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STUDIO AIR NICHOLAS DEAN 699066 SEMESTER 1, 2016 TUTOR: FINN WARNOCK


Table of Contents PART A: CONCEPTUALISATION A1  DESIGN FUTURING A2 DESIGN COMPUTATION A3 COMPOSITION/GENERATION A4 CONCLUSION A5 LEARNING OUTCOMES A6 APPENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES PART B: CRITERIA DESIGN B1  RESEARCH FIELD B2 CASE STUDY 1.0 B3 CASE STUDY 2.0 B4 TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT B5 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES B6 TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL B7 LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES B8 APPENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES PART C: DETAILED DESIGN C1  DESIGN CONCEPT C2 TECHTONIC ELEMENTS & PROTOTYPES C3 FINAL DETAIL MODEL C4 LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES


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PART A CONCEPTUALISATION

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Since then, my architecture education has introduced me to new ways of communicating and visualising designs. I have been exposed to many forms of digital media, in particular, computer-generated modelling using Rhinoceros.

INTRODUCTION My name is Nicholas Dean, and I am a third year Architecture student studying at the University of Melbourne. I have always had a passion for art and design, sketching and drawing from an early age. It was not until Year 10 in Secondary School that I began to implement my drawing skills in an architectural sense when working on my Visual Communication and Design folios.

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My knowledge of the relationship between computer model and built form was further developed when undertaking the subject ‘Digital Design and Fabrication’, where we were required to study the notion of personal space through a ‘second skin’, representing this digitally at first in Rhinoceros, and then physically through a 1:1 model, taking advantage of the laser cutting services at the FabLab. Design Studio Air will be my first time studying parametric design, learning about the ways in which complex forms and structural joinery are carefully controlled by mathematical parameters. I look forward to learning the Grasshopper program within Rhinoceros and further developing my architectural knowledge through its use.


DIGITAL FABRICATION & DESIGN: SECOND SKIN REPRESENTATIVE OF PERSONAL SPACE

DESIGN STUDIO WATER: STUDLEY PARK BOATHOUSE DESIGN INSPIRED BY SANAA

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A.1 DESIGN FUTURING With the world’s population rapidly increasing, coupled with the fundamental nature of humans to be consumers of natural resources, we are witnessing an acceleration toward a defuturing condition of sustainability.1 Climate change, carbon emissions, rising sea levels, all of these factors are a result of a human centred view that results in decision making processes neglecting the environmental and social impacts. Humans have an innate ability to prefigure what we create before the act of creation1, therefore, humans should have the capacity to direct their design in ways that will contribute to the betterment of society and the environment at large. With the emergence of scripting and parametric design tools, architects now have the power to gather critical performance feedbacks from their computational models, and use that information as a means to redirect todays society towards a more sustainable mode of planetary habitation.1

1. Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16

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BBB Skyscraper by Juan Carlos Ramos Image Source: http://www.cgsociety.org/cgsarchive/ newgallerycrits/g30/505030/505030_1365558447_large.jpg

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CASE STUDY 01 SUNNY HILLS | KENGO KUMA Known for his atmospheric and user-orientated designs, Kengo Kuma’s Sunny Hill project is a corner shop thats form is inspired by the shape of a bamboo basket. Posing as beacon for innovative construction and engineering, Sunny Hill incorporates the traditional timber joinery method called “Jiigoku-Gumi” whereby a lattice mesh is created by interlocking timber members. Kuma, however, combined these traditional techniques with parametric design as a means to create a very complex, yet delicate design. The unconventional joinery angles of 30 degrees are a unique aspect of the design, made possible through the opportunities provided by parametric computation.

It is evident through this project that there are many facets of parametric design, some that enable the exploration of form and spatial experience, and others that determine the constructability of a design, utilising the full potential of the desired materials. This practical application of parametric design is one that I previously did not consider. My knowledge of the topic was purely revolved around the notion of abstract form, creating complex structures that break away from the generic cubic buildings. It is through precedents such as this that I am made aware of the endless opportunities parametric design has to offer, both in a design sense and a construction sense.


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CASE STUDY 02 GALAXY SOHO | ZAHA HADID Galaxy Soho by Zaha Hadid is an office, retail and enetertainment complex that is defined by organic curved volumes that are separated in areas through atriums and courtyards, and linked in others through sweeping bridges and walkways. The fluidity of the overall design forms a structure that is bold, yet gentle in the reference to the transitions between spaces. In today’s day and age, digital technology has increased the speed of architectural exploration through the ability to codify a design as an algorithmic expression, allowing for mathematical manipulation of design parameters. This form-finding method of design is true for Zaha Hadid’s work, where organic surfaces and planes are manipulated throughout the design process to alter the spatial experience and constructability of a building. The Galaxy Soho is a prime example of the way in which parametric design and parametric computation is implemented within the design process as a means to foresee the physical outcome of a project. Parametric design grants architects with the ability to embed physical constraints into a digital model, outlining both material qualities and assembly constraints that are crucial in communicating a design to built form.

To me, the real-time feedback of digital modelling, more specifically parametric modelling, offers an accuracy and workflow speed that has never been seen before. With such control and speed, I feel as though architects have the ability to push the boundaries and explore forms that are daring and break away from the norm. With that being said, my belief on what architecture of the future should aspire to be, revolves around the notion of a relationship between built form and the natural landscape, where both are able to adapt and grow harmoniously together. I believe, therefore, that there are two forms of organic architecture, organic in terms of form, and organic in terms of a buildings ability to connect with the surrounding natural landscape. I view Zaha Hadid’s work as being more focused on organic form rather than a connection and celebration of the natural environment.


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A.2 DESIGN COMPUTATION The realm of architecture has quickly expanded in accordance with the advancements in technology, with designers having access to many tools that allow them to visualise, examine and communicate their proposals. Architecture, by way of thinking, is a continual process of problem solving, whereby external imposed constraints are responded to and satisfied within the final design. Over the last 50 years, computation has been integrated into the design process, allowing architects to examine their concepts in both a design and practical sense. It has been acknowledged that design of the future is formed on the basis of a symbiotic design system, whereby the analytical abilities of a computer are equally matched to the creativity and intuition of the human user.1

1. Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25

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Museo Soumaya by Fernando Romero Enterprise,Mexico City Image Source: http://www.archdaily.com/452226/museo-soumaya-fr-ee-fernando-romero-ente rprise/5295422ce8e44ed126000019-museo-soumaya-fr-ee-fernando-romero-enterprise-photo

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CASE STUDY 01 MUSEO SOUMAYA | FERNANDO ROMERO (FR-EE) Computation within design has challenged what was initially thought possible within architecture, forming a design community that continually strives to achieve a refined, architecturally unique and user-oriented outcome. Such an approach was adopted by Fernando Romero, founder of FR-EE, within their design of the Museo Soumaya. Located in Mexico, the structure rises from the ground somewhat as a sculptural piece, echoing the artistic qualities of the interior gallery spaces.

Unique in its form and materiality, the double-curved exterior surface of the structure made it the most complex project attempted in Mexico. It is through computational design, in particular scripting algorithms like that used by FR-EE, that architects are able to formulate and visualise such ambitious and unique ideas without information being gathered and tested from architectural precedents. Computation offers a simple, integrated process of form exploration and constructability study as a means to understand complex geometries and design intents.


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CASE STUDY 02 MESSE BASEL | HERZOG & DE MEURON Over the past decade, the introduction of innovative technology within many facets of our daily life has influenced the way in which we interact with other individuals and our surroundings. In the design field, these changes can be examined through preestablished forms of gathering and communication knowledge influencing the design process, namely, the integration of computational means of data collection, conceptual form generating, parametric design & digital materiality.1 With such a rapid integration of computational tools within architectural design, it is impossible not to consider the implications of one’s reliance on technology, whereby the intrinsic creative and intuitive qualities of the individual designer are somewhat lost or supressed due to the calculated and methodical nature of computation. A firm that strongly values the importance of the designer as the primary driving force behind architectural design within a digital era is that of Herzog & de Meuron. Kai Strehlke, head of the Digital Technology Group at Herzog & de Meuron strongly

emphasises that architecture is the marrying of the conceptual world of design and the pragmatic world of construction2 , therefore, computation must be viewed as a tool for designers to communicate and best develop their idea, rather than an idea generator itself. As seen within the Messe Basel, and many other projects by Herzog & de Meuron, a combination of primative and technological techniques have been employed as a means to encourage the design toward the built form. Whilst the structure is quite organic and adaptive in terms of its facade, the practicalities of the design include a wavy rainscreen that also controls the extent of views out to the street and into the building. Such portals within the facade also contribute to a shading mechanism to help regulate internal temperatures throughout the year. It is through such precedents that we are able to consider a technologically advanced era of architecture that retains the fundamental role of the designer as the key factor for architectural design, one that considers both conceptual and practical outcomes to achieve the a holistic and refined design.

1. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 2. Peters, Brady (2013). Realising the architectural idea: Computational design at Herzog & de Meuron (Architectural Design), pp. 56-61


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A.3 COMPOSITION/ GENERATION There is a common misconception today within the design realm that using computers as a virtual drafting tool, purely to increase precision, is classified as ‘computation’, however, as outlined by Peters (2013), ‘computation’ refers to computers being harnessed to process information expressed as an algorithm that directly correlates to, and influences, an understood model.1 In the emergence of scripting, architects are able to move away from the notion of merely using design tools within architectural practice, like that of basic CAD drafting, and expand their knowledge and technical applications to actively create and control their own design software as an algorithmic expressions. Such a far-reaching presence of the architect within the design process through the use of computation sees designers not only create 3D models, but also create new

environments that virtually simulate material properties and give performance feedback based off the model being viewed as a holistic entity.1 Whilst the computational application of algorithms within architecture are fairly young, the fundamental understanding of what an algorithm is - a process that occurs as a result of inputs being influenced by a particular operation in order to produce a set of outputs - has been studied and explored for decades, within fields such as mathematics and science.2 Whilst individual firms and practices have actively sought after the opportunities associated with design through algorithmic expression, a lack of sufficient understanding of the masse inhibits scripting from becoming a form of architectural computation that is fully integrated within the design process.

1. Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 2. Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, eds (1999). Definition of ‘Algorithm’ in Wilson, The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press), pp. 11, 12

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CASE STUDY 01 LOUIS VUITTON MUSEUM | GEHRY PARTNERS Integrated into computational design exists multiple simulation capabilities, whether it be material attributes or structural and environmental performance analysis. Design that has been driven by such complex feedback tools can be seen within the Louis Vuitton Museum by Gehry Partners. The structural and enclosure systems were formulated through parametric scripting, aspiring to achieve the optimal structural integrity and performance for the building.1 It is evident through the work of Gehry Partners that parametric scripting systems serve as both a form generator and envelope optimiser.2 I do fear, however, that whilst parametric systems incorporate analysis tools that consider form, material, performance and fabrication constraints, the design expression may get suppressed due to pragmatic limitations. I feel as though scripting must remain malleable and diverse in order to adapt and change to add value to multiple projects and designs.

1. Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 2. Ben van Berkel, ‘Navigating the Computational Turn’, Architectural Design, 83.2, (2013), 82-87.


http://www.archdaily.com/555694/fondation-louis-vuittongehry-partners/5437471cc07a80f87c0000a1-11-_iwan_baan_ for_fondation_louis_vuitton_-iwan_baan_2014-jpg

http://www.archdaily.com/555694/fondation-louis-vuittongehry-partners/54374729c07a80e4c8000095-1-_frank_ gehry_fondation_louis_vuitton_-_-2014_todd_eberle-jpg 23


CASE STUDY 02 THEMATIC PAVILION | SOMA ARCHITECTS The contested issue surrounding what differentiates ‘computerisation’ and ‘computation’ can clearly be outlined through the closed-loop feedback systems that are only associated within the realm of ‘computation’ . These detailed feedback systems offer insight into structural, material, environmental and performance analysis1 from the conception stage of the design process, allowing for much more complex and refined design outcomes being formulated. It is made apparent through the emergence of such refined design tools that the boundaries of what is possible are forever expanding. With scripting, when a problem emerges, architects have the capacity to create an algorithm that satisfies the issue, thus widening the digital design environment 2 and expanding what is possible in the realm of the built form.

The expansive nature of architectural computation into the field of engineering and mechanical technologies is highlighted within the Thematic Pavilion by Soma. Despite being a facade system, Soma add complexity to their design through computation, whereby the glass-fibre reinforced louvres are studied virtually under compressive forces to determine the extent of maximum deflection, an aspect that was once considered by engineers as a form of material failure.3 Contradicting traditional engineering knowledge, the deformation of the louvres is mechanical controlled as a method to create a dynamic, deployable facade system. It is evident through this precedent that design computation can be seamlessly integrated within the design process in order to generate a resolved design that is justified within the physical, real world environment.

1. Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 2. Daniel Davis and Brady Peters, ‘Design Ecosystems: Customising the Architectural Design Environment with Software Plug-ins’, Architectural Design, 83.2, (2013), 124-131. 3. Jan Knippers, ‘From Model Thinking to Process Design ‘, Architectural Design, 83.2, (2013), 74-81.


Image Source: http://www.archdaily.com/236979/ one-ocean-thematic-pavilion-expo-2012soma/5001234f28ba0d2c9f000af6-one-oceanthematic-pavilion-expo-2012-soma-photo

Images Source: http://www.soma-architecture.com/ index.php?page=theme_pavilion&parent=2 25


A.4 CONCLUSION Within Part A, the aspirations for a more sustainable future were outlined, and made achieveable through the emergence of scripting and parametric design, of which offers greater control and precision throughout the design process, with simulative feedback tools ensuring the creation of the best possible design. Stemming from this, my intended design approach would be one that actively seeks to overcome problems through design, rather than chance or mindless exploration.1 I strongly feel that within such a technologically advanced society, computers should be taken full advantage of and integrated into the design process, creating a symbiotic system2 whereby the intrinsic creative qualities of the human are paired equally with the methodical and precise operations of the computer,

This is significant to the design process in that it retains the strong design intent put forth by the human designer, that is, that design remains a conscous process. Relating back to the desire for a sustainable future, if the human user remains the driving force behind design, then consideration into environmental and social impacts would be met. Through this symbiotic system, architects no longer just construct models, instead, they play an important role in the structural qualities of the design, looking at material attributes and optimum performance. Scripting and algorithmic expression is slowly dismantling the traditional lines of the design process, from architect to engineer, to contractors. I feel as though this is a welcome change as architects will operate in a wider scope and be able to produce holistic, and refined designs.

1. Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 2. Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25

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ICD and ITKE Research Pavilion, 2010 Image Source: https://simonschleicher.files.wordpress. com/2010/07/img_0096_klein3.jpg 27


A.5 LEARNING OUTCOMES Over the course of the first 3 weeks, I have learnt a lot about sustainability and design optimisation through computational design. This area of architecture was not one that I have previously studied, therefore, it was interesting to learn from real-life examples and theories of the ways in which computation is accelerating the design process. I have been made aware of the many facets of computational design, and the way in which embedded performance tools can virtually simulate physical constraints. I find this area of computation quite intriguing and benefitial for design of the future, as it allows architects to accurately solve problems associated with site and structure within their design models.

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In reference to the weekly algorithmic tasks using Grasshopper, I have had fun exploring the unique forms and architectural arrangements that can be achieved. Having used Rhino on its own throughout my univeristy studies, I never understood the relationship between operations within the model, instead I was just drawing lines that appear to be correct and logical to create a form. After being introduced to Grasshopper, I can clearly see that the user has more control over the 3D model, and requires an understanding of the inputs and desired outputs in order to achieve a cohesive design. Looking ahead, I am eager to continue to research and explore what computational design has to offer through more precedents and algorithmic exploration.


A.6 ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

FIG.4: EXTRUSION BASED OFF ROTATED 3D PLANE ALONG A CURVE

FIG.1: EFFECT OF ATTRACTOR CURVE ON EXTRUSION

FIG.5: BIARC COMMAND FORMED LINES BETWEEN GROUND PLANE AND LOFTED SURFACE, PIPE COMMAND USED TO INTRODUCE LINE THICKNESS

FIG.2: SUBTRACTED THE DISTANCES OF THE ATTRACTORS

FIG.3: ATTRACTOR POINTS GENERATED THROUGH POPULATE 2D

FIG.6: A BENDING ARC WAS INTRODUCED TO FURTHER DISTORT THE PIPED LINES 29


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References Ben van Berkel, ‘Navigating the Computational Turn’, Architectural Design, 83.2, (2013), 82-87.

Daniel Davis and Brady Peters, ‘Design Ecosystems: Customising the Architectural Design Environment with Software Plug-ins’, Architectural Design, 83.2, (2013), 124-131.

Fernando Romero andArmando Ramos, ‘Bridging a Culture: The Design of Museo Soumaya’, Architectural Design, 83.2, (2013), .

Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 Jan Knippers, ‘From Model Thinking to Process Design ‘, Architectural Design, 83.2, (2013), 74-81.

Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of ComputerAided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 Peters, Brady (2013). Realising the architectural idea: Computational design at Herzog & de Meuron (Architectural Design), pp. 56-61

Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15

Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, eds (1999). Definition of ‘Algorithm’ in Wilson. The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press), pp. 11, 12

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PART B CRITERIA DESIGN

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B.1 PATTERNING Patterning within architectural design is a concept that has been expressed for centuries throughout many different cultures around the world. Historic forms of patterning were often ornamental in nature, with walls, cornices, ceilings and even structural elements like that of a column, being decorated in symbolic and illustrative patterns. Such embellishments to the built form were strongly portrayed in classical architectural styles, namely the Renaissance period between the 15th and 17th century. An iconic building of this time, and even still today, is St Peter’s Basilica, designed by a group of of artists, sculptors and architects. The influence of Michelango, however, is strongly echoed through the built form as the highly ornamental interior dome is decorated in lavish illustrations. Throughout history, it has been examined that “pattern as style, detail, ornament, decoration, adornment, embellishment and structure was deeply influenced by religion, geometry and maths as well as the arts, design and crafts”1. Furthermore, Garcia states that patterns were a product of formal compositions, of which were influenced by “order, hierarchy, organisation, system, scale, proportion, symmetry, balance, complexity, beauty, unity, function, decorum, representation, symbol, joint, nature, expression, imagination and creativity”1.

Whilst many post-modernist figures like that of Adolf Loos sought to completely denounce the integration of ornamentation within architecture, a new belief began to emerge which stated that “ornament was necessary and inseparable from the object”4 , alluding to the way in which structural connections and the natural expressions of materiality have an inherent role in manifesting pattern and ornamentation within the built environment. In more recent times, with the emergence of parametric design, the expression of patterning and ornamentation through materiality and form has begun to to be explored in much greater depth. The algorithmic expressions and data structures that analyse and manipulate cause and effect within the Grasshopper work-flow in particular, enable designers to generate complex geometries and complex patterns that are intertwined with the structural performance and material attributes of the building. As will be seen in the case study to follow, Herzog & de Meuron centralise their architectural design process around the material world, therefore, they foster this same belief that “it is through ornament that materials transmit affect”4 and have the capacity to stimulate thought and an emotional response in the user.

Gottfried Semper was an influential figure in the 19th century that contributed to the discussion about ornamentation and it’s significance within architectural form. Semper stated that the “functional and structural requirements of a building are subordinate to the symbolic and artisitc goals of ornamental expression” 2. This view was completely opposed later by Adolf Loos who argued that “ornament is crime” and an “unnecessary” addition to architectural form.3 Loos advocated for the complete removal of ornament as a means to erect buildings that are structurally refined and resolved.

1.

Mark Garcia. Prologue for a History, Theory and Future of Patterns of Architecture and Spatial Design. Architectural Design, 79.6, (2009), 6-17.

2.

Moussavi, Farshid, and Michael Kubo, The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar, 2006), p. 5-11.

3.

Adolf Loos. Ornament and Crime. (Riverside, Calif; Ariadne Press, 1997)

4.

Moussavi, Farshid, and Daniel Lopez (2009). The Function of Form (Barcelona: Actar; New York), p. 8

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St Peter’s Basilica http://different-doors.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Peters-Interiors-Dome.jpg

De Young Museum https://www.flickr.com/photos/tatyregis/galleries/72157623886902971/#photo_359190824 35


B.2

CASE STUDY 01 DE YOUNG MUSEUM | HERZOG & DE MEURON Herzog & de Meuron are a firm that aspire to generate new architectural expressions using computation as a design tool. As stated by Herzog himself, “the material world is what [they] deal with�, therefore, through computation and parameteric design, they seek to draw upon real world parameters such as materiality and performance in order to enhance their buildings and bring about unique qualities.

unique perforated copper layers that are offset from one another to form the skin of the structure. Using a component like that of the Image Sampler within Grasshopper, geometry sizes and/or extent of extrusion can be manipulated based on the light and dark regions of an image. When conducting this process on three different layers, the copper sheet system is suggestive of an undulating and somewhat transparent facade.

In reference to patterning, Herzog & de Meuron are interested in taking well known forms and materials and expressing them in a unique way, one that may not have been seen within the architectural community before. As can be seen in the De Young Museum, the precision and control provided by computational design within the design process enabled the design and fabrication of three

In designing a facade with such intricate detail, the precision and control offered by computational design is paramout in progressing the design through to the fabrication and installation phase.


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ITERATIONS SPECIES 1: ALTERATIONS TO GRID SIZE AND CIRCLE RADIUS

SPECIES 2: HEIGHT ADJUSTMENTS FOR DINTS

SPECIES 3: EXTRUSION FROM SURFACE

SPECIES 4: MANIPULATION OF INNER & OUTER CIRCLE RADIUS


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SUCCESSFUL ITERATIONS SELECTION CRITERIA In doing this task, it is evident that Grasshopper fosters an efficient and concise workflow that allows for rapid manipulation of inputs and parameters in order to produce a large set of unique geometries and iterations. I feel as though the speed in which these concepts are produced allows for a deeper understanding of design opportunities and limitations, therefore, resulting in a more resolved outcome. Another interesting aspect of this task that I found important was the continual consideration of cause-andeffect. Whilst producing the varied set of iterations, it was necessary to have an understanding of the way in which each component and each parameter interacts with the data structure. Essentially, throughout the entire iterative process, a design intent was present and a desired outcome was foreseen. When analysing the outcomes, the selection criteria that was formulated responded to both practical and aesthetic

design qualities. In line with the brief, the successful outcomes had to be visualised in the context of a ceiling feature, of which will be fabricated using timber veneer. The ‘site’ or context for the project is a 4 x 6m meeting room, with the unit itself suspending no more than 1500mm from the ceiling. Whilst early in the design process, a conscious consideration of acoustic performance is necessary as the scale and function of the space requires the containment and absorption of sound. In terms of the aesthetic qualities of the design, the ceiling feature strives to manipulate light in an intriguing way in order to activate the interior space. Undulating surfaces and perforations within the material are crucial aspects in achieving such an effect. Based on this selection criteria, the following interations were chosen as they either satisfied or displayed potential in being implemented as a ceiling feature within the context of a meeting room.


No. 2 This particular iteration, whilst remaining quite similar to the De Young Museum case study, could be implemented in the context of a ceiling feature as the perforations would conform to the material qualities of timber veneer. The varied radius size would also create a dappled light effect, of which is a desireable aesthetic quality within the design.

No. 12 Although timber veneer would not be able to achieve this outcome, I was intrigued by the way in which the undulations of the surface could be combined with the perforated geometries, creating somewhat of a solar light tube when in the context of a ceiling feature.

No. 22 Despite looking quite complex, the overlapping of repeated circles can create quite an intricate pattern. Through this iteration I can envisage perforations occuring randomly, either within the circle faces or as strips along a circles edge. This mix between larger geometries and thin slits, again, would manipulate light in an interesting way.

No. 28 This iteration is unique out of the set as it shows a very linear progression of transformations occuring within the design. Unlike many of the other iterations that have been quite random in their patterning, this design shows structure and reflects a sense of continuity, one that would create quite a refined, minimalistic outcome.

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B.3

CASE STUDY 02 AU OFFICE & EXHIBITION SPACE | ARCHI UNION ARCHITECTS INC. The AU Office & Exhibition Space in Shanghai is a highly relevant example of architectural design that brings about new expressions of materiality to historic forms of construction, like that of masonry. In line with the historical origins of the building as an abandoned fabric storing facility, the parametric masonry facade system echoes the dynamic qualities of silk sheets flowing in the wind. It is intriguing the way in which a solid form like that of the concrete block wall, can take on a whole new design aesthetic purely through the rotation of units.

One thing that interests me within this design that I could incorporate into my own design, is the notion that the design elicits different responses and offers different patterns depending on the angle at which you approach the structure. I feel as though this concept of the structure adapting and changing would be a strong design feature for a ceiling installation.


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REVERSE ENGINEERING

SURFACE GEOMETRY

SURFACE ANALYSIS

SERIES GRAPH

MULTIPLICATION

MAPPER

POINT

INTERPOLATE

XYZ

CURVE

POINT

INTERPOLATE

XYZ

CURVE

LOFT

XY PLANE

CONTOURS

HORIZONTAL FRAMES

NUMBER SLIDER

CONSTRUCTING CURVES

CREATING A SURFACE

SURFACE DIVISION

Using the Graph Mapper component, two sets of Points (XYZ) were constructed and later Interpolated to form two curves.

