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OJ Construction Inc.

Employee Safety Manual Training Manual

Jolene Davila 2/15/2011 2/15/2011


Our Safety Policy OJ Construction is committed to the principle that each employee is entitled to a safe and healthy work environment. It is the policy of OJ Construction Inc to take appropriate measures to ensure that this commitment is fully supported by each employee. Each one will do their part to maintain safety awareness, observe safety rules, encourage safe work habits, and sound judgment. OJCI strives to exceed the regulations of local, state, and Federal governments. cooperation of all employees is required to support and sustain this safety policy.

The continued

All employees are responsible for wholehearted, genuine cooperati on in all aspects of the safety and loss control program, including: Compliance with all rules and regulations Reporting unsafe conditions Wearing safety equipment on the job when necessary Attending safety meetings when scheduled Continuously practicing safety while performing their duties

All employees must be constantly alert to protect the safety and health of themselves and fellow employees.


OUR SAFETY IS CONCRETE O ur company takes pride in the quality of its team members, services and operations. Our operations are guided by an accident -free and prevention philosophy and a sincere desire to eliminate workplace hazards. We are prepared to take all precautions in order to train and prepare our Team Members to avoid personal injuries, occupational illnesses and damage to equipment and property, as well as to protect our workplace environment. Our goal is to continuously maintain our record of 2,000,000 lost time free, and to eliminate the potential for accidents, within our operations. Ther e are three sound reasons for this goal:

No endeavor is worthy if it should cause human suffering through disabling injury or loss of life.

A good safety record reflects the quality of management, supervision, and the workforce. It also serves to promote business, which contributes to the continuing growth and success of our company.

Poor accident experience increases costs, and results in a loss of profits. Our policy is to accomplish work in the safest possible manner consistent with good work practices .

It is the policy of OJ Construction Inc. to consider safety and loss prevention important and an integral part of efficient operations. Every team member is charged with the responsibility of working safely and reporting conditions that could lead to occupational injuries or illness. It is management’s responsibility to provide a safe environment by complying with Company as well as federal and state safety and health standards. It is likewise management’s responsibility to see that safety and health rules and procedures are adequate and enforced, and to see that effective training and educational programs are employed. Company safety and health guidelines and programs will be developed and current ones revised to comply with changes in policy and/or standards. Local safety and health procedures will be maintained to cover situations unique to our operation. Every supervisor will be held accountable for supporting the health and safety program by performing their safety responsibilities, and monitorin g the work habits of their team members. Dilton A. Davila Operations Manager OJ Constriction Inc.


HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAM ................................................................................................................. 11 General Safety and Health Provisions ................................................................................................................ 11 Responsibilities .................................................................................................................................................. 11 Hazard Identification.......................................................................................................................................... 12 Accident Investigation ....................................................................................................................................... 12 Communication ................................................................................................................................................. 12 INJURY AND ILLNESS PREVENTION PROGRAM ............................................................................................. 13 Goals.................................................................................................................................................................. 13 Responsibilities .................................................................................................................................................. 13 Compliance ........................................................................................................................................................ 14 Hazard Identification.......................................................................................................................................... 14 Accident Investigations ...................................................................................................................................... 14 Hazard Correction .............................................................................................................................................. 15 Training.............................................................................................................................................................. 15 Communication ................................................................................................................................................. 15 Recordkeeping ................................................................................................................................................... 15 FIRST AID PROCEDURES .............................................................................................................................. 17 First Aid Kits ....................................................................................................................................................... 17 Minor First Aid Treatment ................................................................................................................................. 17 Non-Emergency Medical Treatment .................................................................................................................. 17 Emergency Medical Treatment .......................................................................................................................... 18 First Aid Training ................................................................................................................................................ 18 First Aid Instructions .......................................................................................................................................... 18 WORKERS’ COMPENSATION: CLAIMS REPORTING INSTRUCTIONS................................................................ 19 OJ CONSTRUCTION INC.’s Role .......................................................................................................................... 19 Serious Injuries .................................................................................................................................................. 20 Minor Injuries .................................................................................................................................................... 20 After Hours or Weekends .................................................................................................................................. 20 Treating Physician .............................................................................................................................................. 20 Employee ........................................................................................................................................................... 20 Return to Work .................................................................................................................................................. 20 Teamwork.......................................................................................................................................................... 21 ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION.......................................................................................................................... 22 Accident Investigation Procedures ..................................................................................................................... 22 Employee Incident Reporting............................................................................................................................. 23 Accident Investigation Worksheet ..................................................................................................................... 25 RECORDKEEPING GUIDELINES ..................................................................................................................... 28 Recordable Cases ............................................................................................................................................... 28 Establishing Work Relationship .......................................................................................................................... 28 Distinguishing Between Injuries & Illnesses ....................................................................................................... 29 Deciding If Work-Related Injuries Are Recordable ............................................................................................. 29


Recordable & Non-recordable Injuries and Illnesses .......................................................................................... 30 INSPECTIONS AND REGULATION INFORMATION .......................................................................................... 33 OSHA Inspections............................................................................................................................................... 33 Recordkeeping ................................................................................................................................................... 35 Communicating Hazards .................................................................................................................................... 36 Unsafe Workplace Conditions ............................................................................................................................ 36 Closing Conference ............................................................................................................................................ 36 NEW HIRE ORIENTATION ............................................................................................................................ 37 DISCIPLANARY ACTION ............................................................................................................................... 41 Introduction to Disciplinary Action Guidelines ................................................................................................... 41 Level I ................................................................................................................................................................ 42 Level II................................................................................................................................................................ 42 Level III............................................................................................................................................................... 43 Level IV .............................................................................................................................................................. 44 Level V ............................................................................................................................................................... 45 FIRE PROTECTION PROGRAM ...................................................................................................................... 46 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 46 Fire Exits ............................................................................................................................................................ 47 Fire Prevention Plan........................................................................................................................................... 47 Fire Department ................................................................................................................................................ 48 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES ......................................................................................................................... 50 Emergency Action Plan Guidelines ..................................................................................................................... 50 Emergency & Evacuation ................................................................................................................................... 51 Building Emergency Plan.................................................................................................................................... 51 Supervisors Responsibilities ............................................................................................................................... 52 Employee Responsibilities.................................................................................................................................. 52 No Loitering Policy ............................................................................................................................................. 53 Hazard Communication .............................................................................................................................. 54 Responsibilities of Supervisors/Management .................................................................................................... 54 Employees Responsibility................................................................................................................................... 55 General Requirements ....................................................................................................................................... 55 Purchases .......................................................................................................................................................... 56 Container Labeling ............................................................................................................................................. 56 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) - General Procedures ................................................................................ 57 Employee Information and Training................................................................................................................... 61 Employee Training Guidelines............................................................................................................................ 62 Non-Routine Tasks ............................................................................................................................................. 64 WORKPLACE VIOLENCE PREVENTION PLAN ................................................................................................. 65 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 65 OSHA Guidelines ................................................................................................................................................ 65 Employers Covered ............................................................................................................................................ 66


