specialist resources needed to allow learners to generate the evidence required for each unit. The centre will be asked to ensure that any requirements are in place when it seeks approval from Edexcel to offer the qualification. • Indicative reading for learners — provides a short list of learner resource material that benchmark the level of study. Key skills This section identifies where there may be opportunities within the unit for the generation of evidence to meet the requirements of key skills units. Assessors should take care to become familiar with the key skills specifications and evidence requirements and not to rely on the contents of this section when presenting key skills evidence for moderation. Centres should refer to the QCA website (www.qca.org.uk) for the latest version of the key skills standards.

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BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007


Units Unit 1: Introduction to Media Industries

9

Unit 2: Research for Media Production

19

Unit 3: Introduction to Media Audiences and Products

29

Unit 4: Video Production

39

Unit 5: Audio Production

51

Unit 6: Print Production

61

Unit 7: Advertising Production

71

Unit 8: Interactive Media Production

81

Unit 9: Photography Techniques

91

Unit 10: Animation Techniques

101

Unit 11: Writing for the Media

111

Unit 12: Web Authoring

121

Unit 13: Factual Production for the Media

131

Unit 14: Reviewing Computer Games

145

Unit 15: 2D Computer Games

155

Unit 16: Digital Graphics

165

Unit 17: Media Production Project

175

BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007

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BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007


UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA INDUSTRIES

Unit 1:

Introduction to Media Industries

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 30

Unit abstract It is important that people who are thinking about working in the media should understand how the industry is structured, what types of jobs are available, what those jobs involve, and how they might be obtained. This core unit focuses on developing the learners’ understanding of the media industry and the ways in which that industry is organised. They will learn how the industry is structured as a whole and about the structure of individual companies. This will develop an understanding of specific job roles in the industry and how people are recruited into these roles. Learners should approach this unit with reference to the sector (or possibly sectors) of the media in which their production work will take place.

Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1

Know how the media industry is structured

2

Understand job roles in a sector of the media industry

3

Understand how staff are recruited in a sector of the media industry.

BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007

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UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA INDUSTRIES

Unit content

1

Know how the media industry is structured Industry sectors: television; radio; press; music; film; interactive media; photo imaging (including photography); advertising and marketing Size and shape: geographical scope eg multinational, national, local; status eg small-size and medium-size businesses, independent, subsidiary Structures and ownership: private; public; cross-media; vertical and horizontal

2

Understand job roles in a sector of the media industry Job roles: eg technical, creative, editorial, managerial, sales and marketing, administration, financial Professional working practices: codes of practice eg BBC guidelines, press codes of conduct, advertising standards; legal restrictions eg libel law, Misuse of Computers Act, Race Discrimination Act Contracts, conditions and pay: contracts eg full-time permanent, part-time permanent, fixed-term, stringer, freelance; work patterns eg shift work, office hours, irregular and anti­ social hours; pay eg salaried, hourly, on completion

3

Understand how staff are recruited in a sector of the media industry Skills and qualifications: education and training eg full-time and part-time education, training on the job, continuing professional development, self-training; level eg Level 2, Level 3, graduate; sources of information eg Sector Skills Councils (Skillset, CCI, ESkills), unions, careers services, trade and other publications Transferable skills: personal attributes eg knowledge and skills, commitment, efficiency, reliability, punctuality, self-presentation; key skills eg number, communication, working with others, improving own performance Methods of recruitment: national press; trade press; internet; word of mouth; personal contacts; internal promotion

10

BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007


M1 discuss the structure of the media industry using appropriate illustrative examples M2 discuss job roles and recruitment in the media industry using appropriate illustrative examples.

P1 describe how sectors of the media industry are structured

P2 identify and describe job roles in a sector of the media industry

BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007

Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is available on page 12.

P3 describe how staff are recruited in a sector of the media industry.

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

11

D1 critically discuss the structure of, and employment in, the media industry using correct terminology.

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass and merit criteria, the learner is able to:

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA INDUSTRIES


UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA INDUSTRIES

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery Through this unit learners will develop an overview of what constitutes the media industry, the ways in which it is structured, and of the variety of jobs – not by any means all technical or creative – available in the industry. Learners should develop an understanding of the variety of sub-sectors in the industry, the rather porous nature of the boundaries between some of these sub-sectors, and the ways in which individual workers might fit into specific organisations. In looking at learning outcomes 2 and 3, one sector or sub-sector of the industry should be focused on and content covered as appropriate. Teaching about industry structures and ownership is notoriously difficult, and tutors should look for ways in which learners can become directly involved in the process of discovery. To this end, much –perhaps even most – of the work for this unit should be done through directed research exercises. This would have the added benefit of making links between this unit and Unit 2: Research for Media Production. These research exercises can then also be used as evidence for the assessment of Unit 2. Another way of enlivening the subject for learners might be to get them to present the information they obtain in creative ways, such as in a poster or an audio-visual format. Work for Unit 1 can thereby be combined with work for production units and so provide additional opportunities for skills development in those units. There may be local media organisations willing to offer resources for studying the structure of media organisations and recruitment by providing visiting speakers, offering guided visits or even, in some cases, offering work experience. These organisations may be able to provide examples of the products they make, how they are made, and information about recruitment and promotional material. Information about larger media industries can, of course, be sourced from the internet. Since this is mainly a knowledge and understanding unit there is much work that can be done through researching into secondary sources: libraries, websites, and periodicals. Useful websites can be found by using relevant key words and phrases, such as ‘media, media industries, employment in the media’ etc. Advertisements for jobs in the media (such as those carried in the Monday supplement of The Guardian and the trade papers) are also a very useful resource. This unit encourages discussion of complex issues, and there may be opportunities for group debates to provide evidence. Learners should be encouraged to engage with contemporary material in order to fulfil the learning outcomes of this unit. The involvement of professional media personnel through visits and talks can bring much of the unit content alive. Assessment Evidence for this unit can be presented in any format which enables the learner to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the unit’s content as specified in the grading grid. Appropriate formats would include written reports, class presentations, structured audio-visual statements, and audio or audio-visual programmes. Oral presentations should be recorded for the purposes of internal and external verification.

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BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007


UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA INDUSTRIES

For some learners a viva voce type assessment might be appropriate. When more than one learner in a cohort is assessed in this way care must taken to ensure that all learners are asked the same lead questions, and that all are given equal opportunities to expand or clarify their answers. Interviewers must also ensure that questions are not phrased in such a way as to provide or suggest an answer. Vivas should be recorded for the purposes of internal and external verification. NB: When applying the grading criteria tutors should follow the advice given below. Please note that the examples of evidence given here are indicative only. This advice is not inclusive and the examples need not be included in a learner’s work in order for that learner to achieve the exemplified grade. In order to achieve a pass, the learner must describe how sectors of the media industry are structured and how staff are recruited in a sector of the media industry. They must identify and describe job roles in a sector of the media industry. ‘Describe’ means that the learner has provided a correct but unelaborated outline of the specified unit content. There is no detail, or attempt to go beyond the minimum required. For example, in relation to the radio industry, the learner will note that there are national and local, public service and commercial radio stations, that sometimes larger companies own several radio stations and that these companies might also own other media companies like local newspapers. Some reference to all areas specified in the unit content is required for a pass. ‘Identify’ means that the learner has pointed out or noted down without further comment examples relevant to the content specified – in this case, examples of job roles in the sector under consideration and which are relevant to the area of unit content. Good coverage of the main job roles in the sector under consideration is required; it is impossible to say all possible job roles must be covered – for a sector like the film industry, for example, the main technical and creative roles would be sufficient. Tutors must apply their professional knowledge and judgement here. In relation to recruitment, the learner will provide a simple, unelaborated description of the methods of recruitment, the skills and the personal attributes required. In order to achieve a merit, the learner must discuss the structure of the media industry using appropriate illustrative examples. That is, they will treat the material covered in some detail and make some comment on it, providing detailed examples from that material to illustrate the points made. Though these examples will not be elucidated further, and comments will not be supported or developed further by argument there will, nonetheless, be a sense of thoughtfulness in this learner’s work. For example, in a discussion of the structure of the radio sector, specific radio stations will be named and related to wider patterns of ownership, with, in the case of commercial radio stations, the names of owner-companies being given, along with examples of other holdings in radio and other mediums of those owner-companies. The type of things done for a given job will be elaborated upon, and the way in which that job relates to others will be discussed. The connections between one aspect of recruitment and another will be noted – how, for example, personal attributes such as commitment and punctuality will enable someone to get the most out of education and training. In order to achieve a distinction, the learner must 'critically discuss the specified area of content using correct terminology. The term ‘critically discuss’ means that any observations made or arguments engaged in are explained, justified or supported in some way, or are subjected to some sort of evaluative procedure or to a process of comparison. So, having demonstrated the structure of the radio industry through a well illustrated discussion, some well-supported observations will be made on the pros and cons of commercial and public service radio stations – for example, ‘X is like this because …’ or, ‘X is more successful than Y because …’. (It should be noted that the term ‘critical’ as used here does not mean negative commentary.)

BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007

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UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA INDUSTRIES

With reference to job roles, there will be an awareness of the advantages and disadvantages of certain types of job in relation to the kind of contract or work patterns likely to be associated with it. The learner will show some understanding of the relative difficulty of getting certain types of job, or the advantages and disadvantages of certain ways of obtaining employment. ‘Correct terminology’ means that the learner uses the right word in the right context, and is able to deploy appropriately the kind of vocabulary used in the industry. Whilst this refers mainly to the use of technical or specialist language, it can also be taken to refer to a learner’s use of language generally. Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications As it is hoped that tutors will use learners’ own work as a means of building up their understanding of the industry, and perhaps employ skills developed in those units for creating evidence for assessment of Unit 1, this unit can potentially be linked with any production or technical unit. Links can also be made with Unit 2: Research for Media Production depending on the way this unit is taught. Learners will have the opportunity to obtain key skills at level 2 in application of number, communication, information and communication technology, improving own learning and performance, and working with others. There are opportunities to relate the work done for this unit to Skillset National Occupational Standards as follows: F1

Manage and market yourself as a freelance

X1

Contribute to good working relationships

X2

Ensure your own actions reduce risks to health and safety.

And to Management Standards Centre National Occupational Standards as follows: A1

Manage your own resources

A3

Develop your personal networks

D1

Develop productive working relationships with colleagues.

Essential resources Centres should develop and maintain their own library of resources containing up to date information on the media industry. Indicative reading for learners Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant.

BFI Film and Television Handbook (published annually by the British Film Institute)

Bowker J — GCSE Media Studies (Hodder & Stoughton, 1999)

Branston G and Stafford R — The Media Students’ Book, Second Edition (Routledge, 2000)

Edwards M — Investigating GCSE Media Studies (Hodder Arnold, 2000)

O’Sullivan T, Dutton B and Rayner P — Studying the Media (Edward Arnold, 1994)

Price S — Media Studies (Focal Press, 1997)

Trowler P — Investigating the Media (Collins, 1991)

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BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007


UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA INDUSTRIES

Websites The following websites were available at the time of going to press and the addresses were correct. www.bbfc.co.uk — the British Board of Film Classification www.bfi.org.uk — the British Film Institute www.carlton.com — Carlton TV www.channel4.com — Channel 4 TV www.crca.co.uk — Commercial Radio www.granada.co.uk — Granada TV www.mediaknowall.com — a good starting point for internet research on the media www.newscorp.com — News Corporation www.offcom.org.uk — the regulator, Offcom www.radioauthority.org.uk — the Radio Authority

BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007

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UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA INDUSTRIES

Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Application of number level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

collecting and collating figures about audience or market share (including those to be found in graphical form)

N2.1

Interpret information from a suitable source.

creating accurate charts (eg pie, histograms) to illustrate audience or market share. This should involve amounts and sizes, scales and proportions and handling statistics.

N2.2

Use their information to carry out calculations to do with:

N2.3

a

amounts or sizes

b

scales or proportion

c

handling statistics

d

using formulae.

Interpret the results of their calculations and present their findings.

Communication level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

contributing to discussions about the media industry or a sector of the media industry

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion

presenting findings from research on the media industry or a sector of the media industry

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes

carrying out research on the media industry or a sector of the media industry

C2.2

Read and summarise information from at least two documents about the same subject. Each document must be a minimum of 500 words long.

C2.3

Write two different types of documents each one giving different information. One document must be at least 500 words long.

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preparing case study files on the media industry or a sector of the media industry.

BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007


UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA INDUSTRIES

Information and communication technology level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

carrying out research on the media industry or a sector of the media industry

IT2.1

preparing a case study on the media industry or a sector of the media industry

IT2.2

Enter and develop the information to suit the task and derive new information.

presenting research findings or a sector of the media industry.

IT2.3

Present combined information such as text with image, text with number, image with number.

Search for and select information to meet their needs. Use different information sources for each task and multiple search criteria in at least one case.

Improving own learning and performance level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

producing a strategy for an investigation into the media industry or a sector of the media industry

LP2.1

Help set targets with an appropriate person and plan how these will be met.

investigating job roles and recruitment methods within a sector of the media industry

demonstrating understanding of the various sectors within the media industry

evaluating own learning within the unit

LP2.2

Take responsibility for some decisions about their learning, using their plan to help meet targets and improve their performance.

reviewing the outcomes of the investigation with a tutor.

LP2.3

Review progress with an appropriate person and provide evidence of achievements.

Working with others level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

establishing and evaluating research sources

WO2.1 Plan work with others.

taking part in group discussions and presenting findings.

WO2.2 Work co-operatively towards achieving identified objectives. WO2.3 Review their contribution and agree ways to improve work with others.

BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007

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UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA INDUSTRIES

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BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in

Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007


UNIT 2: RESEARCH FOR MEDIA PRODUCTION

Unit 2:

Research for Media Production

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract Research underlies all media production, whether it be to gather materials for the content of a new production, assess technical and logistical requirements for a production, or to establish the commercial viability of a proposed production. Research is also done by specialist companies into product sales and audiences activity (what people buy, watch, listen to, and log on to, why they make the choices they make, what they like or dislike etc) in order to help media production companies decide what they want to make and how best to place their products in the market or the programme schedules. This audience research is also vital to advertising companies. Whatever the purpose of the research, the basic methods employed are much the same. This unit will enable learners to develop an understanding of the basic research methods and techniques. It will teach them to how identify sources of information and then use them to gather relevant material. Learners will also develop skills in collecting, collating and storing the material gathered.

Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1

Understand research methods and techniques

2

Be able to identify and gather research material

3

Be able to collate and store research material

4

Be able to present results of research.

BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007

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UNIT 2: RESEARCH FOR MEDIA PRODUCTION

Unit content

1

Understand research methods and techniques Methods: primary; secondary; qualitative eg opinions, attitudes, behaviour patterns;

quantitative eg ratings, circulation figures, web hits

Techniques: using libraries; using the internet; search methods (indexes, catalogues, search engines); reading; note making; interviews (written, recorded); observations; questionnaires; surveys; focus groups; meetings Information trail: log of library; internet and catalogue searches

2

Be able to identify and gather research material Identify: material of various types eg verbal (interviews, reports, from books, from newspapers, from magazines, from the internet), visual (photographs, drawings, paintings, cartoons, film and television clips), graphic (charts, graphs); from various sources eg books, trade magazines, periodicals, newspapers, microfiche, reference books, television, photo libraries, film archives, internet, CD ROM databases Gather: through various methods eg primary, secondary, qualitative, quantitative; through various techniques eg interviews, observations, searches, questionnaires, surveys, focus groups, meetings; record eg written notes, summaries, by electronic means

3

Be able to collate and store research material Collate: sift and select; organise eg by name, by date, by type, by content, by information source; index Store: secure storage; ease of access

4

Be able to present results of research Format: eg written report, oral presentation, power point presentation, audio-visual

presentation, individual presentation, group presentation

Content: purpose; procedures, summary of data/material eg graphics, charts, tables;

analysis/results/conclusions; bibliography/summary of sources

Expression: structure; clarity; linguistic register; recognition of audience

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BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007


BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007

Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is available on page 23.

P4 present results of research.

P3 collate and store research material gathered M3 present results of research competently.

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D2 present results of research using fluent language and correct terminology.

M2 efficiently collate and store research material gathered

P2 identify and employ sources of information to gather material

D1 employ a systematic and structured approach in all aspects of research activity

M1 deploy research methods and techniques to gather relevant material

P1 describe research methods and techniques

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass and merit criteria, the learner is able to:

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

UNIT 2: RESEARCH FOR MEDIA PRODUCTION


UNIT 2: RESEARCH FOR MEDIA PRODUCTION

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery Inevitably much of the initial learning in this unit will take place through class teaching and discussion. This learning can then be reinforced by practical research work such as using library resources, exploring the internet, or going on visits. Learners should undertake a range of research activities in their development work for production units. This will develop their research skills and enable them to produce research that is accurate and fit for purpose. Research should be seen as a key skill for media learners and should be embedded in much of their work for other units in this qualification. Ultimately, learners should be able to recognise the difference between what is clearly going to be of no use and what might be useful, both in relation to sources and the information gathered. But most research is a delicate balance between, on the one hand, working with discrimination and, on the other, working with freedom, between being wasteful and being economic, between the random and the predictable. Learners should therefore initially be encouraged to be adventurous and to learn by experiment. Learners can be introduced to research procedures and skills through short, limited exercises which concentrate on specific aspects of the process – for example, a competition to find a particular bit of information within half an hour, writing a questionnaire and collating the information derived from it, setting up a focus group and writing up the results, establishing and following a specific news story etc. Broader-based activity around research for a media production can be integrated with the work for the production and technical units, but at this level – and for this unit – it is not necessary for learners to carry out an extended and separate research project in order to be able to demonstrate their understanding of the research process and their research skills. At this level research should be used to inform the production process and the evaluation of work done in the production and technical units. One of the key research skills is to be able to sift through the information in the collation and storage process and then make use of only the genuinely relevant material. Learners should therefore be taught the need to discard information that is not relevant. This is particularly important in relation to internet research, where there is strong temptation for inexperienced researchers to print off reams of information, much of which is inapplicable and a good deal of which is likely to be of dubious relevance, and simply file it away with no further action and rather complacent sense that ‘the job has been done’. Collation is not, of course, just about sifting. It is also about sorting, and this is probably the most difficult skill to learn. Tutors might find it useful to set up short exercises in which the information is already provided and learners are required to sort through it and sift out the material which is useful for a given purpose. Later exercises might then require them to list the material in order of value. Learners will initially need guidance in structuring reports, whether written or oral. Again, clearly-defined exercises using given material may be found useful in the early stages here. The importance of clear structure, clear expression of data and ideas, and of adopting the appropriate formal linguistic register should be stressed at all times.

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BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007


UNIT 2: RESEARCH FOR MEDIA PRODUCTION

NB: a distinction has been made in the Content section between ‘methods’ (referring to the wider, strategic objective of the activity) and ‘techniques’ (referring to the ‘tools’ used to achieve the strategic objective). Techniques are often applicable to a number of methods. For example, a questionnaire is equally useful as a technique in gathering both quantitative and qualitative data. Some will find this a useful distinction and others will not, so the terminology should not be considered obligatory. Tutors are welcome to apply the ‘rose by any other name’ principle here, as long as they cover the content specified under these terms. Assessment The exercises noted in the above section, along with research done for other units, can provide evidence for the assessment of this unit. Ideally research procedures and results should be written up in the form of a formal report, but learners may also present their research through oral presentations (which should be recorded for verification purposes). Viva voces and tutor observations may be used to support the assessment of this unit, but should not form the sole method of assessment, as the independent presentation of research processes and results is an important element of what is being learnt here. When more than one learner in a cohort is assessed by means of a viva care must taken to ensure that all learners are asked the same lead questions, and that all are given equal opportunities to expand or clarify their answers. Interviewers must also ensure that questions are not phrased in such a way as to provide or suggest an answer. Vivas should be recorded for the purposes of internal and external verification. NB: When applying the grading criteria tutors should follow the advice given below. Please note that the examples of evidence given here are indicative only. This advice is not inclusive and the examples need not be included in a learner’s work in order for that learner to achieve the exemplified grade. In order to achieve a pass, learners must demonstrate that they know what the methods and techniques of research are and that they can apply those methods and techniques to gather material or information. They will be able to describe the methods and techniques in an unelaborated definition, or provide a simple, unelaborated account of a research process or procedure. They will identify (that is, note without further comment on their nature or authority) sources of information, and gather information of variable value from these sources. This material will be filed in some sort of order (either in paper or electronic form, or both) in such a way that any specified item of information can be accessed, but not without going through a fair amount of material to get to the relevant information. Results will be presented in a list-like manner without comment – ‘I learnt such and such from X …’. There will be no assessment of the value of the results. The presentation of the results will be brief and lacking in detail. Presentational skills, whatever the format chosen, will be basic. If in an oral or audio-visual format, the speaker will get the information across but fail to engage the audience, will speak with little inflection, and will not incorporate visual aids smoothly into the presentation. If written, again, the information will be there but expression will be basic and lexically challenged. It might be in the wrong register for a formal report, and lack clear sign-posts to the structure. At merit-level, techniques and methods will be deployed in that the techniques and methods appropriate to the objective will be consciously chosen and will be beginning to demonstrate a sense of purpose in the pursuit of information. The learner will be beginning to discriminate and to order the material gathered. There will therefore be some discussion of the relative value of sources and of the material, and it will be subjected to some sifting to ensure that what is finally selected is of relevance to the purpose of the research. The material finally selected will be stored in such a way that it can be easily accessed and any given piece of information found.

BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007

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UNIT 2: RESEARCH FOR MEDIA PRODUCTION

Presentation of the results will be done competently – that is, showing ability in relation to presentation skills but not yet employing those skills with complete confidence or with imagination. Whatever format is adopted, the presentation will adopt the appropriate register. Visual support will be relevant and incorporated into the discussion. In an oral or audio-visual presentation the visuals will be used to sign-post the structure, whilst in a written format headings will be employed to achieve the same end. The distinction-level learner will go the stage beyond working with discrimination and will display a systematic approach in all work done. This is obviously a quantitative step, not an absolute difference in relation to what the merit-level learner has achieved. The sense of purpose will be stronger and may now be described as employing a strategy. In the very first stages of a research project, clear objectives will be set, documented and systematically followed through. All information obtained will be evaluated, sifted, and the relevant material stored in such a way that any given piece of information is immediately traceable. In presenting results, the correct terminology will be used and language will be fluent – that is, the learner uses the right word in the right context, and is able to employ appropriately the kind of vocabulary used in the industry. Language will be appropriate to the audience and the purpose Whatever format is chosen, meaning will be clear at all times and the learner will engage and maintain the attention of the audience. Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit can be linked to all the other units in this qualification. Learners will have the opportunity to obtain key skills at level 2 in application of number, communication, information technology, improving own learning and performance, problem solving, and working with others. There are opportunities to relate the work done for this unit to Skillset National Occupational Standards in Production and Radio Production as follows: Production P5

Identify sources of information and present findings

P6

Obtain archive material

P13

Clear copyright materials

P14

Identify and negotiate copyright issues

Radio Production R3

Undertake research for radio production.

Essential resources Access to the internet is essential. Learners should have access to a wide range of media products, with viewing, listening and reading facilities as appropriate. Indicative reading for learners Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant.

Berger A — Media Research Techniques (Sage, 1998)

Stokes J — How to do Media and Cultural Studies (Sage, 2003)

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BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007


UNIT 2: RESEARCH FOR MEDIA PRODUCTION

Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Application of number level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

examining audience research figures

N2.1

Interpret information from a suitable source.

preparing and giving a presentation on research into audience figures.

N2.2

Use their information to carry out calculations to do with:

N2.3

a

amounts or sizes

b

scales or proportion

c

handling statistics

d

using formulae.

Interpret the results of their calculations and present their findings.

Communication level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

carrying out research as part of a group

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion

presenting research data to others

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes

analysing different types of primary and secondary research material

C2.2

Read and summarise information from at least two documents about the same subject. Each document must be a minimum of 500 words long.

writing up research work.

C2.3

Write two different types of documents each one giving different information. One document must be at least 500 words long.

BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007

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UNIT 2: RESEARCH FOR MEDIA PRODUCTION

Information and communication technology level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

IT2.1

researching a variety of sources

Search for and select information to meet their needs. Use different information sources for each task and multiple search criteria in at least one case.

presenting research findings.

IT2.2

Enter and develop the information to suit the task and derive new information.

IT2.3

Present combined information such as text with image, text with number, image with number.

Improving own learning and performance level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

demonstrating an understanding of research techniques

LP2.1

Help set targets with an appropriate person and plan how these will be met.

setting targets and objectives for research

LP2.2

Take responsibility for some decisions about their learning, using their plan to help meet targets and improve their performance.

discussing with the tutor progress made and using learning from research for additional projects.

LP2.3

Review progress with an appropriate person and provide evidence of achievements.

Problem solving level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

producing a plan for a research project and presenting findings in an appropriate manner

PS2.1

Identify a problem, with help from an appropriate person, and identify different ways of tackling it.

arranging meetings with external organisations and changing plans to overcome problems

PS2.2

Plan and try out at least one way of solving the problem.

reviewing work undertaken and discussing their achievements and suggesting improvements.

PS2.3

Check if the problem has been solved and identify ways to improve problem solving skills.

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BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007


UNIT 2: RESEARCH FOR MEDIA PRODUCTION

Working with others level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

identifying objectives when planning a group project

WO2.1 Plan work with others.

carrying out research for a group project

WO2.2 Work co-operatively towards achieving identified objectives.

reviewing the research before writing up a report or giving a presentation.

WO2.3 Review their contribution and agree ways to improve work with others.

BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007

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UNIT 2: RESEARCH FOR MEDIA PRODUCTION

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BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in

Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007


UNIT 3: INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA AUDIENCES AND PRODUCTS

Unit 3:

Introduction to Media Audiences and Products

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 30

Unit abstract An understanding of how the media creates products for specific audiences is vital to working effectively in the media industry. It follows, therefore, that learners should understand how the industry thinks about its audiences and how this affects the way anything created for those audiences is produced. It is also important that learners should be able to think critically about how audiences understand and make sense of media products. This core unit focuses on the ways in which media industries gather information about their audiences and categorise them, how the texts the industries produce are constructed and addressed to particular audiences, and how those audiences make sense of the products offered to them. In this unit learners will also become familiar with the basic language and key concepts which are fundamental to studying the media and its products. Learners should approach this unit with reference to one specific sector of the media and ideally the one in which their production work will take place.

Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1

Understand how media industries identify audiences for media products

2

Understand how media products are created for audiences

3

Be able to show how audiences make sense of media products.

BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007

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UNIT 3: INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA AUDIENCES AND PRODUCTS

Unit content

1

Understand how media industries identify audiences for media products Classification of audiences: eg Standard Occupational Classification (ABC1 etc), lifestyle or psychographics; postcode or geodemographics; age; gender; sexual orientation Audience research: eg focus groups, questionnaires, ratings (BARB), audience

measurement panels, face-to-face interviews

2

Understand how media products are created for audiences Categorising products: by genre eg film (western, sci-fi, horror, romantic comedy), television (soap opera, situation comedy, documentary, ‘reality’ TV), newspapers (tabloid, broadsheet, local, national, free) magazines (lifestyle, comics, specialist), radio (drama, music, documentary, topical, soap opera, sitcom), websites (sales, news, fan culture, personal); by audience Elements of construction: selection; composition; combination Modes of address: eg through content, through language, through genre, through narrative, through visual imagery, through graphic style Constraints: codes of practice eg BBC guidelines, press codes of conduct, advertising standards; legal restrictions eg privacy, libel law, defamation, race discrimination law, data protection, freedom of information, copyright.

3

Be able to show how audiences make sense of media products Decoding: general codes eg linguistic codes, visual codes, aural codes; generic codes eg of language, of content, of narrative, of characters, of style, of camera work, of soundtrack, of music, of mise-en-scene, of iconography, of graphics; reasons for preference eg age, gender, ethnic background, sexual orientation

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BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007


M3 discuss how a media product might be understood by an audience using appropriate illustrative examples.

BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007

Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is available on page 33.

P3 describe how a media product might be understood by an audience.

M2 discuss how a media industry constructs products for specific audiences using appropriate illustrative examples

M1 discuss how a media industry identifies its audiences using appropriate illustrative examples

P1 describe how a media industry identifies its audiences

P2 describe how a media product is constructed for a specific audience

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

D1 critically discuss ideas and concepts using correct terminology.

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To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass and merit criteria, the learner is able to:

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

UNIT 3: INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA AUDIENCES AND PRODUCTS


UNIT 3: INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA AUDIENCES AND PRODUCTS

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery NB When covering this unit, tutors should focus on one sector or sub-sector of the industry and select content as appropriate. The sector or sub-sector chosen should ideally be the one in which the learners’ production work – or the bulk of it – is situated. The purpose of this unit is to lead learners to think purposefully about the construction of media products and, vitally, to apply this thinking to their own production work. Whether they are led to do this by thinking first about the audiences for which the products are created, or about the construction of the products themselves does not matter. What is important is that this thinking should always be related directly to their own production work wherever possible, ideally moving from their own work towards professional and commercial work rather than the other way round. Learners could therefore start by thinking about the possible audiences they had in mind when planning one of their own productions and of the ways in which that might have affected the way they worked or the final product. They should be introduced to the methods employed for categorising audiences that are relevant to the sector of the industry that they are studying. This might include Standard Occupational Classification, psychographic (or lifestyle) profiling, geodemographic (or postcode) profiling, audience or readership profiling, definition by gender, age etc. Learners should also be introduced to the ways in which this sector researches audiences – how it establishes the make-up of its audience, how large that audience is, and what it thinks of what it is offered. Learners could then use these methods to determine the audience for the texts they have created and do some appropriate exercise to establish an audience response to one of their own products. This last exercise could be combined with research for the evaluation of one of the products they have created in a production or technical unit, such as Unit 4: Video Production, or Unit 5: Audio Production. Whilst the content of learning outcome 1 is important, it should not take as long to cover as the content of the other two learning outcomes, so it is suggested that, in terms of apportioning the teaching, audience categories and research should be given less time than the other two outcomes. To lead learners from thinking about audiences as groups to thinking about them as individuals who make sense in various ways of the media products they enjoy, learners should be introduced to the basic elements of construction such as selection, composition, and combination, how the choices made here are determined by the audience aimed at, and how these choices might – or might not – determine readings. Again, this could be approached through observations on their own work, as well as through looking at carefully chosen examples taken from professional practice. Looking at what is chosen and how it is combined could, through recognising patterns in selection and combination, lead into a study of codes and conventions. This should be done through a specific genre in a specific medium relevant to the learners’ own production activity. Obviously codes and conventions will very much depend upon the medium (they would include for television and film such things as shot, angle, lighting, sound, costume etc, and for print such things as typeface, linguistic register, layout etc). Constant reference back to the learners’ own production activity will make this genre analysis work more engaging and should, vitally, inform that production activity.

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BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007


UNIT 3: INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA AUDIENCES AND PRODUCTS

Since this is mainly a knowledge and theory unit there is much work that can be done through researching into secondary sources: libraries, websites, periodicals. Useful sites can be found by using relevant key words, such as ‘media, media audiences, genre, film studies, westerns’ etc. The involvement of professional media personnel through visits and talks can bring much of the unit content alive. Assessment Evidence for this unit can be presented in any format which enables the learner to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the unit’s content as specified in the grading grid. Separate assignments can be set to cover each of the grading criteria, or one assignment can be set which will enable learners to produce evidence for two, or all, of the criteria. Appropriate formats would include written reports, class presentations, structured audio-visual statements, and audio or audio visual programmes. Oral presentations should be recorded for the purposes of verification. For some learners a viva voce type assessment might be appropriate. When more than one learner in a cohort is assessed in this way care must taken to ensure that all learners are asked the same lead questions, and that all are given equal opportunities to expand or clarify their answers. Interviewers must also ensure that questions are not phrased in such a way as to provide or suggest an answer. Vivas should be recorded for the purposes of internal and external verification. NB: When applying the grading criteria tutors should follow the advice given below. Please note that the examples of evidence given here are indicative only. This advice is not inclusive and the examples need not be included in a learner’s work in order for that learner to achieve the exemplified grade. In order to achieve a pass, the learner must describe how a media industry identifies its audiences, how a media product is constructed for a specific audience, and how a media product can be understood by an audience. ‘Describe’ means that the learner has provided a correct but unelaborated outline of the relevant unit content. For the content relating to the first learning outcome this will vary from sector to sector. So, a learner will, with reference to the press, correctly delineate the Standard Occupational Classification system and give the content of a readership profile for a newspaper in very general outline, and then give a simple account of how sales and readership figures might be compiled. For the film industry it will be noted that audience classification is usually based around age, gender, and the different sorts of audiences associated with the different types of exhibition outlets. A simple account of trial screenings and the way box office takings are arrived at will be given. Treatment of the content relating to learning outcomes 2 and 3 will be similarly characterised by accurate but unelaborated description of a text, its category, construction, and mode of address. For example, ‘The Sun is a tabloid newspaper. It has more pictures than writing. Sentences are short and the writing is broken up by a lot of sub-headings. It uses a very small number of everyday words.’ Consideration of the ways in which legal and other constraints have affected the construction will be limited to comments such as, ‘films made for audiences under 16 will not contain any graphic violence or sex scenes.’

BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007

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UNIT 3: INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA AUDIENCES AND PRODUCTS

Analysis of a text to show how it might be understood will, similarly, cover the required ground as specified in the unit content but at the level of simple description. For instance, ‘Home and Away is a soap opera. It is set in a small town in Australia. It is aimed at a younger audience. The characters are the same every week but now and then someone leaves and someone new comes in. The plots are all about people’s relationships. The dialogue is simple but not very realistic. Most of the sets are the insides of people’s homes. It is mostly shot in close up and shot-reverse-shot.’ In order to achieve a merit, the learner must discuss how the media industry identifies audiences and constructs products for specific audiences using appropriate illustrative examples. That is, they will treat the material covered in some detail and make some comment on it, providing detailed examples from that material to illustrate the points made. Though these examples will not be elucidated further, and comments will not be supported or developed further by argument, there will nonetheless be a sense of thoughtfulness in this learner’s work. Thus, with reference to the press, the Standard Occupational Classification system will be accurately described in detail and with examples of the different types of occupation in each category; the difference between sales and readership will be noted, with examples to illustrate how the difference arises – families buying one paper which perhaps both adults read, libraries taking single copies which large numbers of people will read, etc. Discussion of how products are constructed will go beyond description, making comments on the reasons for the process, albeit unsupported by fuller argument. Thus it will be noted, for example, that the limited vocabulary of a tabloid paper has a purpose: ‘The Sun uses a very limited vocabulary so that its readers will not be put off by language that they do not understand.’ Analysis of a text will be more detailed, with examples given to support points, and the learner will be beginning to comment on the text. ‘EastEnders is a soap opera set in a square in East London. It is supposed to be more life-like than other soap operas and is aimed at a prime time audience mostly in the C1, C2 and D social categories. As with all soap operas there is a set cast of characters, though occasionally someone leaves, often in dramatic circumstances as happened with Dirty Den who was killed. Someone new is often then brought in to replace the one who left and to provide new plot lines.’ In order to achieve a distinction, the learner must critically discuss the specified content using correct terminology. ‘Critically discuss’ means that any observations made or arguments engaged in are explained, justified or supported in some way, or are subjected to some sort of evaluative procedure or to a process of comparison. (It should be noted that the term ‘critical’ as used here does not mean negative commentary.) If discussing the press in relation to the ways a media industry identifies its audiences, the Standard Occupational Classification system will be compared to the readership profile, with some comment on the comparative crudity of the former as a way of determining an audience. In discussing the sales figures given by papers it will be noted that many papers try to inflate their figures by including the ones they give away free to, for example, air passengers. In relation to the style of tabloid papers, it will be noted that though the colloquial style has the benefit of making the readership feel they are being addressed in their own language, the small vocabulary also simplifies things and does not invite the readers to think for themselves about what is being said. Analysis of a text will be more explanatory with support for points made, and the learner will offer some evaluation of the text. For example, ‘Because there is so much competition between the prime-time soap operas, they will try to outdo each other in dramatic plot-lines. So Brookside had the famous lesbian kiss which EastEnders responded to by introducing two lesbian characters. However, because it is prime-time TV and well before the watershed there are limits to what they can do with this kind of plot-line.’

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UNIT 3: INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA AUDIENCES AND PRODUCTS

Correct terminology means that the learner uses the right word in the right context, and is able to deploy appropriately the kind of vocabulary used in the industry and in media analysis. Whilst this refers mainly to the use of technical or specialist language, it can also be taken to refer to a learner’s use of language generally. Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications As it is hoped that tutors will use learners’ own work as a means of building up their understanding of theory, this unit can potentially be linked with any production or technical unit. Links can be made with Unit 2: Research for Media Production through the way this unit is taught. Learners will have the opportunity to obtain key skills at level 2 in application of number, communication, information and communication technology, improving own learning and performance, and working with others. Essential resources Centres should develop their own library of resources to include, print, audio and moving image (eg films recorded ‘off air’ or DVD versions with bonus materials) as appropriate to the programme. Indicative reading for learners Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant.

BFI Film and Television Handbook (published annually by the British Film Institute)

Bowker J — GCSE Media Studies (Hodder & Stoughton, 1999)

Edwards M — Investigating GCSE Media Studies (Hodder Arnold, 2000)

O’Sullivan T, Dutton B and Rayner P — Studying the Media (Edward Arnold, 1994)

Stewart C — Media and Meaning: An Introduction (BFI Publishing, 2001)

Trowler P — Investigating the Media (Collins, 1991)

Websites The following websites were available at the time of going to press and the addresses were correct. www.bbfc.co.uk — the British Board of Film Classification www.bfi.org.uk — the British Film Institute www.crca.co.uk — Commercial Radio www.englishandmedia.co.uk/mediamag.html — the English and Media Centre www.imdb.com — a movie database www.mediaknowall.com — a web guide for media students www.mediawatchuk.org — Mediawatch www.offcom.org.uk — Offcom www.rajar.co.uk — Audience Research www.vlv.org.uk — the Voice of the Listener and Viewer BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007

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UNIT 3: INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA AUDIENCES AND PRODUCTS

Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Application of number level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

collecting and collating audience data, and comparing with nationally available information (including that to be found in graphical form)

N2.1

creating accurate charts (eg pie, N2.2 histograms) to illustrate own and national audience data. This should involve amounts and sizes, scales and proportions and handling statistics

presenting the findings of research into media audiences.

N2.3

Interpret information from a suitable source.

Use their information to carry out calculations to do with: a

amounts or sizes

b

scales or proportion

c

handling statistics

d

using formulae.

Interpret the results of their calculations and present their findings.

Communication level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

contributing to discussions about codes and conventions of media products

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion

presenting own interpretation of a media product

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes

carrying out research for a presentation on a media product

C2.2

Read and summarise information from at least two documents about the same subject. Each document must be a minimum of 500 words long.

preparing case study files to show understanding of codes and conventions of media products.

C2.3

Write two different types of documents each one giving different information. One document must be at least 500 words long.

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UNIT 3: INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA AUDIENCES AND PRODUCTS

Information and communication technology level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

IT2.1

carrying out research

Search for and select information to meet their needs. Use different information sources for each task and multiple search criteria in at least one case.

preparing case study files

IT2.2

Enter and develop the information to suit the task and derive new information.

presenting research findings.

IT2.3

Present combined information such as text with image, text with number, image with number.

Improving own learning and performance level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

producing a strategy for an investigation into media audiences or products, following through the investigation and giving a presentation on the results

LP2.1

Help set targets with an appropriate person and plan how these will be met.

evaluating own learning within the unit

LP2.2

Take responsibility for some decisions about their learning, using their plan to help meet targets and improve their performance.

reviewing the outcomes of the investigation with a tutor.

LP2.3

Review progress with an appropriate person and provide evidence of achievements.

Working with others level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

researching the relationship between audience expectations and media products

WO2.1 Plan work with others.

taking part in a group research exercise on the relationship between audience expectations and media products

WO2.2 Work co-operatively towards achieving identified objectives.

reporting to the group on own progress made, and discussing the progress of others.

WO2.3 Review their contribution and agree ways to improve work with others.

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UNIT 3: INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA AUDIENCES AND PRODUCTS

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Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007


UNIT 4: VIDEO PRODUCTION

Unit 4:

Video Production

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract The term ‘video production’ encompasses a wide variety of moving image production activity, from one-person independent businesses producing wedding videos to major television companies producing prime-time entertainment. It also encompasses a variety of production roles, the two most obvious being camera operator and editor though there are a large number of other job roles in video production ranging across the technical, creative, administrative and management areas. This unit introduces learners to the techniques and technology of video-based production work. Learners will develop an understanding of the three stages of pre-production, production and post-production. They will also investigate the basic prerequisites for a video production proposals, and learn what should go into a production proposal. Learners will then apply their understanding, working as part of a team to complete a video product. On completion of the product, learners will review their contribution to the production process and to the quality of the product.

Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1

Understand pre-production, production and post-production techniques

2

Be able to contribute to each stage of the creation of a finished video product

3

Be able to review own video production work.

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UNIT 4: VIDEO PRODUCTION

Unit content

1

Understand pre-production, production and post-production techniques Pre-production: recording format eg VHS, digital video, Hi-8 video, DVC; locations; personnel required; equipment; schedules; storyboard; shooting script – shot type, length of shots, dialogue, directions, audio; health and safety eg risk assessments, electrical cables, lifting and carrying Production: camera set-ups eg hand-held, tripod, dolly, single camera set-up, multi-camera set-up; white balance; shooting techniques eg framing, shot type, shot length, camera movements; lighting eg redheads, blondes, spots, lighting set-ups, gels; sound eg in camera microphone, boom, hand-held, radio, SFX; production management; Post-production: editing procedures – log footage, length of shots, shot description, audio, suitability of recorded material, edit decision list, labelling, storage; editing techniques eg linear, non linear, analogue, digital; transitions eg fades, wipes, flashbacks, dissolves, dubbing; delivery format

2

Be able to contribute to each stage of the creation of a finished video product Ideas: eg genre, content, title, scope Pre-production process: eg planning, creative input, documentation, research, resources, budget Production process: eg technical competencies, creative input, management Post-production process: eg technical competencies, creative input

3

Be able to review own video production work Finished product: compared with original proposal; appropriateness to audience; technical qualities; aesthetic qualities; content; style; own contribution; team contribution Production process: pre-production eg research, planning, own contribution, team contribution; production eg time management, project management, technical competencies, creative ability, own contribution, team contribution; post-production eg time management, project management, technical competencies, creative ability, own contribution, team contribution Sources of information: self-evaluation; documentation eg ideas notes, notes from meetings, drafts; production log (creative decisions, production issues, summary of events); comments from others eg audience, peers, tutors, client

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M1 demonstrate competence in pre-production, production and post-production techniques M2 make positive contributions to technical and aesthetic aspects of a finished video product M3 discuss own video production work.

P1 identify and undertake pre-production, production and post-production techniques

P2 contribute to each stage of the creation of a finished video product

P3 describe own video production work.

BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007

Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is available on page 42.

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

D3 explain own video production work using correct technical language.

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D2 make significant contributions to technical and aesthetic aspects of a finished video product

D1 demonstrate a high-level of ability in pre­ production, production and post-production techniques

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass and merit criteria, the learner is able to:

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

UNIT 4: VIDEO PRODUCTION


UNIT 4: VIDEO PRODUCTION

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery Video production is, with a very small number of exceptions, a group activity and this unit is designed to recognise that fact and to introduce learners to the realities of group production work. It is important for tutors to recognise that whilst each learner must develop, individually, an understanding of the various stages of the video production process (learning outcome 1), each learner must also demonstrate that they can apply that understanding in the context of a group production (learning outcome 2). The initial stage of this unit could focus on a series of highly-focused, small exercises through which learners develop their understanding of the basics of video pre-production, production and post-production techniques, prior to generating a finished piece of work. Thus, they might do pre-production exercises on scripting a single scene from a given section of a story, and on storyboarding a short sequence from a given script. Production exercises could consist of one on shot framing, another on camera movements, and then one on setting up a simple action sequence, following the storyboard created in the earlier exercise. The rushes from that exercise could then be used in a simple editing exercise. As the exercises become more substantial learners should be encouraged to develop their skills through experimentation. Development of technical skills could be run alongside lessons on the prerequisites of video production proposals. At this level there is no need to go into too much detail, but learners should be made aware of the need to focus video production on an audience and a market. Wherever possible, pre-production techniques should be taught through professionally produced illustrative material – scripts, storyboards, schedules etc – as should the writing of proposals. Learners must work in a team to create the finished product for this unit. It follows that they will not all undertake every role in a video production process. Tutors must therefore ensure that all members of the group have a substantial role relating to video production work, and that each learner contributes as fully as possible to the pre-production, production and post-production stages. Groups could consist of a camera operator, a sound recordist, and an editor. As the editor’s role is concentrated mainly in post-production, the learner undertaking this role could also be given the responsibility of directing, so as to be fully involved in the two earlier stages. Each role must also, of course, enable the learner undertaking it to produce evidence for assessment at all three grade levels. Assessment Evidence for learning outcome 1 will come from the exercises that learners do in the early part of the unit, and from tutor observation. The work done for learning outcome 2 will also contribute evidence for the assessment of this outcome. This material should display learners’ understanding of the practical and the creative aspects of video production work. Tutor observation can also be used to assess this outcome. Evidence for learning outcome 2 should be in the form of a written proposal, relevant production documentation and the finished video production. It is important to recognise that it is the individual learner’s contribution to the finished piece of work that is being assessed, so tutor observation can also play an important part in distinguishing the individual contributions of each member of the group.

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UNIT 4: VIDEO PRODUCTION

Evidence for learning outcome 3 will be the finished video production and reflections provided by the learner. These reflections could be written as summary notes, notes in a studio log, annotations to a script or editing schedule, video or other forms of presentations etc. Other evidence could be provided through observation statements, records of groups critiques, or a viva voce type assessment. When more than one learner in a cohort is assessed through a viva care must taken to ensure that all learners are asked the same lead questions, and that all are given equal opportunities to expand or clarify their answers. Interviewers must also ensure that questions are not phrased in such a way as to provide or suggest an answer. Vivas should be recorded for the purposes of internal and external verification. NB: When applying the grading criteria tutors should follow the advice given below. Please note that the examples of evidence given here are indicative only. This advice is not inclusive and the examples need not be included in a learner’s work in order for that learner to achieve the exemplified grade. To achieve a pass, learners must be able to identify and undertake the procedures and tasks necessary for pre-production, production and post-production work. For example, they can name video formats and can produce basic scripts and storyboards; they can name shots, set up a camera, frame a shot, and execute the basic camera movements; they can describe, but without understanding the reasons for them, health and safety procedures necessary when on a location shoot; they understand editing procedures, can follow them and can execute basic edits etc. P2 must be assessed in terms of the way learners have contributed to the finished video– in terms, that is to say, of the application of their skills, knowledge and understanding of video production to this actual product. At pass level it is acceptable for contributions to be in the areas of administrative or technical support– that is, organising the preparation and distribution of scripts or story-boards, preparing locations, managing post-production paperwork, etc. When contributing ideas, the pass-level learner will tend towards the obvious or the impracticable. Technical contributions will be at a basic level. Aesthetic understanding and capabilities will also be basic and limited to the conventional to the extent of being clichéd. (When assessing work for the First Certificate and First Diploma in Media, ‘aesthetics’ can be taken to cover matters of style as well as the considerations that might more strictly be covered by that term.) To achieve criterion P3 learners must describe their production work – ‘work’ meaning both the process and the product resulting from following that process. This description will be relevant to the production process and the product but will mainly be confined to an historical account of activities (eg ‘we had a script meeting and wrote the script, then we did the storyboard which Ashe drew. We spent five days on the shooting and another three on the editing…’ etc). Accounts which are mostly taken up with irrelevant detail (eg ‘Samir’s mother made us really nice sandwiches when we did our shoot in the park, but we left them on a bench and someone’s dog came along and ate them when we weren’t looking’) should not be considered as meeting the pass-level for this criterion. Description of the product will be an unelaborated outline and assessments of its quality will be relevant but very generalised and at the level of assertion (eg ‘the shoot went quite well and the final edit was good’). At merit-level, pre-production, production and post-production work will all be competent – that is, the learner will show care in relation to following procedures, and ability in the handling of equipment and in the exercise of skills, but will not yet be completely confident in those procedures or the use of equipment, and will not yet employ the skills with imagination. The level of skills attainment will be good, but not excellent. The learner will still need occasional advice or support in many aspects of the work. Contributions to the development and realisation of the final product will be frequent, thoughtful, sensible, and useful to the group. They will be positive in the sense that they enable the production to move forward, both in the sense of getting things done and improving the quality of the final product. Aesthetic decisions will be based on some thought and will be, on the whole, satisfying.

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UNIT 4: VIDEO PRODUCTION

In reflecting upon their production work merit-level learners will ‘discuss.’ Commentary will thus be detailed, with examples to support comments but it will still be at the level of statement or assertion rather than being supported by explanation or argument – eg ‘the editing was pretty slick, like the one where Eve was walking through the garden and was surprised by Sinh hiding in a tree.’ Distinction-level work will be characterised throughout by a higher level grasp of procedures, technical skills and creativity, along with the ability to work effectively and independently. Whether following a procedure or executing a practical activity, learners will achieve highquality results and will create products that are beginning to move beyond the purely conventional. Techniques and equipment will be used with facility and to good effect, and learners will be at ease with both. Above all, equipment and skills will be deployed creatively – distinction-level learners will be beginning to understand how to make the technology serve creative intentions. They will be able to think laterally and come up with ideas and solutions which others might have not thought of. This will come through in the generation of ideas (which may well be plentiful) and in their contributions to the technical and aesthetic qualities of the final piece of work which will be considerable in every way. It is in this sense that their contributions will be ‘significant’ – they will be a major influence (frequently being the decisive factor) in the shaping of the final product. In reflecting upon their work, distinction-level learners will explain – that is, they will demonstrate an awareness of why they did what they did, and will justify or support comments on these production decisions in some way (eg ‘The first long shot of the café is followed by a medium close up of Jean sitting at a table because that is the conventional way of establishing where someone is at the opening of a soap episode’). Their use of technical and specialist language will be correct, being consistently appropriate and accurate. Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications Unit 11: Writing for the Media could provide scripts for the production element of this unit. It could also provide the skills basis for work on Unit 7: Advertising Production and Unit 17: Media Production Project. Work on learning outcome 2 could be linked with work for Unit 3: Introduction to Media Audiences and Products and Unit 2: Research for Media Production. There are opportunities in this unit for the development of key skills at level 2 in communication, information and communication technology, improving own learning and performance, problem solving, and working with others. There are opportunities to relate the work done for this unit to Skillset National Occupational Standards in Camera, Editing, Sound, Lighting, Directors, and Production as follows: Camera C1

Assess and agree studios or locations

C2

Specify camera equipment required

C3

Collect information and develop shooting ideas

C4

Obtain, prepare and return equipment

C6

Provide vision monitoring facilities for multi camera television

C7

Lay simple track

C8

Rig camera and accessories on a fixed mounting

C12 Provide assistance to record and review the video image C13 Maintain camera batteries during shoot

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UNIT 4: VIDEO PRODUCTION

C14 Co-ordinate the crew to position a camera C19 Focus the lens C20 Set up video camera exposure monitoring C24 Identify slate information and operate the clapperboard C25 Track the video camera C26 Swing the crane arm for video camera C27 Elevate and track the video camera C28 Position and move the camera to frame and compose the image C31 Supervise the camera crew on a film shoot Editing E1

Identify and agree editing outcomes and process

E5

Digitise pictures and sound for non-linear editing

E9

Edit materials using on-line video-tape equipment

E10 Edit materials using non-linear equipment E11 Assemble pictures and sound to specification E12 Produce first cuts E13 Evaluate first cuts materials for final post-production E14 Produce fine cut materials for final post-production E18 Select and assemble sound to support visual images E21 Realise complex effects Sound S18

Provide synchronous playback

S19

Manage the provision of synchronous playback

S20

Synchronise sound and pictures

Lighting L1

Recce locations to identify the materials and electrical equipment required

L2

Recommend lighting resources

L3

Co-ordinate the use of the production’s lighting resources

L4

Assess, set up and monitor power distribution systems

L5

Inspect locations to assess and obtain the electrical supply

L6

Design the lighting for studios and locations

L7

Lighting for a single camera

L10 Prepare equipment to modify and control light L13 Set up and operate follow spots L14 Prepare and operate discharge luminaire systems L16 Set lighting to meet the desired effect L19 Determine the final balance

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UNIT 4: VIDEO PRODUCTION

Directors D1

Investigate the viability of ideas for productions

D2

Cast performers to realise the creative idea

D4

Input into pre-production planning

D5

Select a creative and technical team

D6

Review the suitability of potential locations and studios

D7

Direct the production

D8

Direct the actors (dramas)

D10 Supervise the post production process Production P1

Contribute ideas for productions

P2

Assist with the preparation of a budget for the production

P3

Prepare a budget for the production

P7

Contribute to office-based pre-production

P8

Organise pre-production activities

P9

Plan and schedule production activities

P10

Control the overall planning of the production

P11

Contribute to the drafting of scripts, cues, links or written content

P12

Manage the relationship between script writer and production

P13

Clear copyright materials

P14

Identify and negotiate copyright issues

P15

Ensure compliance with regulations and codes of practice

P16

Assist in managing resources for the production

P17

Control production materials, equipment and supplies

P18

Co-ordinate activities to support production

P19

Assist performers, contributors and crew

P20

Identify and recommend contributors

P23

Brief and manage contributors and performers prior to filming

P24

Select crew and suppliers to meet production requirements

P25

Identify and select supporting artistes and contributors

P30

Research and assess location

P31

Prepare and confirm use of locations

P32

Assist with the running of a location

P33

Manage locations for a production

P34

Brief contributors during shooting

P35

Co-ordinate activities during production

P37

Produce a location shoot for a complete programme

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UNIT 4: VIDEO PRODUCTION

P39

Plan and schedule the daily shoot

P40

Monitor and control the progress of productions

P44

Maintain continuity during the production

P45

Assist with the post-production process

P47

Supervise the edit of a complete programme

P48

Plan and schedule post-production activities

X5

Recommend and co-ordinate resource and task requirements to meet production needs.

Essential resources Resources should be available that allow learners to watch and take part in critical evaluations of video programmes either in a group or individual context. Appropriate filming equipment such as VHS, DV should be a minimum requirement for the production and pre-production process. A suitable level of digital editing facilities should be available for the completion of the post-production process. Analogue facilities (two-machine or three-machine edit) may also be used but should not be the only editing resource available. Indicative reading for learners Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant.

Evans R — Practical DV Film Making (Focal Press, 2002)

Kindem G — Introduction to Media Production (Focal Press, 2001)

Millerson G — Video Production Handbook, Third Edition (Focal Press, 2001)

Musberger R — Single Video Camera Production (Focal Press, 2002)

Vineyard J and Cruz J — Setting up Your Shots (Michael Wiese Productions, 2000)

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UNIT 4: VIDEO PRODUCTION

Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Communication level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

discussing production ideas

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion

presenting ideas to others

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes

producing pre-production material

C2.2

Read and summarise information from at least two documents about the same subject. Each document must be a minimum of 500 words long.

C2.3

Write two different types of documents each one giving different information. One document must be at least 500 words long.

• analysing video formats.

Information and communication technology level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

IT2.1

producing pre-production material

Search for and select information to meet their needs. Use different information sources for each task and multiple search criteria in at least one case.

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engaged in interactive media or website production work.

IT2.2

Enter and develop the information to suit the task and derive new information.

IT2.3

Present combined information such as text with image, text with number, image with number.

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UNIT 4: VIDEO PRODUCTION

Improving own learning and performance level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

planning video production work and identifying objectives

LP2.1

Help set targets with an appropriate person and plan how these will be met.

discussing techniques and practice

LP2.2

Take responsibility for some decisions about their learning, using their plan to help meet targets and improve their performance.

monitoring own performance and that of others.

LP2.3

Review progress with an appropriate person and provide evidence of achievements.

Problem solving level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

investigating and using various video production techniques

PS2.1

gathering material for a video production, recognising its relevance and deciding on the content

Identify a problem, with help from an appropriate person, and identify different ways of tackling it.

producing a video

PS2.2

Plan and try out at least one way of solving the problem.

testing and modifying video product.

PS2.3

Check if the problem has been solved and identify ways to improve problem solving skills.

Working with others level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

identifying the required action for the implementation of the production plan

WO2.1 Plan work with others.

planning and carrying out production assignments, practical activities or group oral presentations

WO2.2 Work co-operatively towards achieving identified objectives.

discussing with the tutor progress made during each stage and using learning from research.

WO2.3 Review their contribution and agree ways to improve work with others.

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UNIT 4: VIDEO PRODUCTION

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UNIT 5: AUDIO PRODUCTION

Unit 5:

Audio Production

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract The term ‘audio production’ encompasses a wide variety of production activity, from recording a local band’s demo tape to audio drama programmes like the world’s longest running soap opera, The Archers, which involves, quite apart from the technical staff, a large team of script writers, consultants and actors. The unit also encompasses a variety of production roles, such as sound recordist, sound effects recordist and editor, and a variety of jobs in the administrative and management areas. In this unit learners will explore basic sound recording techniques and technology. Learners should develop an understanding of sound recording through investigations in a variety of contexts. While learners will increase their understanding of various styles, techniques and technologies, they will also learn about broadcast and non-broadcast audio production. In creating their own audio products, learners will develop skills in sound recording, editing and mixing.

Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1

Know about broadcast and non-broadcast audio products and audio formats

2

Understand audio recording and editing technology and techniques

3

Be able to produce an audio product

4

Be able to review own audio production work.

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UNIT 5: AUDIO PRODUCTION

Unit content

1

Know about broadcast and non-broadcast audio products and audio formats Broadcast: form eg live, as-live, recorded; genre eg news, music and speech programming, commercials, drama, commentary Non-broadcast: music; talking books; in-store audio; soundtracks Audio formats: CD, MiniDisc, DAT, music TV, videotape, vinyl, tape systems, digital sound files eg MP3

2

Understand audio recording and editing technology and techniques Recording technologies: microphones; recording, playback and editing formats eg analogue, digital, CD, DAT, hard disk, MiniDisc, reel-to-reel tape, solid state, ISDN; mixing desks; studio recording eg studio layout and operation, on-air and off-air protocols; monitoring levels; leads and connectors Recording situations: eg live recordings, as-live recordings, concerts, interviews, commentaries, studio and outside broadcast, atmosphere, effects, live entertainment performances, monologue, dialogue, group debate, audience interaction and participation

3

Be able to produce an audio product Pre-production: generate and develop an idea (form, genre, format, content, style, audience, length, script); production schedules Production: as appropriate to form and format eg recording, studio operation, studio

protocols, monitoring levels, storage and labelling of recorded materials

Post-production: as appropriate to form and format eg mixing, editing, storage and labelling of edited material, studio protocols

4

Be able to review audio production work Finished product: compared with original intentions; technical qualities (recording, editing; aesthetic qualities) Production process: production (technical competencies, creative ability); post-production (technical competencies, creative ability, scheduling) Sources of information: self-evaluation; production logs; comments from others eg

audience, peers, tutors, client

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BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007

Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is available on page 54.

M4 discuss own audio production work.

D3 explain own audio production work using correct technical language.

M3 create an audio product which demonstrates competent technical and aesthetic qualities

P4 describe own audio production work.

P3 create an audio product

D2 achieve intentions through application of highlevel technical skills and creativity

M2 demonstrate competence in use of audio technology and application of techniques

P2 use audio technology and apply techniques

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D1 critically discuss broadcast and non-broadcast audio products

M1 discuss broadcast and non-broadcast audio products using appropriate illustrative examples

P1 describe broadcast and non-broadcast audio products

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass and merit criteria, the learner is able to:

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

UNIT 5: AUDIO PRODUCTION


UNIT 5: AUDIO PRODUCTION

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery Learners do not need to investigate every kind of audio product or format in detail. It is sufficient that they have an understanding of the range of possible audio products and be able to identify or describe them. To this end they should be encouraged to listen to a wide range of radio and other professional audio productions. This will also help them to understand the creative possibilities of the medium. The teaching of different formats could be approached through looking at changes in audio technology and giving learners some background on sound recording and broadcasting history. The group could be given the challenge of finding the oldest recording they can. Alternatively, the groups could be divided and each smaller group given the task of finding an example of a recording from each of the main audio technologies – a wax cylinder, a 78rpm disc, a 45 rpm disc, etc. Care should be taken to ensure that the learners understand the reason for each development – its advantages compared to what went before and its disadvantages compared to what came after. Centres will need to be selective about which technologies and techniques they introduce their learners to, depending upon the equipment available and the background of the teaching staff. Technical skills could be developed in practical workshop sessions giving learners the opportunity to experiment with techniques and technology. While some activities could be centred on individual learning much of the production work could be team based. Activities could be organised in the form of mini assignments that allow learners to focus on special aspects of audio production such as interviewing, vox pops, editing, script writing, recording voice pieces etc. At all times, classroom discussion will be a vital element in both generating ideas and evaluating skills. Assessment Evidence of investigations for learning outcome 1 could be presented in a folder of wordprocessed notes from class, annotated notes taken from a range of sources, or notes that show the development of ideas from discussion activities. Oral presentations could also be used (and should be recorded for internal and external verification purposes). The production work itself will provide the basis for much of the evidence for learning outcomes 2 and 3. Additional evidence for learning outcome 2 could be provided through a portfolio of learners’ recordings kept on tape or disc to demonstrate skills development. Learners should at all times be encouraged to evaluate their own performance and seek feedback from peers as well as tutors. Tutor observation in workshops and other classroom activities could also be used to support assessment of these outcomes. Evaluation of learning outcome 4 could take the form of a presentation, a written report or a structured statement in an audio format. Presentations should be recorded for verification purposes.

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UNIT 5: AUDIO PRODUCTION

For learning outcomes 1 and 4 a viva voce type assessment might be appropriate for some learners. When more than one learner in a cohort is assessed in this way care must taken to ensure that all learners are asked the same lead questions, and that all are given equal opportunities to expand or clarify their answers. Interviewers must also ensure that questions are not phrased in such a way as to provide or suggest an answer. Vivas should be recorded for the purposes of internal and external verification. NB: When applying the grading criteria tutors should follow the advice given below. Please note that the examples of evidence given here are indicative only. This advice is not inclusive and the examples need not be included in a learner’s work in order for that learner to achieve the exemplified grade. To achieve grading criterion P1 at pass level, learners must be able to describe examples of broadcast and non-broadcast audio products. That is, they are able to name examples of products covering the areas outlined in the unit content, correctly identify the form and format, and provide an outline summary of the examples given. To achieve grading criteria P2 and P3 at pass-level, learners must be able to use recording technology in specified situations, such as setting up microphones to record a live music session or recording an interview in a crowded street. They must be able to follow pre-production, production and post-production procedures as specified in the unit content and employ relevant techniques correctly at a basic level. They are likely to need considerable support and guidance. The final audio product will be recognisably related to the original idea, and will demonstrate that the learner has applied relevant techniques in its completion but with a rather rough, uneven or shapeless result. Decisions which involve questions of aesthetics (such as language or choice of music) will be inappropriate, or appear to have been taken without consideration. (When assessing work for the First Certificate and First Diploma in Media, ‘aesthetics’ can be taken to cover matters of style as well as the considerations that might more strictly be covered by that term.) To achieve criterion P4, learners must describe their work – ‘work’ meaning both the process and the product resulting from following that process. This description will be relevant to the production process and the product but will mainly be confined to an historical account of activities (eg ‘we decided to do a live recording of a group we know. We got them to come in and perform on the stage. We set up mics for each instrument, ’ etc). Accounts which are mostly taken up with irrelevant detail (eg ‘the lead singer and the drummer were an item but they had a huge quarrel because he kept chatting up Jane’) should not be considered as meeting the passlevel for this criterion. Assessments of the work itself will be relevant but very generalised and at the level of assertion (eg ‘the recording session went quite well and the final edit was good’). In order to achieve a merit, the learner must discuss examples of broadcast and non-broadcast audio products using appropriate illustrative examples. They will treat the material covered in some detail and make some comment on it, providing detailed examples from that material to illustrate the points made. Though these examples will not be elucidated further, and comments will not be supported or developed further by argument, there will nonetheless be a sense that the learner is thinking about what has been listened to. At merit-level, work will be competent – that is, learners will show ability in the handling of equipment and in the exercise of skills, and care in relation to following pre-production, production and post-production procedures, but will not yet be completely confident in those procedures or the use of equipment, and will not yet employ the skills with imagination. The level of skills attainment will be good, but not excellent. The learner will still need occasional advice or support in many aspects of their work.

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UNIT 5: AUDIO PRODUCTION

Development and realisation of the final product will be likewise competent, care being taken at all stages and results being technically good, though again support will be needed frequently. Aesthetic decisions will be based on some thought and will be on the whole satisfying. In reflecting upon their production work merit-level learners will ‘discuss.’ Commentary will thus be detailed, with examples given to support comments but will still be at the level of statement or assertion rather than being supported by explanation or argument – eg ‘we set up mics for all the instruments but only the drums and bass guitar were at the right level when we recorded.’ At distinction-level learners will critically discuss broadcast and non-broadcast audio products. Any comments made will be explained or supported in some way. The examples given will be subjected to some sort of evaluative procedure or weighing up. Distinction-level production work will be characterised throughout by high-level skills and the application of imagination and creativity. Whether following a procedure or executing a practical activity, distinction-level learners will achieve high quality results. Techniques and equipment will be used with facility and to very good effect and learners will be at ease with both. These learners will be able to work independently. In all creative aspects of their work, they will produce ideas that are moving beyond the conventional. They will be able to think laterally and come up with ideas and solutions which others might have not thought of. This will come through in both the technical and the aesthetic qualities of the final piece of work. In reflecting upon their work, distinction-level learners will explain, justify or support comments in some way (eg ‘our first attempt was no good because we had set up the mics for the bass drum and lead guitar the wrong way round. It sounded all wrong when we played back the first takes so we investigated and found out our mistake’). They will use technical and specialist language appropriately and accurately. Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit will link to others in which audio recordings are an essential element, such as Unit 4: Video Production, Unit 10: Animation Techniques, and depending on the medium used, Unit 7: Advertising Production. It could also provide the skills basis for a project to be completed in Unit 17: Media Production Project. Unit 11: Writing for the Media could provide scripts for the production completed in this unit. There are opportunities in this unit for the development of key skills at level 2 in communication, improving own learning and performance, problem solving, and working with others. There are opportunities to relate the work done for this unit to Skillset National Occupational Standards in Sound and Radio Production as follows: Sound S4

Rig and position sound equipment

S5

Rig sound equipment

S10 Rig and fit wireless equipment S11 Control the rigging and fitting of wireless equipment S13 Provide amplified sound for audiences S14 Pick up sound using a mechanical boom S15 Pick up sound using a hand held pole S16 Optimise sound pick-up with a placed microphone 56

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UNIT 5: AUDIO PRODUCTION

S17 Optimise sound pick-up with a handheld microphone S18 Provide synchronous playback S19 Manage the provision of synchronous playback S20 Synchronise sound and pictures S21 Mix sound S22 Assess requirements and mix sound S23 Create or obtain supplementary sound material S24 Prepare and play selected supplementary material S25 Control the use of supplementary material S26 Direct sound operations to create sound balance S27 Make sound recordings S28 Supervise sound recordings S29 Document and store media S30 Edit sound using a linear system S31 Edit sound using a digital editing device S32 Supervise sound editing Radio Production R11 Record audio using a portable digital recorder R12 Record audio using a variety of digital devices R13 Edit audio R14 Edit and mix audio R15 Assist with radio productions R16 Produce speech content for radio R17 Sequence content for music radio R19 Produce live radio broadcasts R20 Produce outside radio broadcasts R21 Produce radio commercials and trails Interactive Media IM27 Create sound effects for interactive media products IM28 Create music for interactive media products Essential resources Learners need access to portable recording equipment, studio facilities, a range of microphones with varying pick-up patterns, non-linear or analogue editing facilities and mixing desks or computers with multi-track mixing facilities. Examples of professional recordings and scripts should be made available to learners.