The Loft component was adopted in order to create a surface between the two curves

Contours in the XY Plane were established, creating horizontal line divisons from the surface. Horizontal Frames were then located along each of the contour lines, creating a grid of reference points.


ATTRACTOR CURVE CURVE

CURVE

CLOSEST POINT DISTANCE

DIVIDE ROTATION OF UNITS

NUMBER SLIDER

ROTATE MASONRY BLOCKS BOX (1) XYZ BOX (2) XYZ

FLATTEN

CULL PATTERN TRIM SOLID DIFFERENCE

FLATTEN

CULL PATTERN

NOTE: BOX (2) HAS DIFFERENT X & Z VALUES, HOWEVER, IN ORDER TO SUCCESSFULLY TRIM TWO SOLIDS AND CREATE THE HOLLOW SECTION WITHIN THE MASONRY BLOCK, THE Y VALUE REMAINED EQUAL TO BOX (1)

CREATING MASONRY BLOCKS

GENERATING THE BRICK WALL

ROTATION OF UNITS

In forming two boxes of varying sizes through the Box component, the Trim Solid Difference component was used in order to create the hollow section.

The masonry blocks were connected to the horizontal frames component, with a Cull Pattern being applied in order to form the staggered coursing of the bricks. In order for the cull pattern to work, however, the data structure of the bricks had to be flattened.

A simple attractor curve was established whereby the rotation of each masonry unit occurs in accordance to its proximity to points referenced along the attractor curve.

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OUTCOME The reverse engineering task has proven to be very benefitial in discovering the the way in which a parametric model can be conceived and later represented as a physical product/structure. In studying and analysing the structure in an algorithmic sense, trying to determine how it was designed and fabricated, I felt as though a deeper understanding of the design was formed, in comparison to the case studies addressed in Part A. Visually, my outcome illustrates the fundamental concepts behind the structure, such as the coursing of the bricks as well as the rotation of each unit as a result of their proximity to an attractor curve or point. The complexities

of how the structural load is dispersed throughout the facade, whilst not examined in my reverse engineering, is an aspect that would have been vital in the design process. As mentioned previously, my interest in this precedent is due to the way in which a solid form like that of the concrete block wall, can take on a whole new design aesthetic purely through movement and the dynamic rotation of the bricks. Furthermore, linking to my research field of patterning, the AU Office and Exhibition Space successfully integrates pattern and material expression into the structural systems of the facade.


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B.4

TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT In moving forward and exploring in greater depth the multi faceted realm of parametric design, The AU Office and Exhibition facade provided a strong basis for the creation of unique geometries and surfaces. Due to the multiple input parameters within the algorithmic script that contribute to the final design, extensions and alterations to many key components within the original design were enabled, of which included variations to surface geometry, manipulation of the surface grid, adjustments to the box morph geometry and lastly, the attractor points or curves that influence the pattern distribution or rotation of units within the structure.

In focusing on such opportunities within the original definition, my intension through the development phase of the design task is to unlock new potentials that may contribute to creating unique atmospheric qualities, predominately through the manipulation of light and shadow effects. Another aspiration for the design is to discover surface geometries that are rigid, yet dynamic and organic in their appearance, much like the AU Office and Exhibition Space.


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ITERATIONS SPECIES 1: ALTERING THE SURFACE GEOMETRY

SPECIES 2: SMOOTH MESH EDGES TO CREATE ORGANIC FORMS

SPECIES 3: WAFFLE GRID THROUGH DIVIDED SURFACE


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ITERATIONS SPECIES 4: RANDOM QUAD THROUGH LUNCHBOX COMPONENT

SPECIES 5: HEXAGONAL PANELLING

SPECIES 6: ORGANIC BOX MORPH


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RE-ADDRESSING THE SELECTION CRITERIA At this stage of the design process, it is important to continually evaluate and analyse the advantages and disadvantages of design proposals in accordance to the requirements of the brief. To achieve this, it is necessary to re-address the selection criteria formulated at an early stage within the project. It is through methods such as this that enable designers to systematically test and speculate on iterative stages of the design, opening up avenues to new opportunities and spatial qualities within the project.

ORGANIC

Does the installation reflect a dynamic form, of which is representative of the flow of discussion within the context of the meeting room?

ATMOSPHERIC LIGHT EFFECT

Does the geometry or pattern created contribute to a dapled light effect, creating a unique atmosphere that is dissimilar and unique from the surrounding environment?

AESTHETIC

Is the installation visually pleasing, intriguing and interesting in its form?

FABRICATION

What is the likelihood of the successful fabrication of the design?

INTERACTIVE

Does the arrangement of the installation facilitate interaction and engagement with the users?


ORGANIC

6/10

ATMOSPHERIC LIGHT EFFECT

8/10

AESTHETIC

6/10

FABRICATION

5/10

INTERACTIVE

5/10

ORGANIC

8/10

ATMOSPHERIC LIGHT EFFECT

7/10

AESTHETIC

7/10

FABRICATION

8/10

INTERACTIVE

6/10

ORGANIC

8/10

ATMOSPHERIC LIGHT EFFECT

9/10

AESTHETIC

8/10

FABRICATION

7/10

INTERACTIVE

6/10

ORGANIC

6/10

ATMOSPHERIC LIGHT EFFECT

7/10

AESTHETIC

5/10

FABRICATION

3/10

INTERACTIVE

4/10

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FORMING GROUPS FOR INTERIM PRESENTATIONS Progression with the project consisted of groups being allocated based on differing design fields in order to expand the scope and complexity of the design. Jintao and Brendan, my group members, were interested in strips and folding and patterning through apertures, respectively. Due to the merging of different aspects of parametric design, it was necessary to evaluate precedent studies that satisfied the requirements of each design field. The Seroussi Pavilion was chosen as it it strongly illustrates the application of strips and folding as well as patterning through materiality. The Seroussi Pavilion is formed through the interaction of electro-magnetic fields, thus, the form of the structure is organic in the sense that it is naturally produced through attracting or repelling forces

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The notion of a self-generated form was something that sparked interest within the group, and was something we chose to explore within our design. Our second precedent, AL Bahar Towers by Aedas, is also successful in satisfying patterning, folding and apertures through the representation of a responsive facade that adopts new geometries based on sun exposure. The dynamic movement of the facade is an interactive expression that we intended to research and pursue within the development of our ceiling installation proposal.


SEROUSSI PAVILION http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2637/3709156721_4c01a33f6f_b.jpg

AL BAHAR TOWERS https://c2.staticflickr.com/4/3775/14303560803_4802abfd83_b.jpg

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B.5

TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES Physical prototypes are an integral part of the design process as they allow for the design to be examined within real world constraints, in line with material performance and structural connections. Until this stage, the design approach had been centred around digital modelling, purely due to the fact that we are developing and expanding our knowledge of Grasshopper as a design tool. As a result, our designs have been conceived with limited consideration of practical implications. It was our aim, therefore, to test and evaluate key design aspects within prototypes, namely the light and shadow effect as well as methods of fabrication.

We also welcomed the prototype phase as it was an opportunity for us to fabricate a functional aperture and examine the different states that the geometry or surface takes. For the purpose of our design and understanding of the design field, we fabricated a pre-designed aperture that was controlled through a physical mechanism that opened and closed a central oculus. Due to our desire for the ceiling installation to be interactive in some way, we used this prototype as a tool to examine the likelihood of such an element being integrated into our design.


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B.6

TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL SITE ANALYSIS In order to successfully satisfy the requirements of the design brief, a detailed study of the specific site attributes and constraints was necessary. As outlined within the diagramatic representations of the site, limitations associated with appropriate dimensions are addressed. The ceiling installation must not obstruct the verbal and physical exchange of individuals within the meeting room, nor should it feel imposing and overbearing. Proportion is an important design principle that required consideration. Analysis of the site also extended beyond the quantitative measures, it may prove useful to predict

the flow of traffic into and within the meeting room. It was identified that during presentations, individuals would be standing near the projector, therefore, the height at which the ceiling installation can be suspended in that area must be reduced. Predicting views into, and out of, the meeting room was also a crucial component in the conception of a design proposal. Due to the meeting room being enclosed on three sides by glass, the ceiling installation would be in constant view, therefore, the design not only has to conform to the interior meeting room conditions, but also to the office conditions at large.