Workplace Violence Prevention Plan ................................................................................................................. 66 Policy Statement ................................................................................................................................................ 66 Hazard Assessment ............................................................................................................................................ 68 Records Review ................................................................................................................................................. 68 On-Site Workplace Inspection............................................................................................................................ 69 Employee Survey ............................................................................................................................................... 69 Workplace Hazard Control and Violence Prevention ......................................................................................... 69 Training and Education ...................................................................................................................................... 69 Violent Incident Reporting and Investigation ..................................................................................................... 71 Recordkeeping ................................................................................................................................................... 71 ERGONOMICS ............................................................................................................................................ 72 General Hazards ................................................................................................................................................ 72 OSHA Regulations and Frequent Violations ....................................................................................................... 73 Identifying Hazards ............................................................................................................................................ 74 Protection against Hazards ................................................................................................................................ 75 Tool Use and Selection....................................................................................................................................... 76 Saving Your Back ................................................................................................................................................ 77 SAFE LIFTING-BACK SAFETY PROGRAM ........................................................................................................ 78 Purpose ............................................................................................................................................................. 78 Policy ................................................................................................................................................................. 78 Procedure .......................................................................................................................................................... 78 CONFINED SPACE POLICY ............................................................................................................................ 80 Purpose ............................................................................................................................................................. 80 Policy ................................................................................................................................................................. 80 Definitions ......................................................................................................................................................... 80 General Confined Space Procedure ................................................................................................................... 81 Permit Required Confined Space Entry Program................................................................................................ 82 Training and Duties ............................................................................................................................................ 85 Authorized Entrants ........................................................................................................................................... 85 Outside Attendants............................................................................................................................................ 86 Entry Supervisor................................................................................................................................................. 87 Rescue and Emergency Services ........................................................................................................................ 87 Forms & Sample Documents.............................................................................................................................. 89 CRANE, DERRICK, AND HOIST SAFETY POLICY............................................................................................... 96 Purpose ............................................................................................................................................................. 96 Operator Requirements ..................................................................................................................................... 96 Policy ................................................................................................................................................................. 96 General Requirements ....................................................................................................................................... 96 Inspections of Hoisting Machinery ..................................................................................................................... 97 Inspection of Wire Ropes ................................................................................................................................... 97 Hoisting Equipment Guarding and Design.......................................................................................................... 98


Operation of Hoisting Equipment near Power Lines .......................................................................................... 99 Equipment Specific Information....................................................................................................................... 102 CUTTING AND WELDNG POLICY ................................................................................................................ 105 Purpose ........................................................................................................................................................... 105 Administrative Duties ...................................................................................................................................... 105 Gas Welding and Cutting ................................................................................................................................. 105 Arc Welding and Cutting .................................................................................................................................. 109 Fire Prevention ................................................................................................................................................ 111 Fire Watch ....................................................................................................................................................... 112 Ventilation and Protection in Welding, Cutting, and Heating ........................................................................... 113 Welding, Cutting, and Heating in Confined Spaces........................................................................................... 120 Welding, Cutting, or Heating of Metals of Toxic Significance ........................................................................... 121 General Welding, Cutting, and Heating ............................................................................................................ 122 Eye Protection ................................................................................................................................................. 122 Welding, Cutting, and Heating In Way of Preservative Coatings ...................................................................... 123 First Aid............................................................................................................................................................ 124 EXCAVATIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 125 Purpose ........................................................................................................................................................... 125 Policy ............................................................................................................................................................... 125 Definitions ....................................................................................................................................................... 125 Specific Excavation Requirements.................................................................................................................... 126 Soil Classifications and Test Methods............................................................................................................... 129 Soil Testing....................................................................................................................................................... 129 Protective Systems .......................................................................................................................................... 130 Design of Sloping and Benching ....................................................................................................................... 130 Design of Support Systems .............................................................................................................................. 131 Slope Configurations ........................................................................................................................................ 133 FALL PROTECTION FOR GENERAL INDUSTRY .............................................................................................. 148 Purpose ........................................................................................................................................................... 148 Policy ............................................................................................................................................................... 148 Administrative Duties ...................................................................................................................................... 148 Definitions ....................................................................................................................................................... 148 Pre-Work Fall Hazard Checklist ........................................................................................................................ 149 Fall Protection Systems and Criteria................................................................................................................. 150 Personal Fall Arrest Systems ............................................................................................................................ 151 Positioning Device Systems These body belt or body harness systems are to be set up so that a worker can Free fall no farther than 2 feet (0.6 meters). They shall be secured to an anchorage capable of supporting at Least twice the potential impact load of an employee's fall or 3,000 pounds, whichever are greater ............ 153 FALL PROTECTION PLAN FOR CONSTRUCTION............................................................................................ 155 Purpose ........................................................................................................................................................... 155 Policy ............................................................................................................................................................... 155


Administrative Duties ...................................................................................................................................... 156 Worksite Assessment and Fall Protection System Selection............................................................................. 156 Common Fall Hazards and Protection Requirements ....................................................................................... 156 Fall Protection Systems Criteria and Practices.................................................................................................. 159 Protection from Falling Objects ....................................................................................................................... 165 Training............................................................................................................................................................ 166 Definitions ....................................................................................................................................................... 166 HEARING CONSERVATION ........................................................................................................................ 169 Purpose ........................................................................................................................................................... 169 Policy ............................................................................................................................................................... 169 Procedure ........................................................................................................................................................ 169 Purpose ........................................................................................................................................................... 171 Authorized and Affected Employees ................................................................................................................ 171 Machinery and Equipment............................................................................................................................... 171 Lockout/Tag out Procedures ............................................................................................................................ 171 Training............................................................................................................................................................ 173 Periodic Procedure Inspection ......................................................................................................................... 174 Administrative Duties ...................................................................................................................................... 174 MACHINE GUARDING ............................................................................................................................... 174 Purpose ........................................................................................................................................................... 174 Policy ............................................................................................................................................................... 174 Administrative Duties ...................................................................................................................................... 174 General Machine Guarding Requirements ....................................................................................................... 174 Types of Machine Guards: ............................................................................................................................... 175 Other Machine Guarding Methods .................................................................................................................. 176 Specific Wood Working Machinery Requirements ........................................................................................... 177 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT ......................................................................................................... 182 Purpose ........................................................................................................................................................... 182 Policy ............................................................................................................................................................... 182 Hazard Assessment .......................................................................................................................................... 183 Eye and Face Protection................................................................................................................................... 183 Head Protection ............................................................................................................................................... 183 Foot Protection ................................................................................................................................................ 183 Hand Protection............................................................................................................................................... 184 Cleaning and Maintenance .............................................................................................................................. 184 Employee Training ........................................................................................................................................... 184 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PROGRAM ..................................................................................................... 187 Purpose ........................................................................................................................................................... 187 Scope and Application ..................................................................................................................................... 187 Responsibilities ................................................................................................................................................ 187 Program Elements ........................................................................................................................................... 189