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Indicative reading for learners Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant. Alkin G — Sound Recording and Reproduction, Third Edition (Focal Press, 1996) McLeish R — Radio Production, Fourth Edition (Focal Press, 1999) Journals Broadcast Radio Magazine Studio Sound

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Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Communication level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

developing ideas for potential audio products

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion

presenting proposals to a group involving audience research in the form of graphic illustration

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes

carrying out research for an audio product

C2.2

Read and summarise information from at least two documents about the same subject. Each document must be a minimum of 500 words long.

writing up ideas for audio productions.

C2.3

Write two different types of documents each one giving different information. One document must be at least 500 words long.

Improving own learning and performance level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

LP2.1 investigating and recognising various forms of sound recording and available products

presenting the plan in written format showing key stages in each phase

implementing the plan

contributing towards discussions with group/tutor

evaluating their final audio product.

Help set targets with an appropriate person and plan how these will be met.

LP2.2

Take responsibility for some decisions about their learning, using their plan to help meet targets and improve their performance.

LP2.3

Review progress with an appropriate person and provide evidence of achievements.

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Problem solving level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

identifying possible risks to the execution of a proposal for a broadcast or non-broadcast audio production and producing contingency plans accordingly

PS2.1

Identify a problem, with help from an appropriate person, and identify different ways of tackling it.

adopting and putting into practice one of the solutions proposed by the contingency plan

PS2.2

Plan and try out at least one way of solving the problem.

evaluating final product through various means.

PS2.3

Check if the problem has been solved and identify ways to improve problem solving skills.

Working with others level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

working as part of a team towards the manufacture of an audio product

WO2.1 Plan work with others.

contributing towards setting objectives and deadlines

discussing and debating arrangements, techniques and practise and ensuring targets have been met.

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WO2.2 Work co-operatively towards achieving identified objectives. WO2.3 Review their contribution and agree ways to improve work with others.

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UNIT 6: PRINT PRODUCTION

Unit 6:

Print Production

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract The printing industry is one of the United Kingdom's largest industries with an annual turnover in excess of £14 billion and over 17,000 printing companies serving a huge diversity of other industries. These are mainly small firms employing fewer than 20 people; there are roughly only 500 companies which have more than 50 in their workforce. The products that printers deal with vary enormously – books, newspapers, magazines, fine art images, cartons and other forms of packaging, publicity material etc. Most of the work is done on highly sophisticated machines but there is still a place for the craft printer working with traditional technologies. This unit aims to develop learners’ understanding of print production techniques and technology. Learners will be introduced to ways of developing ideas for print products They will investigate hand, mechanical and digital print production methods, learning about the advantages and disadvantages of each method. They will then make print products using analogue and digital print production technology and techniques.

Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1

Understand print production techniques and technology

2

Be able to develop ideas for printed material

3

Be able to produce print products

4

Be able to review own print production work.

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UNIT 6: PRINT PRODUCTION

Unit content

1

Understand print production techniques and technology Techniques and technology: hand eg etching, linocut, screen print, woodcut, lithography; mechanical eg letterpress, gravure, screen process; digital eg photocopying, laser printing, inkjet, desk top publishing (DTP) Advantages and disadvantages: skills and knowledge required; costs; speed; aesthetic considerations; technical considerations

2

Be able to develop ideas for printed material Ideas generation: methods eg brainstorming, group discussion, past and current commercial practice; requirements eg client’s needs, technical restrictions, costs, audience or market Design originations: ideas sheets; thumbnails; concept drawings; rough drafts Considerations: costs; available resources; quantity; legal and ethical issues

3

Be able to produce print products Production: means eg hand, mechanical, digital; proofs; final versions; production

management

Products: eg newspapers, magazines, posters, leaflets, flyers, booklets, labels, packaging

4

Be able to review own print production work Finished product: compared with original intentions; technical qualities; aesthetic qualities; suitability for audience or market Production process: production management; technical skills; creative development Sources of information: self-evaluation; production logs; comments from others eg

audience, peers, tutors, client

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M4 discuss own print production work.

BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007

Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is available on page 64.

P4 describe own print work.

M3 demonstrate competent use of technology and techniques in a print product

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D3 explain own print production work using correct technical language.

D2 achieve intentions through application of highlevel of technical skills and creativity

M2 discuss ideas for printed material

P3 produce printed material by applying print technology and techniques

P2 describe ideas for printed material

D1 critically discuss print techniques and technologies

M1 discuss print techniques and technologies using appropriate illustrative examples

P1 describe print techniques and technologies

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass and merit criteria, the learner is able to:

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

UNIT 6: PRINT PRODUCTION


UNIT 6: PRINT PRODUCTION

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery This unit should be seen as an introduction to the processes, techniques and technology used in print production. Learners should undertake research into the range of print processes and link this to the range of print products available. In the first lesson on the unit this could be done simply by getting the members of the group to do an ‘audit’ of all the printed material they have in their possession at that moment. This could be followed up with similar exercises with a more specific objective – an audit of printed materials in the school or college reception foyer, of printed materials in a specified shop, on a tube or railway platform etc. One such exercise could focus on the proportion of verbal to visual information, another on the purpose of each item of printed material. In this way learners should begin to develop a thoughtful response to the print items that surround them. Learners will need guidance on print production processes and should experiment with techniques from both hand-printing and mechanical processes. Learners should understand that print is about making multiples not just one-off items. Care should be taken to allow exploration of a full range of processes and techniques. Digital technology makes instantaneous prints possible but learners must understand the processes required to produce printed material in bulk. Whilst centres may well have DTP facilities it is recommended that these are used for initial design and layout of products. Learners should then be able to make the step towards production using both traditional and digital technology. At this level learners may well be working as part of a team. In order to satisfy the learning outcome requirements centres should be aware of the need to provide an outline or theme for the print products. This may well be a newspaper or magazine to which learners contribute specific sections, or posters and flyers for a specific event. There should be plenty of opportunities within any educational institution for learners to produce print products for real purposes and to tightly specified briefs. Learners doing this unit will need access to a wide range of printed materials which may be found by research on the internet, through local or national contacts or through visits. It may be necessary to visit a local printer to develop an understanding of some traditional and digital print techniques and technologies. Assessment Evidence for learning outcomes 1 – 3 should be generated by investigations and practical work. For learning outcome 1, learners can provide a report on their investigations into print production techniques and technology. This could be backed up by examples of found print products annotated with relevant production process information. Learners should identify suitable ideas for learning outcome 2 and provide evidence of ideas development. This may take the form of initial brainstorming, group discussions, rough sketches or layouts. Learners should show evidence of having considered the print run required, the budget available, the availability of resources and the time available to make the product. Oral presentations can also be used to provide evidence for this outcome. If used, they should be recorded for internal and external verification purposes.

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Learning outcome 3 provides an opportunity for learners to make a product using appropriate techniques and technology. The finished product should relate to the investigations undertaken and the ideas generated in learning outcome 2. At this level it is expected that learners work as a team. If so, it may be appropriate for the centre to provide a framework within which individual learners can provide evidence. Reflection upon skill development, individual performance and teamwork is required for learning outcome 4. Learners should be aware of the need to consider their own and team performance as well as evaluating the finished product. For some learners, particularly in relation to learning outcome 4, a viva voce type assessment might be appropriate. When more than one learner in a cohort is assessed in this way care must taken to ensure that all learners are asked the same lead questions, and that all are given equal opportunities to expand or clarify their answers. Interviewers must also ensure that questions are not phrased in such a way as to provide or suggest an answer. Vivas should be recorded for the purposes of internal and external verification. NB: When applying the grading criteria tutors should follow the advice given below. Please note that the examples of evidence given here are indicative only. This advice is not inclusive and the examples need not be included in a learner’s work in order for that learner to achieve the exemplified grade. To achieve a pass, learners must be able to describe print techniques and technologies. That is, they will be able to give a correct but unelaborated outline of printing methods covering the areas outlined in the unit content, and outline their advantages and disadvantages; for example: ‘To make a linocut you cut into a piece of lino and wipe ink over it then press paper against it so that the paint comes off on the paper. This is a very cheap and crude way of making a print. It doesn’t take long. All you need is a bit of lino, some cutters and a roller.’ To achieve P2, learners must be able to provide evidence that they have come up with feasible ideas for print materials though the presentation will be rough and ideas unelaborated. They will have identified, but not discussed, relevant issues which might arise in trying to produce them (‘this is an advert so it will have to be legal, decent and honest.’). For P3 the finished product will be recognisably related to the original idea, and will demonstrate that the learner has applied relevant techniques in its completion but with a rather rough result. Decisions which involve questions of aesthetics (such as colour or choice of fonts) will be inappropriate, or appear to have been taken without consideration. (When assessing work for the First Certificate and First Diploma in Media, ‘aesthetics’ can be taken to cover matters of style as well as the considerations that might more strictly be covered by that term.) Pass-level learners are likely to need considerable support and guidance at both the development and production stages. To achieve criterion P4, learners must describe their work – ‘work’ meaning both the process and the product resulting from following that process. This description will be relevant to the production process and the product but will mainly be confined to an historical account of activities (eg ‘I decided to make a flyer to advertise my sister’s band in black and white. I got some pictures of her as toddler and copied a guitar onto it,’ etc). Accounts which are predominantly taken up with irrelevant detail (such as, ‘it took my mum ages to find the pictures and when she did she found hundreds of others she thought she’d lost. She was really pleased and phoned my aunt Doris to tell her’) should not be considered as meeting the pass-level for this criterion. Assessments of the work itself will be relevant but very generalised and at the level of assertion (eg ‘it really looked like she was playing the guitar so I was well pleased and it made people laugh so it must have worked’).

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UNIT 6: PRINT PRODUCTION

At merit-level, learners will be able to discuss relevant material using appropriate illustrative examples. They will cover whatever is under consideration in some detail and subject it to some comment, whether this be print techniques and technologies or their own ideas and production work, providing detailed examples from that material to illustrate the points made. This discussion will not be supported by explanation or developed further by argument, nor will examples be elucidated. Nonetheless there will be some indication that the learner is thinking about what has been looked at or done. For example, ‘lino cuts, engraving and etching all use a similar technique. You cut into the material somehow and ink it and then press paper against it so that the paint comes off on the paper. Because the bit you don’t cut out is the bit that is printed you have to work in reverse like a photographic negative.’ Reflections upon their production work will be more detailed, with examples to support comments but will still be at the level of statement or assertion rather than being supported by explanation or argument – eg ‘when I had found a picture of a guitar I shrank it down so that it was in proportion to her and twisted it slightly to make it at the right angle. It looked real and very funny.’ Development and realisation of the final product will be competent. Merit-level learners will show ability in the handling of equipment and in the exercise of skills, and care in relation to following procedures but will not yet be completely confident in those procedures or the use of equipment, and will not yet employ the skills with imagination. Aesthetic decisions, however, will be based on some thought and will be on the whole satisfying. The learner will still need occasional advice or support in many aspects of the work. To achieve a distinction, learners must critically discuss print techniques and technologies. The material under consideration will be subjected to some sort of evaluative procedure or weighing up. For example, ‘technically speaking the lino cut is a very simple way of making a print as the materials are cheap and cutting into the soft lino is easy but you can’t do such fine work as you can with an etching because the lino has a coarse grain. However, some artists, such as Picasso, have made good use of that quality.’ Distinction-level learners’ production work will be characterised throughout by high-level skills and the application of creativity. Whether following a procedure or executing a practical activity, they will achieve high quality results. Techniques and equipment will be used with facility and to very good effect and learners will be at ease with both. They will be able to work independently. In all creative aspects of their work, learners will produce ideas that are moving beyond the conventional. They will be able to think imaginatively and come up with ideas and solutions which others might have not thought of. This will come through in both the technical and the aesthetic qualities of the final piece of work. In reflecting upon their work, distinction-level learners will explain – that is, justify or support comments in some way (eg ‘when I had found a picture of a guitar I shrank it down so that it was in proportion to her and twisted it slightly to make it at the right angle because I wanted it to look as realistic as possible. I did this because I thought that the more realistic it looked the odder it would look, and so it would be funnier’). They will use technical and specialist language appropriately and accurately. Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit can be linked with Unit 2: Research for Media Production and Unit 3: Introduction to Media Audiences and Products and can provide the skills basis for a project to be completed for Unit 17: Media Production Project. There are opportunities in this unit for the development of key skills at level 2 in application of number, communication, information and communication technology, improving own learning and performance, problem solving, and working with others.

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There are opportunities to relate the work done for this unit to Print and Graphic

Communication National Occupational Standards as follows:

Pre-press (Level 2)

Desktop Publishing (Level 2)

Machine Printing – Digital Printing (Level 2).

Essential resources Learners will need access to a range of print production processes. These could include lino-cut printing through to high-end colour laser printing but precise choices will depend upon the nature of the programme being run and the experience of those teaching the programme. Indicative reading for learners Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant.

Dally T — Complete Guide to Illustration and Design (Phaidon, 1990)

Faux I — Printing by Lithography (Emblem Books, 1983)

Peacock J — The Print and Production Manual (PIRA International, 1998)

Speirs H — Introduction to Printing and Finishing (British Printing Industries Federation,

1999)

Speirs H — Introduction to Printing Technology (British Printing Industries

Federation F, 1992)

Stevens J — Screen Process Printing (British Printing Industries Federation, 1995)

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Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Application of number level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

N2.2

researching market size and working out budget for a print production

presenting their research findings.

N2.3

Use their information to carry out calculations to do with: a

amounts or sizes

b

scales or proportion

c

handling statistics

d

using formulae.

Interpret the results of their calculations and present their findings.

Communication level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

discussing proposals for their print products

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion

presenting ideas for print layouts

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes

researching ideas for print products

C2.2

Read and summarise information from at least two documents about the same subject. Each document must be a minimum of 500 words long.

writing up ideas for print production and writing up an analysis of different types of printed material.

C2.3

Write two different types of documents each one giving different information. One document must be at least 500 words long.

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Information and communication technology level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

IT2.1

researching a variety of sources

Search for and select information to meet their needs. Use different information sources for each task and multiple search criteria in at least one case.

developing draft printed products and layouts.

IT2.2

Enter and develop the information to suit the task and derive new information.

IT2.3

Present combined information such as text with image, text with number, image with number.

Improving own learning and performance level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

planning an investigation into various techniques and technology

LP2.1

Help set targets with an appropriate person and plan how these will be met.

producing a plan showing intended method of creating print product

identifying the required action for the implementation of the plan

LP2.2

Take responsibility for some decisions about their learning, using their plan to help meet targets and improve their performance.

putting learning into practice by producing a variety of print products

reviewing work and presenting results and conclusions.

LP2.3

Review progress with an appropriate person and provide evidence of achievements.

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Problem solving level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

identifying possible risks to the execution of a proposal for a print product and producing contingency plans accordingly

PS2.1

Identify a problem, with help from an appropriate person, and identify different ways of tackling it.

adopting and putting into practice one of the solutions proposed by the contingency plan

PS2.2

Plan and try out at least one way of solving the problem.

evaluating final product through various means.

PS2.3

Check if the problem has been solved and identify ways to improve problem solving skills.

Working with others level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

researching and analysing printed techniques and technology for a group production

WO2.1 Plan work with others.

discussing roles and identifying targets

WO2.2 Work co-operatively towards achieving identified objectives.

working as part of a team and as an individual towards the manufacture of a printed product.

WO2.3 Review their contribution and agree ways to improve work with others.

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UNIT 7: ADVERTISING PRODUCTION

Unit 7:

Advertising Production

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract Advertising and the media are inseparable. Advertising exists in some shape or form in every medium – television, film, radio, the press, the internet – and this is true whether the advertising is carried through a commercial media outlet (where the advertising is explicit and often supports it financially) or a public service media outlet (which will carry not only explicit advertising for its own products and services but will also transmit covert advertising through sports programmes, sponsored events and public relations messages infiltrated into news items). It follows that the advertising industry is one of the largest sectors of the media industry as a whole. This unit introduces learners to the techniques of advertising. It shows them how to develop ideas for advertisements, and how to plan and produce advertisements in a selected medium. Learners will be required to analyse the brand image of a product and consider what consumers might demand of it. They will then plan and produce an advertisement.

Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1

Understand advertising techniques

2

Be able to develop ideas for an advertisement

3

Be able to create an advertisement

4

Be able to review own advertising production.

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Unit content

1

Understand advertising techniques Construction of advertisement: according to medium eg radio, TV, cinema, interactive, print, poster; structure eg visual, narrative, order of information; style eg humorous, surreal, dramatic, realist Persuasive techniques: information about products or services eg features, benefits, unique selling proposition or USP; emotional manipulation eg use of fear, playing on emotion or compassion; identification with brand; celebrity endorsement

2

Be able to develop ideas for an advertisement Ideas generation: methods eg brainstorming, group discussion, past and current commercial practice; requirements eg client’s needs, technical restrictions, costs, target audience or market Treatment or proposal: content; style; strategy; budget Regulations and codes of practice: eg legal considerations, Advertising Standards

Authority, Offcom,

3

Be able to create an advertisement Pre-production: preparation and planning eg for print or interactive (copy, visuals, layout plans, sketches, mood boards, thumbnails, early drafts, use of colour, fonts), for moving image (script, storyboard, shooting script), for audio (script, music, SFX, cues); production requirements eg equipment, crew, actors, location recces; production schedules Production: eg draughting, layout, copy writing, recording, filming Post-production: eg for print or interactive (amending designs, colour, layout, use of fonts) for moving image (fades, cuts, SFX, titles), for audio (sound mixing, sound levels),

4

Be able to review own advertising production Finished product: compared with original intentions; technical qualities; aesthetic qualities; persuasive qualities Production process: production (technical competencies, creative ability); post-production (technical competencies, creative ability) Sources of information: self-evaluation, production logs, comments from others eg

audience, peers, tutors, client

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M3 discuss own advertising production work.

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Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is available on page 74.

P4 describe own advertising production work.

P3 create an advertisement

M2 demonstrate competent application of advertising techniques in an advertisement

M1 discuss advertisements and advertising techniques using appropriate illustrative examples

P1 describe advertisements and identify advertising techniques

P2 describe an idea for an advertisement

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

D3 explain own advertising work using correct technical language.

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D2 demonstrate creative application of advertising techniques in an advertisement

D1 critically discuss advertisements and advertising techniques

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass and merit criteria, the learner is able to:

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

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UNIT 7: ADVERTISING PRODUCTION

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery It is recommended that this unit be contextualised within a specific medium so that work for learning outcome 1 can be kept within manageable limits, and also so that the production element of the unit can be based on pre-existing technical skills. It is important to recognise that, whilst technical skills are not the focus of this unit, learners must to be able to use the technology they are working with if they are to be able to express their intentions successfully. In terms of course structures, therefore, this unit could follow Unit 4: Video Production, Unit 5: Audio Production, or Unit 6: Print Production. The first stage of this unit can be taught through a series of formal sessions where learners are encouraged to discuss and analyse examples of individual advertisements and advertising campaigns. Alternatively, learners can be encouraged, through self-directed learning, to investigate advertising campaigns through libraries and the internet. The Advertising Standards Authority website (www.asa.org.uk) is recommended for information about advertising generally and for interesting commentaries on advertisements. Younger learners are notoriously resistant to the idea that they are susceptible to advertising and tutors might think it worth spending a little time examining this attitude. Talking about what people in the group own (and why) and what they aspire to owning (and why) might be one way of getting into the subject. It will help, also, if tutors have up-to-date information on the effects of advertising campaigns on sales. However, it is more important at this stage that learners develop an understanding of the techniques of advertising. Analysis of specific texts should therefore be given the greater emphasis, looking particularly at the strategies employed and the relationship of those strategies to the target markets. This understanding will then inform the production work. Initial pre-production work can be broken down into specific tasks by the tutor, or learners can negotiate the ordering of their own work at this stage. It is suggested that production and post­ production tasks be monitored by the tutor during a series of workshop sessions, with more formal sessions, including group presentations, being used for evaluation of the production work. Assessment Learning outcome 1 could be evidenced through a written report or a presentation by one learner or a small group. Presentations should be recorded for internal and external verification purposes. Learners could also hand in annotated advertisements (or drawings or video grabs in the case of film or television advertisements). Learning outcome 2 can be evidenced through various forms of recording of brainstorming exercises or group development activities. Notes, ideas boards, and spidergrams are all acceptable forms of evidence, which can also be supported by tutor observation. Practical recording and editing activities that are monitored and recorded by tutors would provide evidence for learning outcome 3 as would the final product. It is essential that all group work is evidenced in order to award an individual learner a grade for the unit. This might be best evidenced through initial minuted group discussion and role allocation and final evaluation of own work and team activity.

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UNIT 7: ADVERTISING PRODUCTION

Evidence for learning outcome 4 can be in the form of a presentation, a written report, or a structured statement in an audio or visual medium. For some learners a viva voce type assessment might be appropriate for this learning outcome. When more than one learner in a cohort is assessed in this way care must taken to ensure that all learners are asked the same lead questions, and that all are given equal opportunities to expand or clarify their answers. Interviewers must also ensure that questions are not phrased in such a way as to provide or suggest an answer. Presentations and vivas must be recorded for internal and external verification purposes. NB: When applying the grading criteria tutors should follow the advice given below. Please note that the examples of evidence given here are indicative only. This advice is not inclusive and the examples need not be included in a learner’s work in order for that learner to achieve the exemplified grade. To achieve a pass, learners must be able to describe advertisements and identify advertising techniques. They will provide a correct but unelaborated outline of what advertisements from a given medium contain and look like, and offer some basic observations which accurately identify the technique being employed. For example, ‘the advert for the film Mr and Mrs Smith has a picture of a man and a woman one each side of the poster. They are looking at us not at each other. He is holding a gun and she has gun in her garter. I think the idea of a lady keeping a gun in her garter is quite funny. At the bottom of the poster and in between the two people is the title in large black letters.’ Learners must also be able to describe an idea for an advertisement and create an advertisement following that idea. The idea will be arrived at quickly, perhaps in a rather haphazard way and without a great deal of thought. There will be little development of the original idea. The treatment or proposal will cover the requirements of the specified unit content but in a simple and unelaborated form. The application of advertising techniques demonstrated in the finished advertisement will be at a basic level, and aesthetic understanding and capabilities will also be basic. (When assessing work for the First Certificate and First Diploma in Media, ‘aesthetics’ can be taken to cover matters of style as well as the considerations that might more strictly be covered by that term.) Technical skills are not being directly assessed in this unit, but it is likely that pass-level learners will be hampered in expressing their intentions fully by their limited grasp of technology and skills. To achieve criterion P4 learners must describe their advertising production work – ‘work’ meaning both the process and the product resulting from following that process. This description will be relevant to the production process and the product but will mainly be confined to an historical account of activities (eg after I had written the copy for my advert I chose the font. I went for Georgia. Then I had to decide on the layout. This wasn’t as easy as I thought it would be…’ etc). Accounts which are mostly taken up with irrelevant detail (eg ‘it took me a long time to write the copy because I don’t like writing and my friends kept interrupting me’) should not be considered as meeting the pass-level for this criterion. Description of the product will be a relevant but unelaborated outline of content and assessments of its quality will be relevant but very generalised and at the level of assertion (eg ‘the final layout was good and I thought the copy worked well’). At merit-level, learners must, for criterion M1, discuss advertisements and advertising techniques using appropriate illustrative examples. The advertisements chosen will thus be subjected to some commentary, and the techniques employed in them will be made more explicit using detailed examples from that material to illustrate the points made. Though these examples will not be elucidated further and comments will not be supported or developed further by argument there will, nonetheless, be a sense of thoughtfulness in this learner’s work. So, in a discussion of the advertisement for the film Mr and Mrs Smith, the learner might describe the contents of the advertisement as a pass-level learner would, but then note, ‘the way

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she is keeping a gun in her garter is quite funny. The poster uses humour and appeals to a younger audience.’ The advertising production work of merit-level learners will be competent – that is, learners will give some thought to the generation of an idea and will develop it with care, working in a more organised way than pass-level learners. The treatment or proposal will contain some detail, and the final product will show that a specific advertising technique has been understood and employed to some effect. Technical abilities are not being directly assessed in this unit, but the learner will need to be competent in these in order to be able to express their intentions. The merit-level learner will still need occasional advice or support in many aspects of the work. Aesthetic decisions will be based on some thought and will be on the whole satisfying. In reflecting upon their production work merit-level learners will ‘discuss.’ Description of the product will go beyond content into intention, and commentary will be more detailed, with examples to support comments. However, explanations will be rather unsophisticated, and assessments will still be at the level of statement or assertion rather than being supported by explanation or argument. For example, ‘I wanted people to be attracted to my advert so I made sure the boy was good looking. I thought the final layout was good and I thought the copy stood out well being in dark green against the pink shirt of the boy.’ Distinction-level learners will, for D1, ‘critically discuss.’ That is, they will develop ideas and evaluate texts, or compare them explicitly with other texts. In the case of a discussion of the Mr and Mrs Smith poster, for example, they will make the connection between the poster and the audience, and develop ideas from the observations made about the advertisement: ‘the advert is aimed at a younger audience because the man and the woman are both young and look cool, and the expressions on their faces are not hard. In fact, they are almost smiling. Also, the way the gun is tucked into her garter is quite funny. This indicates that the film is a sort of comedy rather than a straight gangster movie. It contrasts with the posters for Sin City, which all have a person with a gun in them, but they look hard and mean because this is a serious action movie.’ Distinction-level work will be characterised throughout by creative thinking and activity. Whether developing their ideas or engaged in the production process, learners will achieve high quality results and will create products that are beginning to move beyond the purely conventional. Learners are not being directly assessed on their technical skills in this unit; nonetheless, techniques and equipment will be used with facility and to good effect and skills will be deployed creatively – distinction-level learners will use the technology to serve their creative intentions. They will be able to think laterally and come up with ideas and solutions which others might have not thought of. This will come through in the way they articulate their understanding of advertising techniques through their product, and in the aesthetic qualities of the final piece of work. They will be able to work independently. In reflecting upon their work, distinction-level learners will ‘explain’ – that is, they will demonstrate a sophisticated awareness of why they did what they did, and will justify or support comments on these production decisions in some way: eg ‘the first requirement of an advertisement is to attract attention, so, because the advert is aimed at women, I made sure I used an attractive man for the visual. The next requirement is to get the reader interested, so I dressed him in pink, which is thought of as a rather girlie colour’. Their use of technical and specialist language will be correct, being consistently appropriate and accurate.

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UNIT 7: ADVERTISING PRODUCTION

Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit provides opportunities for links to Unit 2: Research for Media Production, and Unit 3: Introduction to Media Audiences and Products. Technical skills for the production of an advertisement could be developed in Unit 4: Video Production, Unit 5: Audio Production, Unit 6: Print Production, Unit 9: Photography Techniques and Unit 11: Writing for the Media. This unit could in turn provide the skills basis for a project to be completed in Unit 17: Media Production Project. There are opportunities in this unit for the development of key skills at level 2 in

communication, information and communication technology, improving own learning and

performance, problem solving, and working with others.

Depending on the medium chosen and the approach taken, there will be opportunities to relate

the work done for this unit to National Occupational Standards units as follows.

Skillset:

Camera, Editing, Sound, Lighting, Directors, Production, Radio Production, Interactive Media,

and Photo Imaging and Photo Processing.

E-skills (standards for IT Users):

internet and intranets (Level 2)

Website software (Level 2)

Artwork and imaging software (Level 2)

Specialist or bespoke software (Level 2).

Print and Graphic Communication NTO:

Pre-press (Level 2)

Desktop Publishing (Level 2)

Machine Printing – Digital Printing (Level 2).

Essential resources For this unit learners should have access to appropriate production equipment. Depending on the medium in which the learners are working, this may include computer-aided design equipment, portable and studio recording equipment, and video production and post-production equipment. Indicative reading for learners Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant.

Butterfield L — Excellence in Advertising (Focal Press, 1999)

Dibb S — Marketing Briefs and Revision Guide (Focal Press, 2001)

Wilmhurst J — Fundamentals of Advertising, Second Edition (Focal Press, 1999)

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Websites The following websites were available at the time of going to press and the addresses were correct. www.asa.org.uk – the Advertising Standards Authority www.rab.co.uk – the Radio Advertising Bureau

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UNIT 7: ADVERTISING PRODUCTION

Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Communication level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

discussing advertisements with other members of their group

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion

pitching an idea for an advertisement to the group

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes

researching advertisements for a presentation on advertising techniques

C2.2

Read and summarise information from at least two documents about the same subject. Each document must be a minimum of 500 words long.

writing up research and producing pre-production material.

C2.3

Write two different types of documents each one giving different information. One document must be at least 500 words long.

Information and communication technology level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

IT2.1

researching advertisements for a presentation on advertising techniques and a written report on advertising styles.

Search for and select information to meet their needs. Use different information sources for each task and multiple search criteria in at least one case.

IT2.2

Enter and develop the information to suit the task and derive new information.

IT2.3

Present combined information such as text with image, text with number, image with number.

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Improving own learning and performance level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

producing a plan showing intended method of creating advertisement

LP2.1

Help set targets with an appropriate person and plan how these will be met.

planning an investigation into advertising techniques

LP2.2

implementing the plan

Take responsibility for some decisions about their learning, using their plan to help meet targets and improve their performance.

evaluating the advertisement with a tutor.

LP2.3

Review progress with an appropriate person and provide evidence of achievements.

Problem solving level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

identifying marketplace demands PS2.1 to suit advertisement

Identify a problem, with help from an appropriate person, and identify different ways of tackling it.

designing and proposing a plan for creating advertisement

PS2.2

Plan and try out at least one way of solving the problem.

reflecting upon advertisement production work.

PS2.3

Check if the problem has been solved and identify ways to improve problem solving skills.

Working with others level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

working as part of a team

WO2.1 Plan work with others.

planning and understanding tasks in order to produce an advertisement

WO2.2 Work co-operatively towards achieving identified objectives.

creating a plan of objectives

discussing arrangements and allocating roles to individuals

observing and recording individual and group performance.

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WO2.3 Review their contribution and agree ways to improve work with others.

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UNIT 8: INTERACTIVE MEDIA PRODUCTION

Unit 8:

Interactive Media Production

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract The interactive media industry is huge and growing daily. The development of new technology and the growth of the internet will generate many opportunities for interactive media professionals. The interactive media industry influences a wide range of media products. Every day we use multimedia products in our work or in our play. Interactivity is the key to successful multimedia products whether through a DVD format or a website. People entering this industry need to have a basic awareness of how interactive media products have been designed and developed. At this level it is important that those considering a career in the interactive media industry have a basic appreciation of how authoring hardware and software are used to produce an interactive media product. They must be aware of possible constraints of target platforms and their capabilities. They should experience the effective use of interactive media development tools to produce a basic interactive media product. This unit will enable learners to explore techniques associated with the production of an interactive media product. This involves the use of authoring software and the creative integration of audio and visual material to produce a final product. It is essential that the product is focused on the needs of the user. Screen design and layout are important but the final functioning interactive media product created for this unit must be easy to use and easy to understand.

Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1

Understand interactive media production technology and techniques

2

Be able to develop ideas for the production of an interactive media product

3

Be able to produce an interactive media product

4

Be able to review own interactive media production work.

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Unit content

1

Understand interactive media production technology and techniques Hardware: computer eg CPU, memory, CD, DVD, hard disk, graphics card, monitor; peripheral devices eg microphone scanner, digital camera, video camera, CD/DVD player/writer Software: presentation eg PowerPoint, Acrobat Writer, Camtasia Studio; multimedia authoring eg Director, Flash, HyperStudio, Opus; audio recording and editing eg Audition, Sound Forge, WaveLab; digital graphics eg PhotoShop, Paint Shop Pro, CorelDraw; digital video capture and editing eg Movie Maker, Premiere, Final Cut, Camtasia Studio Platforms: eg CD/DVD, world wide web, interactive TV, kiosk, mobile, PDA Limitations: hardware eg CPU, memory, CD, DVD, hard disk, graphics card, monitor, microphone, scanner, digital camera, video camera, CD/DVD player/writer; software eg tools, features, capability

2

Be able to develop ideas for the production of an interactive media product Idea development: brainstorming eg individual ideas, group ideas, past and current practice; purpose; audience; style Applications: eg electronic album, electronic presentations, interactive training, multimedia encyclopaedias, multimedia documents, electronic publishing

3

Be able to produce an interactive media product Format: eg electronic presentation, CD/DVD, website Development: proposal eg pitch, mood boards, storyboards, layout diagrams, script;

production schedules

Produce or import assets: text; digital images eg scan, digital camera, library; digital video eg webcam, video camera, mobile phone; sound eg effects, voice, music Production: design and develop a interactive media product eg style, screen, interaction, navigation and controls, typography; graphics, layout; colour, sound, video, animation

4

Be able to review own interactive media production work Finished product: compared with original intentions; technical qualities; aesthetic qualities Production process: technical competencies; creative abilities; time management Sources of information: self-evaluation; comments from others eg audience, peers, tutors, client; documentation eg notes, minutes of meeting, production diaries

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Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is available on page 84.

P4 describe own interactive media work. M3 discuss own interactive media work.

D3 explain own interactive media work using correct technical language.

