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Debbie Nixon Graphic Design Six Column Grid Spread


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Frost Bite Magazine

The Freezer Defrosts Dramatic meltingof sea ice due to global warming is having a major impact won the polar region...

Arctic sea ice is set to reach its lowest ever recorded extent as early as this weekend, in “dramatic changes� signalling that man-made global warming is having a major impact on the polar region.


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Icebergs found in Antartica


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Frost Bite Magazine

With the melt happening at an unprecedented rate

of more than 100,000 sq km a day, and at least a week of further melt expected before ice begins to reform

ahead of the northern winter, satellites are expected

to confirm the record currently set in 2007 – within days.

next few days. It might happen this weekend,

almost certainly next week,” Julienne Stroeve, a

scientist at the US National Snow and Ice Data Centre (NSIDC) in Boulder, Colorado, told the Guardian.“In

the last few days it has been losing 100,000 sq km a

day, a record in itself for August. A storm has spread the ice pack out, opening up water, bringing up

warmer water. Things are definite because ice thickness, volume, extent and area are all measured dif-

ferently, it may be a week before there is unanimous agreement among the world’s cryologists (ice ex-

perts) that 2012 is a record year. Four out of the nine

daily sea ice extent and area graphs kept by scientists in the US, Europe and Asia suggest that records have already been broken. “The whole energy balance of the Arctic is changing. There’s more heat up there.

There’s been a change of climate and we are losing

more seasonal ice. The rate of ice loss is faster than

the models can capture [but] we can expect the Arctic to be ice-free in summer by 2050,” said Stroeve.“Only 15 years ago I didn’t expect to see such dramatic

changes – no one did. The ice-free season is far longer now. Twenty years ago it was about a month. Now it’s three months. Temperatures last week in the Arctic were 14C, which is pretty warm.”

Scientists at the Danish Meteorological Institute,

the Arctic Regional Ocean Observing System in Nor-

way and others in Japan have said the ice is very close to its minimum recorded in 2007. The University of Bremen, whose data does not take into account ice

along a 30km coastal zone, says it sees ice extent be-

low the all-time record low of 4.33m sq km recorded in September 2007.

Ice volume in the Arctic has declined dramatically

over the past decade. The 2011 minimum was more

than 50% below that of 2005. According to the Polar

Science Centre at the University of Washington it now stands at around 5,770 cubic kilometres, compared with 12,433 cu km during the 2000s and 6,494 cu km in 2011. The ice volume for 31 July 2012 was

roughly 10% below the value for the same day in

is changing, there is more erosion and storms,

cu km of summer sea ice has disappeared from the

means there can be more mining, which is good

2011. A new study by UK scientists suggests that 900 Arctic Ocean over the past year.The consequences of losing the Arctic’s ice coverage for the summer

months are expected to be immense. If the white sea

and there are fewer mammals like polar bears. It for the economy, but it will have unpredictable effects on social change”.

Research published in Nature today said that

ice no longer reflects sunlight back into space, the

warming in the Antarctic peninsula, where tem-

present. This could lead to an increase in ocean tem-

years, is “unusual” but not unprecedented relative

region can be expected to heat up even more than at

peratures with unknown effects on weather systems in northern latitudes.

peratures have risen about 1.5C over the past 50 to natural variation.

Ice volume in the Arctic has declined dramat-

In a statement, a Greenpeace spokesman said:

ically over the past decade. The 2011 minimum

ing to us all. Data shows us that the frozen north is

ing to the Polar Science Centre at the University

“The disappearing Arctic still serves as a stark warnteetering on the brink. The level of ice ‘has remained

far below average’ and appears to be getting thinner, leaving it more vulnerable to future melting. The

consequences of further rapid ice loss at the top of

the world are of profound importance to the whole

planet. This is not a warning we can afford to ignore.” Longer ice-free summers are expected to open up

the Arctic ocean to oil and mining as well as to more trade. This year at least 20 vessels are expected to

was more than 50% below that of 2005. Accordof Washington it now stands at around 5,770

cubic kilometres, compared with 12,433 cu km

during the 2000s and 6,494 cu km in 2011. The ice volume for 31 July 2012 was roughly 10%

below the value for the same day in 2011. A new

study by UK scientists suggests that 900 cu km of summer sea ice has disappeared from the Arctic Ocean over the past year.

The consequences of losing the Arctic’s ice

travel north of Russia between northern Europe and

coverage for the summer months are expected to

made the first voyage in the opposite direction.

sunlight back into space, the region can be ex-

the Bering straits. Last week a Chinese icebreaker

“Every one of the 56,000 Inuits in Greenland have

had to adapt to the retreat of the ice,” said Carl-Chris-

tian Olsen, president of the Inuit Circumpolar Council in Nuuk, Greenland. “The permafrost is melting and

this is jeopardising roads and buildings. The coastline

be immense. If the white sea ice no longer reflects pected to heat up even more than at present. This could lead to an increase in ocean temperatures with unknown effects on weather systems in northern latitudes.

In a statement, a Greenpeace spokesman said:


115 Ice volume in the Arctic has declined dramatically

over the past decade. The 2011 minimum was more

than 50% below that of 2005. According to the Polar

Science Centre at the University of Washington it now stands at around 5,770 cubic kilometres, compared

with 12,433 cu km during the 2000s and 6,494 cu km in 2011. The ice volume for 31 July 2012 was roughly 10% below the value for the same day in 2011. A

new study by UK scientists suggests that 900 cu km of summer sea ice has disappeared from the Arctic

Ocean over the past year. The consequences of losing the Arctic’s ice coverage for the summer months are

expected to be immense. If the white sea ice no longer reflects sunlight back into space, the region can be

expected to heat up even more than at present. This

could lead to an increase in ocean temperatures with unknown effects on weather systems in northern latitudes.

“Unless something really unusual happens we will see the record broken in the next few days.” In a statement, a Greenpeace spokesman said:

“The disappearing Arctic still serves as a stark warning to us all. Data shows us that the frozen north is

teetering on the brink. The level of ice ‘has remained

far below average’ and appears to be getting thinner, leaving it more vulnerable to future melting. The

consequences of further rapid ice loss at the top of

the world are of profound importance to the whole

planet. This is not a warning we can afford to ignore.” Longer ice-free summers are expected to open up

the Arctic ocean to oil and mining as well as to more trade. This year at least 20 vessels are expected to

travel north of Russia between northern Europe and the Bering straits. Last week a Chinese icebreaker made the first voyage in the opposite direction.

“Every one of the 56,000 Inuits in Greenland have

had to adapt to the retreat of the ice,” said Carl-Chris-

tian Olsen, president of the Inuit Circumpolar Council in Nuuk, Greenland. “The permafrost is melting and

this is jeopardising roads and buildings. The coastline is changing, there is more erosion and storms, and

there are fewer mammals like polar bears. It means there can be more mining, which is good for the

economy, but it will have unpredictable effects on.


Arctic Magazine - Frost Bite 2