Medical Evaluation .......................................................................................................................................... 189 Fit Testing ........................................................................................................................................................ 191 Air Quality ........................................................................................................................................................ 192 Cleaning, Maintenance, Change Schedules and Storage .................................................................................. 193 Training............................................................................................................................................................ 195 Evaluation ........................................................................................................................................................ 196 Documentation and Recordkeeping ................................................................................................................ 196 Appendix A Worksite Specific Respiratory Protection Plan .............................................................................. 197 Appendix B ...................................................................................................................................................... 199 Appendix C Respiratory Protection Program Evaluation Checklist ................................................................... 200 Appendix D Training Certificate ....................................................................................................................... 202 Appendix E Fit Test Results .............................................................................................................................. 203 Checklist for Respiratory Protection Programs................................................................................................. 204 Checklist for Respirator Selection .................................................................................................................... 205 Checklist for Fit Testing .................................................................................................................................... 206 Checklist for Medical Evaluation ...................................................................................................................... 207 Checklist for Respirator Maintenance and Care ............................................................................................... 211 Checklist for Breathing Air Quality and Use...................................................................................................... 213 Information for Voluntary Respirator Users ..................................................................................................... 214 Training and Information Checklist .................................................................................................................. 214 Program Evaluation Checklist........................................................................................................................... 215 Recordkeeping Checklist .................................................................................................................................. 215 1910 - Appendix D ........................................................................................................................................... 216 SAFE RIGGING .......................................................................................................................................... 217 Purpose ........................................................................................................................................................... 217 Policy ............................................................................................................................................................... 217 Administrative Duties ...................................................................................................................................... 217 General Rigging Safety Rules............................................................................................................................ 217 SCAFFOLDING POLICY ............................................................................................................................... 231 Purpose ........................................................................................................................................................... 231 Policy ............................................................................................................................................................... 231 Scaffold Erector Training .................................................................................................................................. 231 Additional Training Requirements ................................................................................................................... 232 Safety Guidelines for Scaffold Erection ............................................................................................................ 232 Scaffold User Training ...................................................................................................................................... 234 General Safety Guidelines for Scaffold Users ................................................................................................... 234 BLOODBORNE PATHOGENS AND EXPOSURE CONTROL PLAN...................................................................... 236 Purpose ........................................................................................................................................................... 236 Administrative Duties ...................................................................................................................................... 236 Employee Exposure Determination ................................................................................................................. 237 Methods of Implementation and Control ........................................................................................................ 237


Post-exposure Evaluation and Follow-Up ........................................................................................................ 238 Employee Training ........................................................................................................................................... 239 Recordkeeping ................................................................................................................................................. 239 AERIAL LIFTS ............................................................................................................................................ 240 What types of platforms do the regulations cover? ......................................................................................... 240 Body belts or full body harnesses?................................................................................................................... 240 Other requirements ......................................................................................................................................... 240 ELECTRICAL SAFETY .................................................................................................................................. 242 Portable Electrical Equipment.......................................................................................................................... 242 Electrical Guarding ........................................................................................................................................... 243 Extension Cord Requirements.......................................................................................................................... 244 Electrical Fuse Requirements ........................................................................................................................... 244 Assured Electrical Grounding Requirements .................................................................................................... 244 PPE................................................................................................................................................................... 246 Other Requirements ........................................................................................................................................ 247 Related Standards & Regulations ..................................................................................................................... 249 General Considerations and Rules ................................................................................................................... 250 Energized Equipment ....................................................................................................................................... 252 FORKLIFT SAFETY...................................................................................................................................... 253 General Rules................................................................................................................................................... 253 Driving Rules .................................................................................................................................................... 253 Picking Up a Load ............................................................................................................................................. 254 Putting a Load Down........................................................................................................................................ 254 Shutting Off the Forklift ................................................................................................................................... 254 Training Program ............................................................................................................................................. 255 Forklift Operator’s Daily Equipment Checklist .................................................................................................. 256 HAND AND POWER TOOLS........................................................................................................................ 257 Machinery, Tools, Material and Equipment Compliance.................................................................................. 257 Guarding .......................................................................................................................................................... 257 Switches........................................................................................................................................................... 259 Hand Tools 1926.301 ....................................................................................................................................... 259 Power-operated hand tools 1926.302 ............................................................................................................. 259 Pneumatic power tools .................................................................................................................................... 259 Fuel powered tools .......................................................................................................................................... 260 Hydraulic power tools ...................................................................................................................................... 260 Powder-actuated tools .................................................................................................................................... 261 Abrasive Wheels & Tools 1926.303 .................................................................................................................. 261 Woodworking tools 1926.304 .......................................................................................................................... 263 Radial saws ...................................................................................................................................................... 263 Hand-fed crosscut table saws .......................................................................................................................... 264 Hand-fed ripsaws ............................................................................................................................................. 264


Portable Ladders .............................................................................................................................................. 264 HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H2S) AWARENESS .................................................................................................... 267 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................... 267 Physical/Chemical Characteristics .................................................................................................................... 267 Personal Detection .......................................................................................................................................... 267 Health Effects .................................................................................................................................................. 267 Locations and Signage...................................................................................................................................... 268 Monitoring....................................................................................................................................................... 268 Emergency Escape/Contingency Plans ............................................................................................................. 268 First Aid............................................................................................................................................................ 268 LEAD SAFETY ............................................................................................................................................ 270 Overview ......................................................................................................................................................... 270 Location Restriction ......................................................................................................................................... 270 Initial Assessment ............................................................................................................................................ 271 Training............................................................................................................................................................ 273 Recordkeeping ................................................................................................................................................. 274 Written Documentation................................................................................................................................... 275 Labeling ........................................................................................................................................................... 276 Posting ............................................................................................................................................................. 276 PPE................................................................................................................................................................... 276 Employee Notification ..................................................................................................................................... 277 Reviewing ........................................................................................................................................................ 278 Other Requirements ........................................................................................................................................ 278 Related Regulations ......................................................................................................................................... 281 Other Sources .................................................................................................................................................. 281 HADARDOUS WASTE (RCRA) ..................................................................................................................... 282 Overview ......................................................................................................................................................... 282 Location Restriction ......................................................................................................................................... 283 Initial Assessment ............................................................................................................................................ 283 Training & Recordkeeping................................................................................................................................ 285 Written Documentation................................................................................................................................... 286 Labeling ........................................................................................................................................................... 287 PPE................................................................................................................................................................... 287 Employee Notification ..................................................................................................................................... 288 Reporting ......................................................................................................................................................... 288 Reviewing ........................................................................................................................................................ 288 Other Requirements ........................................................................................................................................ 288 Related Regulations ......................................................................................................................................... 290 HAZWOPER.............................................................................................................................................. 291 Technical Specifications ................................................................................................................................... 292 Initial Assessment ............................................................................................................................................ 292


Training............................................................................................................................................................ 293 Recordkeeping ................................................................................................................................................. 293 Written Documentation................................................................................................................................... 293 Safety and Health Program .............................................................................................................................. 294 Emergency Response Plan ............................................................................................................................... 295 Labeling ........................................................................................................................................................... 297 PPE................................................................................................................................................................... 298 Positions Involved ............................................................................................................................................ 298 Employee Notification ..................................................................................................................................... 298 Reviewing ........................................................................................................................................................ 299 Other Requirements ........................................................................................................................................ 299 Related Regulations ......................................................................................................................................... 300 Related Standards............................................................................................................................................ 302 Other Sources .................................................................................................................................................. 303 PROCESS SAFETY MANAGEMENT .............................................................................................................. 305 Purpose ........................................................................................................................................................... 305 General ............................................................................................................................................................ 305 Specific Requirements ..................................................................................................................................... 305 INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYEE SIGNATURE PAGE ................................................................................................. 307


HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAM

GENERAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROVISIONS

1926 Subpart C - General Safety and Health Provisions At OJ Construction Inc. we are committed to providing our employees a place of employment that is free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death and/or serious physical harm. In accordance with the OSH Act of 1970, OJ Construction Inc. will meet this objective by complying with occupational safety and health standards promulgated under the Act and requiring employees to comply with standards, rules, and regulations set forth by the Act. This document outlines the goals, statutory responsibilities, and training requirements to be pursued by OJ Construction Inc. expects to reap many benefits from the implementation of this comprehensive program. Some of the most notable benefits are as follows: - We will protect the health and safety of our employees by decreasing the hazards that could lead t disease, illness, and injury. - We will reduce Workers’ Compensation claims and cost. - We will improve our efficiency by reducing the time spent replacing or reassigning injured employees - We will improve employee moral by showing that the health and safety of our employees is our number one concern. - We will eliminate the possibility of penalties assessed by various regulatory agencies by complying with all applicable standards and regulations.

RESPONSIBILITIES At OJ Construction Inc. our managers and supervisors have the ultimate responsibility for the enforcement of this program. Managers and Supervisors are responsible for developing procedures that are conducive to meeting the stated goals of the program. Those responsibilities include, but are not limited to: - Ensuring the employees is provided with the appropriate training to perform their required duties in a safe manner. - Providing the appropriate personal protective equipment to our employees, at no cost to our employees. - Ensuring that employees are aware of all applicable rules and regulations and that the employees follow those rules and regulations.


The employees of OJ Construction Inc. are also directly responsible for maintaining a safe and healthy workplace. Any employee found to be acting contrary to this goal is subject to disciplinary actions set forth in this program.

HAZARD IDENTIFICATION In order to effectively reduce workplace hazards it is essential to regularly and systematically inspect the workplace to ensure compliance with applicable standards. These routine inspections will be conducted in the following ways: - Scheduled Safety Inspections will be performed on a regular basis by the management of OJ Construction Inc. Additionally; routine inspections will be performed by a safety representative. These inspections will be documented and any hazards that are identified will be abated as soon as is deemed feasible. - Process Specific Inspections will be conducted any time a new task or piece of equipment is introduced. This inspection will be documented in the form of a job hazard analysis to be completed by the supervisor and the employee(s) involved.

ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION All accidents, injuries, illness, exposures, and near misses will be investigated. This investigation will be conducted to identify causal factors for the incident and attendant hazards. This investigation will not be conducted in order to place blame on either the employee, instead it will focus on preventing similar occurrences. In order to properly investigate incidents it is required that employees of OJ Construction Inc. report the incident immediately to their supervisor. Furthermore, it is required that the supervisor report the incident to an OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative for evaluation as soon as it is determined that a state of emergency no longer exists.

COMMUNICATION OJ Construction Inc. believes that an effective safety and health program includes active, open, and continuing communication between management and employees. Two-way communication, which includes employee input on matters of workplace safety, is essential to maintaining an effective safety and health program. Employees are encouraged to communicate with their supervisor, without fear of reprisal, at any time.


INJURY AND ILLNESS PREVENTION PROGRAM In order to maintain a safe and healthful work environment OJ Construction Inc. has developed this Injury and Illness Prevention Program for all employees to follow. This document describes the goals, statutory authority and the responsibilities of all employees under the Program. It addresses Compliance, Hazard Identification, Accident Investigation, Hazard Correction, Training and Record keeping. By making employee safety a high priority for every OJ Construction Inc. employee we can reduce injuries and illnesses, increase productivity, and promote a safer and healthier environment.

GOALS Diligent implementation of this program will reap many benefits for OJ Construction Inc. Most notably it will:

- Protect the health and safety of employees. Decrease the potential risk of disease, illness, injury and harmful exposures to Company Name employees. - Reduce workers’ compensation claims and costs. - Improve efficiency by reducing the time spent replacing or reassigning injured employees, as well as reduce the need to find and train replacement employees. - Improve employee morale and efficiency as employees see that their safety is important to management. - Minimize the potential for penalties assessed by various enforcement agencies by maintaining compliance with Health and Safety Codes.

RESPONSIBILITIES

The responsibility for establishing and maintaining effective health and safety policies specific to OJ Construction Inc. facilities and operations rests with Louis Watts. It is the responsibility of Managers and Supervisors to develop procedures which ensure effective compliance with the Injury and Illness Prevention Program. Supervisors and managers are responsible for enforcement of this Program among employees by carrying out the various duties outlined herein, setting acceptable safety policies and procedures for each employee to follow and ensuring that employees receive the general safety training offered by OJ Construction Inc. Each manager and supervisor must also ensure that appropriate job specific safety training is received, and that safety responsibilities are clearly outlined in the job descriptions which govern the employees under their direction. Supervising others also carries the responsibility for knowing how to safely accomplish the tasks assigned to each employee, for purchasing appropriate personal protective equipment, and for evaluating employee compliance.


Immediate responsibility for the workplace health and safety rests with each individual employee. Employees are responsible for following the established work procedures and safety guidelines in their area, as well as those identified in this Program. Employees are also responsible for using personal protective equipment issued to protect them from identified hazards, and for reporting any unsafe conditions to their supervisors.

COMPLIANCE Compliance with this Injury and Illness Prevention Program will be achieved in the following manner: - Managers and supervisors will set positive examples for working safely and require that all employees under their direction work safely. - Managers and supervisors will use all disciplinary procedures available to them to ensure that employees follow established safety policies and procedures. Performance evaluations, verbal counseling, written warnings and other forms of disciplinary action are available. - Managers and supervisors will identify the resources necessary to provide a safe work environment for their employees and include them in budget requests. - Managers and supervisors will establish appropriate means of recognition for employees who demonstrate safe work practices.

HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

A health and safety inspection program is essential in order to reduce unsafe conditions which may expose employees to incidents that could result in personal injuries or property damage. It is the responsibility of TriState Industrial Group, LLC to ensure that appropriate, systematic safety inspections are conducted periodically. Scheduled Safety Inspections: Upon initial implementation of these Program inspections of all work areas will be conducted. All inspections will be documented. Unscheduled Safety Inspections: Additional safety inspections will be conducted whenever new equipment or changes in procedures are introduced into the workplace that presents new hazards.

ACCIDENT INVESTIGATIONS Supervisors will investigate all accidents, injuries, occupational illnesses and near-miss incidents to identify the casual factors or attendant hazards. Appropriate repairs or procedural changes will be implemented promptly to mitigate the hazards implicated in these events. To ensure timely accounting for Workers’ Compensation procedures, a supervisor or manager must complete the necessary documentation. Copies should be kept on file. For near-miss incidents, conduct the investigation and retain documentation.


Serious occupational injuries, illnesses or exposures to hazardous substances, as defined by OSHA must be reported no later than 24 hours after they become known to the supervisor. These include injuries which cause permanent disfigurement or require hospitalization for a period in excess of 24 hours. OSHA will be contacted if necessary. An accident investigation will be conducted.