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D2 achieve intentions through application of highlevel technical skills and creativity

M2 demonstrate competent use of technology and techniques required to produce an interactive media product

P3 produce an interactive media product with integration of images, text and sound

P2 present ideas for an interactive media product

D1 critically discuss technology and techniques required to produce an interactive media product

M1 discuss technology and techniques required to produce an interactive media product using appropriate illustrative examples

P1 describe technology and techniques required to produce an interactive media product

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass and merit criteria, the learner is able to:

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

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UNIT 8: INTERACTIVE MEDIA PRODUCTION

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery It is essential that learners are aware of the work of professional publishers of interactive media products and that they develop knowledge of current professional practice and of the skills and techniques associated with the chosen authoring software. They also need to build an understanding of how text, still and moving images, and sound may be effectively combined in this type of product (for example, a PowerPoint presentation, a CD ROM package, a website, or a Flash animation). Some time should, therefore, be spent in looking at such products. Learners could be given a number of interactive media products along with a brief questionnaire, to be completed for each one, about content, ease of use, attractiveness and techniques employed in their production. This would begin to develop a structured critical approach to interactive media production, and would give learners some idea of the sort of skills they themselves will need to develop. The use of a complex authoring language is not required as it is possible to complete the requirements of this unit with software such as Microsoft PowerPoint. However, a structured approach to the development of skills and techniques associated with the production of an interactive media product should be adopted, introducing learners to one or two techniques at a time through simple, highly focused exercises. Assessment Evidence for learning outcomes 1 and 2 can be provided through written reports, preparatory materials, production logs, tutor observation and witness reports, or any combination of these. The interactive media product will be the primary source of evidence for learning outcome 3, along with relevant pre-production and production documentation. Learning outcome 4 can be evidenced through a written report, presentation, or structured statement in an audio or audio-visual medium. Presentations should be recorded for internal and external verification purposes. For some learners a viva voce type assessment might be appropriate to support the evidence for learning outcomes 1, 2 and 4. When more than one learner in a cohort is assessed in this way care must taken to ensure that all learners are asked the same lead questions, and that all are given equal opportunities to expand or clarify their answers. Interviewers must also ensure that questions are not phrased in such a way as to provide or suggest an answer. Vivas should be recorded for the purposes of internal and external verification. NB: When applying the grading criteria tutors should follow the advice given below. Please note that the examples of evidence given here are indicative only. This advice is not inclusive and the examples need not be included in a learner’s work in order for that learner to achieve the exemplified grade. In order to achieve a pass, the learner must describe the technology and techniques required to produce an interactive media product, and must present ideas for the product. The learner must produce an interactive media product with integration of images, text and sound along with a description of their own interactive media work.

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UNIT 8: INTERACTIVE MEDIA PRODUCTION

‘Describe’ means that the learner has provided a correct but unelaborated outline of the specified unit content. There is no detail, or attempt to go beyond the minimum required. For example, in relation to technology, the learner has noted the minimum hardware specifications for the software required to produce an interactive media product, for example – ‘A PC with a P4 CPU, Windows XP, 256MB RAM, CD Writer, good graphics card, 17’ TFT screen, large hard disk, sound card, Keyboard and Mouse would be necessary to produce an interactive media product.’ The learner must produce a functioning interactive media product. ‘Interactive’ means, the user has the ability to control the presentation by a multimedia system eg navigation controls, and hotspots for material selection and the way in which material is presented. ‘Present ideas’ means that the learner has provided an outline of the product in terms of content, audience, style and approach to be taken, though this outline will be basic and unelaborated – for example ‘I will produce a 5 screen interactive Street Map for Town x. The initial screen will include a video introduction and navigation links. My map will have interactive hotspots. Each screen will have an image and description with some sound. This is for an information kiosk to aid those unfamiliar with the area. I have included a layout diagram.’ The learner must describe their own interactive media work (‘work’ meaning both the process and the product resulting from following that process). This description will be relevant to the production process and the product but will mainly be confined to an historical account of activities – for example, ‘I spent some time brainstorming my initial ideas and produced my layout plan. This took me two days. I then used the scanner to scan in the pictures I had decided to use for my interactive media product. I cropped and saved them in the correct file format to reduce file size.’ Description of the product will be a basic outline and assessments of its quality will be relevant but very generalised and at the level of assertion for example, ‘the sound recorded for the initial screen went quite well and the final edit was good.’ In order to achieve a merit, the learner must discuss the technology and techniques required to produce an interactive media product, supporting the commentary with appropriate examples. They will treat the material covered in some detail and make some comment on it providing detailed examples from that material to illustrate the points made. Though these examples will not be elucidated further, and comments will not be supported or developed further by argument, there will, nonetheless, be a sense of thoughtfulness in this learner’s work. For example, ‘A PC with a P4 3.2Mhz Processor, Windows XP, at least 256MB RAM, CD or DVD Writer, 128MB graphics card, 17’ TFT flat panel monitor, at least one 80GB fast hard disk drive, 24Bit sound card, USB and FireWire ports, Keyboard and Mouse would be the minimum specification necessary to produce an interactive media product. Software to produce an interactive media product would also be required.’ The learner must demonstrate competent use in the handling of equipment – that is, they will be able to use the equipment but will not yet be completely confident with it. The level of skills attainment will be good at the technical level, but they will not yet be employed with imagination. The learner will still need occasional advice or support in many aspects of the work. Aesthetic decisions will be based on some thought and will be on the whole effective and satisfying. Reflection upon the production work will be more detailed, with examples to support comments. It will offer a more balanced and thoughtful consideration, though comments will still be at the level of statement or assertion rather than being supported by explanation or argument. For example, ‘It was worth spending two days brainstorming my initial ideas; this helped me to produce my layout plan. I then used the scanner to scan in the pictures, cropped them and saved them at the correct size, resolution and file format to reduce their file size.’

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UNIT 8: INTERACTIVE MEDIA PRODUCTION

In order to achieve a distinction, the learner must critically discuss the technology and techniques required to produce an interactive media product. The term ‘critically discuss’ means that any observations made or arguments engaged in are explained, justified or supported in some way, or are subjected to some sort of evaluative procedure or to a process of comparison. For example, ‘X is like this because …’ or, ‘X is more successful than Y because …’. It should be noted that the term ‘critical’ as used here does not mean negative commentary. Thus a learner might write – ‘A PC with a P4 3.2Mhz Processor, Windows XP, at least 256MB RAM, CD or DVD Writer, 128MB graphics card, 17’ TFT flat panel monitor, at least one 80GB fast hard disk drive, 24Bit sound card, USB and FireWire ports, keyboard and mouse would be the minimum specification necessary to produce an interactive media product. It would be more successful for the digitising of video to have two fast hard drives, one drive devoted solely to the digitising and storage of video. This is because video has greater file storage needs than either sound or still images. One drive will hold the digitising software, since this software could drop frames when stored on the same drive that is used to capture final images. Software to produce an interactive media product would also be required.’ Distinction-level work will be characterised throughout by imagination and creativity. That is, the learner will produce ideas and results that are beginning to move beyond the conventional. The learner will be able to think laterally and come up with ideas and solutions which others might have not thought of. This will come through in the generation and presentation of ideas, in the development work, in the application of techniques and skills, and in the aesthetic qualities of the final interactive media product. In reflecting upon their work, distinction-level learners will explain – that is, they will demonstrate an awareness of why they did what they did, and will justify or support comments on these production decisions in some way. For example, ‘I spent some time brainstorming my initial ideas; this helped me to produce my layout plan. The layout plan was very useful as it helped me understand the navigation links needed and the size and position of my text and graphics. I then used the scanner to scan in the pictures, cropped them and saved them at the correct size, resolution and file format to reduce there file size. The formats I found to be the best for photographs was JPEG and GIF for clip art images which helped me to make them a transparent image.’ The learner’s use of technical and specialist language will be correct, being consistently appropriate and accurate. Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit can be linked with Unit 2: Research for Media Production, Unit 4: Video Production, Unit 5: Audio Production and Unit 9: Photography Techniques, and could also provide the skills basis for a project to be completed in Unit 17: Media Production Project. There are opportunities in this unit for the development of key skills at level 2 in application of number, communication, information and communication technology, improving own learning and performance, problem solving, and working with others. There are opportunities to relate the work done for this unit to Skillset National Occupational Standards in Editing, Interactive Media, and Photo Imaging and Photo Processing as follows: Editing E5

Digitise pictures and sound for non-linear editing

E10 Edit materials using non-linear equipment

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UNIT 8: INTERACTIVE MEDIA PRODUCTION

Interactive Media IM1 Work effectively in interactive media IM2 Obtain assets for use in interactive media products IM3 Prepare assets for use in interactive media products IM6 Use authoring tools to create interactive media products IM16 Plan content for web and multimedia products IM24 Create 2D animation for interactive media products Photo Imaging and Photo Processing D1

Create original artwork for digital images

D2

Carry out specific image scanning

D3

Plan and produce scanned images

D4

Carry out specific image editing

D5

Plan and produce edited images

D6

Prepare for, and produce image output

D8

Send and receive image data files by digital means.

And to E-skills National Occupational Standards in IT Users as follows: Website software Artwork and imaging software Specialist or bespoke software. Essential resources The following types of equipment are appropriate at this level: • computers with sufficient memory, 20Mb hard disk, video capture card, CD ROM player, CD writer, camera, flatbed scanner, microphones, headphones, audio recorder • software – eg PowerPoint, Cool Edit, PhotoShop, Premiere. Indicative reading for learners Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant.

Andrews P — Adobe PhotoShop Elements (Focal Press, 2001)

Kerman P — Sams Teach Yourself Macromedia Flash MX in 24 Hours (Sams, 2002)

Microsoft PowerPoint at a Glance (Perspection, 1999)

Sengstack J — Sams Teach Yourself Adobe Premiere in 24 hours (Sams, 2002)

Windows Multimedia Authoring Guide (Microsoft Press International, 1991)

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Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Application of number level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

N2.1

Interpret information from a suitable source.

N2.2

Use their information to carry out calculations to do with:

interpreting information from an instruction manual or textbook regarding the operation of a computer.

N2.3

a

amounts or sizes

b

scales or proportion

c

handling statistics

d

using formulae.

Interpret the results of their calculations and present their findings.

Communication level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

presenting a prepared contribution to group discussion about the preparation of a storyboard for an interactive media product and dealing with questions

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes

reading instruction manuals, researching and summarising interactive media skills and techniques

C2.2

Read and summarise information from at least two documents about the same subject. Each document must be a minimum of 500 words long.

recording details of specialist skills and techniques developed and writing up minutes of production meetings.

C2.3

Write two different types of documents each one giving different information. One document must be at least 500 words long.

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UNIT 8: INTERACTIVE MEDIA PRODUCTION

Information and communication technology level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

searching for information about interactive media techniques in order to develop ideas, using a range of sources including the internet, CD ROMs, databases

IT2.1

using and importing text, numbers and images to explore and develop ideas for images using digital techniques

IT2.2

Enter and develop the information to suit the task and derive new information.

using text, numbers and images to produce a final digital image and information about their use of specialist techniques.

IT2.3

Present combined information such as text with image, text with number, image with number.

Search for and select information to meet their needs. Use different information sources for each task and multiple search criteria in at least one case.

Improving own learning and performance level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

producing a plan showing intended method of creating an interactive media product

LP2.1

Help set targets with an appropriate person and plan how these will be met.

implementing the plan

LP2.2

Take responsibility for some decisions about their learning, using their plan to help meet targets and improve their performance.

evaluating the product.

LP2.3

Review progress with an appropriate person and provide evidence of achievements.

Problem solving level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

identifying and recognising threats or risks to an interactive media production

PS2.1

Identify a problem, with help from an appropriate person, and identify different ways of tackling it.

writing a contingency plan and operating it

PS2.2

Plan and try out at least one way of solving the problem.

evaluating the implementation.

PS2.3

Check if the problem has been solved and identify ways to improve problem solving skills.

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UNIT 8: INTERACTIVE MEDIA PRODUCTION

Working with others level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

WO2.1 Plan work with others.

using others for roles within own production

WO2.2 Work co-operatively towards achieving identified objectives. •

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reflecting upon their production work.

WO2.3 Review their contribution and agree ways to improve work with others.

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UNIT 9: PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES

Unit 9:

Photography Techniques

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract Photography – which is included in the photo-imaging sector – has a wide range of applications within the media industry including photo-journalism, advertising, fashion photography, food photography and stills photography for film and television. It also exists outside what would be strictly defined as the media industry in professions such as the ‘high street’ photographer (who might cover weddings and take family portraits), medical, industrial and architectural photographers. This unit will enable learners to explore and develop their understanding of the techniques, equipment and materials used in the production of photographs. Learners will explore both filmbased photographic methods and the processes involved in digital photography. They will develop ideas for their own photographic work and create a range of photographic images.

Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1

Understand photography techniques, equipment and materials

2

Be able to generate ideas for photographic images

3

Be able to create photographic images

4

Be able to review own photography work.

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UNIT 9: PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES

Unit content

1

Understand photography techniques, equipment and materials Photographic equipment: camera; tripod; artificial lights eg flash, floods, spots, diffusers; equipment for film processing (tanks, spools, measuring cylinders, thermometers); equipment for printing (enlargers, frames, contact printers, dishes, tongs) Photographic materials: film stock; printing paper; chemicals for processing and printing; mounting and finishing materials Digital equipment: digital camera; computer; scanner; printer Digital materials and software: memory cards; image manipulation software; printing paper

2

Be able to generate ideas for photographic images Idea generation: creative thinking eg brainstorming, group discussion, development exercises; recording ideas eg notes, sketches, collages, trial shots; influences eg past and current practice in press, advertising, fashion, reportage, documentary etc; limitations eg resources, time, costs

3

Be able to create photographic images Planning: eg shooting schedule, studio booking, equipment booking, locations, models Film-based: selection of film stock; loading and unloading film; image control using aperture and shutter speed; developing; printing Digital: image capture; use of available memory; downloading images to a computer; image manipulation eg to alter images, combine images, improve quality of images, introduce special effects; printing Presentation of final prints: eg exhibition mounting, presentation in a folder, titling

4

Be able to review own photography work Finished product: realisation of intentions; technical qualities; aesthetic qualities Production process: technical competencies; creative ability; time management Sources of information: self-evaluation; documentation eg ideas notes, sketches, trial shots, notes on professional photographers; comments from others eg audience, peers, tutors, client

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M2 discuss own photography work.

BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007

Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is available on page 94.

P4 describe own photography work.

P3 create photographic images using film-based and digital technology

M2 create photographic images that demonstrate competent technical and aesthetic qualities through competent use of film-based and digital technology

M1 present developed ideas for the production of photographic images

P1 use photographic technology

P2 present ideas for the production of photographic images

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

D2 explain own photography work using correct technical language.

D1 achieve high quality photographic images through skilful and creative use of film-based and digital technology

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To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass and merit criteria, the learner is able to:

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

UNIT 9: PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES


UNIT 9: PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery This unit requires a structured approach to the development of skills and the exploration of photographic and digital techniques for the production of photographs. Learners should look at digital and traditional photographic techniques, technology and materials. It is essential that learners are aware of the work of professional photographers and that they develop a knowledge of the skills and techniques associated with traditional (film-based) methods as well as digital processes. Film-based methods will give learners experience of studio and darkroom practices for the production of black and white photographs. Digital photography extends this experience to involve the production of colour images and creative manipulation of these images using computer software such as Adobe PhotoShop. When they are introduced to the 35mm film-based camera and its controls, learners should be shown a range of camera equipment, such as 6x6 and single plate studio cameras so that they can recognise the advantages and disadvantages of the smaller format. The 35mm camera should also be compared to a digital camera, so that learners are aware of the similarities and differences, and the advantages and disadvantages of each type. Where possible learners should have easy access to digital cameras, so that they can experiment with ideas on them before using film. Initial exercises should show learners how to use the shutter and aperture to give them control of the camera. Automatic functions should, of course, be switched off at this stage. Simple exercises in composition can also be set, such as looking for shapes and structures which form letters, then photographing them in such a way as to bring out that shape to best effect. Learners can be set the task of finding and photographing all the letters in their name. Film processing and printing should be kept simple at this stage – there is no need to teach learners about push-processing or dodging and burning techniques. That said, learners who show aptitude and a desire to learn such things should not be held back. The same rule should be applied to the learning of digital techniques. There is a lot to get through in this unit, and what is formally taught need not go much beyond such techniques as erasing, cropping, layering, and use of the colour palette. As they move towards their own production work, learners should be encouraged to approach photography as a means of visual expression and communication as well as a technical tool. As such they should have access to a wide range of imagery from the past and the present, produced on both film-based and digital equipment. NB: Health and safety is vital when working in a photographic studio, darkroom or on location. Learners must thoroughly understand the health and safety issues associated with the use of photographic chemicals and equipment. Assessment The focus of assessment is on the development of skills and application of techniques, and on the ability to generate and research creative ideas for the production of photographs. For learning outcome 1 learners can generate evidence by compiling a portfolio or album of the work they have produced in their investigation of techniques and processes from both filmbased and digital areas. Tutor observation and one-to-one discussions can also provide evidence for this criterion.

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UNIT 9: PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES

For learning outcome 2 learners must be able to show, either through notes and images, or through an oral presentation, how they have developed ideas for their own photographs. They must also investigate professional practice in photography. This could be evidenced by reviewing the work of professional photographers and the resources and techniques they used through an annotated album. For learning outcome 3 learners must produce a range of photographic images. These images could be presented as an exhibition or a portfolio. Learners must be able to evaluate the photographic work they have produced for learning outcome 4. This might involve a critical self-assessment of finished work through individual or group reviews. It could also be done through a written report or an oral presentation. Presentations must be recorded for internal and external verification purposes. For some learners a viva voce type assessment might be appropriate for learning outcomes 1, 2 and 4, either to provide all the relevant evidence or to provide additional evidence. When more than one learner in a cohort is assessed in this way care must taken to ensure that all learners are asked the same lead questions, and that all are given equal opportunities to expand or clarify their answers. Interviewers must also ensure that questions are not phrased in such a way as to provide or suggest an answer. Vivas should be recorded for the purposes of internal and external verification. NB: When applying the grading criteria tutors should follow the advice given below. Please note that the examples of evidence given here are indicative only. This advice is not inclusive and the examples need not be included in a learner’s work in order for that learner to achieve the exemplified grade. To achieve a pass, learners must be able to use photographic technology, though they will not yet use it to good effect. They must be able to use film-based and digital cameras to take pictures using both natural and artificial light, be able to develop negatives and print from them, be able to download images from a digital camera to a computer, store them, employ simple manipulation techniques on them, and print them. Learners must also be able to generate ideas for the production of photographic images, and present those ideas to others either orally or in writing. Ideas for photographs will be fairly obvious, and presentation of them will be supported with little reference to current or past practice. Notes will be brief and uninformative and any sketches will be rough. The images produced in realising these ideas will be recognisable but will lack technical and aesthetic qualities – for example, they will lack tonal range, focus will be inconsistent, and compositions will be unbalanced. In assessing P3 assessors will also be able to assess P1, though it is possible to assess them separately. To achieve P4 learners will describe their own photography work. They will give an accurate outline of their objectives and be able to correctly identify faults but without using the appropriate terminology. For example, ‘this is a picture of a football match showing a goal being scored but the picture is blurred and there is too much sky in it.’ Learners who are able to consistently produce technically sound images which demonstrate some understanding of matters such as composition will move into the merit range. Use of technology and the consequent images will, at this level, be competent: learners will be able to use cameras and follow procedures such as developing and printing with only occasional need for support, and the results will be technically good (clear blacks and whites and a good tonal range in both negatives and prints, for example). They will not yet, though, be completely confident in the use of equipment and will not yet be employing their skills with imagination.

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UNIT 9: PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES

Ideas will be presented in some detail and care will have been taken to seek out images from past and current practice similar to the type they wish to produce. They will address the resources and cost implications of what they want to do. In reflecting upon their own work, merit-level learners will discuss their images in more detail than pass-level learners, subjecting them to some comment (though this will not be supported or justified) and correctly identifying the reason for any faults. The reasons for taking the pictures will be evident and there will be some indication that the learner is thinking about what has been done. For example, ‘I took a series of pictures at a football match in which I wanted to show people in high speed action. On the whole I was pretty pleased with the results. The first two pictures in my portfolio are a bit blurred because I was using a long lens to get close to the players, and had moved it too fast when following them.’ To achieve a distinction, learners must produce photographic images that are of high quality both technically and aesthetically through the creative use of photographic technology. Techniques and equipment will, therefore, be used with facility to create products that are beginning to move beyond the purely conventional. Equipment and skills will be deployed creatively – distinction-level learners will be able to make the technology serve their creative intentions. They will be able to come up with ideas and solutions which others might have not thought of. This will come through in the generation of ideas (which will be carefully supported with reference to past and current practice, and well thought through in terms of resources and costs) and in the aesthetic qualities of the final pictures. They will be able to work independently. In reflecting upon their work, distinction-level learners will ‘explain’ – that is, they will demonstrate an awareness of why they did what they did, and will justify or support comments in some way. They will make it clear what they were trying to do, describe the images in correct technical terms, explain why they were successful or be able to identify the reasons for any problems and say what needs to be done to correct the fault. For example, ‘Because I am interested in sports photography I took a series of pictures at a football match. I also wanted to practise taking pictures of people in high speed action using the ability of the camera to freeze a moment in time. I was happy with the technical quality of all the pictures. They all had a good contrast and tonal range and the focus was crisp in most of them. The first two pictures in my portfolio are a bit blurred, though, because I was using a long lens to get close to the players, and had obviously moved it rather jerkily when following them. The next time I do this I will use a tripod or a monopod to help me steady the camera and move it more smoothly.’ The distinction-level learner will employ technical vocabulary correctly, using the right word in the right context. Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit can be linked with Unit 7: Advertising Production as part of a course focusing on advertising, with Unit 8: Interactive Media Production as part of a course focusing on multimedia, or with Unit 11: Writing for the Media as part of a course focusing on journalism. It could also provide the skills basis for a project to be completed in Unit 17: Media Production Project. There are opportunities in this unit for the development of key skills at level 2 in application of number, communication, information and communication technology, improving own learning and performance, problem solving, and working with others.

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UNIT 9: PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES

There are opportunities to relate the work done for this unit to Skillset National Occupational Standards in Photo Imaging and Photo Processing as follows: P2

Organise, and carry out, photographic assignment

P6

Conceive and take photographs

Pr6

Print photographic images by hand

Pr10 Mount photographic images for exhibition and display D2

Carry out specific image scanning

D17 Plan and produce scanned images D4

Carry out specific image editing

D5

Plan and produce edited images.

And to E-skills National Occupational Standards in IT Users as follows: Website software Artwork and imaging software Specialist or bespoke software. Essential resources The following types of traditional equipment would be appropriate at this level: •

basic cameras — 175mm compact, APS, basic 175mm single lens reflex camera

lighting equipment — Tungsten halogen lamp units, electronic flash units, reflectors

dark room.

The following digital equipment is also required for this unit:

computers and printers

software for the manipulation of digital images

digital cameras or flatbed scanners.

Darkroom work-stations should be available on the basis of one for each two learners.

Indicative reading for learners Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant.

Andrews P — Adobe PhotoShop Elements (Focal Press, 2001)

Calder J — The 175mm Photographer’s Handbook (Pan Books, 1999)

Eastman Kodak Company Staff — Basic Developing and Printing in Black and White (Kodak

Books, 1995)

Eggers R — Basic Digital Photography (Amherst Media, 2001)

Langford M — 101 Essential Tips on Photography (Dorling Kindersley, 1997)

Langford M — Basic Photography (Focal Press, 2000)

Lessing P — My New Digital Camera: A Very Basic Guide to Understanding, Editing and

Saving Digital Photographs (Capital Books, 2002)

Wignall J — Kodak’s Most Basic Book of 175mm Photography (Kodak Books, 1996)

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Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Application of number level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

interpreting information from an instruction manual and textbooks regarding the operation of a complex camera

N2.1

Interpret information from a suitable source.

interpreting information from manuals and textbooks regarding photographic production techniques.

exploring various layouts of a studio for a photographic shoot, taking into account the effect of lighting and camera angles

N2.2

Use their information to carry out calculations to do with:

calculating the power needs for a shoot (P=IVWatts)

using conclusions from the above calculations and producing a diagram of a chosen studio design for a photographic shoot

producing charts and graphs showing the effects of choice of camera lens and the position of lighting units.

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N2.17

a

amounts or sizes

b

scales or proportion

c

handling statistics

d

using formulae.

Interpret the results of their calculations and present their findings.

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UNIT 9: PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES

Communication level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

discussing the work of professional photographers

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion

contributing a prepared talk to a group about photographic techniques using a photograph produced for the Photography Techniques unit

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes

reading and taking notes from instruction manuals, researching and summarising photographic skills and techniques

C2.2

Read and summarise information from at least two documents about the same subject. Each document must be a minimum of 500 words long.

reviewing and recording the details of the specialist skills and techniques developed, using images produced for the Photography Techniques unit for illustration.

C2.17

Write two different types of documents each one giving different information. One document must be at least 500 words long.

Information and communication technology level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

searching for information about photographic techniques or in order to develop ideas, using a range of sources including the internet, CD ROMs, databases

IT2.1

using and importing text, numbers and images to explore and develop ideas for images using digital techniques

IT2.2

Enter and develop the information to suit the task and derive new information.

using text, numbers and images to produce a final digital image and presenting technical information about their use to achieve the final image and the aesthetic consequences.

IT2.17

Present combined information such as text with image, text with number, image with number.

Search for and select information to meet their needs. Use different information sources for each task and multiple search criteria in at least one case.

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Improving own learning and performance level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

planning an investigation into a photographic production and setting objectives

LP2.1

Help set targets with an appropriate person and plan how these will be met.

producing an action plan showing intended method of creating the photographic production

implementing the plan

LP2.2

Take responsibility for some decisions about their learning, using their plan to help meet targets and improve their performance.

evaluating the product.

LP2.17 Review progress with an appropriate person and provide evidence of achievements.

Problem solving level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

identifying various risks to a photographic production and writing a contingency plan

PS2.1

Identify a problem, with help from an appropriate person, and identify different ways of tackling it.

operating one element of the contingency plan

PS2.2

Plan and try out at least one way of solving the problem.

evaluating the implementation.

PS2.17 Check if the problem has been solved and identify ways to improve problem solving skills.

Working with others level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

WO2.1 Plan work with others.

working with others on a large scale photographic production

WO2.2 Work co-operatively towards achieving identified objectives. •

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reviewing and monitoring progress with other through regular meetings.

WO2.17 Review their contribution and agree ways to improve work with others.

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UNIT 10: ANIMATION TECHNIQUES

Unit 10:

Animation Techniques

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract Animation production is a significant activity in the media industry, not only in high-profile entertainment programmes such as Wallace and Gromit, but also in advertising and music video production and in the computer games industry. Whilst there is still room for the traditional ‘craft’ techniques such as cell animation, computer-generated and aided animation is increasingly being used, and in ways that allow for just as much creativity as the traditional methods. This unit has been designed as an introduction to animation. It aims to introduce learners to the practical processes of animation and enables them to develop an understanding of historical and contemporary animation techniques. Learners may be introduced to many aspects of animation but should focus on a specific technique for the production of an animation sequence.

Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1

Understand historical and contemporary animation techniques and practice

2

Be able to develop an idea for an animated sequence

3

Be able to produce an animated sequence

4

Be able to review own animation production work.

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Unit content

1 Understand historical and contemporary animation technology, techniques and practice Technology: eg zoetrope, kinetiscope, film, video, computers Techniques: eg flip book, animatic, dope sheet, mark making on film, time-lapse photography, filmstrip, sequential photographs, motor drive, drawing, collage, index cards, cut-out animation, cell animation, claymation, computer-generated and aided animation, Historical and contemporary practice: narratives; styles; contexts eg advertising, children’s entertainment, cinema, music videos, computer games; practitioners eg Georges Méliès, Joseph Plateau, William Horner, Emile Reynaud, Disney, Hanna Barbera, Aardman, Pixar 2 Be able to develop an idea for an animated sequence Technique: eg claymation, pixilation, cell, cut-outs, mixed media, stop frame

Narrative: genre eg children’s, music video, advertisement; audience; style eg straight,

comic, satirical, fantasy,

Characterisation: human or non-human; roles; behaviour; voice

3 Be able to produce an animated sequence Pre-production: eg scripts, sketches, models, materials, storyboard, set, music, sound effects Production: considerations eg view points, perspective, key frames; recording eg visuals, sound, sound effects Post-production: eg editing (cuts and transitions, timing, frame numbers), special effects, soundtrack editing, soundtrack synchronisation 4 Be able to review own animation production work Finished product: compared with original intentions; appropriateness to audience; technical qualities; aesthetic qualities; content; style Production process: pre-production eg research, planning; production eg time management, project management, technical competencies, creative ability, own work, teamwork; post­ production eg time management, project management, technical competencies, creative ability, own work, teamwork Sources of information: self-evaluation; documentation eg notes, sketches, storyboards, production logs; comments from others eg audience, peers, tutors, client

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present developed ideas for an animation sequence

M2

M4

discuss own animation work.

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Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is available on page 104.

P4 describe own animation work.

P17 produce an animation sequence M17 produce an animated sequence that demonstrates competent technical and aesthetic qualities

discuss historical and contemporary animation technologies, techniques, and practices using appropriate illustrative examples

M1

P1 describe historical and contemporary animation technologies, techniques, and practices

P2 present an idea for an animation sequence

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

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achieve intentions through application of highlevel technical skills and creativity

D2

D17 explain own animation work using correct technical language

critically discuss historical and contemporary animation technologies, techniques, and practices

D1

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass and merit criteria, the learner is able to:

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

UNIT 10: ANIMATION TECHNIQUES


UNIT 10: ANIMATION TECHNIQUES

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery The unit could be taught through a variety of activities. Short introductory practical exercises might include the production of thuamatropes, flip books and zoetrope strips to demonstrate early development of the illusion of movement. Further practical experimentation with various animation techniques can be encouraged with screenings of professionally produced examples in advertising, music videos and experimental film. Discussion of these examples should concentrate on the animation method employed – they could, for example, be broken down frame by frame to demonstrate the way in which the animation has been constructed, whether it be claymation, pixilation, cell, cut-outs, mixed media, stop frame etc. This study should inform the learner’s practical work. Centres might opt to teach one form of animation to all their learners, in which case a series of demonstrations and exercises designed to develop the basic skills for that technique might be produced to take learners through a structured programme. Alternatively, centres may prefer to let learners follow their own interests, in which case the tutor’s role will be much more that of a facilitator, guiding learners towards sources of information and ensuring that they keep their feet on the ground. Animation is a time-consuming business so, whichever approach is adopted, tutors should guide learners carefully to ensure that they do not take on over-ambitious projects. In considering what length of production they might think appropriate, tutors should, of course, take into account the chosen method of production. Similarly, learners should be encouraged at this stage to concentrate on the process of animation itself, rather than getting too caught up in associated aspects of production such as set construction. Lectures and discussions should be incorporated into the programme as time and resources allow. Visits could be made to, for example, animation studios, festivals and cinema screenings. Assessment Evidence for learning outcome 1 could be in the form of an oral presentation supported by video examples of professional animators and techniques. Alternatively it could take the form of a written report or a research file. Learning outcomes 2 and 17 should be evidenced through a finished product and the preparatory documentation. Learning outcome 4 could be evidenced through a written report, oral presentation or some form of structured audio-visual statement. Presentations should be recorded for the purposes of verification. For learning outcomes 1 and 4 a viva voce type assessment might be appropriate for some learners. When more than one learner in a cohort is assessed in this way care must taken to ensure that all learners are asked the same lead questions, and that all are given equal opportunities to expand or clarify their answers. Interviewers must also ensure that questions are not phrased in such a way as to provide or suggest an answer. Vivas should be recorded for the purposes of internal and external verification.

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NB: When applying the grading criteria tutors should follow the advice given below. Please note that the examples of evidence given here are indicative only. This advice is not inclusive and the examples need not be included in a learner’s work in order for that learner to achieve the exemplified grade. To achieve a pass, learners must be able to describe historical and contemporary animation technologies, techniques, and practices. They will be able to give a correct but unelaborated outline of different ways of producing animated images from the earliest days to the present, and of the major techniques employed by animators. They will also be able to describe examples of animation, and name major animators or animation companies, describing examples of their work and correctly identifying the techniques for which they are well known. For criterion P2 learners must be able to generate and develop an idea for the production of an animated sequence and present that idea to others either orally or in writing. At pass-level the idea will be feasible but simple, and the presentation of it will be basic. Notes, summaries, scripts and artwork will be brief and roughly presented. To achieve P17, learners must be able to follow pre-production, production and post-production procedures as specified in the unit content and employ relevant techniques correctly at a basic level. They are likely to need considerable support and guidance. The completed animation sequence will be recognisably related to the original idea, and will demonstrate that the learner has applied relevant techniques in its completion but with a rather uneven or rough result. Decisions which involve questions of aesthetics (such as visual composition or choice of colours) will be inappropriate, or will appear to have been taken without consideration. (When assessing work for the First Certificate and First Diploma in Media, ‘aesthetics’ can be taken to cover matters of style as well as the considerations that might more strictly be covered by that term.) To achieve criterion P4, learners must describe their work – ‘work’ meaning both the process and the product resulting from following that process. This description will be relevant to the production process and the product but will mainly be confined to an historical account of activities (eg ‘I decided to do a sequence based on a clockwork mouse finding its way round a maze. First I had to think up what the maze would look like and build the set. Then I had to find a clockwork mouse …. etc’). Accounts which are mostly taken up with irrelevant detail (such as lengthy accounts of how the mouse was obtained and how it subsequently misbehaved) should not be considered as meeting the pass-level for this criterion. Assessments of the work itself will be relevant but very generalised and at the level of assertion (eg ‘the filming went quite well and I was really pleased with the finished sequence which I thought was funny.’). To achieve criterion M1, learners must discuss historical and contemporary animation technologies, techniques, and practices using appropriate illustrative examples. They will cover the same ground as the pass-level learner but in more detail and they will also comment upon these things, though the comments will not be supported by explanation or justification. Examples will be details taken from the material covered; they will illustrate the points made, but they will not be elucidated further. It may, therefore, be noted that a named animation system was an advance on previous systems as the movement was ‘more lifelike’ but there will be no explanation as to how this was achieved. Nonetheless, there will be some indication that the learner is thinking about what has been looked at. At merit-level, development and realisation of the final product will be competent, care being taken at all stages and results being technically good, though again support will be needed frequently. Learners will take care over the development of the idea, both in terms of working on the idea and in the presentation of it.