6000mm

4000mm

3500mm

FLOOR PLAN

EAST ELEVATION

NORTH ELEVATION

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DESIGN INTENT The core focus of our design proposal is to create a ceiling installation that is representative of the fluid and dynamic interactions that occur within the meeting room itself. Much like the continual flow of ideas, back and forth between people, our design sought to echo that in its form. The panels were formed through the adoption of electro-magnetic fields, of which were positioned in a way that generated a form that directs the eye through the full extent of the meeting room. To add further complexity and atmospheric quality to the design, we incorporated patterning that was influenced in accordance with the planarity of the surface panels. The perforations contribute to a dapled light effect, whilst also reducing the visual weight of the installation. As an interactive feature, we intended for the central spines of the design to have mechanical apertures, whereby the users could control and alter the extent of light within the space.

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B.7

LEARNING OUTCOME The learning objectives outlined at the start of the subject have directed the design process and encouraged research and speculation into the realm of parametric design. Through understanding of current projects as precedent studies for our own design, we were able to draw upon the opportunities of these projects as a means to enhance the visual and practical application of our ceiling installation. Firstly, interrogating and understanding the brief is displayed through my understanding of site context and conditions of the meeting room, as well as size constraints and material attributes which would influence the practical application and installation of the design. Throughout the duration of the project thus far, the ability to generate a variety of design possibilities for a given situation has been illustrated through the multiple matrix activities, whereby input parameters are manipulated, tested and evaluated in order to determine specific design qualities. This process outlines my ability to harness three-dimensional media as a means of critically analysing my design development against the requirements of the brief, formulating a much more resolved and refined outcome. The introduction of physical prototypes to test the physical attributes of the design indicates my ability to examine the relationship between the proposal and the context in which it is placed. Whilst prototyping will be a contant, developing process, to date it has already identified potential weaknesses and opportunities within the design, mainly in reference to the materical attributes and connection requirements for fabrication.

An over-arching aspect of the design task is the presence of a selection criteria that fosters critical thinking and continual reference back to the brief. Outlined within the matrix tasks, the selection criteria determines the main aspirations/opportunities of the design and evaluates the success of different iterations and proposals based off these. I feel that this aspect of the course is a necessary way to uphold a design intent and form a clear direction for the design process. Touched on briefly before, the analysis of contemporary architectural projects directed the body our learning in Part A and continued to have strong grounds for understanding the realm of parametric design in Part B as well. In Part B, however, architectural projects were examined in reference to how the designs may have been conceived, namely through Grasshopper and algorithmic expression. My ability to understand and develop data structures within the Grasshopper interface are strongly illustrated within B.3 (Reverse Engineering) and B.4 (Technique: Development) as these tasks required knowledge into the cause-effect nature of input parameters on output geometries. Moving forward, I hope to continue to develop my technical knowledge through digital modelling using Grasshopper, unlocking new techniques and outcomes that will enhance my current proposal. I feel strongly that for Part C of the design task, prototypes will play a crucial role in conceiving the design in a physical sense, therefore, my aim is to continually fabricate and test physical models as a means of studying the reflecting on the design to date.


B.8

ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

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References Adolf Loos. Ornament and Crime. (Riverside, Calif; Ariadne Press, 1997)

Mark Garcia. Prologue for a History, Theory and Future of Patterns of Architecture and Spatial Design. Architectural Design, 79.6, (2009), 6-17.

Moussavi, Farshid, and Michael Kubo, The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar, 2006), p. 5-11.

Moussavi, Farshid, and Daniel Lopez (2009). The Function of Form (Barcelona: Actar; New York), p. 8

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68

PROJECT PROPOSAL


PART C DETAILED DESIGN

PROJECT PROPOSAL

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C.1

DESIGN CONCEPT RESTRUCTURING OF GROUPS AFTER INTERIMS Based on the feedback from interim presentations, the design concept was well presented, with compelling fabricated prototypes that were successful in illustrating design intent. It was stated, however, that the proposed design lacked the detail that would be necessary to fabricate the ceiling installation from timber strips, therefore, greater consideration into joints and connections would be required within Part C. The combination of operability with patterning through material expression was a design element that intrigued the panel, however, they were wary that mechanical apertures that relied heavily on manmoving would be difficult to execute, as the friction and fabrication tolerance require a certain level of precision and would not perform well with age and ware. In order to satisfy this requirement, we intended to examine natural forms of operability through compressive and tensile forces being exerted on the timber veneer. This method could also coincide with the varied pattern distribution within the installation, as varying degrees of bending and/or rotation of the timber veneer could bring about interesting visual and lighting effects. After discussion with the studio group and our tutor after interims, however, we were granted the opportunity to emalgamate the key aspects of each groups proposal from Part B to form one joint project. As a result, we began a process of analysis and evaluation into the various proposals presented by the five groups within the studio and uncovered the desireable elements within each as a point of development for the overall, final proposal.

In reference to our design proposal, the curvaceous and undulating form of the installation was an aspect that the group considered to be quite effective, as it visually appeared to droop and interact with the meeting room space. Brydie, Hugh and Jacob’s design was unique in that the tesselations varied throughout the system, therefore, the contrasting of elements was an aspect that was pursued. With consideration into notched connections, Windy and Jia’s design sparked discussion about the fabricable nature of the ceiling installation, a crucial aspect that translates a 3D model into a practical design. Clinton & Ed’s design was a strong contender for the chosen project to pursue, as the 3 dimensional nature of the installation and the way in which it visually fills the meeting room intrigued the studio group. After discussion, however, the visual weight of the design did not accurately respond to the context of the meeting room, and it was on this note that the slender, more delicate and refined design produced by Chen, Daniel and Katerina, was chosen. Inspiration for the strips and folding proposal by Chen, Daniel & Katerina drew upon Biomimicry, whereby the analysis of ‘flow’ within all aspects of nature and human behaviour was a driving aspect. More specifically, analysis into the dynamic and collaborative ‘flow’ of ideas and interactions within the meeting room was primary to the conception of the ceiling installation. The geometry and form of the design was deemed the most appropriate within the context of the meeting room, thus it was the strongest contender for ...


Me, Brendan & Jintao

Brydie, Hugh & Jacob

Windy & Jia

Ed & Clinton

Chen, Daniel & Katerina

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EXPLORATION OF FORM THROUGH BIOMIMICRY AGENT-BASED DESIGN As referenced within her Part B proposal, Katerina directed her study towards the research field of Biomimicry, drawing upon the notion of ‘flow’ as a link between the proposed form of the ceiling installation and the collaborative environment of the meeting room, particularly drawing upon the continual flow of ideas and designs that occur within the office at large. This idea strongly directed the generative process for the desired geometry of the design, with the use of Boids as an algorithmic tool to conceptually illustrate the progressive flow of

lines and surfaces that comprise the ceiling installation. In essence, biomimicry encompasses the process of learning through nature, directing design based on natural behaviours, processes and interrelations that occur within an ecosystem. Research into such a field, therefore, is highly relevant to the context of the meeting room. Biomimicry enables meaning and logic to be embed into the form, establishing a design that is considerate and responsive to the site. As seen within the accompanying matrix produced by Katerina, the current issue regarding the linear nature of the design was addressed, with more natural and free-flowing lines algorithmically generated within Grasshopper.


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3 DIMENSIONAL EXPRESSION OF THE DESIRED GEOMETRY

4

#01

#05

#02

#06

#03

#07

#04

#08


#13

#10

#14

#11

#15

#12

#16

MATRIX PRODUCED BY CHEN & ED

#09

75

5


76

6

#17

#21

#18

#22

#19

#23

#20

#24


#29

#26

#30

#27

#31

#28

7

#32

MATRIX PRODUCED BY CHEN & ED

#25

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EVALUATION OF SUCCESSFUL PROPOSALS COLLABORATION AS A MEANS OF PROGRESSION Due to the need for collaboration between the 13 group members in reference to the desired geometry, various design reviews were conducted within the allocated studio times in order to evaluate proposed geometries and gather everyone’s opinions in regards to them. The iterations matrix produced by Chen and Ed proved to be a vital tool in exploring many different visual and fabricable qualities of the ceiling installation through the alteration and manipulation of certain parameters within the Grasshopper script. As a result, we were able to hone in on four desireable designs that the studio group considered the most visually expressive and relevant to the idea of ‘flow’. Harping back to the selection criteria from Part B, the intended geometry for the ceiling installation had to reflect the organic qualities of ‘flow’, create an atmospheric light effect, be fabricable, and also consider the context of the meeting room in terms of the way in which the form suspends and interacts with the space.