HAZARD CORRECTION All hazards identified will be promptly investigated and corrected. For serious hazards that present an imminent danger to life or limb, immediate action will be taken to correct the hazard if the hazard cannot be immediately abated, all personnel will be removed from the affected area. Access to the area will be controlled until the safety or personnel can be assured.

TRAINING Effective distribution of safety information lies at the very heart of a successful Injury and Illness Prevention Program. All employees must be trained in general safe work practices. In addition, specific instruction with respect to hazards unique to each employee’s job assignment will be provided. General Safe Work Practices: At a minimum, all employees will be trained on Fire Safety, Safety & Disaster Response, and Emergency Preparedness. Specific Safe Work Practices: In addition to this general training, each employee will be instructed how to protect themselves from the hazards specific to their individual job duties. At a minimum this entails how to use workplace equipment, safe handling of hazardous materials and use of personal protective equipment. Training must be completed before beginning to work on assigned equipment, and whenever new hazards or changes in procedures are implemented.

COMMUNICATION OJ Construction Inc. believes in active, continuing communication between management and employees. Effective two-way communication, which involves employee input on matters of workplace safety, is essential to maintaining an effective Injury and Illness Prevention Program. Employees are encouraged to communicate with their supervisor at any time. Management will communicate frequently with employees on matters of employee health and safety. This communication may take many forms, including, but not limited to the following: -

Meetings Training Programs Postings Letters or Newsletters

RECORDKEEPING Many standards and regulations of OSHA or Federal OSHA retain requirements for the maintenance and retention of records for occupational injuries and illnesses, medical surveillance, exposure monitoring,


Inspections and other activities relevant to occupational health and safety. To comply with these regulations, as well as to demonstrate that the critical elements of this Injury and Illness Prevention Program are being implemented, the following records will be kept on file in the department for at least the length of time indicated below: -

Copies of all IIPP Safety Inspection Forms. (Retain 5 years.) Copies of all Hazard Identification Forms. (Retain 5 years.) Copies of all Accident Investigation Forms. (Retain 5 years.) Copies of all Employee Training Checklists and related Training Documents. (Retain for duration of each individual’s employment.) Copies of all Safety Postings and Safety Meeting Agendas. (Retain 5 years.) Copies of the Annual Accident Statistic Summaries. (Retain 5 years.) Copies of Employee Exposure Records, Registered Carcinogen Records, or other required Employee Health and Safety Records. (Retain 30 years or for the duration of each individual’s employment if greater than 30 years.)


FIRST AID PROCEDURES Provisions shall be made prior to commencement of a project for prompt medical attention in case of serious injury. EMERGENCY PHONE NUMBERS: Main Office (479) 270-8105.

First Aid Ambul ance Center for

911

Poison Control

1-800-222-1222

Fire Department

911

Police

911

911

Disease Control

FIRST AID KITS First aid supplies shall be easily accessible when required. -

First aid kits shall consist of appropriate items and stored in a weather proof container with individual

Sealed packages of each type of item. -

The contents of the first aid kits shall be checked before being sent out to each job & at least weekly on each job to ensure that the expended items are replaced.

MINOR FIRST AID TREATMENT If you sustain an injury or are involved in an accident requiring minor first aid treatment: -

Inform your supervisor. Administer first aid treatment to the injury or wound. If a first aid kit is used, document usage... Access to a first aid kit is not intended to be a substitute for medical attention. Provide details for the completion of any documentation.

NON-EMERGENCY MEDICAL TREATMENT For non-emergency work-related injuries requiring professional medical assistance, management must first authorize treatment. If you sustain an injury requiring treatment other than first aid: -

Inform your supervisor.


-

Proceed to an approved medical facility. Your supervisor will assist with transportation, if necessary. Provide details for the completion of any documentation.

EMERGENCY MEDICAL TREATMENT

If you sustain a severe injury requiring emergency treatment: - Call for help and seek assistance from a co-worker. - Use the emergency telephone numbers and instructions to request assistance and transportation to the local hospital emergency room. - Provide details for the completion of any documentation. - In the absence of medical assistance within 3-4 minutes of a worksite, a person(s) who trained in first? Aid shall be available at work sites to render emergency first aid.

FIRST AID TRAINING

Each employee should receive training and instructions from his or her supervisor on OJ Construction Inc. first aid procedures. “He who has health has hope, and he who has hope has everything.� - Arab Proverb

FIRST AID INSTRUCTIONS In all cases requiring emergency medical treatment, immediately call, or have a co-worker call, to request emergency medical assistance. Wounds Minor: Cuts, lacerations, abrasions, or punctures Wash the wound using soap and water & rinse it well. Cover the wound using clean dressing. Major: Large, deep and bleeding Stop the bleeding by pressing directly on the wound, using a bandage or cloth. Keep pressure on the wound until medical help arrives. Broken Bones Do not move the victim unless it is absolutely necessary. If the victim must be moved, "splint" the injured area. Use a board, cardboard, or rolled newspaper as a splint. Burns Thermal (Heat): Rinse the burned area, without scrubbing it, and immerse it in cold water; do not use ice


Water. Blot dries the area and covers it using sterile gauze or a clean cloth. Chemical: Flush the exposed area with cool water immediately for 15 to 20 minutes. Eye Injury Small particles: Do not rub your eyes. Use the corner of a soft clean cloth to draw particles out, or hold the eyelids open and flush the eyes continuously with water. Large or stuck particles: If a particle is stuck in the eye, do not attempt to remove it. Cover both eyes with bandage and seek medical attention. Chemical: Where the eyes or body of any person may be exposed to injurious corrosive materials, immediately irrigate the eyes and under the eyelids with water for 30 minutes. Where the eyes or body of any person may be exposed to injurious corrosive materials, suitable facilities shall be provided for quick drenching or flushing of eyes or body where the eyes or body of any person may be exposed to injurious corrosive materials Neck and Spine Injury If the victim appears to have injured his or her neck or spine, or is unable to move his or her arm or leg, do not attempt to move the victim unless it is absolutely necessary. Heat Exhaustion Loosen the victim's tight clothing. Give the victim "sips" of cool water. Make the victim lie down in a cooler place with the feet raised.

“Be prepared in the event of an emergency. Keep basic first aid supplies in your workplaces, cars, and homes.”

WORKERS’ COMPENSATION: CLAIMS REPORTING INSTRUCTIONS OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. ’S ROLE


OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. Employees are a vital component in controlling the cost of workers’ compensation. By far the best way to lower cost is to practice preventive measures such as safety in the workplace, conducting safety briefings and providing the necessary training and equipment for the job; you will create the best possible workplace for the employees. Should a on the job injury occur, the best way to control cost and prevent fraud is to educate the employee on workers’ compensation rights and insure benefits are paid timely. Employees who are unhappy and feel they are being treated unfairly are twice as likely to file a fraudulent claim as those who have been educated on their rights. Another way to lower the cost of a claim is to provide modified work (light duty) for our employees. Early return to work benefits you and the employee. We will assist you in developing a light duty program for all injured workers’. Any Occupational Injury/Accident or Illness Must Be Reported In 24 Hours and processed as directed.