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Merit-level learners will show ability in the handling of equipment and in the exercise of skills, and care in relation to following pre-production, production and post-production procedures, but will not yet be completely confident in those procedures or in the use of equipment, and will not yet employ the skills with imagination. The level of skills attainment will good, but not excellent. Aesthetic decisions will be based on some thought and will be on the whole satisfying. The learner will still need occasional advice or support in many aspects of the work. In reflecting upon their production work merit-level learners will ‘discuss.’ Commentary will thus be more detailed, with examples to support comments but will still be at the level of statement or assertion rather than being supported by explanation or argument – eg ‘this idea wasn’t as easy to develop as I thought it would be. The maze the mouse was to go through had to be very simple as I didn’t have time to show it going through a large or difficult one. I also had to think up some incidents that would hold it up so as to make it funnier.’ To achieve criterion D1 learners must critically discuss. They will compare and evaluate historical and contemporary animation technologies, techniques, and practices and will explain or justify points made. In discussing why the cell animation system was an advance on previous systems a learner might explain that the movement was more lifelike because the superimposition of the drawings was more rapid, making it much more fluid, and the cell system, using different artists for each layer of the image, allowed for movement in several different areas of the image. Distinction-level work will be characterised throughout by high-level skills and the application of creativity. Whether developing an idea, following a procedure or exercising a skill, distinction-level learners will achieve high quality results by applying an active and imaginative mind to the task. Techniques and equipment will be used with facility and to good effect, and learners will be at ease with both. Above all, equipment and skills will be deployed creatively – distinction-level learners will be able to make the technology serve their creative intentions. This will come through in the aesthetic qualities of the finished piece of work. They will be able to work independently. In reflecting upon their work, distinction-level learners will explain, justify or support comments in some way (eg ‘I only had time to construct a simple maze so I had to make up for this by adding complications for the player such as dangers and obstructions. I tried to make these as funny as possible because that would be more likely to keep the interest of a young player.’). They will use technical and specialist language correctly – that is to say, appropriately and accurately. Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications Study of the current animation industry in this unit can be linked with Unit 1: Introduction to Media Industries, Unit 2: Research for Media Production and Unit 3: Introduction to Media Audiences and Products. Production work could be combined with Unit 4: Video Production, Unit 6: Advertising Production or Unit 7: Interactive Media Production. Work on the sound track might enable links to be made with Unit 5: Audio Production and the production of visual material might draw on work done for Unit 9: Photography Techniques. Scripts for an animation could be produced through Unit 11: Writing for the Media. This unit could also provide the skills basis for a project to be completed in Unit 17: Media Production Project. There are opportunities in this unit for the development of key skills at level 2 in communication, improving own learning and performance, problem solving, and working with others. There are opportunities to relate the work done for this unit to Skillset National Occupational Standards in Editing, Interactive Media, and Photo Imaging and Photo Processing as follows:

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UNIT 10: ANIMATION TECHNIQUES

Editing E1

Identify and agree editing outcomes and process

E5

Digitise pictures and sound for non-linear editing

E9

Edit materials using on-line video-tape equipment

E10 Edit materials using non-linear equipment E12 Produce first cuts E13 Evaluate first cuts materials for final post-production E14 Produce fine cut materials for final post-production E21 Realise complex effects Interactive Media IM2 Obtain assets for use in interactive media products IM3 Prepare assets for use in interactive media products IM6 Use authoring tools to create interactive media products IM24 Create 2D animation for interactive media products Photo Imaging and Photo Processing D1

Create original artwork for digital images

D2

Carry out specific image scanning

D3

Plan and produce scanned images

D4

Carry out specific image editing

D5

Plan and produce edited images.

And to E-skills National Occupational Standards in IT Users as follows: Website software Specialist or bespoke software. Essential resources Learners should have access to a camera rostrum with film or video recording equipment, a suitable audio facility, and appropriate computer software packages. For this introductory unit it is not essential to offer professional levels of equipment. Indicative reading for learners Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant.

Bendazzi G — Cartoons: One Hundred Years of Cinema Animation (John Libbey, 1994)

Culhane S — Animation From Script to Screen (St Martin’s Press, 1988)

Laybourne K — The Animation Book: A Complete Guide to Animated Filmmaking

(Three Rivers Press, 1998)

Lord P and Sibley B — Creating 3-D Animation: The Aardman Book of Filmmaking

(Thames & Hudson, 1998)

Lord P and Sibley B — Cracking Animation (Thames & Hudson Ltd, 1998)

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Noake R — Animation Techniques (Macdonald Orbis, 1989) White A — The Animator’s Workbook (Phaidon Press,1986) Williams R — The Animator’s Survival Kit (Faber & Faber, 2001) Websites The following websites were available at the time of going to press and the addresses were correct. • www.awn.com —‘an electronic monthly publication devoted to the art, craft and industry of animation, featuring intelligent news, reviews, commentary and opinion written by the leading minds in the field today’. • www.aardman.com — the home of Wallace and Gromit, a tour of the studio and a showcase for Aardman’s current offerings. • www.pixar.com — the company responsible for the films Monsters Inc. and Toy Story. This site offers, amongst other things, information on the stages of production. • www.wbanimation.warnerbros.com — again offers a simple explanation of the different roles in the making of an animation feature. Other relevant sites can be found by using key words such as ‘animation’ or ‘cartoons’. Some of these will be commercial companies selling animation cells as artwork, but others will provide up-to-date information on practice and application in the animation industry.

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UNIT 10: ANIMATION TECHNIQUES

Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Communication level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

discussing examples of animation in a group

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion

giving a presentation, based on research, on contemporary animation

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes

researching the history of animation

C2.2

Read and summarise information from at least two documents about the same subject. Each document must be a minimum of 500 words long.

writing a report on their research into the history of animation and writing an evaluation of their own production work.

C2.3

Write two different types of documents each one giving different information. One document must be at least 500 words long.

Improving own learning and performance level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

producing and implementing a plan for an animation sequence and monitoring the production process

LP2.1

Help set targets with an appropriate person and plan how these will be met.

implementing the plan

LP2.2

Take responsibility for some decisions about their learning, using their plan to help meet targets and improve their performance.

writing or presenting an evaluation of the production process.

LP2.3

Review progress with an appropriate person and provide evidence of achievements.

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Problem solving level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

planning an animation sequence

PS2.1

Identify a problem, with help from an appropriate person, and identify different ways of tackling it.

producing an animation sequence

PS2.2

Plan and try out at least one way of solving the problem.

evaluating final product.

PS2.3

Check if the problem has been solved and identify ways to improve problem solving skills.

Working with others level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

WO2.1 Plan work with others.

planning and producing an animation sequence with others

WO2.2 Work co-operatively towards achieving identified objectives. •

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holding meetings and discussions to monitor the group’s work.

WO2.3 Review their contribution and agree ways to improve work with others.

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UNIT 11: WRITING FOR THE MEDIA

Unit 11:

Writing for the Media

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract For some sectors of the media industry such as the press, writing is an end in itself. Reports, articles, reviews of books, films and plays, and, in some journals, short stories are all examples of such writing. In many other sectors writing underlies a different final product, script writing for film, television and radio being the obvious example. Each of these activities requires the application of different specialist writing skills, but all of them require writers to be at ease with the written language, able to express themselves clearly, and highly capable in the basic skills of spelling, punctuation and grammar. This unit first introduces learners to the different applications of writing for the media, and then to the techniques and conventions of writing for a specific sector of the industry. Beginning with research into the methods used by professional writers, the unit then requires learners to generate ideas and to turn these into fully realised written material which is correctly presented for the chosen medium and form.

Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1

Know about different types of writing produced in the media industry

2

Be able to generate ideas for written material

3

Be able to produce written material

4

Be able to review own writing work.

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Unit content

1

Know about different types of writing produced in the media industry Medium: eg TV, non-broadcast video, radio, non-broadcast audio, newspaper, magazine Genre: eg news, documentary, drama, live broadcast, advert, promotional video, information video, music programme, magazine programme, consumer programme, quiz show, talk show, reality show, general magazine, specialist magazine, tabloid newspaper, broadsheet newspaper, local newspaper, freesheet, news item, column, review

2

Be able to generate ideas for written material Brief: eg client requirements, broadcaster, broadcast slot, audience, formal/informal,

studio/location, commission, competition, timescale

Own ideas: personal interests, genre, audience, market Brainstorming: eg production team, meetings, flip chart, lateral thinking, note taking, decision-making process, refining ideas Research: for content eg primary sources, secondary sources, printed material, internet sites, video and audio recordings, interviews; into market eg current practice, production guides, published writer’s advice, audience profiles Preparation: eg style, treatment, narrative structure, synopsis, structure, outline

3

Be able to produce written material Form: eg script, article, report, column, review Conventions: eg cues, visual description, use of camera, shooting script, dialogue, music and music, sound effects, continuity links, commentary/voice-over, characterisation, style, mode of address, headlines, sub-headings, illustrations, graphics Layout: eg sight readable, font style and size, columns, spacing, alignment, page numbering, page breaks, columns Accuracy: eg spelling, grammar, punctuation

4

Be able to review own writing work Finished product: compared with original ideas; appropriateness to audience; writing skills eg expression, spelling, punctuation, grammar; aesthetic qualities; content; style Production process: research; production skills eg time management, technical competencies, creative ability, own work, teamwork Sources of information: self-evaluation; documentation eg ideas notes, notes from meetings, drafts; comments from others eg audience, peers, tutors, client

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M4 discuss own written material.

M3 produce competent written material

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Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is available on page 114.

P4 describe own writing work.

P3 produce written material

M2 present developed ideas for written material

M1 discuss different types of writing produced in the media industry using appropriate illustrative examples

P1 describe different types of writing produced in the media industry

P2 present ideas for written material

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

D3 explain own written material using correct language.

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D2 achieve intentions through the application of high-level skills and creativity

D1 critically discuss different types of writing produced in the media industry

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass and merit criteria, the learner is able to:

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

UNIT 11: WRITING FOR THE MEDIA


UNIT 11: WRITING FOR THE MEDIA

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery After an introduction to the different types of writing done for the media, learners should either, depending on the interests and resources of the centre, be helped to develop the skills for one particular form of writing, or be allowed to branch out and experiment according to their own interests – always, however, under the careful eye of the tutor lest they get involved in an over­ ambitious project. The unit requires learners to generate ideas in response to a brief, as well as on their own initiative. Ideas derived from personal interests should be clearly aligned to a realistic market, and have a clear concept of the audience aimed at. Whether learners follow through to completion both these types of writing will depend very much on the proposed length of the finished piece. One long, finished piece would be acceptable as evidence of the achievement of learning outcome 3, as would a portfolio of several shorter pieces. Emphasis should be placed on the importance of redrafting. Good writers tend to rewrite rather than merely write. The process of revision must involve consideration of audience, client and feasibility. With this in mind, learners should be made aware of the considerable benefits offered to writers of working on a computer – though they should also be made aware of the need to constantly check the impact of what might be thought minor emendations to other parts of the document. They should also be taught not to put their trust in spellchecks. There is much scope for generating different types of written material in this unit, but tutors should be aware that some genres are better suited than others to this level of learning. It is unlikely that learners at this level will complete a feature-length film script – or that they would do so successfully, at any rate. As practice is vital, the choice of a genre which enables the production of a large number of small pieces of work might be thought preferable to one which requires large-scale written projects. If the form of writing taught is scriptwriting or advertisement copy writing, it is recommended that this unit be run alongside a production unit which will enable the final script to be realised. The work is more likely to come alive for learners if it leads to an actual sound or video production or a printed product. The Links section below indicates which units are suitable to accompany this one. Assessment Evidence for learning outcomes 1 and 4 can be provided by written or oral reports, or by means of structured audio-visual statements. Print-outs of examples from internet sites will be insufficient as evidence for learning outcome 1 – some form of commentary on, for example, the reasons for different script styles is essential. Presentations should be recorded for verification purposes. For some learners a viva voce type assessment might be appropriate for these two learning outcomes, though as this is a unit concerned essentially with how to write, there would have to be very good reasons for adopting such a method of assessment. When more than one learner in a cohort is assessed in this way care must taken to ensure that all learners are asked the same lead questions, and that all are given equal opportunities to expand or clarify their answers. Interviewers must also ensure that questions are not phrased in such a way as to provide or suggest an answer. Vivas should be recorded for the purposes of internal and external verification.

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Learning outcome 2 could be assessed through tutor observation of a production meeting to which learners are required to contribute. This would have to be backed up with appropriate paperwork such as brainstorming sheets and minutes of meetings. It would be appropriate for scripts to be generated, for learning outcome 3, on an individual rather than a team basis, with selection for production taking place by the team or a client at a later stage. NB: When applying the grading criteria tutors should follow the advice given below. Please note that the examples of evidence given here are indicative only. This advice is not inclusive and the examples need not be included in a learner’s work in order for that learner to achieve the exemplified grade. To achieve criterion P1, learners must be able to describe examples of different types of writing produced in the media industry. That is, they will be able to name appropriate examples, correctly identify their genre, and provide an outline summary of their contents. The Sun, for instance, would be identified as a national daily ‘red-top’ tabloid newspaper which contains national and international news, sports news, TV listings, entertainment news and reviews, pages devoted to regular columnists and other regular sections such as a ‘problem’ page. Some observations on what identifies its genre should be made, such as that it concentrates on stories about celebrities, that there is a preponderance of visual material, or that the language is simple and tends towards the informal or colloquial. The ability to treat three or four examples from a range of types of writing in some detail, or to treat a larger number of examples from a wider range but in less detail would be equally acceptable. To achieve P2 learners must be able to generate ideas for the production of written material, and present those ideas to others. It should be noted that the unit content requires learners to generate ideas in response to a brief as well as on their own initiative. Ideas at this level will be fairly obvious, and presentation of them will be supported with only slight research and reference to the brief or the intended market. P3 requires learners to produce written material. For the work to achieve this criterion, it must be possible to recognise the genre in the completed piece(s) of work. Expression will be reasonably clear. Register and tone, however, will not always be clear or consistent. To achieve this criterion learners must demonstrate basic technical writing skills – that is, the learner will not be utterly dependent on a spellcheck, and will know the difference between, for example, ‘their’ and ‘there,’ ‘where’ and ‘were,’ ‘hear’ and ‘here’ etc. Punctuation will be basically sound though there may still be occasional uncertainty over the use of commas and full stops, but this will not seriously hinder easy understanding. Evidence that a learner is making improvements in these matters, having started from a very low level of skills, could justifiably be used as evidence of achieving this criterion. Work that is unclear throughout, or where technical writing skills are consistently poor, should not achieve a pass for this criterion. P4 requires learners to describe their own writing work – ‘work’ meaning both the process and the product resulting from following that process. This description will be relevant to the writing process and the written products but will mainly be confined to an historical account of activities (eg ‘after we had been given the competition brief I went to the library to get some examples of short radio plays. One of them was a monologue and that gave me a good idea …’ etc). Accounts which are mostly taken up with irrelevant detail – such as lengthy digressions on the substance of many a session of sweet, silent thought (however poetically expressed) – should not be considered as meeting the pass-level for this criterion. Descriptions of the written work will be relevant but unelaborated outlines of content, whilst assessments of its quality will be relevant but very generalised and at the level of assertion (eg ‘I was really pleased with the final script and I thought it had a very dramatic ending’).

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To achieve criterion M1 learners must discuss different types of writing produced in the media industry using appropriate illustrative examples. They will cover the same ground as the passlevel learner but the texts chosen for discussion will be covered in more detail and subjected to some commentary. The generic codes and conventions will be made more explicit through detailed examples taken from the material chosen. Though points made will not be supported by explanation or developed further by argument, and illustrative examples will not be elucidated further, nonetheless there will be some indication that the learner is thinking about what has been read. So, in a discussion of The Sun the learner might point out that the fact that it uses a limited vocabulary does not make it easier to write for, giving an example of how the paper might sum up a complex issue in simple terms. The language of the example, however, will not be explored any further. At merit-level, development and realisation of the final written pieces (criteria M2 and M3) will be competent, care being taken at all stages and results being good, though support will be needed frequently. Learners will take care over the development of the ideas, both in terms of working on them and in their presentation. In the finished writing, the genre(s) will be clearly recognisable and will reflect current codes and conventions. Merit-level learners will not, however, be particularly imaginative in their exploitation of these codes and conventions. Expression will be clear with only the occasional awkwardness and register will be generally appropriate. Technical skills will show only occasional lapses from formally correct English. In reflecting upon their own work merit-level learners will discuss that work. Description of the product will go beyond content into intention and commentary will be more detailed, with examples to support comments. However, explanations will be rather unsophisticated, and assessments will still be at the level of statement or assertion rather than being supported by explanation or argument, and connections between what was done and the reasons for its being done will not be made explicit. For example, ‘My character is very unsure of himself at the end. He leaves lots of sentences unfinished at that point.’ To achieve criterion D1 learners must critically discuss examples of different types of writing produced in the media industry. That is, they will develop ideas and evaluate texts, or compare them explicitly with other texts. Comments made will be justified with further argument. A red­ top tabloid will thus be compared with a broadsheet newspaper, examples of the different styles of writing given, and the differences elucidated. For example. ‘The Sun says here that the police officer has ‘vowed’ to clear his name, but in The Independent it says that he has ‘stated’ that he will clear his name. This is typical of The Sun which likes to use short, dramatic words when perfectly ordinary English would do. It should be noted that the term ‘critical’ does not imply a necessarily negative commentary, and that the evaluation need not necessarily be achieved through comparison against another idea or text. To achieve criterion D2 learners will achieve their intentions through the application of highlevel skills and creativity. This means that they will come up with ideas that are a little beyond the ordinary (a more unusual angle on a news story than their peers come up with, or an interesting topic for an investigative piece). Ideas will be well researched, it will be clearly explained how the brief is addressed, as will the intended audience or market. Distinction-level learners will write with facility and confidence, either deploying current codes and conventions of a genre creatively or consciously playing with them. Register and expression will be consistently accurate and clear. Technical skills will be good, demonstrating only rare lapses in spelling and punctuation. At this level of achievement, technical skills should be taken to include observing the correct conventions in formats (eg script writing for film) as well as formal writing skills.

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UNIT 11: WRITING FOR THE MEDIA

Distinction-level learners will explain their written work – that is, they will demonstrate an awareness of why they did what they did and will justify or support comments on these production decisions in some way. Connections between intentions and the finished work will thus be made explicit. For example, ‘I wanted to make my character seem unsure of himself at the end, so he leaves lots of sentences unfinished at that point. This leaves a doubt in the audience’s mind as to whether he really knows what he thinks himself.’ Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit is at its most useful when taught in conjunction with a production unit such as Unit 4: Video Production, Unit 5: Audio Production, Unit 6: Print Production, Unit 7: Advertising Production or Unit 8: Interactive Media Production. It may also provide opportunities to develop skills for Unit 2: Research for Media Production and to provide evidence for the assessment of that unit. This unit could also provide the skills basis for work done in Unit 17: Media Production Project. There are opportunities in this unit for the development of key skills at level 2 in communication, information and communication technology, improving own learning and performance, problem solving, and working with others. There are opportunities to relate the work done for this unit to Skillset National Occupational Standards in Production, Radio Production, and Broadcast Journalism as follows: Production P11

Contribute to the drafting of scripts, cues, links or written content.

Radio Production R3

Undertake research for radio production

R5

Write scripts for radio items

Broadcast Journalism B1

Recognise and deal with issues of law, ethics, regulation and public affairs

B2

Originate ideas for content and treatment of news stories

B3

Research and gather information from various sources

B4

Produce written material for radio

B5

Produce written material for TV or video

Essential resources For preparing the scripts access to IT is essential, since handwritten scripts cannot be regarded as acceptable. Software packages for specific formats should be available to learners depending on the nature of the programme being run. A good library with internet access is an essential resource for most of this unit, particularly for researching ideas and conventions.

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Indicative reading for learners Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant.

Ash W — The Way to Write Radio Drama (Elm Tree Books, 1985)

Boyd A — Broadcast Journalism: Techniques of Radio and TV News (Focal Press, 1997)

Costello J — Writing a Screenplay (Pocket Essentials, 2002)

Kelsey G — Writing for Television (A&C Black, 1990)

Websites The following websites were available at the time of going to press and the addresses were correct. www.city-net.com/~roxman/script.html www.cybercollege.com/tvp006.htm www.irdp.co.uk/scripts.htm www.mindspring.com/~mmm/10point.html

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UNIT 11: WRITING FOR THE MEDIA

Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Communication level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

discussing a client brief

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion

giving a presentation on a script to a group

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes

researching writing conventions

C2.2

Read and summarise information from at least two documents about the same subject. Each document must be a minimum of 500 words long.

producing written material.

C2.3

Write two different types of documents each one giving different information. One document must be at least 500 words long.

Information and communication technology level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

IT2.1

using the internet to research writing conventions and examples of genres.

Search for and select information to meet their needs. Use different information sources for each task and multiple search criteria in at least one case.

Improving own learning and performance level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

planning and producing written material

LP2.1

Help set targets with an appropriate person and plan how these will be met.

implementing plans

LP2.2

Take responsibility for some decisions about their learning, using their plan to help meet targets and improve their performance.

reviewing work undertaken and discussing their achievements.

LP2.3

Review progress with an appropriate person and provide evidence of achievements.

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Problem solving level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

identifying appropriate methods of writing in relation to an audience of their choice

PS2.1

Identify a problem, with help from an appropriate person, and identify different ways of tackling it.

exploring ideas and turning them into written material

PS2.2

Plan and try out at least one way of solving the problem.

testing and modifying the written PS2.3 material and identifying areas of the material that need rewriting.

Check if the problem has been solved and identify ways to improve problem solving skills.

Working with others level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

WO2.1 Plan work with others.

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contributing towards group discussion within an ideas meeting.

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UNIT 12: WEB AUTHORING

Unit 12:

Web Authoring

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract Whatever the size of a business, whether a huge international business like News International or a family-run hotel in the Scottish Highlands, it is more than likely to have a website. Websites are now the accepted way for businesses to communicate with their clients and customers – to advertise their existence, tell people what they have to offer, and to sell their products and services. There is, consequently, a growing need for those with the skills to construct and maintain these sites. This unit will develop initial skills in web authoring techniques. Learners will develop an understanding of the worldwide web and the appropriate skills to produce web pages. Learners will be able to undertake simple tasks relating to the design and implementation of web pages. They will learn about authoring techniques, how to compile websites and how to publish their material on the worldwide web.

Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1

Know about web authoring

2

Be able to develop a plan for a website

3

Be able to use web authoring software to produce a website

4

Be able to review own web authoring work.

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Unit content

1

Know about web authoring World wide web; internet service providers (URL, domain name, top level domain, domain name registration, hosting) Software: HTML text editor eg Notepad; visual editor eg WYSIWYG web editor HTML: font size; font colour; background; paragraph, line break; hyperlinks eg image, page, website; page name eg index.htm for homepage

2

Be able to develop a plan for a website Plan: purpose, audience, legal and ethical considerations Structure: site structure eg home page, linked content pages; page layout eg consistency, heading style, body style, colours, backgrounds Content: text; imported content eg text, images, animation, video, sounds, music

3

Be able to use web authoring software to produce a website File types: eg htm, html, gif, jpeg, wav, mov, mpeg

Page structure: head; body; metatags (author, keywords, description)

Layout: background; repeated content eg copyright, trademark, logo, head, subhead, body;

template; style sheets

Tables: dimensions; table alignment; cells (border, padding, colour, cell alignment)

Import content: eg text; images, animated gif, flash, video, sound

Text: font; alignment; emphasis; size; heading styles; colour

Lists: eg unordered, ordered

Images: resolution; size; alignment (horizontal and vertical); still; alternative text

Hyperlinks: page links; www; email; anchors (text and image); link colours

4

Be able to review own web authoring work Finished product: compared with original intentions; suitability for intended audience; technical qualities; aesthetic qualities Production process: technical competencies; creative abilities; time management; teamwork (if appropriate) Sources of information: self-evaluation; comments from others eg audience, peers, tutors, client; documentation eg notes, minutes of meeting, production diaries

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M4 discuss own web authoring work.

P4 describe own web authoring work.

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Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is available on page 124.

M3 demonstrate competent use of web authoring software to produce a structured website

123

D3 explain own web authoring work using correct technical language.

D2 achieve intentions through application of highlevel skills and creativity

M2 competently plan a structured website

P3 use web authoring software to produce a structured website with integration of text and images

P2 plan a structured website

D1 critically discuss web authoring using fluent language and correct terminology

M1 discuss web authoring with reference to appropriate illustrative examples

P1 describe web authoring

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass and merit criteria, the learner is able to:

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

UNIT 12: WEB AUTHORING


UNIT 12: WEB AUTHORING

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery This unit introduces learners to the worldwide web and to the software required to author websites. Their explorations should begin with research into the variety of sites and information on the worldwide web. Learners should be encouraged to use libraries, archives and electronic sources for research. They should be looking at a wide range of websites and understanding how these sites are constructed. Learners could produce a report on their findings, maybe capturing some images to support this exploration. Their introduction to the concept of web authoring software may need to take place in classroom situations with individual exercises being undertaken by learners. They should be allowed to experiment with software to produce simple web pages that could later be turned into more sophisticated material. Learners should plan and produce their own pages for a website. This website might be produced for an intranet rather than launching it on an internet site. Learners should be allowed to develop appropriate pages from a basic home page right through to more complicated pages such as forms or animated pages. Learners should be encouraged to evaluate their own work and the work of their team, where appropriate. They should use appropriate language and terminology when producing their evaluation. They should look at the technical qualities of the web authoring work and how it works in relation to their initial ideas. Assessment For learning outcome 1, understanding and use of software could be demonstrated by exercises set by the tutor or simple pages produced to a set template. The finished website would also produce evidence of understanding and use of software and how this is combined to produce a site rather than individual pages. This would also, of course, produce the evidence for achievement of learning outcome 2. For learning outcome 2 learners could work to set exercises or to a brief set by the tutor. It may be appropriate for learners to develop a site for a particular interest or a company. Evidence for learning outcome 3 could take the form of a written report, oral presentation (possibly on PowerPoint or some interactive system), or a structured audio-visual statement. Learners must be encouraged to evaluate their own and others’ work, where appropriate, using fluent language and accurate terminology. Oral presentations should be recorded for internal and external verification purposes. For some learners a viva voce type assessment might be appropriate for learning outcome 3. When more than one learner in a cohort is assessed in this way care must taken to ensure that all learners are asked the same lead questions, and that all are given equal opportunities to expand or clarify their answers. Interviewers must also ensure that questions are not phrased in such a way as to provide or suggest an answer. Vivas should be recorded for the purposes of internal and external verification. NB: When applying the grading criteria tutors should follow the advice given below. Please note that the examples of evidence given here are indicative only. This advice is not inclusive and the examples need not be included in a learner’s work in order for that learner to achieve the exemplified grade.

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UNIT 12: WEB AUTHORING

In order to achieve a pass, the learner must describe web authoring, plan a structured website and use web authoring software to produce a structured website with integration of text and images. Additionally, the learner must describe their own web authoring work. ‘Describe’ means that the learner has provided a correct but unelaborated outline of relevant unit content. There is no detail, or attempt to go beyond the minimum required. For example, in relation to the description of web authoring, the learner gives a basic explanation of each element of the specified unit content eg ‘The Top Level Domain of a web address is the final section of the address. It tells us the type of business.’ The description of HTML might be presented as a list of basic definitions covering the unit content eg ‘<p> — paragraph, <br> — line break, etc.’ When producing their plan, learners must cover the ground specified in the unit content, but this will be at the level of a simple description eg ‘My website will have five pages. Each page will have a pale green background, the business logo in the top right corner and copyright will be on the bottom of each page.’ In relation to the website produced, ‘structured’ means that the site must have a homepage linked to each other page. Other links may exist between the pages; there must be a link to an external web page, and an external email link. The learner must cover the required ground as specified in the unit content but at a basic level only. There is no attempt to exercise imagination; there may be no sense of enthusiasm behind the learner’s activity. The learner must describe their own web authoring work – ‘work’ meaning both the process and the product resulting from following that process. This description will be relevant to the production process and the product but will mainly be confined to an historical account of activities – for example, ‘I spent some time brainstorming my initial ideas and produced my plan. This took me two days. I then used the scanner to scan in the pictures I had decided to use for my site.’ Description of the product will be a basic outline and assessments of its quality will be relevant but very generalised and at the level of assertion for example, ‘I think my website is quite good and is easy to read.’ In order to achieve a merit, the learner must discuss web authoring using appropriate illustrative examples, competently plan and produce a website and discuss own web authoring work. When discussing web authoring the learner will treat the material covered in some detail and make some comment on it, providing detailed examples from that material to illustrate the points made. Though these examples will not be elucidated further, and comments will not be supported or developed further by argument, there will nonetheless be a sense of thoughtfulness in this learner’s work. For example, ‘the .co.uk part of the URL http://www.example.co.uk is called the Top Level Domain.’ The HTML definitions should include brief examples of code eg ‘<p> is used to make a new paragraph: example — <p> text paragraph </p>, <br> is used to make line breaks between text: example — sentences<br>.’ Planning of the website will be done competently – that is, showing ability in relation to planning skills but not yet employing those skills with complete confidence or with imagination. For example, ‘My website will have five linked pages: index.htm, aboutus.htm, newprods.htm, product1.htm, product2.htm. Each page will have a pale green background using colour #66FF99, the business logo in the top right corner and copyright will be on the bottom of each page. The following drawings show my website plan. I have drawn a map to show how pages are linked. ’ The learner must use web authoring software ‘competently’ to produce a structured website. That is, they will be able to use the software but will not yet be completely confident with it. Skills attainment will be good at the technical level, but these skills will not yet be employed with imagination. The learner will still need occasional advice or support in many aspects of the work.

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In discussing their own work, learners’ reflections will be more detailed, having examples to support comments. This discussion will offer a more balanced and thoughtful consideration, though comments will still be at the level of statement or assertion rather than being supported by explanation or argument. For example, ‘I spent two days brainstorming my initial ideas and produced my plan. I had to consider monitors that might be used to view my website; I chose to make my pages 800 x 600. I then used the scanner to scan in the pictures I had decided to use for my site. I scanned the pictures at 75 dpi.’ Description of the product will be a basic outline and assessments of its quality will be relevant but very generalised and at the level of assertion. For example, ‘I followed my plan and I think my website is quite good, all the links work, the text is readable and the images are placed well on the page and do not cover any words.’ In order to achieve a distinction, the learner must critically discuss web authoring using fluent language and correct terminology. The term ‘critically discuss’ means that any observations made or arguments engaged in are explained, justified or supported in some way, or are subjected to some sort of evaluative procedure or to a process of comparison. For example, ‘X is like this because …’ or, ‘X is more successful than Y because …’. It should be noted that the term ‘critical’ as used here does not mean negative commentary. Thus a learner might write, ‘HTML text editors are useful for quick adjustments to a web page but web editing software makes it very quick and easy to prepare complete web sites. To use a text editor, the web designer has to know HTML codes, but a web editor can be used by someone who does not know HTML since the software makes the HTML code automatically. The web editor software is WYSIWYG which means that the user can design their page on screen and immediately see it as it will appear on the web. However, it is good to know some basic HTML code to fix minor problems quickly.’ The term ‘correct terminology’ means the learner uses the right word in the right context and is able to deploy appropriately the kind of vocabulary used in the industry. Whilst this refers mainly to the use of technical or specialist language, it can also be taken to refer to a learner’s use of language generally. Distinction-level work will be characterised throughout by imagination and creativity. That is, the learner will produce ideas and results that are beginning to move beyond the conventional. The learner will be able to think laterally and come up with ideas and solutions which others might not have thought of. This will come through in the generation and presentation of ideas, the development work, in the application of techniques and skills, and in the aesthetic qualities of the final website. In reflecting upon their work, distinction-level learners will explain – that is, they will demonstrate an awareness of why they did what they did, and will justify or support comments on these production decisions in some way. For example, ‘I spent two days brainstorming my initial ideas and produced my plan. I had to consider the range of common monitor resolutions that might be used to view my website; I chose to make my pages 800 x 600 since this is a common though low resolution. I then used the scanner to scan in the pictures I had decided to use for my site. I scanned the pictures at 75 dpi since resolutions higher than this do not improve the image on a web page. I scaled the image before importing to the page in order to increase download speed because large image take longer to download.’ The distinction-level learner’s use of technical and specialist language will be correct, being consistently appropriate and accurate.

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UNIT 12: WEB AUTHORING

Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit links with Unit 8: Interactive Media Production and Unit 10: Animation Techniques. It could also be linked with Unit 4: Video Production and Unit 9: Photographic Techniques, and it could provide the skills basis for work done in Unit 17: Media Production Project. There are opportunities in this unit for the development of key skills at level 2 in application of number, communication, information and communication technology, improving own learning and performance, problem solving, and working with others. There are opportunities to relate the work done for this unit to Skillset National Occupational Standards in Editing, Interactive Media, and Photo Imaging and Photo Processing as follows: Editing E5

Digitise pictures and sound for non-linear editing

E10 Edit materials using non-linear equipment Interactive Media IM1 Work effectively in interactive media IM2 Obtain assets for use in interactive media products IM3 Prepare assets for use in interactive media products IM6 Use authoring tools to create interactive media products IM16 Plan content for web and multimedia products IM24 Create 2D animation for interactive media products Photo Imaging and Photo Processing D1

Create original artwork for digital images

D2

Carry out specific image scanning

D3

Plan and produce scanned images

D4

Carry out specific image editing

D5

Plan and produce edited images

D6

Prepare for, and produce image output

D8

Send and receive image data files by digital means.