Whilst proposals 3 & 4 were visually quite intricate and free-form, the exaggerated curves and undulations of the geometry were not considerate of the professional context of the meeting room. These proposals were deemed more sculptural and abstract in their approach, thus reducing their relevance to the site. In contrast, proposals 1 & 2 were successful in responding to the day-to-day functions within the meeting room, reflecting geometries that do not significantly impose on the space. Further evaluation between these two proposals was undertaken in order to definitively move forward with the design process and further develop one geometry. Whilst both proposals reflected a progressive flow stretching the entirity of the meeting room, the presence of negative space within proposal 1 visually portrayed a sense of an incomplete system, one that would highlight and expose the suspension rods hanging from the ceiling. Therefore, the studio group agreed upon proposal 2 as our final geometry.


PROPOSAL 1 ORGANIC

6/10

ATMOSPHERIC LIGHT EFFECT

4/10

AESTHETIC

5/10

FABRICATION

5/10

RELEVANCE TO SITE

4/10

PROPOSAL 2 ORGANIC

8/10

ATMOSPHERIC LIGHT EFFECT

7/10

AESTHETIC

7/10

FABRICATION

8/10

RELEVANCE TO SITE

8/10

PROPOSAL 3 ORGANIC

8/10

ATMOSPHERIC LIGHT EFFECT

8/10

AESTHETIC

4/10

FABRICATION

4/10

RELEVANCE TO SITE

4/10

PROPOSAL 4 ORGANIC

8/10

ATMOSPHERIC LIGHT EFFECT

8/10

AESTHETIC

7/10

FABRICATION

5/10

RELEVANCE TO SITE

5/10

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FINAL GEOMETRY ESTABLISHING A STRONG BASIS FOR DEVELOPMENT Employing the techniques of pinching and spreading through the use of attractor points and a series of polylines that direct the movement of the tube geometries, the final geometry chosen for refinement successfully embodies the notion of flow through the subtle undulations of the tubes and the varied masses which they reflect. The balance between the larger forms and the thinner tubes create a unique point of difference within the design, ensuring that the visual weight of the system does not overpower the meeting room.

Through the reduction in unwanted areas of overlap and intersection between the distinctive elements, the final geomtry is clean and refined and relatively easy to fabricate in the sense that the geometry can be broken down into segments and assembled through establishing connections between these components.


ISO VIEW

PLAN 81


C.2

TECTONIC ELEMENTS & PROTOTYPES BREAKING DOWN THE DESIGN INTO SMALLER COMPONENTS Due to the large number of members within the group, it was necessary to divide the project into unique elements, all of which serve to contribute to the overall proposal. Through such division of labour, however, collaboration and file sharing between group members was vital throughout the duration of the design task, as we had to ensure our work and study related back to the overall proposal. In order to satisfy this requirement, the group ensured that weekly review sessions were undertaken as a means of coming together and sharing our research and development, and how these ideas might be integrated throughout the design. Due to my research into patterning within Part B, I was paired with Windy to uncover the various expressions of patterns throughout the ceiling installation, assessing their visual and atmospheric effects.


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PATTERNING ITERATIONS EXPLORATION OF STRIPS Exploration into patterning first began through the generation of iterations. As a starting point, we used the ‘Iso Trim’ component in order to introduce strips to the lofted geometry created by Chen and Ed. From there, exploration into patterning involved parameters within the script being manipulated in order to produce different and unique effects. Windy and I were both determined to move away from the linear nature of the strips and the way in which the thickness remained constant throughout the installation. Our exploration, therefore, considered weaving effects whereby the strips undulate as they span across the length of the meeting room. We agreed that this design feature strongly supported

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the design intent of ‘flow’ as the form further reflected the harmonious flow of ideas that occur within the meeting room. With the primary undulating form agreed upon, Windy and I furthered our exploration in introducing rotational and offset parameters that introduce another layer of complexity to the design. Whilst these iterations produced interesting visual effects, they were not practical for fabrication as necessary intersection points for structural connections were absent. It is through such fabrication concerns that we decided upon the concept of undulating strips that meet at designated intervals, allowing for a notch or rivet connection, an aspect that will be discussed later within the journal.


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INTEGRATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL FEEDBACK BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN MODELLING & ANALYSIS WITHIN THE DESIGN PROCESS Throughout the semester, I have been fascinated with parametric design not just in a generative sense where design parameters allow for much more complex geometries whilst at the same time retaining maximum control, but also as a practical tool in the analysis and optimization of buildings and design proposals. The way in which real-world parameters can be used as inputs within the design process is an aspect that I feel is greatly beneficial to architectural design as designs would be sitespecific and perform in a manner that is befitting to the surrounding context. As stated by Grabner & Frick, the integration of environmental factors within the design process fosters a “digital workflow that narrows the gap between modeling and analysis”.1 In this sense, iterative design no longer occurs in isolation and purely as a means of visual and aesthetic effect, instead, designers are able to harness the performance and environmental analysis generated out of plug-ins such as Ladybug and GECO, and use this to “inform architectural decisions” and “explore design potentials” that relate back to the context of the site.2

This ‘live loop’ workflow that combines 3D modeling software and analysis platforms like that of Ladybug, is one that I intended to establish within my work toward the ceiling installation. In order to understand the application of such an approach, however, I studied the Cellular Morphology Façade by rat{LAB], a project that consisted of the design of a façade system that was responsive to the local climate and context of New Delhi. Whilst the scale of this project strongly differs from what we are undertaking as a studio group, the prototype that rat[LAB] produced does hold some relevance within the context of a ceiling installation, as the tessellation and distribution of patterns across the geometry seek to create a visual and lighting effect, elements which relate strongly to our design project. Furthermore, the way in which the hexa-grid system is made up of “917 unique cells”, all of which are “controlled through an algorithm that alters [their] density and attraction” as a result of environmental factors such as light exposure3, is design attribute that I wish to embody within my work as it is interesting to consider the way in which no two elements within the design perform in the same manner, yet they work harmoniously together as an entire system.

1. Thomas Grabner & Ursula Frick, ‘Architectural Design Through Environmental Feedback’, Architectural Design, 83.2, (2013), 142-143. 2. Grabner & Frick, ‘Architectural Design Through Environmental Feedback’, 142-143. 3. Lidija Grozdanic, ‘Cellular Morphology Facade uses design to allow buildings to adapt to different climatic conditions’ (2015) <http://inhabitat.com/cellular-morphology-facade-uses-parametric-design-to-adapt-todifferent-climatic-conditions/> [accessed 6 June 2016]. 86


rat[LAB] Cellular Morphology Facade

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ALGORITHM FEEDBACK LOOP PHASE 1 NUMBER SLIDER = 0 Latitute set to zero in order for sunpath to be directly above the ceiling installation

CONSTRUCT LOCATION

LADYBUG SUNPATH NOTE: 4 x unique ‘light’ positions input into Sunpath DOWNLOAD EPS. MELBOURNE WEATHER FILE

LOFTED GEOMETRY FROM CHEN & ED’S DEFINITION GENCUMULATIVESKYMTX

TEST POINTS Points of analysis on surface of geometry

HOURS (1<24)

SELECTSKYMTX

DAYS (1<31)

RADIATION ANALYSIS

ANALYSIS PERIOD

RADIATION RESULT List of values

MONTHS (1<12)

PHASE 2

LOFTED GEOMETRY FROM CHEN & ED’S DEFINITION

ISO TRIM POINTS

CONSTRUCT DOMAIN

DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO POINTS

MASS ADDITION BOUNDS

set of points that locate

CONSTRUCT DOMAIN2 SERIES

AREA

areas of most light exposure

REMAP

CONSTRUCT DOMAIN

CONSTRUCT DOMAIN

SERIES

PHASE 3

LOFTED GEOMETRY FROM CHEN & ED’S DEFINITION CONSTRUCT DOMAIN CONSTRUCT DOMAIN2 SERIES

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CONSTRUCT DOMAIN

ISO TRIM

BREP EDGES 0

LIST ITEM

2

LIST ITEM

FLIP MATRIX


LARGER THAN

CULL PATTERN

NUM. SORT LIST

0

LIST LENGTH

LIST ITEM

MIN.

LIST ITEM

MAX.

SUBTRACTION

POINTS set of points that locate areas of most light exposure note: points are used as input parameters within

SUBTRACTION

the patterning definition.