SERIOUS INJURIES In the event of a serious injury, i.e., endangerment of losing life, losing a limb, head injury or heavy bleeding, have the employee seek medical attention first. Please notify the OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. Safety representative immediately following medical attention

MINOR INJURIES In the event of a minor injury, contact the OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. Safety representative, having the employee seek medical attention immediately at the nearest provider location.

AFTER HOURS OR WEEKENDS In the event of an accident after hours or on weekends, the employee should always seek medical attention immediately. For all injuries contact OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. Safety representative immediately following critical situation.

TREATING PHYSICIAN Utilizing the designated physicians/clinics establishes a working relationship with them. Working as a team insures a prompt return to work for the injured worker. Employees are requested to go to the designated physician/clinic in your specific area. Please contact the OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. Safety representative for referral to physician/clinic locations.

EMPLOYEE Any injury or possible injury must be reported to the supervisor or OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. Safety representative prior to leaving the location of occurrence. The injured employee is reasonably responsible to inform the treating physician/clinic of workman’s compensation coverage and company process...

RETURN TO WORK


Before an employee can return to work after an injury, whether the injury occurred on the job or away from work, you need a Return to Work Release form signed by a physician or physician’s assistant. This form must be forwarded to the OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. Safety representative.

TEAMWORK The goal is to take care of our valued employees. There will be assist in making sure all benefits due to the employee are provided timely. To accomplish this goal, communication with an injured employee is key.


ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION Objective: To determine what went wrong in the workplace that resulted in an accident or near miss, so that effective corrective action can be taken to prevent recurrence. All occupational incidents, illnesses and near misses (those unplanned events that do not result in injury, financial loss, or property damage) shall be investigated.

ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES An accident investigation will be performed by the supervisor at the location where the accident occurred. The safety representative is responsible for seeing that the accident investigation worksheets are being filled out completely, and that the recommendations are being addressed. Company management should maintain a copy of any accident report in the employee’s personnel file. Supervisors will investigate “ALL” accidents, injuries, and occupational diseases using the following investigation procedures:  

 

Implement temporary control measures to prevent any further injuries to employees. Review the equipment, operations, and processes to gain an understanding of the accident situation. Identify and interview each witness and any other person who might provide clues to the accident's causes. Investigate causal conditions and unsafe acts; make conclusions basedon existing facts. Complete the accident investigation report.

 

Provide recommendations for corrective actions. Indicate the need for additional or remedial safety training.

Accident investigation worksheets must be submitted to the safety representative within 24 hours of the accident if medical treatment is rendered.


EMPLOYEE INCIDENT REPORTING An incident is similar to an accident except that it does not necessarily result in injury or damage. No matter how trivial they are, incidents should be reported to supervision just as accidents occur. Employees are encouraged and reminded periodically to report accidents that occur, so conclusions can be drawn about preventing a recurrence resulting in a serious Injury. Why should employees report incidents? Nothing is learned from unreported incidents. Hazards, causes and contributing circumstances are lost if not reported. Employees who don't take the time to report near misses they are involved in may not learn from them. The fact that many incidents come within inches of being disabling injury accidents makes failing to report them all the more serious. When incidents are not reported, their causes usually go uncorrected. That means they may happen again, perhaps producing tomorrow's disabling injury or fatality. This can be illustrated by the case of the employee who slipped on a floor made slippery by a small leak in a hydraulic line. The employee did not suffer any injury. Two days later, the line was still leaking. Another employee slipped on the liquid and fell and broke her leg. The first employee volunteered his experience to the company investigating the accident. Had the worker reported his own experience promptly, the chances are that the defective hydraulic line would have been corrected before the accident happened. Why don't workers report incidents? o Fear of the supervisor’s disapproval. o Not wanting to lose time from the job on piece-work assignments. o Not wanting the incident on their work records. o Not wanting to be embarrassed by co-worker ridicule or sarcasm. o Reluctance to spoil the unit's safety record. o Dislike for the red tape involved. o Failure to understand why incidents should be reported. o Not recognizing the damage that could result. o Not wanting to be the subject of an incident investigation. What causes the accident/near miss? o What are the circumstances surrounding the near miss? o Is there a safety rule covering the situation?


• • • • •

Did the employee know the rule? Were any safety devices, clothing or equipment used improperly or not used at all when they were called for? Have there been other near misses of the same type? Was the employee aware of the hazard? Did the employee know the safe procedure?

The answers to these questions should be included in the incident report. They will suggest ways to prevent a recurrence. They may suggest some substitutions- a protective device more certain than luck, for instance.


ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION WORKSHEET

Employee: Supervisor:

Date of Accident: Date of Investigation:

In DETAIL answer the following questions. What Was the Employee Doing? - (activity of the employee at the time of accident.)

What Happened? - Indicate in detail what took place; describe the accident, the type of injury, the part/parts of the body affected and whether the employee was wearing appropriate safety equipment.

What Can Be Done to Prevent a Similar Accident? - Indicate corrective action to prevent recurrence. I. Causes of this accident: Was the right equipment being used at time of injury? Was the equipment in safe condition? Was right material or tool being used? Was housekeeping contributory? Were working conditions right? Light, ventilation, housekeeping, etc. Was employee new, or new to this job? Were employee's instructions thorough & complete? Was employee using right work procedure?

Yes

No

       

       


   

Was job properly supervised? Was employee suited to job? Is employee an accident repeater? Other: II. Unsafe Condition (Check all that apply)

   

Corrective Action

Inadequate

Lack

of

guarding guarding

Defective

equipment

Defective

installation

Inadequate

ventilation

Poor

Unsafe design

Unsafe loading, piling, stacking 

Inadequate lighting

housekeeping

Unsafe

footing

Control

failure

 Ill.

 

Other (specify)

Unsafe Acts (Check all that apply)  Handling Lifting, pushing, pulling  Inattention Failure to wear  Equipment

PPE

 procedures

Improper

Failure to secure

 

Horseplay Fail to use protective


SAFETY MANUAL

PPE not provided

Other(specify)  Medical Treatment Required:

IV.

 V.

Failure to keep clear



Professional Medical Care  On-site First Aid List the name and address of all witnesses: Name

Supervisor

devices Operating w/o authority

 Address

Safety Representative

None


RECORDKEEPING GUIDELINES OSHA Regulations (Standards - 29 CFR) PART 1904 Recording and Reporting Occupational Injuries and Illness This section presents guidelines for determining whether a case must be recorded under the Recordkeeping requirements under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, and 29 CFR Part 1904, as well as how to classify recorded cases.

RECORDABLE CASES The Occupational Safety & Health Act provides the basic definition of the types of cases to be recorded: “deaths, injuries & illnesses if it results in death, days away from work, restricted work or transfer to another job, medical treatment beyond first aid, or loss of consciousness.” The above definition provides sufficient guidance for evaluating the majority of cases under the OSHA Recordkeeping system. Only a very small portion of the cases requires additional criteria to determine record ability. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Additional Criteria for Determining Recordability Determine whether a case occurred; that is, whether there was a death, illness, or an injury. Establish that the case was work related; that is resulted from an event or exposure in the work environment. Decide whether the case is an injury or an illness.

If the case is an illness that results in days away from work, record it and check the appropriate illness category. If the case is an injury, decide if it is recordable based in days away from work, medical treatment other than first aid, loss of consciousness, restriction of work from routine job functions, or transfer to another job.