And to E-skills National Occupational Standards in IT Users as follows: Website software Artwork and imaging software Specialist or bespoke software. Essential resources Learners will need access to computer hardware with appropriate accessories such as scanners and printers, and to appropriate software such as Director, Flash, Dreamweaver, Fireworks, Adobe PhotoShop/Image Ready, and FTP. They will also need internet access for publishing of work and web space for development of work and publishing of final web pages.

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Indicative reading for learners Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant. Garrand T — Writing for Multimedia and the Web (Focal Press, 2002) Maciuba-Koppel D — The Web Writer’s Guide (Focal Press, 2002)

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Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Application of number level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

N2.2

planning the page size, amount of web space available and download times

monitoring success of the completed web pages in terms of size, web space availability and download times.

N2.3

Use their information to carry out calculations to do with: a

amounts or sizes

b

scales or proportion

c

handling statistics

d

using formulae.

Interpret the results of their calculations and present their findings.

Communication level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

discussing proposals for their web authoring work

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion

presenting ideas for web page layouts and links to other websites to a group

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes

analysing different types of page designs and secondary research material

C2.2

Read and summarise information from at least two documents about the same subject. Each document must be a minimum of 500 words long.

writing the web page content and C2.3 producing a written evaluation of web authoring work.

Write two different types of documents each one giving different information. One document must be at least 500 words long.

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Information and communication technology level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

IT2.1

researching a variety of sources for web page content

Search for and select information to meet their needs. Use different information sources for each task and multiple search criteria in at least one case.

developing draft web pages and layouts

IT2.2

Enter and develop the information to suit the task and derive new information.

presenting ideas for web pages and layouts to a group and evaluating and justifying approaches to web page design work.

IT2.3

Present combined information such as text with image, text with number, image with number.

Improving own learning and performance level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

producing a project plan for creating a web page

LP2.1

Help set targets with an appropriate person and plan how these will be met.

identifying the required action for the implementation of the plan

LP2.2

Take responsibility for some decisions about their learning, using their plan to help meet targets and improve their performance.

reviewing work undertaken and discussing their achievements.

LP2.3

Review progress with an appropriate person and provide evidence of achievements.

Problem solving level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

encountering and identifying technical difficulties

PS2.1

Identify a problem, with help from an appropriate person, and identify different ways of tackling it.

finding solutions and planning their execution

PS2.2

Plan and try out at least one way of solving the problem.

evaluating web page production work.

PS2.3

Check if the problem has been solved and identify ways to improve problem solving skills.

Working with others level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

WO2.3 Review their contribution and agree ways to improve work with others.

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evaluating others’ web page production work.

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UNIT 13: FACTUAL PRODUCTION FOR THE MEDIA

Unit 13:

Factual Production for the Media

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract Factual production encompasses a wide range of media activity in all sectors of the industry. Generally speaking, it would be understood to refer to news production for the press and broadcasting, but it would also include a spectrum of activities from documentary production to reviewing. For some it would include ‘reality TV’ though others would put most of that on the other side of the boundary between factual and entertainment programming. However, here, as in so many other areas of media production, it is not always possible to draw clear distinctions. This unit will focus on developing learners’ skills in understanding, researching, developing, producing and evaluating factual media products. This could include television documentaries and features, consumer and holiday reports, news reporting and writing, newspaper and website articles or complete websites. The emphasis should be firmly placed on ‘factual’. In this unit learners will become familiar with the form and style of factual production through the opportunity to create their own factual media product in a format of their choice.

Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1

Understand conventions of factual media production

2

Be able to develop and research an idea for a factual media product

3

Be able to produce a factual media product following appropriate conventions

4

Be able to review own factual media production work.

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UNIT 13: FACTUAL PRODUCTION FOR THE MEDIA

Unit content

1

Understand conventions of factual media production Products: eg television or radio documentary, television or radio feature, television or radio news report, fact-based website, newspaper article, magazine article Conventions: structure of selected product; interviews; images (TV, websites and print); camerawork (TV); linking narration (TV and radio); layout (websites and print); language; style of addressing audience

2

Be able to develop and research an idea for a factual media product Products: eg television or radio documentary, television or radio feature, television or radio news report, fact-based website, newspaper article, magazine article Develop: ideas generation; brainstorming; discussion; experimentation (appropriate to media format being worked in) Audience: target audience; placement eg channel, programme slot, publication, linked websites Research: audience; content; background; facts and figures; people; places; legal and ethical considerations

3

Be able to produce a factual media product following appropriate conventions Conventions: structure of selected product; use of narrative; linking narration; interviews; images; style of addressing audience; technical conventions eg camerawork, layout, language Pre-production: as appropriate to medium – eg treatments, storyboards, scripts, location hunts, personnel lists, selection of equipment, booking of interviewees, rough sketches of layouts, scheduling, planning of photo shoots, planning questions Production: as appropriate to medium – eg filming, audio recording, carrying out interviews, writing-up, DTP, website design, draft printouts Post-production: as appropriate to medium – eg editing sound, vision and copy, proof reading, checking links, uploading websites, printing final copies, writing to CD/DVD/VHS/cassette

4

Be able to review own factual media production work Finished product: compared with original idea; appropriateness to audience; technical qualities; aesthetic qualities; content; style Production process: pre-production eg research, planning; production eg time management, project management, technical competencies, creative ability, own work, teamwork; post­ production eg time management, project management, technical competencies, creative ability, own work, teamwork Sources of information: self-evaluation; documentation eg notes, minutes of meetings, scripts, rough work, schedules, production logs; comments from others eg audience, peers, tutors

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M2 present a developed idea and research for a factual media production M3 create a factual media product which demonstrates competent technical and aesthetic qualities

P2 describe an idea and research for a factual media production

P3 produce a factual media product

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Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is available on page 134.

M4 discuss own factual production work.

M1 discuss conventions of factual media production using appropriate illustrative examples

P1 describe conventions of factual media production

P4 describe own the factual production work.

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

D3 explain own factual production work using correct terminology.

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D2 achieve intentions through the application of high-level skills and creativity

D1 critically discuss conventions of factual media production

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass and merit criteria, the learner is able to:

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

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UNIT 13: FACTUAL PRODUCTION FOR THE MEDIA

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery After some initial general investigation of the conventions of factual production in a specific medium, learners could do an analysis of a single factual media product of the type they wish to – or are required to – work on in the production element of the unit. Centres are encouraged to keep a selection of past and current factual programmes and material recorded ‘off-air’ from television and radio, and a good stock of newspapers and magazines to provide resources for this investigative work. Magazines could be for a range of audiences, but it may be beneficial to allow learners to use and be inspired by magazines that they read themselves. Following this investigative work, learners should be able to generate an idea for their own factual media product (which can be in any medium, according to the resources of the centre and the nature of the programme the centre is running). As it is likely that this unit will be done after at least one other specialist unit, learners will then be able to apply their pre-production, production and post-production skills and knowledge in order to realise their idea. Learners within a class group may all work on their own projects or in small teams, though in the latter case tutors must ensure that all members of the group have roles which will enable them to produce the necessary evidence to achieve the unit, and at all the grade levels. Alternatively, tutors may decide upon a format and require that the entire cohort work in this format, on similar products. Assessment A portfolio of evidence for this unit might consist of class and individual notes, appropriate analysis of a factual product, a completed production (with all relevant pre- and post-production work) and an evaluation. Evidence for learning outcome 1 could be a piece of textual analysis showing that the learner has understood the construction, conventions and audience of a selected piece of factual media. This could be written analysis, a class exercise, a presentation (individual or group) or in any other format. Presentations should be recorded for internal and external verification purposes. Evidence for learning outcomes 2 and 3 should be in the form of a completed factual media product, in any media format. This should include all pre-production, production and post­ production materials, perhaps in the form of a folder of notes. Tutor observations in practical lessons/workshops can also be used to inform an overall grade for this part of the unit. Evidence for learning outcome 4 can be written, in the form of a structured audio or audio­ visual statement or report, or orally presented. Oral presentations should be recorded for internal and external verification purposes. For some learners a viva voce type assessment might be appropriate for learning outcomes 1 and 4. When more than one learner in a cohort is assessed in this way care must taken to ensure that all learners are asked the same lead questions, and that all are given equal opportunities to expand or clarify their answers. Interviewers must also ensure that questions are not phrased in such a way as to provide or suggest an answer. Vivas should be recorded for the purposes of internal and external verification.

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NB: When applying the grading criteria tutors should follow the advice given below. Please note that the examples of evidence given here are indicative only. This advice is not inclusive and the examples need not be included in a learner’s work in order for that learner to achieve the exemplified grade. To achieve a pass, learners must be able to describe conventions of factual production. At this level they will give a correct but unelaborated outline of the content of an example (or examples) of factual production from a given medium and accurately identify (albeit implicitly rather than explicitly) the conventions being employed. They may give one example which covers adequately the conventions as indicated in the unit content, or they may do this through a number of examples. So, to achieve criterion P1 they must be able to identify at a basic level the structure and narrative line of an example (‘this programme tells the story of … it starts with … it ends with….’ etc), the way interviews and images are used (‘we see the children playing with one another and hear them talking as though to us but we don’t hear anyone asking them questions …’), any conventions of language relevant to the format they are discussing (‘the children talk in their everyday language with local accents but sometimes we hear a voice-over in a posh accent using much longer words and telling us why they are behaving the way they are …’) and the style of addressing the audience (‘it’s as though we are being lectured to by a tutor…’). Learners must also be able to describe an idea for a factual production and present research for that idea. The idea will be arrived at quickly, perhaps in a rather haphazard way and without a great deal of thought. There will be little development of the idea. The research will provide some relevant and appropriate, but limited, material for the production. The application of production techniques demonstrated in the finished piece of work will be at a basic level. Learners will be able to follow relevant procedures and employ appropriate techniques. Aesthetic understanding and capabilities will also be basic. (When assessing work for the First Certificate and First Diploma in Media, ‘aesthetics’ can be taken to cover matters of style as well as the considerations that might more strictly be covered by that term.) To achieve criterion P4 learners must describe their factual production work – ‘work’ meaning both the process and the product resulting from following that process. This description will be relevant to both the production process and the product but will be mainly confined to an historical account of activities (eg ‘after I had got an idea for my production I did my research. I did this on the internet and got lots of information about my topic…’ etc). Accounts which are mostly taken up with irrelevant detail (such as descriptions of the more diverting internet sites encountered during the research process) should not be considered as meeting the pass-level for this criterion. Description of the product will be a relevant but unelaborated outline of content and assessments of its quality will be relevant but very generalised and at the level of assertion (eg ‘I shot lots of interviews and they went very well … they covered all the different points of view’). For criterion M1, learners must discuss the conventions of factual media production using appropriate illustrative examples. The material chosen for discussion will be covered in some detail and will be subjected to some commentary, and the conventions employed in them will be made more explicit through being illustrated by appropriate examples. Though these examples will not be elucidated further, and comments will not be supported or developed further by argument, there will nonetheless be a sense of thoughtfulness in this learner’s work. So, in a discussion of a documentary on children growing up in different social classes, the learner might note, ‘at this point we are shown the children playing happily with one another on the swings and roundabouts in a playground and at the same time hear them talking as though to us but we don’t hear anyone asking them questions so the film-maker appears to be letting them speak for themselves, even though we know they are being asked questions and their responses have been edited.’

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The production work of merit-level learners will be competent – that is, learners will give some thought to the generation of an idea and will develop it with care, working in a more organised way than pass-level learners. Treatments or equivalent documents will contain some detail, and the final product will show that the conventions of factual production in the format chosen have been understood and employed to some effect. Technical skills will be competent – that is, the learner will show ability in relation to skills and the handling of equipment but will not yet employ those skills with imagination, and will not yet be completely confident in the use of equipment.. The merit-level learner will still need occasional advice or support in many aspects of the work. Aesthetic decisions will be based on some thought and will, on the whole, be satisfying. In reflecting upon their production work, merit-level learners will discuss that work. Description of the product will go beyond content into intention and commentary will be more detailed, with examples to support comments. However, explanations will be rather unsophisticated, and assessments will still be at the level of statement or assertion rather than being supported by explanation or argument. For example, ‘when I edited the interviews – such as the one with my sister – I used transitions, not cutaways. This made them more transparent. I shot lots of interviews to make sure that I covered as many points of view as I could, so the final programme was impartial.’ Distinction-level learners will, for D1, critically discuss the conventions of factual production and in the process will make their points explicitly. That is, they will evaluate texts or compare them explicitly with other texts, and will develop ideas. In the case of the discussion of the documentary on children referred to already, the learner might note, ‘this programme follows the conventions of the expository style of documentary. We are shown the children playing with one another and sometimes hear them talking but we don’t hear anyone asking them questions. A voice-over comments in an authoritative sort of way so that we are told what to think rather than just being allowed to observe the children and think about the way they are behaving for ourselves. Some people consider this to be patronising to the viewer. It is very unlike The Watsons which uses the observational style.’ Distinction-level work will be characterised throughout by creative thinking and activity. Whether developing their ideas or engaged in the production process, learners will achieve high quality results and will create products that are beginning to move beyond the purely conventional. Equipment will be used with facility and to good effect and skills will be deployed creatively – that is, distinction-level learners will use the technology to serve their creative intentions. They will be able to think laterally and come up with ideas and solutions which others might have not thought of. This will come through in the way they articulate their understanding of factual production techniques through their product, and in the aesthetic qualities of the final piece of work. They will be able to work independently. In reflecting upon their work, distinction-level learners will explain – that is, they will demonstrate an awareness of why they did what they did, and will justify or support comments on these production decisions in some way (eg ‘because I didn’t want to tamper with the viewer’s interpretation of what people said I showed the whole of each interview uncut, without either cutaways or transitions. I included my questions and even my interruptions. Some people might say this makes rather boring television because some of the interviews rambled about a bit, but I think this is more honest because it doesn’t try to alter the interview to suit the intentions of the film-maker.’). The distinction-level learner’s use of technical and specialist language will be correct, being consistently appropriate and accurate.

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Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit can be linked with Unit 1; Introduction to Media Industries. Learners’ research for their own productions can provide a link to Unit 2: Research for Media Production. The unit also links with technical and productions units such as Unit 4: Video Production, Unit 5: Audio Production, Unit 6: Print Production, Unit 11: Writing for the Media and Unit 12: Web Authoring. This unit might also provide the skills basis for work done in Unit 17: Media Production Project. Learners will have the opportunity to obtain key skills at level 2 in application of number, communication, information and communication technology, improving own learning and performance, problem solving, and working with others. There are opportunities to relate the work done for this unit to Skillset National Occupational Standards in Camera, Editing, Sound, Lighting, Directors, Production, Radio Production, and Broadcast Journalism, as follows: Camera C1

Assess and agree studios or locations

C2

Specify camera equipment required

C3

Collect information and develop shooting ideas

C4

Obtain, prepare and return equipment

C6

Provide vision monitoring facilities for multi camera television

C7

Lay simple track

C8

Rig camera and accessories on a fixed mounting

C12 Provide assistance to record and review the video image C13 Maintain camera batteries during shoot C14 Co-ordinate the crew to position a camera C19 Focus the lens C20 Set up video camera exposure monitoring C24 Identify slate information and operate the clapperboard C25 Track the video camera C26 Swing the crane arm for video camera C27 Elevate and track the video camera C28 Position and move the camera to frame and compose the image C31 Supervise the camera crew on a film shoot Editing E1

Identify and agree editing outcomes and process

E5

Digitise pictures and sound for non-linear editing

E9

Edit materials using on-line video-tape equipment

E10 Edit materials using non-linear equipment E12 Produce first cuts

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E13 Evaluate first cuts materials for final post-production E14 Produce fine cut materials for final post-production Sound S1

Identify, devise and manage the sound requirements

S2

Recce and select studios and locations

S4

Rig and position sound equipment

S5

Rig sound equipment

S10

Rig and fit wireless equipment

S11

Control the rigging and fitting of wireless equipment

S14

Pick up sound using a mechanical boom

S15

Pick up sound using a hand held pole

S16

Optimise sound pick-up with a placed microphone

S17

Optimise sound pick-up with a handheld microphone

S18

Provide synchronous playback

S19

Manage the provision of synchronous playback

S20

Synchronise sound and pictures

S21

Mix sound

S22

Assess requirements and mix sound

S23

Prepare and play selected supplementary material

S24

Control the use of supplementary material

S25

Direct sound operations to create sound balance

S26

Make sound recordings

S27

Supervise sound recordings

S28

Document and store media

S29

Edit sound using a linear system

S31

Edit sound using a digital editing device

S32

Supervise sound editing

Lighting L1

Recce locations to identify the materials and electrical equipment required

L2

Recommend lighting resources

L3

Co-ordinate the use of the production’s lighting resources

L4

Assess, set up and monitor power distribution systems

L5

Inspect locations to assess and obtain the electrical supply

L6

Design the lighting for studios and locations

L7

Lighting for a single camera

L10 Prepare equipment to modify and control light L13 Set up and operate follow spots

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L14 Prepare and operate discharge luminaire systems L16 Set lighting to meet the desired effect L19 Determine the final balance Directors D1

Investigate the viability of ideas for productions

D4

Input into pre-production planning

D5

Select a creative and technical team

D6

Review the suitability of potential locations and studios

D7

Direct the production

D9

Direct the contributors (documentary)

D10 Supervise the post production process Production P1

Contribute ideas for productions

P2

Assist with the preparation of a budget for the production

P3

Prepare a budget for the production

P5

Identify sources of information and present findings

P6

Obtain archive material

P7

Contribute to office-based pre-production

P8

Organise pre-production activities

P9

Plan and schedule production activities

P10

Control the overall planning of the production

P11

Contribute to the drafting of scripts, cues, links or written content

P12

Manage the relationship between script writer and production

P13

Clear copyright materials

P14

Identify and negotiate copyright issues

P15

Ensure compliance with regulations and codes of practice

P16

Assist in managing resources for the production

P36

Produce a location shoot for a programme insert

P37

Produce a location shoot for a complete programme

P38

Assist documentary productions

P39

Plan and schedule the daily shoot

P40

Monitor and control the progress of productions

P44

Maintain continuity during the production

P45

Assist with the post-production process

P47

Supervise the edit of a complete programme

P48

Plan and schedule post-production activities

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Radio Production R2

Contribute ideas for radio programmes and items

R3

Undertake research for radio production

R4

Evaluate other people’s ideas for radio content

R5

Write scripts for radio items

R6

Select and brief others to create content for radio

R8

Select and brief contribution

R9

Direct voice-overs, presenters and talent

R11 Record audio using a portable digital recorder R12 Record audio using a variety of digital devices R13 Edit audio R14 Edit and mix audio R15 Assist with radio productions R16 Produce speech content for radio R19 Produce live radio broadcasts Broadcast Journalism B1

Recognise and deal with issues of law, ethics, regulation and public affairs

B2

Originate ideas for content and treatment of news stories

B3

Research and gather information from various sources

B4

Produce written material for radio

B7

Prepare for interviews

B8

Conduct interviews

B9

Prepare for and produce live and recorded audio

B12 Edit audio material B15 Plan, prepare and present news from a radio studio. Essential resources Learners must have access to appropriate production equipment and software. Appropriate production facilities relevant to different mediums are indicated in preceding units. Learners will need access to a wide range of materials both for analysis and to help them gather ideas for production work.

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Indicative reading for learners Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant.

Evans R — Practical DV Film Making (Focal Press, 2002)

Itule B & Anderson A — News Writing and Reporting for Today's Media (McGraw-Hill

Education, 1996)

McLeish R — Radio Productio, Fourth Edition (Focal Press, 1999)

Peacock J — The Print Production Manual (PIRA International, 1998)

Sova D — How to Write Articles for Newspapers and Magazines (Peterson’s, 2002)

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Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Application of number level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

collecting and collating own market research data, and comparing it with nationally available information (including that to be found in graphical form)

N2.1

Interpret information from a suitable source.

creating accurate charts (eg pie, histograms) to illustrate market research and national data. This should involve amounts and sizes, scales and proportions and handling statistics

N2.2

Use their information to carry out calculations to do with:

presenting the findings of their market research.

N2.3

a

amounts or sizes

b

scales or proportion

c

handling statistics

d

using formulae.

Interpret the results of their calculations and present their findings.

Communication level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

contributing ideas to a production planning meeting

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion

presenting research findings or an evaluation

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes

carrying out research for a factual production

C2.2

Read and summarise information from at least two documents about the same subject. Each document must be a minimum of 500 words long.

analysing factual products and evaluating productions.

C2.3

Write two different types of documents each one giving different information. One document must be at least 500 words long.

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Information and communication technology level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

IT2.1

carrying out research

Search for and select information to meet their needs. Use different information sources for each task and multiple search criteria in at least one case.

preparing scripts and summaries

IT2.2

Enter and develop the information to suit the task and derive new information.

presenting research findings on audiences for proposed production and on content for proposed production.

IT2.3

Present combined information such as text with image, text with number, image with number.

Improving own learning and performance level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

producing a strategy for a factual production

LP2.1

Help set targets with an appropriate person and plan how these will be met.

researching and developing facts and data for the production

producing a factual media product

LP2.2

Take responsibility for some decisions about their learning, using their plan to help meet targets and improve their performance.

evaluating learning within the production

LP2.3

Review progress with an appropriate person and provide evidence of achievements.

reviewing the outcomes of the research and production with a tutor.

Problem solving level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

action planning for production eg filming or carrying out interviews

PS2.1

Identify a problem, with help from an appropriate person, and identify different ways of tackling it.

arranging interviewees and back­ ups, or locations for filming

PS2.2

Plan and try out at least one way of solving the problem.

evaluating the production when completed.

PS2.3

Check if the problem has been solved and identify ways to improve problem solving skills.

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Working with others level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

assigning roles for production and creating an action plan

WO2.1 Plan work with others.

working to action plan and reviewing progress

WO2.2 Work co-operatively towards achieving identified objectives.

taking part in group discussions on progress and presenting findings.

WO2.3 Review their contribution and agree ways to improve work with others.

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UNIT 14: REVIEWING COMPUTER GAMES

Unit 14:

Reviewing Computer Games

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract People entering this industry need to have a basic awareness of why and how games have been designed. It is also vital in this industry to be able to communicate ideas effectively to others. At this level, learners need to understand simple theories of game design and be able to judge at an elementary level the impact of technology on the game design. They must be aware of different genres of games and the types of audience they appeal to. They should be able to document their judgements on the effectiveness of games of the present and the past. This unit provides learners with knowledge, understanding and practical experience. It allows learners to investigate the history of computer games and analyse and compare games. It is important for learners at this level to appreciate the historical development of interactive game systems. Learners will have the opportunity to explore elements that contribute to making a game enjoyable. They will investigate genres commonly seen in computer games. In this unit, learners will review a game by documenting analysis of game features and comparison with similar games.

Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1

Know about the history of computer games

2

Understand the main game elements

3

Be able to recognise game genres

4

Be able to produce a game review.

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Unit content

1

Know about the history of computer games Timeline: eg arcade, consoles, PC, mobile, handheld, dual screen Technology: processors; display; storage; connectivity Industry: games developers; games publishers; distribution; industry bodies eg The Independent Games Developers’ Association (TIGA); Entertainment and Leisure Software Publishers Association (ELSPA)

2

Understand game elements Game play: objective; gameplay theme; player characters; non-player characters; story; sounds; feedback; rewards; artificial intelligence (AI) Rules: design rules; player rules; consistency

3

Be able to recognise game genres Definition of game genres: by graphical theme; by game structure; by game mechanics Game genres: action, adventure, simulation, roleplay, sports, strategy, puzzle, management

4

Be able to produce a game review Analyse games: play and analyse eg platform, genre, player modes, audience, difficulty, rewards, addiction, sounds, graphics quality; Pan European Rating Information (PEGI) ratings Compare games: play; analyse; evaluate Review document: analysis; comparison; positive aspects; negative aspects

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D2 critically review a game using fluent language and correct terminology.

M2 discuss how game elements are used in game genres using appropriate illustrative examples

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Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is provided on page 148.

P4 review a game.

P3 describe game genres M3 review a game competently using appropriate illustrative examples.

D1 critically discuss the relationship of game elements to game genres

M1 discuss the development of computer games using appropriate illustrative examples

P1 describe the history of computer games

P2 describe the elements of game

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass and merit criteria, the learner is able to:

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

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In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

UNIT 14: REVIEWING COMPUTER GAMES


UNIT 14: REVIEWING COMPUTER GAMES

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery Learners could start work on this unit by investigating the development history of computer games, possibly through research and preparation of timelines. Study of the development of technologies gives a sound understanding of the capabilities that can be expected in modern computer games. Learners must be given opportunities to experience computer games played on a wide range of platforms. There should be a structured approach to game playing, however, with each game experience contributing to a body of understanding of the elements of gameplay. Tutors may wish to sequence exposure to a range of games to illustrate elements successively. Learners should be encouraged to develop personal critical views on the effectiveness of the game elements as implemented within the range of computer games. Exposure to a variety of computer games and to examples of different genres will enable learners to recognise the common elements of individual genres. The practical and critical experience gained in the study of game elements and genres could be brought together through a regular review of games played. Learners could offer to contribute articles to local newspapers, or create a group ‘blog’ or personal website, even if hosted locally. Learners might find an opportunity to contribute to game e-zines. It is important that, for each review, learners practise analytical skills that reflect their understanding of elements contributing to successful gameplay. Much – and perhaps even most – of the work for this unit can be done through directed gameplaying exercises coupled with personal logs recording comparative appraisals of the games played. These logs could provide assessment evidence and can be compiled with wordprocessing, portable document format (PDF) or presentation software. Tutors may wish to suggest game titles, or capable learners could suggest their own games to review. Learners should be encouraged to review games across a range of genres and platforms. Assessment Evidence for this unit can be presented in any format – written reports, class presentations, structured audio-visual statements etc. Contributions to newspapers, magazines, blogs, websites and e-zines could be presented in electronic form. Oral presentations should be recorded for the purposes of internal and external verification. For some learners a viva voce type assessment might be appropriate. When more than one learner in a cohort is assessed in this way care must taken to ensure that all learners are asked the same lead questions, and that all are given equal opportunities to expand or clarify their answers. Interviewers must also ensure that questions are not phrased in such a way as to provide or suggest an answer. Vivas should be recorded for the purposes of internal and external verification. NB: When applying the grading criteria tutors should follow the advice given below. Please note that the examples of evidence given here are indicative only. This advice is not inclusive and the examples need not be included in a learner’s work in order for that learner to achieve the exemplified grade. In order to achieve a pass, learners must describe the history of computer games, the elements of a game and of game genres, and they must review a game. 148

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UNIT 14: REVIEWING COMPUTER GAMES

‘Describe’ means that the learner has provided a correct but unelaborated outline of relevant unit content. There is no detail, or attempt to go beyond the minimum required. For example, in relation to the history of computer games, the learner has given a simple record of a sequence of major milestones. Treatment of the content relating to learning outcomes 2 and 3 will be similarly characterised by accurate but unelaborated descriptions of elements important to game play and simple definitions of game genres. Explanations will cover the required ground as specified in the unit content but at the level of simple description – ‘Non-player characters may be present in role-playing games. They are not controlled by the player. They may be enemy characters or allies. Non player characters are important to give realism to a game. In a car racing game, the other racing cars are non player characters. They allow a player to feel they are racing against other drivers.’ In the same way a learner might describe a game genre – ‘Simulation games represent real life situations such as flying, racing, trains. These are often first person games. The player sees a cockpit, dashboard, cab, with appropriate levers and switches on screen through which the game is controlled. Simulation games are often played by a single player, they are seldom multiplayer games.’ At pass-level the learner will provide a basic, brief comparative review of games at the level of description, noting positive and negative aspects observed during game play. The review should cover the required subject matter as specified in the unit content. The review should provide a description of each game and comments comparing the games in a limited, factual way. In order to achieve a merit, the learner must discuss the development of computer games, supporting the discussion with appropriate examples. That is, they will explore the content covered in some detail and make some comment on it, providing detailed examples to illustrate the points made. Though comments and discussions will not be supported by explanation or argument, and examples will not be elucidated further, there will nonetheless be a sense of thoughtfulness in the learner’s work. In addition learners must discuss how game elements are used in game genres. Learners are also required to provide ‘appropriate illustrative examples’. Discussion of the development of computer games will go beyond description, making comments on the technological advances enabling the development; the trends within the industry will be noted – a move from small independent developers towards publishing houses and independent or wholly-owned game development studios; the role of industry bodies will be discussed noting their influence on game development. Discussion of how game elements are used in game genres would describe how game elements are used by a genre, illustrated using examples drawn from current or past game titles; games representative of the genres might be studied to observe the use of core game elements noting how the elements are used to enhance gameplay – ‘Pick-ups are game elements that can be collected by players usually by moving a character over the pick-up. The ammo packs of the First-Person Shooter Game X are pick-ups that add to the player’s ammunition levels. In Game Y (an Adventure game), the player picks-up keys to open doors and ‘health packs’ to increase their character’s strength.’ The game review will use illustrative examples to support comments made in the analysis of the games, which will go beyond bare descriptions albeit unsupported by fuller argument. For example, ‘Going hand-in-hand with the sound effects, epic soundtrack and great voice acting are incredible visuals. Besides the awesome unit design, the settings have been done with great care and attention to detail so that they generate the right kind of ambience for the grim events that transpire in game’, together with a screen-shot from the game showing the ‘incredible visuals’. In order to achieve a distinction, the learner must critically discuss the relationship of game elements to game genres and critically review a game. ‘Critically discuss’ and ‘critically review’

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mean that any observations made or arguments engaged in are explained, justified or supported in some way, or are subjected to some sort of evaluative procedure or to a process of comparison. (It should be noted that the term ‘critical’ as used here does not mean negative commentary.) The discussion of the relationship of game elements to game genres will be more explanatory with support for points made, and the learner will offer some evaluation of their comments. ‘Game mechanics define the types of challenges in a game, and how the player interacts and controls the challenges. The challenges define the genre of any game. For example, Game X, a game in the adventure genre, contains many areas that are initially blocked by boulders, locked doors, or other obstacles. The player can remove these obstacles after having gathered certain items, or earned certain abilities, for example by using bombs to blow away blocking rocks and special keys to open the locked doors.’ In relation to the game review, the learner must compare and contrast points made about the game with other similar games making both positive and negative analytical comments using fluent language and correct terminology. ‘Correct terminology’ means that the learner uses the right word in the right context, and is able to deploy appropriately the kind of vocabulary used in the industry. Whilst this refers mainly to the use of technical or specialist language, it can also be taken to refer to the learner’s use of language generally. For example, ‘The graphics of Game A are pixelated, blocky and unclear, using low pixel depth and failing to take advantage of the capabilities of DirectX 9 used in modern graphics cards. This modern game provides only high colour 16 bit images. This just really does not even come up to the standards of games that were released two or three years ago, such as Game B, which takes full advantage of the previous version of Direct X giving good 3D realism and provides 32 bit colour depth. Figure 7 shows screenshots from both games, it is easy to see the improved visuals from the older game.’ Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications Links can be made with Unit 1: Introduction to Media Industries and Unit 3: Introduction to Media Audiences and Products through the study of genre and media audiences, with Unit 2: Research for Media Production through research of the history of computer games and with Unit 15: 2D Computer Games through the study of 2D game types. Learners will have the opportunity to obtain key skills at level 2 in communication, information and communication technology, and improving own learning and performance. There are opportunities to relate the work done for this unit to Skillset National Occupational Standards in Interactive Media as follows: IM1

Work effectively in interactive media

IM20

Design games.

Essential resources Centres should develop their own library of resources to include print and digital historical information (eg from game websites or professional journals) and a wide range of interactive game genres across a range of platforms. Whilst this is mainly a theory unit there is much work that can be done through directed game play and researching into secondary sources – for example, libraries, websites, periodicals etc. The involvement of professional game development personnel through visits and talks can bring much of the unit content alive.

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Indicative reading for learners Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant. Chen E and Durham J (Jnr) — Build Your Own High-Performance Gamer's Mod PC (McGraw-Hill 2004) Demaria R and Wilson J L — High Score! The Illustrated History of Electronic Games, Second Edition (McGraw-Hill/Osborne 2004)

Dick D — The PC Support Handbook (Dumbreck Publishing 2003)

Oxland K — Gameplay and Design (Addison Wesley/Pearson Education 2004)

Appropriate websites The following websites were available at the time of going to press and the addresses were correct. http://dmoz.org/Games/Video_Games/History/ — game history http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_games — encyclopaedia articles on games www.activision.com/en_US/landing/landing.html — examples of genres www.cs.colby.edu/~rjones/courses/cs398/history.html — timeline of video game events www.elspa.com/ — the Entertainment & Leisure Software Publishers’ Association site www.gamasutra.com — game developers’ website (free registration required, a major resource) www.gamedev.net/ — resources for game developers www.gamedevelopers.ie — the Irish game developers’ site www.gamespy.com — multiplayer game home page www.igda.org — independent, non-profit organization for international game software developers www.pegi.info/index.html — the Pan European Game Information site www.ps3portal.com/?page=history — game development timeline www.tiga.org — the independent game developers’ association site www.worldofspectrum.org/ — emulators and more

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Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Communication level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

contributing to discussions describing computer games

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion

presenting research findings on computer games

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes

carrying out research on computer games

C2.2

Read and summarise information from at least two documents about the same subject. Each document must be a minimum of 500 words long.

preparing reports to show understanding of game development and design.

C2.3

Write two different types of documents each one giving different information. One document must be at least 500 words long.

Information and communication technology level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

IT2.1

carrying out research

Search for and select information to meet their needs. Use different information sources for each task and multiple search criteria in at least one case.

preparing document files

IT2.2

Enter and develop the information to suit the task and derive new information.

presenting research findings.

IT2.3

Present combined information such as text with image, text with number, image with number.