DIVISION SUBTRACTION

NUM. SLIDER

number of items in radiation list

ADDITION

AVERAGE FLIP MATRIX

LINE

LENGTH

LIST ITEM

MULTIPLICATION

0.3

MOVE DIVIDE LENGTH by 1200

VECTOR 2PT LINE

DIVIDE LENGTH by 1200

AMPLITUDE

WEAVE

0.5

VECTOR 2PT

INTERPOLATE CURVE

AMPLITUDE MERGE DATA

MOVE

DIVIDE LENGTH by 600

SHIFT LIST

CULL INDEX

DIVIDE LENGTH by 600

SHIFT LIST

CULL INDEX

WEAVE

LOFT

INTERPOLATE CURVE

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LIGHT ANALYSIS WITHIN THE MEETING ROOM My design intent for the implementation of analysis platforms such as Ladybug was to establish contextdependent parameters through the analysis of light distribution that serve to influence and effect the undulation of the strip geometry, creating a system that is variable in its visual expression. I felt strongly that due to the design concept of ‘flow’ reflecting the activities and interactions within the context of the meeting room, parameters within the design itself should also relate back to the site. In order to establish context-dependent parameters, I harnessed the analysis platform of Ladybug as a way of studying light within the meeting room. Whilst this plug-in is primarily centralised around sunlight analysis and environmental conditions, I was able algorithmically tailor the script to mimic a lighting

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plan that could be deemed appropriate in the context of the meeting room. To achieve this, I used number sliders as input parameters into the hours, days and months of the “Sunpath” component, generating four unique light locations that equally contribute to illuminating the space. Due to the flexible nature of the script, and the responsiveness of the Ladybug plug-in when operating within a closed-loop feedback system, alterations to light locations directly effected the radiation analysis results that measured the distribution of light within the space, of which subsequently resulted in varied expressions of the timber veneer strips in that the thickness and extent of undulation was derived from the values of light exposure.


LIGHT DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS THROUGH LIGHT EXPOSURE Linked with the outputs from the “Sunpath” component, the “Radiation Analysis” visually and analytically simulates the distribution of light from a source point/points onto the surface of a system. This technique was implemented within the design process as a means to locate areas on the geometry exposed to the greatest amount of light, allowing for the establishment of localised attractor points that directly influence the thickness of the strips. In essence, strips subject to the most light and therefore closest to the attractor points would be thinner, promoting a dappled light effect in allowing light to pass through and interact with the underside of the double-skin bulbous form. I feel as though this technique brings about visual and atmospheric variation within the ceiling installation, adding another layer of depth and complexity to the definition.

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APPLICATION OF WORKFLOW ON CEILING INSTALLATION SITE-SPECIFIC DESIGN THROUGH THE USE OF CONTEXT-DEPENDENT PARAMETERS As mentioned briefly, the application of environmental feedback within the design process created a system that no longer performed in unison, instead, the strips differed slightly in thickness based on the amount of light exposure that they received, and as a result brought about visual and atmospheric contrast throughout the design. The detail and control offered through Ladybug proved to establish a flexible algorithmic script, however, due to the size of the group with 13 members, file sharing became an issue. Due to time restrictions to meet deadlines for the FabLab queues, coupled with the fact that many group members did not have the plugin downloaded, nor did they have an understanding of how to operate the analysis tool, a collaborative Grashopper file that integrated the Ladybug analysis process only hindered the progression of the design into the fabrication phase. It is evident, therefore, that a workflow that merges modeling and analysis requires total adoption by a design team, as it is not a process that can occur in isolation. An example of this is at Foster and Partner’s who have a dedicated “Specialist Modelling Group” that orientate their workflow around environmental analysis and simulation; and parametric design that uncovers strategies for fabricating complex geometries.

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PATTERNING LITERAL INTERPRETATION THROUGH ETCHING AND CUTTING Within our research into patterning, Windy and I identified that patterning could take multiple forms. Patterns could be expressed puresly through the materials used within a design, or it could be applied to the system through the process of cutting and etching. Due to my research into patterning through material expression, Windy directed her focus towards parametric design that introduced perforations as a means to distribute a unique pattern through the ceiling installation. In order to achieve this, Windy worked on the surface of the strips, selectively localising areas of the greatest width as points to introduce some form of pattern. The reason behind working with the areas of

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the greatest width was to refrain from tarnishing the structural integrity of the timber veneer as a result of introducing perforations close to the boundary of the strips or at strip intersections. Due to the parametric nature of the design workflow, the length and width of the perforated pattern could be manipulated to best suit the context of the meeting room, as identified through the refined visual and lighting effect that it fosters.


PROPOSAL 1

PROPOSAL 2

After producing two successful proposals, the group were then able to assess the prospective application of such a pattern. It was determined that slits that compliment the linear movement of the overall geometry, as seen in Proposal 2, were more appropriate than those that were perpendicular to the spanning of the strips, as seen in Proposal 1. Due to the desire to produce a cohesive design whereby the individual elements complement each other, Proposal 2 was adopted for fabrication within the final model.

FINAL GEOMETRY WITH STRIP PATTERNS

DETAIL OF THE CENTRAL SLITS

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STRIP CONNECTIONS EVALUATING THE FABRICABILITY OF THE STRIP GEOMETRY Clinton’s body of work centred around ensuring the digital model could be conceived as a physical product through investigation into connections between the timber veneer strips. This process involved both algorithmic investigation in Grasshopper as well as learning through the creation of prototypes. Algorithmically, the steps Clinton took to develop an appropriate structural connection first involed the identification of points where the undulating strips overlap. From there, he used the “Brep|Brep” component that found the events where the strip surfaces intersect. After drawing a line between the two points of intersection, the midpoint of this line was derived and identified as an appropriate location

BASE GEOMETRY

STRIPS APPLIED TO BREP

WEAVING STRIPS TO INTERSECT

MIDPOINT OF INTERSECTION USED FOR RIVET JOINT

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for the rivet connections to occur. The final stages of this process consisted of drawing a 2mm circle at these points to allow for the application of rivets once the geometry is unrolled, laser cut, and assembled. Collaboration with Clinton throughout this process was necessary in order for me to understand the fabricable requirements of the strip system in terms of the need for overlap between the strips. This aspect of the design process greatly directed my own area of study, of which consisted of varying the strip thickness based on site-specific factors within the meeting room. Throughout my design, I had to actively ensure that alterations and manipulations made to the strip geometry still retained adequate overlap, allowing for the rivet connections.


INITIAL PROTOTYPE | POLYPROPYLENE | TABS Early on within the design process, a polypropylene prototype was fabricated in order to understand the undulations of the strips and the potential for connections between the strips. It was identified through this prototype that the undulations were too dense, and that a stronger connection than tabs was required in order to retain the curvaceous form.

LAMINATE BACKED TIMBER VENEER | RIVETS The 1:2 prototype adopting laminate backed timber veneer was succesful in illustrating a much more progressive undulation within the strips, however, due to the rigidity of the timber veneer, coupled with the stress induced through the rivet joints, the structure split at various locations under areas of the most stress.

PAPER BACK TIMBER VENEER | STRING In order to actively solve the issue with the rivet joints, a technique of weaving string was adopted in order to establish a diffuse tensile connection, creating a somewhat flexible connection between the strips. This approach was especially appropriate for the paper back veneer as the material was fragile.

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RIBS PROVIDING STRUCUTRAL SUPPORT IN KEEPING WITH THE CONCEPT OF ‘FLOW’ Due to the bulbous nature of the strip geometry, interior structural supports were required in order to ensure the installation retained its undulating form. The support itself, however, had to conform to the notion of ‘flow’ in order to successfully integrate the element into the overall design. In order to satisfy this requirement, Brydie began her research through studying the South Pond Pavilion, a timber structure that embodies undulating strips as a means of creating a cohesive structure. Brydie drew upon the way in which the timber segments weave in and out as an opportunity for creating a double-skin interior support, fixed together at points where the two opposite elements meet.

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Collaboration with Brydie was necessary throughout the design process as I had to ensure that within the algorthimic script that generates the unique strip patterns, perpendicular circle segments that trace along the bulbous form were present in order for her to successfully implement the interior supports at these locations. Brydie identified that the locations of the ribs were most appropriate at equal intervals within the structure, providing optimum support as a way of minimising the deflection or drooping of the strips.


DEVELOPMENT OF THE RIBS

RIB PLACEMENT ALONG THE GEOMETRY

INITIAL PROTOTYPE | WHITE CARD Produced out of white card, the initial prototype was suggestive of the way in which timber veneer may behave, exploring the practical application of rivet joints on the undulating surfaces.