ESTABLISHING WORK RELATIONSHIP Work relationship is established when the injury or illness results from an event or exposure in the work environment. Work environment is composed of (1) the employer’s premises, and (2) other locations where employees are engaged in work-related activities or are present as a condition of employment. When an employee is off premises, work relationship must be established; when on the premises, this relationship is presumed. The employer’s premises encompass the total establishment. This includes not only the primary facility, but also such areas as company storage facilities. In addition to physical locations, equipment or materials used in the course of an employee’s work environment.


When an employee is off the employer’s premises and suffers an injury or an illness exposure, work relationship must be established. Injury and illness exposures off premises are considered work related if the employee is engaged in a work activity or if they occur in the work environment. The work environment in these instances includes locations where employees are engaged in job tasks or work-related activities or places where employees are present due to the nature of their job or as a condition of their employment (temporary residence in a hotel or motel is not consider work related).

DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN INJURIES & ILLNESSES Occupational Injury is any injury such as a cut, fracture, sprain, amputation, etc., which results from a work accident or from an exposure involving a single incident in the work environment. (Conditions resulting from animal bites, such as insect or snakebites, or from one-time exposure to chemicals are considered to be injuries.) A single incident involving an instantaneous exposure to chemicals is classified as an injury. Occupational Illness: Any abnormal condition or disorder, other than one resulting from an occupational injury, caused by exposure to environmental factors associated with employment. It includes acute and chronic illnesses or diseases, which may be caused by inhalation, absorption, ingestion, or direct contact. Some conditions may be classified as either an injury or an illness, but not both. For example, a loss of hearing resulting from an explosion (an instantaneous event) is classified as an injury. The same condition arising from exposure to industrial noise over a period of time would be classified as an occupational illness.

DECIDING IF WORK-RELATED INJURIES ARE RECORDABLE It is important to understand the distinction between medical treatment and first aid treatment since many work-related injuries are recordable only because medical treatment was given. Medical Treatment: Any treatment, other than first aid treatment, administered to injured employees. Medical treatment involves the provision of medical or surgical care for injuries that are not minor through the application of procedures or systematic therapeutic measures. First Aid Treatment: Any one-time treatment, and any follow-up visit for the purpose of observation, of minor scratches, cuts, burns, splinters, and so forth, which do not ordinarily require medical care. Such onetime treatment, and follow up visit for the purpose of observation is considered first aid even though provided by a physician or registered professional personnel. Injuries Are Not Minor if: - They must be treated only by a physician or licensed medical personnel. - They impair bodily function (i.e., normal use of senses, limbs, etc.). - They result in damage to the physical structure of a non-superficial nature (e.g. fractures).


-

They involve complications requiring follow up medical treatment.

RECORDABLE & NON-RECORDABLE INJURIES AND ILLNESSES

Almost always recordable: o o o o o o

Treatment of infection. Application of antiseptics during 2nd or subsequent visit to medical personnel. Treatment of 2nd or 3rd degree burns. Application of sutures (stitches) or medical glue to close lacerations. Occupational hearing loss. Removal of foreign bodies embedded in eye.

Removal of foreign bodies from wound; if procedure is complicated because of depth of embedment, size, or location. Use of prescription medications (or usage of non-prescription medication at prescription strength). Use of hot or cold soaking therapy during 2nd or subsequent visit to medical personnel. Applications of hot or cold compresses during 2nd or subsequent visit to medical personnel. Cutting away dead skin (surgical debridement). Application of heat therapy during 2nd or subsequent visits to medical personnel. Use of whirlpool bath therapy during 2nd or subsequent visit to medical personnel. Positive x-ray diagnosis (fractures, broken bones, etc.). Admission to a hospital or equivalent medical facility for treatment.

-

The following are generally considered first aid treatment (e.g. one time treatment and subsequent observation of minor injuries) and should not be recorded if the work-related injury doesn’t involve time away from work, a loss of consciousness, restriction of work/motion, or transfer to another job: o o o o o o

Application of antiseptics during 1st visit to medical personnel. Treatment of 1st degree burns. Application of bandages during any visit to medical personnel. Use of elastic bandages during 1st visit to medical personnel. Removal of foreign bodies not embedded in eye if only irrigation is required. Removal of foreign bodies from wound; if procedure is uncomplicated, and is, for example, bytweezers or other simple technique. o Use of non prescription medications. o Drilling of a nail to relieve pressure for subungual hematoma.


-

Soaking therapy on initial visit to medical personnel or removal of bandages by soaking. Application of hot or cold compresses during 1st visit to medical personnel. Application of ointments to abrasions to prevent drying or cracking. Application of heat therapy during 1st visit to medical personnel. Use of whirlpool bath therapy during 1st visit to medical personnel. Negative x-ray diagnosis. Observation of injury during visit to medical personnel.

The following procedure, by itself, is not considered medical treatment: Administration of Tetanus shots or boosters. However, these shots are often given in conjunction with more serious injuries; consequently injuries requiring these shots may be recordable for other reasons.


INJURY RECORDABILITY FLOW CHART This Chart is used to determine if an injury should be recorded on the OSHA 300 Log.

Report Only

Stop

INJURY

Medical Treatment

Loss of consciousness

NOT RECORDABLE

Physician performs First Aid

X-rays, splints, Px, etc

Lost Modified Duty

Restricted or Transfer

RECORDABLE

32

Days

or

Duty


INSPECTIONS AND REGULATION INFORMATION Under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (the Act), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is authorized to conduct workplace inspections to determine whether employers are complying with standards issued by the Agency for safe and healthful workplaces. OSHA also enforces Section 5(a) (1) of the Act, known as the General Duty Clause, which requires that every working man and woman must be provided with a safe and healthful workplace. Workplace inspections are performed by OSHA compliance safety and health officers who are knowledgeable and experienced in the occupational safety and health field and who are trained in the OSHA standards and in the recognition of safety and health hazards. Similarly, states with their own occupational safety and health programs conduct inspections using qualified State compliance safety and health officers.

OSHA INSPECTIONS

Workplace inspections are performed by OSHA compliance officers who are knowledgeable and experienced in the occupational safety and health field and who are trained in OSHA standards and in the recognition of safety and health hazards. Similarly, states with their own occupational safety and health programs conduct inspections using qualified state compliance safety and health officers. Inspections, either programmed or unprogrammed, fall into one of two categories depending on the scope of the inspection:  Comprehensive: A substantially complete inspection of the potentially high hazard areas of the establishment. An inspection may be deemed comprehensive even though, as a result of the exercise of professional judgment, not all potentially hazardous conditions, operations and practices within those areas are inspected. 

Partial: An inspection whose focus is limited to certain potentially hazardous areas, operations, conditions or practices at the establishment. A partial inspection may be expanded based on information gathered by the Officer (CSHO) during the inspection process. Consistent with the provisions of the Act, and Area Office priorities, the CSHO shall use professional judgment to determine the necessity for expansion of the inspection scope, based on information gathered during records or program review and walk around inspection. In order to target the more hazardous sites for inspection, OSHA regularly publishes a compliance document, Site Specific Targeting (CPL 2), which tells OSHA Area Offices which general industry establishments to select for inspection and how to go about inspecting these establishments. Establishments are identified in an annual nationwide collection of injury and illness data from thousands of establishments. This data survey is performed according to 29 CFR 1904.17. Initially, inspectors are to select from the data initiative those workplaces with high lost workday injury and illness (LWDII) rates. After that, they may inspect those with moderate LWDII rates. Some establishments are selected based on factors other than LWDII rates.