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Improving own learning and performance level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

producing a strategy for an investigation into game development and design

LP2.1

Help set targets with an appropriate person and plan how these will be met.

following their strategy for investigating game development and design

LP2.2

Take responsibility for some decisions about their learning, using their plan to help meet targets and improve their performance.

evaluating own learning within the unit and reviewing the outcomes of the investigation with a tutor

LP2.3

Review progress with an appropriate person and provide evidence of achievements.

taking part in group discussions and presenting findings.

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UNIT 15: 2D COMPUTER GAMES

Unit 15:

2D Computer Games

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract People entering the games industry need to have a basic awareness of how games have been constructed. At this level it is important that those considering a career in the industry have a basic appreciation of how game engines are used to produce functionality in a game. They must be aware of possible constraints of target platforms and their capabilities. They should experience the effective use of 2D development tools to produce a basic game element. This unit provides learners with knowledge, understanding and practical experience. It allows learners to gain experience in the production and development of 2D games, the use of appropriate software, and in documentation and publishing games. It is important for learners at this level to appreciate the types of platforms that use 2D games. In producing a 2D game element, learners will have the opportunity to explore resources used to make a 2D game and develop skills in controlling 2D game engine software.

Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1

Know about 2D games

2

Understand 2D game assets

3

Understand how 2D game engines are used to produce a game element

4

Be able to construct a 2D game element.

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Unit content

1

Know about 2D games 2D game platforms: handheld; mobile; web

Limitations of 2D games: isometric views; sprites; colour depth

2

Understand 2D game assets Graphic assets: sprites; backgrounds; colours

Behavioural assets: behaviours eg events, objects, scripts

Sound assets: effects; volume; music; dialogue; file types eg wav, midi

3

Understand how 2D game engines are used to produce a game element 2D game engine: purpose; tools and features eg sprites, backgrounds, colours, events, actions, rooms, objects, scripts, sound User documentation: user guide; readme files Distribution of a game: publishing eg executables, zip files

4

Be able to construct a 2D game element Planning: schedule; time management; teamwork; deadlines Game element specification: idea generation eg audience, storyboard, gameplay; game specification documents eg layout plan, required assets list Production: design and develop 2D game element eg sprites, backgrounds, colours, events, actions, rooms, objects, scripts, sound

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D3 achieve intentions through application of highlevel technical skills and creativity.

M3 demonstrate competent use of tools and features of a 2D game engine to produce a playable game element.

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Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is provided on page 158.

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D2 critically discuss 2D game assets using fluent language and correct terminology

M2 discuss 2D game assets using appropriate illustrative examples

P3 apply tools and features of a 2D game engine to produce a playable game element.

P2 describe 2D game assets

D1 critically discuss 2D games using fluent language and correct terminology

M1 discuss 2D games using appropriate illustrative examples

P1 describe 2D games

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass and merit criteria, the learner is able to:

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

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UNIT 15: 2D COMPUTER GAMES

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery Learners could start work on this unit by investigating the types of platform that host 2D computer games. An appreciation of the limitations of these platforms will lead to an understanding of the types of game currently developed in 2D. Inevitably, much of the initial learning in this unit will take place through tutor-led structured hands-on game-playing experiences. Study of the game types will then lead into study of the three main asset types used in the development of 2D games and the basic elements of each type. This can be achieved through the practical use of a 2D game engine. Learners should be encouraged to build and store libraries of pre-prepared assets for use in assignment work. Assets can, of course, be sourced from the internet as well as being produced personally by the learner, perhaps through work in other units. Research to source useable assets should always be related directly to the learner’s own production plans wherever possible, and learners should be made aware of copyright limitations. Much of the study of a 2D game engine can be done through hands-on workshops and tutorial sessions, using the learner’s own pre-prepared asset libraries. To cover the range of tools and features, tutors might find it valuable to use short, build-up activities leading ultimately to a playable game element. Learners should be given opportunities to develop user documentation that explains for each how the element can be loaded and controlled. Readme files are common tools to explain latebreaking amendments, and learners should be provided with opportunities to research examples and prepare their own text files. Many learners will already be familiar with the use of executable and zip files in the publishing and distribution of games, but few may have had an opportunity to develop their own. Practical exercises may be useful to give realistic experience helping learners to understand how to compile games to make executables and pack for publishing. This unit encourages learners to develop practical skills in handling 2D game engines. Learners are developing skills to meet sector needs and should be given opportunities to evidence their ability to work as members of a team, managing their time effectively in meeting deadlines. Tutors may find opportunities for group work and collaboration where group members each contribute one element, which could lead to the production of an entire game. Even at this level it is important that learners plan their work carefully before commencing production, and document both their ideas and plans. Whilst this is mainly a practical unit there is much work that can be done researching into secondary sources through libraries, websites, periodicals etc. The involvement of professional game development personnel through visits and talks can bring much of the unit content alive. Assessment Evidence for this unit can be presented in any format – written reports, class presentations, structured audio-visual statements etc together with a published game element and its associated documentation. When more than one learner in a cohort is assessed on a group project, it is important to ensure that each learner’s evidence is clearly identifiable and that all are given equal opportunities to independently evidence all grading criteria. Oral presentations should be recorded for the purposes of internal and external verification.

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A viva voce type assessment might be appropriate for learning outcomes 1 and 2, or to clarify the extent of each learner’s contribution to a group project. When viva voce assessment is used, care must taken to ensure that all learners are asked the same lead questions, and all learners are given equal opportunities to expand on or clarify their answers. Interviewers must also ensure that questions are not phrased in such a way as to provide or suggest an answer. Vivas should be recorded for the purposes of internal and external verification. NB: When applying the grading criteria tutors should follow the advice given below. Please note that the examples of evidence given here are indicative only. This advice is not inclusive and the examples need not be included in a learner’s work in order for that learner to achieve the exemplified grade. In order to achieve a pass, the learner must describe 2D games, 2D game assets and apply tools and features of a 2D game engine to produce a playable game element. ‘Describe’ means that the learner provides a correct but unelaborated outline of relevant unit content. There is no detail, or attempt to go beyond the minimum required. For example, in relation to the description of 2D game, the learner has given a basic explanation of each of the platforms specified in the unit content. For example, ‘A handheld game system has its controls, screen and speakers all together in the case which fits in the player’s hands. It uses its own batteries to provide the power.’ In relation to 2D game assets, the learner must cover the required ground as specified in the unit content but at the level of a simple description – ‘A sprite is a flat image used as part of a larger background scene.’. ‘Apply’ means that the learner has used tools and features at a basic level only with little attempt to show imagination. The learner must produce a playable, though it may be simple and unimaginative, game element of limited functionality, such as a ball bouncing around a foursided area, reflecting from walls and objects in the enclosed space. In order to achieve M1, the learner must ‘discuss’ 2D games and 2D game assets using appropriate illustrative examples. That is, they will treat the material covered in some detail and make some comment on it, providing detailed examples from that material to illustrate the points made. Though these examples will not be elucidated further, and comments will not be supported or developed further by argument, there will, nonetheless, be a sense of thoughtfulness in the learner’s work. For example, ‘Game Boy Advance is an example of a handheld game system. Its controls, screen and speakers are all together in the case which fits in the player’s hands. It uses a lithium battery to provide the power.’ (A technical specification might also be included). In discussing assets, the learner might comment, ‘A sprite is a two-dimensional image used as part of a larger background scene that is drawn to represent 3D. Sprites often overlap other objects and are used to show effects such as fire, smoke, small plants and objects. In Game X the puffs of smoke from the dragon are sprites.’ The learner must demonstrate competent use of tools and features of a 2D game engine to produce a playable game element. ‘Competent’ means the learner shows ability in relation to skills and the handling of equipment but is not yet employing those skills with imagination, and is not yet completely confident in the use of 2D game engines. The level of skills attainment is good, but not excellent. The learner will still need occasional advice or support. In order to achieve a distinction, the learner must critically discuss 2D games and 2D game assets using fluent language and correct terminology, also produce a game element creatively and imaginatively.

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‘Critically discuss’ means that any observations made or arguments engaged in are explained, justified or supported in some way, or are subjected to some sort of evaluative procedure or to a process of comparison. ‘Correct terminology’ means the learner uses the right word in the right context, and is able to deploy appropriately the kind of vocabulary used in the industry. Whilst this refers mainly to the use of technical language, it can also be taken to refer to the learner’s use of language generally. For example, ‘Game Boy Advance is an example of a handheld game console. Its controls, screen and speakers are incorporated in the case which fits in the player’s hands. It uses a lithium ion battery to provide the power. (A detailed technical specification might be included, contrasting important differences between this device and others). The 2.9’ LCD (liquid crystal diode) screen is capable of displaying 240 x 140 pixels in 32,000 colours, this has more pixels that the original Game Boy’s 160 x144. The recent PSP handheld, however, has 480 x 272 pixel resolution capable of displaying 16 million colours.’ Similarly, in relation to 2D game assets – ‘Sprite refers to a technique where two-dimensional flat images are integrated into complicated background scenes. The sprite plane is always facing the viewer which means the image can only ever be viewed from the same angle. The sprite image can be scaled to simulate perspective. Sprites often overlap other objects, and are used to show effects such as fire, smoke, small plants and objects. In Game X the puffs of smoke from the dragon are sprites, when playing the game it can be seen that the puffs of smoke are scaled down when the dragon appears at a distance from the main character, and scaled up as the dragon approaches. It is clear that the same sprite is being used to produce this effect.’ Distinction-level work will be characterised throughout by imagination and creativity. That is, the learner will produce ideas and results that are beginning to move beyond the conventional. The learner will be able to think laterally and come up with ideas and solutions which others might have not thought of. This will come through in the generation and presentation of ideas, the development work, in the application of techniques and skills, and in the aesthetic qualities of the final 2D game element. High-level skills means procedures are followed and techniques used with good effect. Work produced is not yet at professional standard, but bears comparison to such work. The learner is at ease with both techniques and equipment and is able to work independently. Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications Links can be made with Unit 14: Reviewing Computer Games and Unit 16: Digital Graphics through the study of 2D game types. This unit might also provide the skills base for the production of work in Unit 17: Media Production Project. Learners will have the opportunity to obtain key skills at level 2 in communication, information and communication technology, improving own learning and performance, problem solving, and working with others. There are opportunities to relate the work done for this unit to Skillset National Occupational Standards in Interactive Media, and Photo Imaging and Photo Processing as follows: Interactive Media IM1

Work effectively in interactive media

IM2

Obtain assets for use in interactive media products

IM6

Use authoring tools to create interactive media products

IM16

Plan content for web and multimedia products

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IM20

Design games

IM21

Programs games to develop functionality

IM24

Create 2D animation for interactive media products

Photo Imaging and Photo Processing D1

Create original artwork for digital images

D2

Carry out specific image scanning

D3

Plan and produce scanned images

D4

Carry out specific image editing

D5

Plan and produce edited images

D6

Prepare for, and produce image output

D8

Send and receive image data files by digital means.

And to E-skills National Occupational Standards in IT Users as follows:

Website software

Artwork and imaging software

Specialist or bespoke software.

Essential resources Centres should develop their own library of resources to include graphic assets and sound assets (wav and midi, for example, from game websites or tutor-created). Indicative reading for learners Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant.

Demaria R and Wilson J L — High Score! The Illustrated History of Electronic Game, Second

Edition (McGraw-Hill/Osborne 2004)

Oxland K — Gameplay and Design (Addison Wesley/Pearson Education 2004)

Rollings A and Morris D — Game Architecture and Design: A New Edition

(New Riders Publishing 2003)

Appropriate websites The following websites were available at the time of going to press and the addresses were correct. www.classicnesseries.com/ — retro & classic games www.gamasutra.com — game developers’ website (free registration required, a major resource) www.gamedev.net/ — resources for game developers www.gamedevelopers.ie — the Irish game developers’ site www.gamemaker.nl/ — the site for free download of Gamemaker 2D engine

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www.gamespy.com — multiplayer game home page www.igda.org — independent, non-profit organization for international game software developers www.microsoft.com/games/zootycoon/zoo1/behindthescenes_art_bluefang.asp — game from Microsoft game studio www.microsoft.com/games/zootycoon/zoo2/zootopia_zooguest.asp — game from Microsoft game studio www.nintendo.com/home — home site for Nintendo games www.tiga.org — the independent game developers’ association site www.wildtangent.com/ — online games www.worldofspectrum.org/ — emulators and more www.zelda.com/universe/ — official site of Legend of Zelda series

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Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Communication level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

contributing to discussions about computer games

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion

presenting ideas for a 2D game element

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes

taking notes from textbooks on game design

C2.2

Read and summarise information from at least two documents about the same subject. Each document must be a minimum of 500 words long.

preparing reports on own ideas and on aspects of game design.

C2.3

Write two different types of documents each one giving different information. One document must be at least 500 words long.

Information and communication technology level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

IT2.1

carrying out research for ideas for game design

Search for and select information to meet their needs. Use different information sources for each task and multiple search criteria in at least one case.

preparing 2D game asset files

IT2.2

Enter and develop the information to suit the task and derive new information.

presenting research findings and ideas for a game element.

IT2.3

Present combined information such as text with image, text with number, image with number.

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Improving own learning and performance level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

producing a strategy for production of a 2D game element

LP2.1

Help set targets with an appropriate person and plan how these will be met.

producing a 2D game element

LP2.2

Take responsibility for some decisions about their learning, using their plan to help meet targets and improve their performance.

evaluating own learning within the unit

LP2.3

Review progress with an appropriate person and provide evidence of achievements.

reviewing the outcomes of the investigation with a tutor.

Problem solving level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

encountering and identifying technical difficulties

PS2.1

Identify a problem, with help from an appropriate person, and identify different ways of tackling it.

finding solutions and planning their execution

PS2.2

Plan and try out at least one way of solving the problem.

evaluating game element production work.

PS2.3

Check if the problem has been solved and identify ways to improve problem solving skills.

Working with others level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

WO2.1 Plan work with others.

planning and producing a 2D game element with others

WO2.2 Work co-operatively towards achieving identified objectives. •

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taking part in group discussions and presenting results.

WO2.3 Review their contribution and agree ways to improve work with others.

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UNIT 16: DIGITAL GRAPHICS

Unit 16:

Digital Graphics

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract Anyone considering a career in the games industry needs to be aware of the various disciplines and skills relevant to the industry but which may be outside their own particular interest or career goals. With graphics continuing to be the basis on which games are sold, those who aspire to be graphic artists in the games industry must gain basic practical experience in the production and development of digital graphics for use in games. There is a need for them to understand how to use digital image manipulation tools and save images in appropriate file formats. At this level a basic awareness and experience of industry-standard software tools is required. All entrants to the industry need to understand how to plan to make the most effective use of resources and make the most effective use of their time. This unit provides learners with knowledge, understanding and practical experience. It allows learners to gain experience in the production and development of digital graphics for use in games. It is important for learners at this level to develop appropriate skills in manipulating digital graphics software. They will investigate graphic styles used to set mood and theme in games. In this unit, learners will become familiar with the basic tools of digital graphics software used to produce images for games.

Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1

Know about the graphics styles used in games

2

Be able to plan a digital image for a game

3

Be able to produce a digital image for a game

4

Be able to review own digital graphics work.

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Unit content

1

Know about the graphics styles used in games Graphical theme: eg action, adventure, sports, fantasy, simulation Graphic styles: colour; style eg cartoon, photo-realistic, cel-shaded; exaggeration eg anime

2

Be able to plan a digital image for a game Freehand drawing: storyboards; view point; angle; scale; perspective; shading; mood; style Plan: character; weapon; background; vehicle; ideas generation eg audience, mood, style; concept drawings

3

Be able to produce a digital image for a game File types: raster eg bmp, gif, tiff, jpg; vector eg psd, wmf, fla, ai Digital tools: size and resolution; colour eg palette, brightness, contrast; layers; cropping; selecting eg marquee, lasso, magic wand; copy; paste; undo; save; effects; history; shape

4

Be able to review own digital graphics work Finished product: compared with original intentions; appropriateness to audience; technical qualities; aesthetic qualities; content; style Production process: pre-production eg planning, preparation; production eg time management, project management, technical competencies, creative ability, own work, teamwork; post-production eg time management, project management, technical competencies, creative ability, own work, teamwork Sources of information: self-evaluation; documentation eg notes, sketches, storyboards, production logs; comments from others eg audience, peers, tutors, client

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M4 discuss own digital graphics work.

M3 demonstrate competent use of digital graphics tools to produce a digital image for a game

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Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is provided on page 168.

P4 describe own digital graphics work.

P3 apply appropriate digital graphics tools to produce a digital image for a game

M2 demonstrate competent use of freehand drawing skills to plan a digital image for a game

M1 discuss graphics styles used in games using appropriate illustrative examples

P1 describe graphics styles used in games

P2 apply freehand drawing skills to plan a digital image for a game

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

D3 explain own digital graphics work using correct terminology.

D2 achieve intentions through application of highlevel technical skills and creativity

D1 critically discuss graphics styles used in games

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass and merit criteria, the learner is able to:

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In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

UNIT 16: DIGITAL GRAPHICS


UNIT 16: DIGITAL GRAPHICS

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery Learners could study graphics styles by observing and comparing graphical themes common in a range of interactive game genres. Study of graphical styles gives an understanding of the various means to represent a character for a game. Some initial learning may take place through class teaching and discussion, which can then be reinforced by structured game-play with each game experience contributing to a body of understanding of commonly-used graphical styles. In preparation for working in the sector, learners should appreciate the importance of developing and maintaining good freehand drawing skills to enable them to plan and communicate their ideas. It is important that learners plan their work carefully before commencing production. Much of the study of digital graphics tools can be delivered through hands-on workshops and tutorial sessions using digital graphics software. Understanding and use of software should be undertaken in short carefully-structured stages, each stage being reinforced with small, practical projects which, when completed, allow progress to other stages. Tutors might find it valuable to use short build-up activities leading ultimately to a finished product. This unit encourages learners to develop practical skills in producing a digital image for a purpose and saved in the most appropriate file format. Learners should be given the opportunity to investigate advantages and disadvantages of raster-based and vector-based graphics. Learners should be encouraged to continually judge their practical work, recording their strengths and weaknesses regularly, for example in a learning diary. Review of these reflections will encourage learners to look rigorously and productively at the ways in which they approach new tasks and is an attractive professional attribute. Whilst this is mainly a practical unit there is much work that can be done researching into secondary sources through libraries, websites, periodicals etc. The involvement of professional game development personnel through visits and talks can bring much of the unit content alive. Assessment Evidence for this unit can be presented in any format – written reports, class presentations, structured audio-visual statements etc, together with a digital image for a game. Oral presentations should be recorded for the purposes of internal and external verification. For some learners a viva voce type assessment might be appropriate. When more than one learner in a cohort is assessed in this way care must taken to ensure that all learners are asked the same lead questions, and that all are given equal opportunities to expand or clarify their answers. Interviewers must also ensure that questions are not phrased in such a way as to provide or suggest an answer. Vivas should be recorded for the purposes of internal and external verification. NB: When applying the grading criteria tutors should follow the advice given below. Please note that the examples of evidence given here are indicative only. This advice is not inclusive and the examples need not be included in a learner’s work in order for that learner to achieve the exemplified grade. In order to achieve a pass, learners must describe the graphics styles used in games and must apply freehand drawing skills to plan a digital image for a game. They must apply appropriate digital graphics tools to produce a digital image for a game, and must describe their own digital graphics work. 168

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‘Describe’ means that the learner has provided a correct but unelaborated outline of the specified unit content. There is no detail or attempt to go beyond the minimum required. For example, in relation to graphic styles, the learner might comment – ‘A cel-shaded image is a type of computer graphic which is designed to make the image appear to be hand drawn.’ When planning and producing a digital image, ‘apply’ means the learner has followed a procedure or employed a technique but no more; the learner can do what is required but at a basic level only. There is no attempt to go beyond the minimum required or to exercise imagination. There may also be no sense of enthusiasm behind the learner’s activity. The learner must describe their own digital graphics work (‘work’ meaning both the process and the product resulting from following that process). This description will be relevant to the production process and the product but will mainly be confined to an historical account of activities – for example, ‘I spent some time planning my initial ideas and produced my digital image using pencil and paper. This took me some time. I then used software X to produce my image. I used the following tools.’ (Tools are listed.) Description of the product will be a basic outline and assessment of its quality will be relevant but very generalised and at the level of assertion for example, ‘I think my image is quite good and could be used in a game.’ In order to achieve a merit, learners must discuss the graphic styles used in games giving appropriate illustrative examples. That is, they will treat the material covered in some detail and make some comment on it, providing detailed examples from that material to illustrate the points made. Though these examples will not be elucidated further, and comments will not be supported or developed further by argument, there will, nonetheless, be a sense of thoughtfulness in this learner’s work. For example, ‘A cel-shaded image is a type of non photo­ realistic graphic which is designed to make the computer-generated image appear to be hand drawn, like comic book art style. Cel-shading uses only a few shades of each colour for the object. Character X in Game Y is drawn using cel-shading. ’ Additionally, the learner must demonstrate competent use of freehand drawing skills to plan, and digital graphics tools to produce a digital image for a game. ‘Competent’ means the learner shows ability in relation to skills and the handling of equipment but is not yet employing those skills with imagination, and is not yet completely confident in the use of freehand drawing skills and the use of digital graphics tools. The level of skills attainment is good, but not excellent. The learner will still need occasional advice or support. The learner must also discuss their own digital graphics work. Reflection upon their production work will be more detailed than at pass-level, giving examples to support comments. It will offer a more balanced and thoughtful consideration, though comments will still be at the level of statement or assertion rather than being supported by explanation or argument. For example, ‘It was worth spending two days storyboarding my initial thoughts; this helped me to produce freehand drawings of my ideas. I then used these drawings to produce my final digital image, which I think is good enough to be used in a game such as Game X.’ In order to achieve a distinction, the learner must critically discuss graphic styles used in games. The term ‘critically discuss’ means that any observations made or arguments engaged in are explained, justified or supported in some way or are subjected to some sort of evaluative procedure or to a process of comparison. It should be noted that the term ‘critical’ as used here does not mean negative commentary. For example, ‘A cel-shaded image is a type of non-photo­ realistic graphic which is designed to make the computer-generated image appear to be hand drawn, like comic book art style. ‘Non-photo-realistic’ is also known as ‘artistic’ rendering and means graphic rendering based on artistic styles. Cel-shading uses only a few shades of each colour for the object. Cel-Shading is a very powerful form of rendering, and its results can completely change the ‘feel’ of a game which is why some games are produced entirely using cel-shading. Game X is an adventure game that uses cel-shading and Game Y is a first-person shooter that uses photo-realistic colouring.’

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Distinction-level work will be characterised throughout by imagination and creativity. That is, the learner will produce ideas and results that are beginning to move beyond the conventional. The learner will be able to think laterally and come up with ideas and solutions which others might have not thought of. This will come through in the generation and presentation of ideas, the development work, in the application of techniques and skills, and in the aesthetic qualities of the final digital image. High-level skills means procedures are followed and techniques used with good effect. Work produced is not yet at professional standard, but bears comparison to such work. The learner is at ease with techniques and equipment and is able to work independently. In reflecting upon their work, distinction-level learners will explain – that is, they will demonstrate an awareness of why they did what they did, and will justify or support comments on these production decisions in some way. For example, ‘I spent some time sketching my initial ideas; this helped me to produce my freehand drawings. These concept drawings were very useful as they helped me understand the mood, scale, proportions and perspective I should try to create in my digital image. Since this image is for use in a game for younger children I have chosen bright primary colours. I have taken ideas from some anime characters and have exaggerated the eyes, making my drawing more appealing to the younger audience.’ The distinction-level learner’s use of technical and specialist language will be correct, being consistently appropriate and accurate. Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit can be linked with Unit 14: Reviewing Computer Games and Unit 15: 2D Computer Games. Learners will have the opportunity to obtain key skills at level 2 in communication, information and communication technology, improving own learning and performance, problem solving, and working with others. There are opportunities to relate the work done for this unit to Skillset National Occupational Standards in Interactive Media, and Photo Imaging and Photo Processing as follows: Interactive Media IM1

Work effectively in interactive media

IM2

Obtain assets for use in interactive media products

IM3

Prepare assets for use in interactive media products

IM16

Plan content for web and multimedia products

Photo Imaging and Photo Processing D1

Create original artwork for digital images

D2

Carry out specific image scanning

D3

Plan and produce scanned images

D4

Carry out specific image editing

D5

Plan and produce edited images

D6

Prepare for, and produce image output

D8

Send and receive image data files by digital means.

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And to E-skills National Occupational Standards in IT Users as follows:

Website software

Artwork and imaging software

Specialist or bespoke software.

Essential resources Centres should develop their own library of up-to-date resources to include print and digital image concept art (from game websites or professional journals, for example). Indicative reading for learners Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant.

Adobe Photoshop Elements 3.0 (Classroom in a Book) (Adobe Press, 2005)

Chasemore R — Photoshop Elements Right from the Start (Payne Gallway, 2004)

Curran Ste — Game Plan: Ten Designs That Changed The Face Of Computer Gaming

(Rotovision, 2004)

Trautman E S — The Art of Halo: Creating a Virtual Masterpiece (Ballantine, 2004)

Appropriate websites The following websites were available at the time of going to press and the addresses were correct. http://starwarsgalaxies.station.sony.com/concept_art.jsp — Starwars’ concept art gallery www.eidos.co.uk/games/info.html?gmid=147 — a UK publisher’s site, examples of game graphics www.gamasutra.com — game developers’ website (free registration required, a major resource) www.gamasutra.com/resource_guide/20011119/meretzky_02.htm — document discussing concept art for character creation www.gamedev.net/ — resources for game developers www.gamedevelopers.ie — the Irish game developers’ site www.guildwars.com/gallery/conceptart/default.html — Guildwars’ concept art gallery www.igda.org — independent, non-profit organization for international game software developers www.tiga.org — the independent game developers’ association site www.weldonarts.com/index.htm — artwork examples from commercial illustrator

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Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Communication level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

contributing to discussions about graphics for games

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion

presenting ideas for graphics to a group

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes

carrying out research on graphics C2.2 styles in games

preparing reports on ideas for computer games and on research into graphics styles in games.

C2.3

Read and summarise information from at least two documents about the same subject. Each document must be a minimum of 500 words long. Write two different types of documents each one giving different information. One document must be at least 500 words long.

Information and communication technology level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

IT2.1

carrying out research into graphics styles in games

Search for and select information to meet their needs. Use different information sources for each task and multiple search criteria in at least one case.

preparing reports on research into computer games and on research into graphics styles in games

IT2.2

Enter and develop the information to suit the task and derive new information.

presenting research into computer games and on graphics styles in games.

IT2.3

Present combined information such as text with image, text with number, image with number.

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Improving own learning and performance level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

producing a strategy for production of a digital graphic for a game

LP2.1

Help set targets with an appropriate person and plan how these will be met.

producing a digital graphic for a game

LP2.2

Take responsibility for some decisions about their learning, using their plan to help meet targets and improve their performance.

evaluating own learning within the unit

LP2.3

Review progress with an appropriate person and provide evidence of achievements.

reviewing the outcomes of the work on digital graphics with a tutor.

Problem solving level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

producing a strategy for production of a digital graphic for a game

PS2.1

Identify a problem, with help from an appropriate person, and identify different ways of tackling it.

producing a digital graphic for a game

PS2.2

Plan and try out at least one way of solving the problem.

evaluating own learning within the unit

PS2.3

reviewing the outcomes of the work on digital graphics with a tutor.

Check if the problem has been solved and identify ways to improve problem solving skills.

Working with others level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

WO2.1 Plan work with others.

planning and producing a digital graphic for a game with others

WO2.2 Work co-operatively towards achieving identified objectives. •

taking part in group discussions and presenting results.

WO2.3 Review their contribution and agree ways to improve work with others.

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UNIT 17: MEDIA PRODUCTION PROJECT

Unit 17:

Media Production Project

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract The vast majority of media production work is done by teams of people, and very often the person in overall control of a project is working to a brief or to a set of guidelines over which she or he has no control. It is therefore unusual for one person to set up a project and see it through to completion, having control of the process from beginning to end. However, the ability to generate ideas, and to understand how they might be realised in production is highly valued in the industry, and this unit gives learners the opportunity, either individually or in a small group, to develop some understanding of what is like to set up and see through a production project of their own. In this unit learners will generate a proposal for a media product, then research, plan, and produce the project they have devised. They will also assess the quality of the product and their own performance in producing it. The project can be realised in any medium –video, audio, print, animation, web, multimedia, interactive media etc.

Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1

Be able to prepare a proposal for a media product

2

Be able to develop a proposal for a media product

3

Be able to create a media product following a proposal

4

Be able to review own production work.

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Unit content

1

Be able to prepare a proposal for a media product Prepare: generate suitable idea; write proposal document Proposal document: appropriate format for sector or sub-sector; product – medium, working title, genre, content, style or approach, audience, length Legal and ethical considerations: legal restrictions eg privacy, libel law, defamation, race discrimination law, data protection, freedom of information, copyright; codes of practice eg BBC guidelines, press codes of conduct, advertising standards

2

Be able to develop a proposal for a media product General preparation: eg tasks to be completed, roles to be adopted, teamworking strategies, techniques to be used, resources required, logistics, clearances and permissions; health and safety issues eg risk assessments Develop: research eg content, viability, audience; realise eg draft scripts, final script, mood boards, thumbnails, storyboard, production schedule, location recces, contributors, talent, sources

3

Be able to create a media product following a proposal Produce: eg shoot video, edit video, record sound, edit sound, create images, source images, digitise and manipulate images, write copy, proofread, lay out material, assemble pages, test, upload Qualities: technical and aesthetic qualities appropriate to medium, genre and format Intentions: relationship to proposal in terms of content, style, audience and proposed outlet

4

Be able to review own production work Finished product: compared with original proposal, appropriateness to audience, technical qualities, aesthetic qualities, content, style Production process: pre-production eg research, planning; production eg time management, project management, technical competencies, creative ability, own work, teamwork; post­ production eg time management, project management, technical competencies, creative ability, own work, teamwork Sources of information: self-evaluation; documentation eg ideas notes, notes from meetings, drafts, production logs; comments from others eg audience, peers, tutors, client

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M4 discuss own production project work.

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Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is provided on page 178.

P4 describe own production project work.

177

D3 explain own production project work using correct technical language.

M2 competently develop product proposal

P3 create a media product based on proposal M3 create a media product based on proposal which demonstrates competent technical and aesthetic qualities

D1 achieve intentions through application of highlevel technical skills and creativity

M1 prepare a detailed written proposal for a media product

P1 present a written proposal for a media product

P2 develop product proposal

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass and merit criteria, the learner is able to:

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

UNIT 17: MEDIA PRODUCTION PROJECT


UNIT 17: MEDIA PRODUCTION PROJECT

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery This unit can be seen as the opportunity for learners to work independently or in small groups on a self-generated proposal and production, and as such is best done during the latter part of the course. The tutor’s role in this unit is very much that of a facilitator, providing support to individual learners and production teams in developing proposals and in seeing through the production. Learners will need to have gained production skills through the other specialist units which they have covered, so basic production technique workshops should not be necessary here unless they need specialist or higher-level skills for their project (such as DVD authoring). The medium the learners work in can be their choice if the course has given them a broad base of skills in that medium and the centre can resource that type of production. Centres that prefer to specialise in a particular medium can require learners to work in that medium for their production project. Learners can work individually or in a team for this project, but tutors should note that where the project is a team production, the proposal must be produced individually, even though it will be based on group activity. Where a group is working on a joint project, tutors must ensure that all members of the group have an equal role and that each role will enable the learner undertaking it to produce adequate evidence for assessment. Learners can also engage or ‘employ’ others to work for them, as long as the work produced by others is under the direction and control of the learner whose project it is. Learners must be able to demonstrate to their tutors that this is the case, and has been throughout the project, and tutors must be absolutely confident that all work presented by learners is genuinely their own. Assessment The proposal document must be, as specified in the unit content, a written document and must be in the format that is appropriate to the industry sector in which the learner is working. Evidence that the learner has covered the other requirements of the unit content for learning outcome 1 need not, however, be presented as a formal, written document. For example, the ideas could be presented in the form of a flipchart sheet, and consideration of legal and ethical issues could be assessed through a viva. In the case of a group project, the assessor must be satisfied that each member of the group has contributed to the preparation and writing of the proposal. Each member of the group must separately explain her or his role in the production team, and detail the tasks she or he will carry out. If learners present an oral pitch as part of the evidence for learning outcome 1, this should be recorded for verification purposes. Any digital presentation material (such as a PowerPoint presentation), should also be kept. Evidence for learning outcome 2 will come partly from production paperwork relevant to the project and partly from the completed product. Tutors may also use observation records and peer assessments.