PROTOTYPE 2 | LAMINATED BACK TIMBER VENEER Due to the rigid nature of the laminate back timber veneer, the undulation of the material combined with the stress of the rivet joints contributed to failure within the structure through the splitting of the timber.

FINAL MODEL | PAPER BACK TIMBER VENEER The final rib proved to be effective in articulating the undulations of the souble-skin structure, as the paper back timber veneer was more flexible in nature.

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CANES CREATING FORM THROUGH REPITITION AND MASS Within the geometry agreed upon by the studio group, two distinctive components were present; thin tubes & bulbous forms. It was identified through the design process that the attributes of timber veneer would not allow the material to perform in desireable and controllable ways when creating strips of such small thicknesses, therefore, Brendan and Hugh investigated an alternative through the substitution of the timber veneer with canes as a means of replicating the desired effect. Inspiration for this idea stemmed from their research into a project called “The Rise” which integrates 3D printed joints that bundle and orientate the canes in order to create a structural system. As the precedent illustrates, there is a visual presence of flow within the approach, as the canes create a ‘network’ in a sense, an aspect which could be reflective of the ‘network of ideas’ within the meeting room.


3D PRINTED JOINTS TO DIRECT FORM AND DENSITY Applying the teachings of the case study, Brendan and Hugh localised their area of study to the thin strips within the grasshopper definition, establishing parameters that placed circular, fabricable joints at areas on the geometry where the canes would converge, spread apart, and change direction. Through this, Brendan and Hugh were able to retain control of the desired form and flow of this particular component of the design.

Area in question: thin tubes accompany the bulbous forms

that

As documented later within the Fabrication section, the outcome of this element of the design accurately illustrated the way in which 3D printed joints directed the density and distribution of the cane, creating a system that accompanies the timber veneer strip geometry.

3D printed joints

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JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS CEILING JOINTS TO SUSPEND THE STRUCTURE In order for the structure to be suspended within the meeting room, fabricated joints were explored as a means of creating a connection between the ceiling installation and the suspension rods fixed to the ceiling above. Jia explored this element of the design, directing her study towards joints that could be 3D printed. This method of fabrication proved the most effective and efficient, as it produced joints that are continuous

forms, removing the likelihood of failure when used to support the structure. Directing her focus towards the structural ribs as the basis for the suspended connection, Jia iteratively documented her proposals that examined different scales, forms and methods of connection, all of which aided in the process of the 3 dimensional Rhino model being conceived as a real-world installation.


JOINTS TO FURTHER INTEGRATE RIBS AND CANES Jintaoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s body of work within the project centred around the prospect of integrating the unique elements of the design, namely, connections such as rib-to-rib, cane-to-cane and rib-to-cane. Like Jia, Jintao adopted 3D printed as the primary method of fabrication, harnessing the ability to accurately replicate 3 dimensional geometries as physical forms. The joints produced primarily illustrate the connection methods of clips and slits as a means to connect and integrate the various components of the overall design.

PROTOTYPE 1

PROTOTYPE 2

PROTOTYPE 3

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C.3

FINAL DESIGN MODEL


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FABRICATION CONNECTIONS LEARNING THROUGH THE PROCESS OF MAKING The fabrication process proved to be a vital component in understanding the material capabilites and the practical application of a range of different joint methods. The initial prototype made out of laminate backed timber veneer highlighted the way in which the curving of the strips within the 3D model was out of alignment with the prototype that was conceived due to the stiffness of the material and the rigid nature of the rivet connections. When combined into a cohesive system, the stress and tension within the structure resulted in the timber veneer to split at the various points of connection.

Due to time restrictions, a new method of connection was established that adopted the use of string in a weaving approach. Whilst not parametric in its origins, this form of connection was appropriate to the final prototype, as the fragile nature of the paper back timber veneer required a connection of diffuse tensile pressure, as opposed to that of the rivets previously used which brought about unnecessary stress within the structure. As a result, the final prototype incorporates the undulating interior ribs that provide the structural basis for the strip geometry to fix to, and flow over.


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FABRICATION SEQUENCE

1

Laying out of laser cut strips

2

Identifying connections through labels

4

Laying out of laser cut rib components

5

Rivets used to join the layers within the ribs

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Ribs and strips as an integrated form

8

Threading of canes through 3D printed joints


3

Joining of strips using string, offering a joint with less pressure for the thin, paper-back veneer

6

Ribs sewn to strips at designated intervals to provide structural stability and retain the bulbous form

9

Combining of the two distinctive elements: strips & canes 109


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1:10 MODEL SIMPLIFICATION OF FORM In order to assist the communication of the design proposal and final model, smaller models were fabricated in order to capture larger portions of the ceiling installation. Daniel used the card cutter in order to produce a 1:10 model of the strips and ribs working together as a complete system.


1:50 MASS MODEL CAPTURING THE ENTIRE CEILING INSTALLATION Harnessing the fabrication capabilities of 3D printing, Daniel also produced a 1:50 mass model of the entire ceiling installation, highlighting the way in which the cane tubes and bulbous forms are paired together to create a natural and dynamic proposal.

Rhino Mesh

3D Print

Whilst the 3D print was successful in capturing the design intent of the project, the nature of the 3D printing process proved to be inefficient as printing the distinctive components takes a long period of time.

Assemble Components

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VISUALISATION RENDERS


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C.4

LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES FEEDBACK AND PRESENTATIONS

REFLECTION

AFTER

FINAL

Feedback from the crit panel was fairly positive in the sense that the group successfully implemented unique techniques that centred around parametric design, contributing to the development and resolution of a final, fabricated model. It was mentioned, however, that the final outcome of the design project seemed ‘over designed’, with each component being too detailed and complex in the scheme of the overall proposal. Upon reflection, I agree with the point that was raised and identify that the way in which the outcome was over designed was purely due to the fact of having 13 group members, all of which had to have an active input into the one joint proposal. LEARNINGS FROM THE SUBJECT Upon the completion of the design task, I feel as though my understanding of the realm of parametric design has broadened significantly as I have been made aware of the explorational, generative and pragmatic applications of such a design tool. Through being given a detailed design brief that outlined the material, spatial and environmental requirements of the ceiling installation, I have been effective in understanding these factors and satisfying those requirements through contributing to the development of a design that compliments the ‘flow’ of ideas within the meeting room and one that is visually expressive through the adoption of timber veneer. The design process called for continual exploration into design possibilities, both through the method of algorithmic expression and also learning through the fabrication of prototypes. Aligned with my body of work that considered the effect of context-dependent parameters, I was able to work towards uncovering the potentials of the site and use this as a means of directing the visual aesthetic of the design.

The fabricated prototypes provided valuable information about the material attributes and the behaviour of the system within a physical context. It was through this continual process of fabrication that we uncovered the likelihood of failure within the structure, amending the design when necessary in order to produce a cohesive system. My contribution within the project in regards to the form of the strips, as well as the necessary structural connections , highlights the way in which I considered the fabricable qualities of the system whilst modeling the installation in Grasshopper. Critical thinking and evaluation into design proposals was a vital aspect of the design process, namely due to the need for collaboration between the 13 group members. Review sessions were held during the allocated studio times as a means of gathering each individuals opinion in regards to the design, and using this in order to further develop and refine the proposal. This process, therefore, highlights the ability of each group member to interact and communicate design ideas, working collaboratively within a design team. I have learnt a vast amount about computational design throughout the semester, discovering the advantages and disadvantages of algorithmic design and the way in which it can enhance and optimise a proposal, both iteratively within the early stages, and practically due to the linkages between the Grasshopper application and fabrication methods such as 3D printing and laser cutting. Moving forward from this subject, I am eager to continue using Grasshopper as a tool for design as I feel as though it offers a lot of control throughout the design process and allows intriguing geometries to be conceived. Furthermore, I feel as though the capability for the application to narrow the gap between modelling and analysis is a vital tool within architectural design, and one that I hope to develop a greater understanding of in the future.


References Thomas Grabner & Ursula Frick, ‘Architectural Design Through Environmental Feedback’, Architectural Design, 83.2, (2013), 142-143.

Lidija Grozdanic, ‘Cellular Morphology Facade uses design to allow buildings to adapt to different climatic conditions’ (2015) <http://inhabitat.com/cellular-morphology-facade-uses-parametricdesign-to-adapt-to-different-climatic-conditions/> [accessed 6 June 2016].

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Nicholas Dean_699066_Final Journal  
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