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Evidence for learning outcome 3 will be the finished media product. Each individual in a team must have contributed to the production in order to achieve this outcome. The media product must be presented in an appropriate medium or format, such as VHS video, DVD, audio CD, CD ROM, web server space or printed material. Learning outcome 4 can be evidenced in a number of ways, including a written report, a presentation or an interview. Presentations and interviews should be recorded for internal and external verification purposes. For parts of learning outcome 1 and for learning outcome 4, a viva voce type assessment might be appropriate for some learners. When more than one learner in a cohort is assessed in this way care must taken to ensure that all learners are asked the same lead questions, and that all are given equal opportunities to expand or clarify their answers. Interviewers must also ensure that questions are not phrased in such a way as to provide or suggest an answer. Vivas should be recorded for the purposes of internal and external verification. NB: When applying the grading criteria tutors should follow the advice given below. Please note that the examples of evidence given here are indicative only. This advice is not inclusive and the examples need not be included in a learner’s work in order for that learner to achieve the exemplified grade. To achieve a pass, learners must present a written proposal identifying the medium and a working title for the project, along with an outline of the project in terms of content, genre, audience, the style or approach to be taken to the content, and length (or size), though this outline will be basic and unelaborated. The reader will be able to understand what is being proposed in general terms – for example, a five-minute scene from a soap opera to be called Sisters, aimed at an audience of the learner’s age group and involving a quarrel between two siblings – but will have no clear idea of what the finished product is intended to look like. Some legal and ethical constraints that might affect the production will have been correctly identified but not what the effect of these constraints on the production might be. The relevant development procedures will have been followed but in an unsystematic way. The necessary documents will have been produced but they will be patchy. Scripts, for example, will lack structure and economy, and will fail to follow appropriate conventions. The final product will be recognisably related to the original proposal, and will demonstrate that the learner has applied relevant techniques in its completion but with a rather rough, uneven or shapeless result. Aesthetically it will be fauvist, though not by design: for example, visual composition or linguistic expression will be awkward, edits will not flow, and decisions which involve questions of aesthetics (such as colours or fonts) will be inappropriate, or appear to have been taken without consideration. (When assessing work for the First Certificate and First Diploma in Media, ‘aesthetics’ can be taken to cover matters of style as well as the considerations that might more strictly be covered by that term.) To achieve criterion P4 learners must describe their production work – ‘work’ meaning both the process and the product resulting from following that process. This description will be relevant to the production process and the product but will mainly be confined to an historical account of activities (eg ‘we had a script meeting and wrote the script, then we did the storyboard which Ashe drew. We spent five days on the shooting and another three on the editing…’ etc). Accounts which are mostly taken up with irrelevant detail (eg ‘Samir’s mother made us really nice sandwiches when we did our shoot in the park, but we left them on a bench and someone’s dog came along and ate them when we weren’t looking’) should not be considered as meeting the pass-level for this criterion. Description of the product will be an unelaborated outline and assessments of its quality will be relevant but very generalised and at the level of assertion (eg ‘the shoot went quite well and the final edit was good’).

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In order to achieve a merit, the proposal must be detailed. It will, therefore, give the reader a good idea of what the product aimed at will look like. In generating an idea the learner will have considered more than one, or will have developed a single one in some depth. Consideration of legal and ethical constraints will show evidence of some research and some understanding of how these constraints might affect the production activity (for example, ‘we are producing an advert for alcohol so cannot show anyone drunk in the advert’). Development will be competent – that is, the learner will follow procedures in the correct order and documentation will be carefully produced, if not entirely complete. Research will be more substantial, covering more than one aspect of the proposal. The handling of equipment will be competent but the learner will not yet be completely confident with the technology. The learner will have attained good technical skills, but these skills will not yet be employed with imagination. The learner will still need occasional advice or support in many aspects of the work. Aesthetic decisions will be based on some thought and will be on the whole effective and satisfying. Reflection upon the production work will be more detailed, having examples to support comments. It will offer a more balanced and thoughtful consideration, though comments will still be at the level of statement or assertion rather than being supported by explanation or argument. Distinction-level work will be characterised throughout by high-level technical skills and creativity. Whether following a procedure or executing a practical activity, learners will achieve high-quality results and will create products that are beginning to move beyond the purely conventional. Techniques and equipment will be used with facility and to good effect, and learners will be at ease with both. Above all, equipment and skills will be used creatively – distinction-level learners will be able to make the technology serve their creative intentions. They will be able to think laterally and come up with ideas and solutions which others might have not thought of. This will come through in the way they deploy their technical skills and in the aesthetic qualities of the final piece of work. They will be able to work independently. In reflecting upon their work, distinction-level learners will ‘explain’ – that is, they will demonstrate an awareness of why they did what they did, and will justify or support comments on their production decisions in some way (eg ‘The first longshot of the café is followed by a medium close up of Jean sitting at a table because that is the conventional way of establishing where someone is at the opening of a soap episode’). Their use of technical and specialist language will be correct, being consistently appropriate and accurate. Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit can be integrated with Unit 2: Research for Media Production, which can be assessed through the work done for Unit 17 if the two are linked together. Unit 17: Media Production Project follows on from any of the specialist units. Learners will have the opportunity to obtain key skills at level 2 in communication, information and communication technology, improving own learning and performance, problem solving, and working with others. Depending on the medium chosen and the approach taken, there will be opportunities to relate the work done for this unit to National Occupational Standards as follows. Skillset: Camera, Editing, Sound, Lighting, Directors, Production, Radio Production, Interactive Media, Photo Imaging and Photo Processing, and Broadcast Journalism.

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E-skills (standards for IT Users): internet and intranets (Level 2)

Website software (Level 2)

Artwork and imaging software (Level 2)

Specialist or bespoke software (Level 2).

Print and Graphic Communication NTO: Pre-press (Level 2)

Desktop Publishing (Level 2)

Machine Printing – Digital Printing (Level 2).

Management Standards Centre: F1 Manage a project. Essential resources The resources that learners need will depend on which medium they are working in for their production project. All resources must be up to date, and of near-industrial standard and capability. Indicative reading for learners Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant.

Chapman J and Chapman N — Digital Multimedia (John Wiley, 2004)

Cope P — Web Photoshop: Start Here! (Ilex, 2003)

Evans R — Practical DV Film Making (Focal Press, 2002)

Gordon B and Gordon M (Eds) — The Complete Guide to Digital Graphic Design (Thames &

Hudson, 2002)

Kindem G — Introduction to Media Production (Focal Press 2001)

McLeish R — Radio Production, Fourth Edition (Focal Press, 1999)

Millerson G — Video Production Handbook, Third Edition (Focal Press, 2002)

Nettleton N — Web Design: Start Here! (Ilex, 2003)

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UNIT 17: MEDIA PRODUCTION PROJECT

Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged. Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here. Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Communication level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

participating in a production team meeting

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion

pitching their proposal

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes

researching content for their production

C2.2

Read and summarise information from at least two documents about the same subject. Each document must be a minimum of 500 words long.

writing their proposal and evaluation.

C2.3

Write two different types of documents each one giving different information. One document must be at least 500 words long.

Information and communication technology level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

IT2.1

producing a completed media product.

Search for and select information to meet their needs. Use different information sources for each task and multiple search criteria in at least one case.

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IT2.2

Enter and develop the information to suit the task and derive new information.

IT2.3

Present combined information such as text with image, text with number, image with number.

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UNIT 17: MEDIA PRODUCTION PROJECT

Improving own learning and performance level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

discussing their individual proposal with their tutor

LP2.1

Help set targets with an appropriate person and plan how these will be met.

monitoring and reviewing progress throughout the production process

LP2.2

Take responsibility for some decisions about their learning, using their plan to help meet targets and improve their performance.

evaluating their product and production management

LP2.3

Review progress with an appropriate person and provide evidence of achievements.

discussing their progress with their tutor.

Problem solving level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

engaged in the production process

PS2.1

Identify a problem, with help from an appropriate person, and identify different ways of tackling it.

writing and following through their production and proposal

PS2.2

Plan and try out at least one way of solving the problem.

evaluating the production process.

PS2.3

Check if the problem has been solved and identify ways to improve problem solving skills.

Working with others level 2 When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key skills evidence:

writing their proposal and planning production

WO2.1 Plan work with others.

working with their production team

WO2.2 Work co-operatively towards achieving identified objectives.

conducting production team meetings and reviewing progress.

WO2.3 Review their contribution and agree ways to improve work with others.

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Assessment and grading The purpose of assessment is to ensure that effective learning of the content of each unit has taken place. Assignments should ensure coverage of all the criteria in the unit as set out in the Grading grid for each unit. It is advisable that criteria are clearly indicated on each assignment to provide a focus for learners (for transparency and to help ensure that feedback is specific to the criteria) and to assist with internal verification and standardisation processes. Tasks and activities should enable learners to produce evidence that relates directly to the specified criteria. Assignments constructed by centres should be valid, reliable and fit for purpose, building on the application of the grading criteria. Centres should use a variety of assessment methods, including case studies, assignments and work-based assessments, along with projects, performance observation and time-constrained assessments. Centres are encouraged to place emphasis on the practical application of the grading criteria, providing a realistic scenario for learners to adopt, and making maximum use of practical activities and work experience. The creation of assignments that are fit for purpose is vital to achievement by learners and their importance cannot be over emphasised. When reading the Grading grids and designing assessment instruments, centres should note that for learners to achieve a merit/distinction grade they will be required to provide evidence that is qualitative in its nature. Centres are encouraged to look across each assessment criterion in the Grading grid to identify common topics within units and to assess learners’ work according to the level that they have achieved as determined by the grading criteria. A grading scale of pass, merit and distinction is applied to all units. In the Edexcel BTEC Firsts all units are internally assessed. All assessment for BTEC Firsts is criterion referenced, based on the achievement of specified outcomes. Each unit has specified criteria to be used for grading. A summative unit grade can be awarded at pass, merit or distinction: • to achieve a ‘pass’ a learner must have satisfied all the pass criteria • to achieve a ‘merit’ a learner must additionally have satisfied all the merit criteria • to achieve a ‘distinction’ a learner must additionally have satisfied all the distinction criteria. Learners who complete the unit but who do not meet all the pass criteria are graded ‘unclassified’.

Internal verification Centres are required to have processes in place reviewing each assessor’s decisions to ensure that they are correctly interpreting and applying the standards set out in the specifications. The system used to do this is a matter for individual centres and Edexcel fully supports the use of the centre’s own quality assurance systems where this ensures robust internal standardisation. Centres should refer to the BTEC NQF Level 2/3 (including Short Courses at Levels 1–3) Handbook (updated annually). This updated information may also be found on the Edexcel website/Services for centres/FE Colleges and Schools.

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External verification Edexcel will sample assessors’ decisions using sector-specialist external verifiers. For BTEC Firsts this process will follow the National Standards Sampling (NSS) protocol. The learner work must have been internally assessed. Additionally, at least 50 per cent of submitted work must have been internally verified. Centres should refer to the BTEC NQF Level 2/3 (including Short Courses at Levels 1–3) Handbook (updated annually). This updated information may also be found on the Edexcel website/Services for centres/FE Colleges and Schools.

Quality assurance Edexcel’s qualification specifications set out clearly the standard to be achieved by each learner in order to gain the award of the qualification. This is covered in the statement of outcomes and grading criteria in each unit. Further guidance on delivery and assessment is given in the Essential guidance for tutors section of each unit. This section is designed to provide additional guidance and amplification related to the unit to support tutors, deliverers and assessors and to provide for a coherence of understanding and a consistency of delivery and assessment. Edexcel operates a quality assurance process which is designed to ensure that these standards are maintained by all internal verifiers and external verifiers. It achieves this through the following activities.

Approval Centres will be allowed ‘accelerated approval’ for a new programme where the centre already has approval for a programme that is being replaced by the new programme. Centres wishing to offer a vocational area for the first time will need to apply for approval to offer the programme. Centres that have not previously offered BTEC qualifications will first need to apply for, and be granted, centre approval before they can apply for approval to offer the programme. When a centre applies for approval to offer a BTEC qualification they will be required to enter into an approvals agreement. The approvals contract is a formal commitment by the head or principal of a centre to meet all the requirements of the specification and linked codes or regulations. Sanctions and tariffs may be applied if centres do not comply with the agreement. Ultimately, this could result in the suspension of certification or withdrawal of approval.

Risk assessment Edexcel has an approval process which creates a quality profile of each qualification programme in each centre and for the centre as a whole. This profile contributes to the determination of the nature of external verification activity for each programme and will also be used to initiate other quality control measures by Edexcel.

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Calculation of the qualification grade Awarding a qualification grade The qualification grade will be calculated through the aggregation of points achieved through the successful achievement of individual units. Learners will achieve a pass, merit or distinction qualification grade based on the attainment of a stated minimum number of points for each unit grade. The number of points available will be dependent on the unit grade achieved and the size of the unit as determined by the stipulated guided learning hours. For the calculation of a qualification grade for a BTEC First Certificate and a BTEC First Diploma a learner must: • complete all designated units • achieve a minimum points score of 18 points for a First Certificate and 36 points for a First Diploma • achieve a pass grade for all designated units for a First Certificate and achieve a pass grade for units with a combined total of 300 guided learning hours for a First Diploma. Points available Size of unit (GLH)

Pass grade

Merit grade

Distinction grade

10

1

2

3

30

3

6

9

60

6

12

18

90

9

18

27

120

12

24

36

Qualification grade Qualification

Pass grade

Merit grade

Distinction grade

Distinction*

BTEC First Certificate (54 maximum)

18–29

30–41

42–53

54

BTEC First Diploma (108 maximum)

36–59

60–83

84–95

96–108

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School and College Achievement and Attainment Tables (SCAAT) equivalence BTEC First Certificate and SCAAT points BTEC First Certificates attract points for the DfES School and College Achievement and Attainment Tables (formerly Performance Tables). The qualification attracts the same points as two GCSEs at A* – C, and contributes 40 per cent towards the threshold. For the detailed point scores for a pass, merit, distinction, and distinction*, please see the QCA Openquals website at: www.openquals.org.uk. BTEC grade boundaries

BTEC First Certificate grade

SCAAT points and GCSE grade equivalence

18–29

Pass

P

CC

30–41

Merit

M

BB

42–48

Distinction

D

AA

49–54

Distinction*

D*

A* A*

BTEC First Diploma and SCAAT points BTEC First Diplomas attract points for the DfES School and College Achievement and Attainment Tables (formerly Performance Tables). The qualification attracts the same points as four GCSEs at A* – C, and contributes 80 per cent towards the threshold. For the detailed point scores for a pass, merit, distinction, and distinction*, please see the QCA Openquals website at: www.openquals.org.uk. BTEC grade boundaries

BTEC First Diploma grade

SCAAT points and GCSE grade equivalence

36–59

Pass

P

CCCC

60–83

Merit

M

BBBB

84–95

Distinction

D

AAAA

96–108

Distinction*

D*

A* A* A* A*

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Programme design and delivery These qualifications consist of core units (which are mandatory) and specialist units. Specialist units are designed to provide a specific focus to the qualification. Required combinations of specialist units are set out clearly in relation to each qualification in the defined qualification structures provided in this document. In BTEC First qualifications each unit is 30, 60, 90 or 120 guided learning hours. The definition of guided learning hours is ‘a notional measure of the substance of a qualification’. It includes an estimate of time that might be allocated to direct teaching, instruction and assessment, together with other structured learning time such as directed assignments or supported individual study. It excludes learner-initiated private study. Centres are advised to consider this definition when planning the programme of study associated with this specification.

Mode of delivery Edexcel does not define the mode of study for BTEC First qualifications. Centres are free to offer the qualifications using any mode of delivery that meets the needs of their learners. This may be through traditional classroom teaching, open learning, distance learning or a combination of these. Whatever mode of delivery is used, centres must ensure that learners have appropriate access to the resources identified in the specifications and to the subject specialists delivering the units. This is particularly important for learners studying for the qualification through open or distance learning. Learners studying for the qualification on a part-time basis bring with them a wealth of experience that should be utilised to maximum effect by tutors and assessors. Assessment evidence based on the learners’ work environment should be encouraged. Those planning the programme should aim to enhance the vocational nature of the BTEC First qualification by: • liaising with employers to ensure a course relevant to the specific needs of the learners • accessing and using non-confidential data and documents from learners’ workplaces • including sponsoring employers in the delivery of the programme and, where appropriate, in the assessment • linking with company-based/workplace training programmes • making full use of the variety of experience of work and life that learners bring to the programme.

Resources BTEC First qualifications are designed to prepare learners for employment in specific sectors. Physical resources need to support the delivery of the programme and the proper assessment of the outcomes and therefore should normally be of industry standard. Staff delivering programmes and conducting the assessments should be fully familiar with current practice and standards in the sector concerned. Centres will need to meet any specialist resource requirements when they seek approval from Edexcel. Where specific resources are required these have been indicated in individual units under the Essential resources section.

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Delivery approach It is important that centres develop an approach to teaching and learning that supports the specialist vocational nature of BTEC First qualifications. Specifications contain a balance of practical skill development and knowledge requirements, some of which can be theoretical in nature. Tutors and assessors need to ensure that appropriate links are made between theory and practice and that the knowledge base is applied to the sector. This will require the development of relevant and up-to-date teaching materials that allow learners to apply their learning to actual events and activity within the sector. Maximum use should be made of the learner’s experience.

Accreditation of Prior Learning (APL) Edexcel encourages centres to recognise learners’ previous achievements and experience through APL. Learners may have evidence that has been generated during previous study or in their previous or current employment or whilst undertaking voluntary work that relates to one or more of the units in the qualification. Assessors should assess this evidence against the National Occupational Standards mapped in the specification. As with all evidence, assessors should be satisfied about the authenticity and currency of the material when considering whether or not the outcomes of the unit have been met. Full guidance on Edexcel’s policy on APL is provided on our website: www.edexcel.org.uk

Meeting local needs Centres should note the qualifications set out in these specifications have been developed in consultation with centres and employers, particularly the NTO or the Sector Skills Council for the Media sector. The units are designed to meet the skill needs of the sector and the specialist units allow coverage of the full range of employment. Centres should make maximum use of the choice available to them within the specialist units in these specifications to meet the needs of their learners, and the local skills and training needs identified by organisations such as the Regional Development Agency and the Local Learning and Skills Council. In certain circumstances, the units contained in these specifications may not enable centres to meet a local need. In this situation centres may seek approval from Edexcel to make use of units from other standard NQF BTEC First Diploma specifications. Centres will need to justify the need for importing units from other specifications and Edexcel will ensure that the vocational focus of the qualification has not been diluted. Units that have externally set assignments cannot be imported into other qualifications. There may be exceptional circumstances where even this flexibility does not meet a particular local need. In this case centres can seek permission from Edexcel to develop a unit with us to meet this need. The cases where this will be allowable will be very limited. Centres will need strong evidence of the local need and the reasons why the existing standard units are inappropriate. Edexcel will need to submit these units for accreditation by QCA.

Limitations on variations from standard specifications The flexibility to import standard units from other BTEC First Diploma specifications and/or develop unique units is limited to one unit in a BTEC First Diploma qualification. This flexibility is not available within the BTEC First Certificate. The use of these units cannot be at the expense of the core units in any qualification. More detailed guidance on delivery and assessment is given in each unit.

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Access and recruitment Edexcel’s policy regarding access to its qualifications is that: • the qualifications should be available to everyone who is capable of reaching the required standards • the qualifications should be free from any barriers that restrict access and progression • there should be equal opportunities for all wishing to access the qualifications. Centres are required to recruit learners to BTEC qualifications with integrity. This will include ensuring that applicants have appropriate information and advice about the qualifications and that the qualification will meet their needs. Centres should take appropriate steps to assess each applicant’s potential and make a professional judgement about their ability to successfully complete the programme of study and achieve the qualification. This assessment will need to take account of the support available to the learner within the centre during their programme of study and any specific support that might be necessary to allow the learner to access the assessment for the qualification. Centres should also show regard for Edexcel’s policy on learners with particular requirements. Centres will need to review the profile of qualifications and/or experience held by applicants, considering whether this profile shows an ability to progress to a Level 2 qualification. For learners who have recently been in education, the profile is likely to include one of the following: • a standard of literacy and numeracy supported by a general education equivalent to four GCSEs at grades D–G •

related work experience

other related Level 1 or 2 qualifications.

More mature learners may present a more varied profile of achievement that is likely to include experience of paid and/or unpaid employment.

Restrictions on learner entry The Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate in Media and the Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Diploma in Media are accredited on the National Qualifications Framework (NQF). The qualifications are listed on the DfES funding lists Section 96 and Section 97. Additionally, the majority of BTEC First qualifications are available to learners aged 14–16 to enhance their curriculum and to help them gain experience of vocational skills which will prepare them for work.

Access arrangements and special considerations Edexcel’s policy on access arrangements and special considerations for BTEC and Edexcel NVQ qualifications aims to enhance access to the qualifications for learners with disabilities and other difficulties (as defined by the 1995 Disability Discrimination Act and the amendments to the Act) without compromising the assessment of skills, knowledge, understanding or competence. Further details are given in the policy ‘Access Arrangements and Special Considerations for BTEC and Edexcel NVQ Qualifications’, which is on the Edexcel website (www.edexcel.org.uk). This policy replaces the previous Edexcel policy (Assessment of Vocationally Related Qualification: Regulations and Guidance Relating to Learners with Special Requirements, 2002) concerning learners with particular requirements.

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1

192

Entry

NVQ/Occupational

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Award, Certificate and Diploma in Interactive Use of Media

Introductory Certificate and Introductory Diploma in Art, Design and Media Skills for Working Life (Arts and Media)

Award, Certificate and Diploma in Interactive Use of Media

3 First Certificate and First Diploma in Media

Professional Certificates in Media

BTEC Short Courses

2

Higher National Certificate and Higher National Diploma in Interactive Media

Higher National Certificate and Higher National Diplomas in Media

Foundation Degree in Multimedia

BTEC Full VRQ Courses

Award, Certificate and Diploma in Interactive Use of Media

GCE in Media: Communication and Production

General Qualifications

National Awards, Certificates and Diplomas in Media

4

5

NQF Level

Progression opportunities within the framework are available vertically, diagonally and horizontally.

The Edexcel BTEC Qualification Framework for the Media sector


Further information For further information please call Customer Services on 0870 240 9800 (calls may be recorded for training purposes) or visit our website at www.edexcel.org.uk.

Useful publications Further copies of this document and related publications can be obtained from: Edexcel Publications Adamsway Mansfield Nottinghamshire NG18 4FN Telephone: 01623 467 467 Fax: 01623 450 481 Email: publications@linneydirect.com Related information and publications include: • Accreditation of Prior Learning available on our website: www.edexcel.org.uk • Guidance for Centres Offering Edexcel/BTEC NQF Accredited Programmes — (Edexcel, distributed to centres annually) • key skills publications — specifications, tutor support materials and question papers • The Statutory Regulation of External Qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland — (QCA, 2004). • the current Edexcel publications catalogue and update catalogue. Edexcel publications concerning the Quality Assurance System and the internal and external verification of vocationally related programmes may be found on the Edexcel website and in the Edexcel publications catalogue. NB: Most of our publications are priced. There is also a charge for postage and packing. Please check the cost when you order.

How to obtain National Occupational Standards Skillset National Occupational Standards can be obtained from: Skillset Prospect House 80 – 110 New Oxford Street London WC1A 1HB Telephone: 020 7250 5757 Website: www.skillset.org Website link: http://www.skillset.org/our_work/standards/index_1.asp. E-skills National Occupational Standards can be obtained from the E-skills UK website at: http://www.e-skills.com

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Print and Graphic Communication NTO National Occupational Standards can be obtained from the Print Education Forum website at: http://www.printnto.org Management Standards Centre (MSC) National Occupational Standards can be obtained from the Management Standards Centre website at: http://www.management-standards.org/

Professional development and training Edexcel supports UK and international customers with training related to BTEC qualifications. This support is available through a choice of training options offered in our published training directory or through customised training at your centre. The support we offer focuses on a range of issues including: •

planning for the delivery of a new programme

planning for assessment and grading

developing effective assignments

building your team and teamwork skills

developing student-centred learning and teaching approaches

building key skills into your programme

building in effective and efficient quality assurance systems.

The national programme of training we offer can be viewed on the Edexcel website (www.edexcel.org.uk). You can request customised training through the website or by contacting one of our advisers in the Professional Development and Training team via Customer Services on telephone 0870 240 9800 to discuss your training needs. The training we provide: •

is active — ideas are developed and applied

is designed to be supportive and thought provoking

builds on best practice.

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Annexe A QCA codes The QCA National Qualifications Framework (NQF) code is known as a Qualification Accreditation Number (QAN). This is the code that features in the DfES Funding Schedules – Section 96 and Section 97 – and is to be used for all qualification funding purposes. Each unit within a qualification will also have a QCA NQF unit code. The QCA qualification and unit codes will appear on the learner’s final certification documentation. The QANs for the qualifications in this publication are: 100/5708/0

Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate in Media

100/5709/2

Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Diploma in Media

These qualification titles will appear on the learners’ certificates. Learners need to be made aware of this when they are recruited by the centre and registered with Edexcel. Providing this happens, centres are able to describe the programme of study leading to the award of the qualification in different ways to suit the medium and the target audience.

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Evaluate concepts/ideas/actions. Analyse/research and make recommendations. Judges implications of application of knowledge/ understanding.

• • •

Apply and/or select relevant concepts.

Apply knowledge to different contexts.

Apply knowledge to non-routine contexts (ie assessor selection).

Make comparisons.

Show relationships between p criteria.

Act under limited supervision/ demonstrate independence (note: pass cannot require support).

Apply to non-routine activities.

Demonstrate within time and/or resource constraints.

Produce varied solutions (including non-routine).

Modify techniques/processes to situations.

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Use advanced techniques/processes/skills successfully.

Development of practical and technical skills

Innovates or generates of application of techniques/processes for new situations.

197

Makes judgements about risks and limitations of techniques/processes.

Justifies application of skills/methods. •

Reflects on skill acquisition and application.

Select and use successfully from a range of advanced techniques/processes/skills.

• •

Apply skill(s) to achieve higher order outcome.

Demonstrate creativity/originality/own ideas.

Indicative characteristics — distinction

Indicative characteristics — merit

Grading domain 2

Applies knowledge and understanding to complex activities/contexts.

Synthesise knowledge and understanding across p/m criteria.

Show depth of knowledge and development of understanding in given situations(eg explain why, make judgements based on analysis).

Application of knowledge and understanding

Indicative characteristics — distinction

Indicative characteristics — merit

Grading domain 1

Grading domains

Annexe B


Takes responsibility in planning and undertaking activities.

Reviews own development needs.

Finds and uses relevant information sources.

Acts within a given work-related context showing understanding of responsibilities.

Identifies responsibilities of employers to the community and the environment.

Applies qualities related to the vocational sector.

Internalises skills/attributes (creating confidence).

Personal development for occupational roles

Applies initiative appropriately.

Explains how to contribute within a team.

Makes adjustments to meet the needs/expectations of others (negotiation skills).

Select and justify solutions for specified problems.

198

Makes judgements in contexts with explanations.

Generate new or alternative solutions to specified problems.

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Reflects on own contribution to working within a team.

Produces outputs subject to time/resource constraints.

Takes decisions in contexts with justifications. •

Communicates using appropriate technical/ professional language.

Application of generic and key skills

Presents self and communicates information to meet the needs of a typical audience.

Indicative characteristics — distinction

Indicative characteristics — merit

Understands interdependence.

Grading domain 4

Applies divergent and lateral thinking in work-related contexts.

Takes decisions related to work contexts.

Assesses how different work-related contexts or constraints would change performance.

Analyses and manipulates information to draw conclusions.

• •

Plans for own learning and development through the activities.

Manages self to achieve outcomes successfully.

Indicative characteristics — distinction

Indicative characteristics — merit

Grading domain 3


Annexe C Key skills All BTEC First qualifications include mapping and/or signposting of key skills. These are transferable skills, which play an essential role in developing personal effectiveness for adult and working life and in the application of specific vocational skills. In each unit the opportunities for the generation of evidence for key skills are signposted. These are indicative links only. Tutors will need to become familiar with key skills specifications and their evidence requirements and they are advised not to rely on the signposting in the units when presenting key skills evidence for moderation. Centres should refer to the QCA website (www.qca.org.uk) for the latest key skills standards. Key skills provide a foundation for continual learning. They enable and empower individuals who inevitably face a series of choices in work, education and training throughout their lives. Current and future initiatives such as learndirect, lifelong learning and widening participation all require a more flexible population in the workplace and key skills play a role in setting the framework. Learners need the chance to show current and future employers that they can: • communicate effectively, in a variety of situations, using a wide range of techniques • work well with others – individuals or teams – so that work can be properly planned and targets met • manage their own development, so that they are always ready to take on the challenges of change and diversification • use number, not just within routine tasks and functions but to help them be more effective and efficient in all they do • use ICT in a range of applications to support all aspects of their role • solve problems in a variety of circumstances.

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Unit 9







N2.2







N2.3







C2.1a













C2.1b











C2.2









C2.3









ICT2.1







ICT2.2





ICT2.3



LP2.1

Unit 10

Unit 8

N2.1

Unit 7

Unit 6

Unit 3

Unit 5

Unit 2

Unit 4

Key skills

Unit 1

Key skills mapping – summary of opportunities suggested in each unit



















































































































LP2.2





















LP2.3





















PS2.1

















PS2.2

















PS2.3

















WO2.1





















WO2.2





















WO2.3





















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Unit 14

Unit 15

Unit 16

Unit 17















C2.1b















C2.2















C2.3















ICT2.1















ICT2.2



























N2.1

Unit 13

Unit 12

Unit 11

C2.1a

Key skills



N2.2





N2.3





ICT2.3 LP2.1















LP2.2















LP2.3















PS2.1













PS2.2













PS2.3













WO2.1



























WO2.2 WO2.3



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202

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Lighting

Directors

Production

Radio Production

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‘F’ and ‘X’ units

Broadcast Journalism

Photo Imaging and Photo Processing





Sound

Interactive Media



Editing

4 

3

Camera

2

Skillset

1

Standards

SSC







5

6

7





















Units







8

9



KEY  indicates that the Edexcel Level 2 BTEC unit relates substantially to the specified category of National Occupational Standards. a blank space indicates no coverage of the underpinning knowledge

Please see the Links section of each unit for full signposting to the relevant National Occupational Standards.







10







11







203

12

The following grid maps the knowledge covered in the Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media against the general categories of the Skillset, E-skills, Print and Graphic Communication, and Management Standards Centre National Occupational Standards.

National Occupational Standards

Annexe D


204

MSC

F – Achieving Results



D – Working with People



Machine Printing – Digital Printing 



Desktop Publishing

A – Managing Self and Personal Skills





Pre-press







8







9





10

11







12

BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007







Specialist or bespoke software

Print NTO (L2)



7

Artwork and imaging software

6



5

Website software

4 

3

internet and intranets

2

E-skills (L2)

1

Units

Standards

SSC


    

Sound

Lighting

Directors

Production

Radio Production

BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007

‘F’ and ‘X’ units

Broadcast Journalism

Photo Imaging and Photo Processing 



Editing

Interactive Media



Camera

Skillset

13

Standards

SSC



14





15

Units





16





















17

205


Specialist or bespoke software

206

MSC

Print NTO (L2)

Artwork and imaging software

Machine Printing – Digital Printing

F – Achieving Results

D – Working with People

BF017268 Specification – Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Media – Issue 2 – March 2007 © Edexcel Limited 2007

Desktop Publishing

A – Managing Self and Personal Skills

Pre-press

17

Website software

16 ✓

15

internet and intranets

14

E-skills (L2)

13

Units

Standards

SSC


Annexe E Wider curriculum mapping Study of the Edexcel Level 2 BTEC Firsts in Media provides opportunities for the learner to develop an understanding of spiritual, moral, ethical, social and cultural issues as well as an awareness of environmental issues, European developments, health and safety considerations and equal opportunities issues. The Edexcel Level 2 BTEC Firsts in Media make a positive contribution to wider curricular areas as appropriate.

Spiritual, moral, ethical, social and cultural issues The specification contributes to an understanding of: • spiritual issues – media production is not inherently a spiritual activity, and should not be taught from the perspective of a particular spiritual belief or set of beliefs; individual practice, however, may be informed by the spiritual beliefs of the practitioner • moral and ethical issues – learners should be brought to appreciate the need to take responsibility for their own actions when making media products, and to recognise the possible effects of their productions upon others; they should also be introduced to the codes of professional practice relevant to the medium (or mediums) within which their programme is contextualised • social and cultural issues – the media are embedded within the social and cultural; a BTEC First Certificate or First Diploma programme should therefore seek to develop the learner’s understanding of the wider cultural and ideological issues relating to the media industries; learners should be introduced to issues such as the positive role of the media as a mechanism for learning and socialisation when it acts as a vehicle for campaigning on social and moral issues, supporting economic development, and circulating discussions relating to race, gender, and cultural differences; they should also begin to think about the possible negative effects in such areas as ownership, control and corporate domination, bias, representation of minorities, propaganda, and cultural imperialism; questions around the effects of the media on society – in relation to advertising and consumerism, or the depiction of violence, for example – could also be considered.

Environmental issues Environmental education can be brought into the programme if learners wish to use this as a starting point for their own work or wish to study the work of other media professionals who use it as subject matter in their work. Learners should be made aware of the possibilities of using sustainable resources. This may relate to paper-based products or the use of bio­ degradable materials for recording, packaging and distributing media products.

European developments There are opportunities within this specification to perform work with a European dimension even though it is taught in a UK context. This could be done through investigating the work of European media producers or producing original work with a European focus.

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Health and safety considerations The practice and implementation of safe working practices applies to all of the practical units within the qualification. Learners will be expected to observe safe working practices at all times within the context of a media production environment, and health and safety factors will play a major part in the development of skills. Learners should be made aware of the requirements for handling heavy objects, electrical and electronic equipment, and the legislation governing time spent working with VDUs. There is a requirement for learners to be aware of the necessity for compliance with public safety and local by-laws when working off the centre’s premises.

Equal opportunities issues Equal opportunities issues are implicit throughout the Edexcel Level 2 BTEC Firsts in Media. The teaching of an Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First in Media programme should promote equal opportunities by avoiding gender, ethnic, religious, political and all other forms of bias.

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Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 4

Unit 5

Unit 6

Unit 7

Unit 8

Unit 9

Unit 10

Wider curriculum mapping

Moral and ethical





















Social and cultural





















Environmental issues





















European developments





















Health and safety considerations





















Equal opportunities issues





















Unit 11

Unit 12

Unit 13

Unit 14

Unit 15

Unit 16

Unit 17

Spiritual

Moral and ethical















Social and cultural















Environmental issues















European developments















Health and safety considerations















Equal opportunities issues















Spiritual

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Further copies of this publication are available from Edexcel Publications, Adamsway, Mansfield, Notts, NG18 4FN Telephone 01623 467467 Fax 01623 450481 Email: publications@linneydirect.com Publications Code BF017268 March 2007 For more information on Edexcel and BTEC qualifications please contact Customer Services on 0870 240 9800 or http://enquiries.edexcel.org.uk or visit our website: www.edexcel.org.uk BTEC is a registered trademark of Edexcel Limited Edexcel Limited. Registered in England and Wales No. 4496750 Registered Office: One90 High Holborn, London WC1V 7BH


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