CONDUCTING INSPECTIONS


Inspections are usually conducted without advance notice. In fact, alerting an employer without proper authorization in advance of an OSHA inspection can bring a fine of up to $1,000 and/or a six-month jail term. This is true for OSHA compliance officers as well as state inspectors. There are, however, special circumstances under which OSHA may give notice to the employer, but such a notice will normally be less than 24 Hours. These circumstances include:     

Imminent danger situations that require correction as soon as possible; Inspections that must take place after regular business hours or which require special preparation; Cases where notice is required to assure that the employer and employee & or other personnel will be present; Cases where an inspection must be delayed for more than 5 working days when there is good cause; and Situations in which the OSHA area director determines that advance notice would produce a more thorough or effective inspection.

Employers who receive advance notice of an inspection must inform their employees’ & or arrange for OSHA to do so.

THE INSPECTION PROCESS After the opening conference, the compliance officer and accompanying representatives proceed through the establishment to inspect work areas for safety or health hazards. The compliance officer determines the route and duration of the inspection. During the inspection, the officer will:  

Observe safety and health conditions and practices, Consult with employees,

Take photos and instrument readings,  Examine records,

Collect air samples,  Measure noise levels, ��� Survey existing engineering controls, and  Monitor employee exposure to toxic fumes, gases and dusts.

TRADE SECRETS


Trade secrets observed by the compliance officer will be kept confidential. An inspector who releases confidential information without authorization is subject to a $1,000 fine and/or one year in jail. The employer may require that the employee representative have confidential clearance for any area in question.

CONSULTING WITH EMPLOYEES Employees are consulted during the inspection tour. The compliance officer may stop and question workers, in private, about safety and health conditions and practices in their workplaces. While talking with employees, the compliance officer makes every effort to minimize any work interruptions. Each employee is protected, under the OSH Act, from discrimination for exercising his or her safety and health rights.

RECORDKEEPING OSHA places special importance on posting and record keeping. The compliance officer will inspect records of deaths, injuries, and illnesses that the employer is required to keep. The officer will check to see that a copy of the totals from the last page of OSHA 300 form has been posted and that the OSHA 2203 workplace poster is prominently displayed. Where records of employee exposure to toxic substances and harmful physical agents have been required, they are also examined for compliance with the record keeping requirements. The compliance officer also explains that while the following items are not required for all OSHA standards they should be recorded to accurately monitor and assesses occupational hazards. Initial

and

periodic

monitoring

for

operations

involving

exposure,

including:

 Date of measurement;  Sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;  Number, duration, and results of samples taken;  Type of respiratory protective devices worn; and  Name, social security number, and the results of all employee exposure measurements. This record should be kept for 30 years.  Employee physical/medical examinations, including:  Name and social security number of the employee;  Physician's written opinions;  Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to toxic substances; and  Information provided to the examining physician. These records should be maintained for the duration of employment plus 30 years. Employee training records should be kept for one year beyond the last date of employment of that employee.


COMMUNICATING HAZARDS The compliance officer also explains the requirements of the Hazard Communication Standard that requires employers to establish a written, comprehensive hazard communication program covering provisions for container labeling, material safety data sheets, and an employee training program. The program must contain a list of the hazardous chemicals in each work area and the means the employer will use to inform employees of the hazards of non-routine tasks.

UNSAFE WORKPLACE CONDITIONS During the course of the inspection, the compliance officer will point out to the employer any unsafe or unhealthful working conditions observed. At the same time, the compliance officer will discuss possible corrective action if the employer so desires. Some apparent violations detected by the compliance officer can be corrected immediately. When they are corrected on the spot, the compliance officer records such corrections to help in judging the employer's good faith in compliance. Even though corrected, however, the apparent violations may still serve as the basis for a citation and, if appropriate, a notice of proposed penalty. An inspection tour may cover part or all of an establishment, even if the inspection resulted from a specific complaint, fatality or catastrophe.

CLOSING CONFERENCE After the inspection tour, a closing conference is held between the compliance officer, the employer, and the employer representative. It is a time for free discussion of problems and needs; and a time for frank questions and answers. The compliance officer discusses all unsafe or unhealthful conditions observed on the inspection and indicates all apparent violations for which a citation may be issued or recommended. The employer is also informed of appeal rights. No specific proposed penalties are indicated at this time; only the OSHA area director has that authority. During the closing conference, the employer may wish to produce records to show compliance efforts and to provide information that can help OSHA determine how much time may be needed to abate an alleged violation. When appropriate, more than one closing conference may be held. This is usually necessary when health hazards are being evaluated or when laboratory reports are required. If the employee representative did not participate in the opening conference held with the employer, a closing discussion is held with the employee representative, if requested, to discuss matters of direct interest to employees.


NEW HIRE ORIENTATION OBJECTIVES To start every new hire with an awareness of the importance of jobsite safety and their responsibilities for maintaining a safe and healthy work environment and to give an overview of the basics of workplace safety. Research shows that a safer new employee is a more productive new employee. Please note: This a general new hire orientation that focuses on general safety awareness and items that apply to virtually every workplace. It is necessary to customize this program to fit your own situations and specific safety concerns. As a new employee of OJ Construction Inc. you are learning a lot of different things about what we do and how we work. Today we are going to discuss the most important part of your new job----safety. Safety has to be your number one concern in every single thing that you do. OJ Construction Inc. we want you to have the understanding and knowledge you need to prevent accidents. As you learn each part of your new job, you will learn about any potential hazards associated with your task and you’ll learn how to work safely. We put an emphasis on safety for a number of reasons: - Safety is the law. OSHA, EPA, and DOT are just a few of the government agencies that regulate our industry. Every piece of equipment and substance we use on a daily basis is subject to some form of government regulation. - Safety protects you from injury. We want you to be able to go home tonight in the same condition you come to work in the morning. We realize that you have hobbies and activities outside of OJ Construction Inc. and we endeavor to keep you healthy so you can enjoy those activities. - Safety protects the community. When we prevent fires, explosions, spills and leaks, and respond to them quickly, we help ensure the safety of people in the surrounding area and protect the quality of the environment in which we live. - Safety requires a commitment from every single employee. Just one person acting in an unsafe manner puts everyone at risk. Safety is a way of thinking, it means learning about how to identify a hazard, being alert to possible problems, and reacting quickly when necessary. At OJ Construction Inc. we have training programs, as well as regular safety meetings like this one, to alert you to potential hazards you could encounter on the job. When we alert you to these hazards, please don’t feel like we are exposing you to unnecessary hazards, we are only acknowledging the possibility and helping you mitigate your exposure...much like driving a car CAN BE hazardous if it isn’t operated in a safe manner. Just like driving can be hazardous, some aspects of this job can be hazardous if you do not recognize the risks and take proper precautions. Here are some of the general hazards you may encounter on the job:


Chemicals. Most chemicals are safe when used properly, but some can catch fire or explode under some circumstances. In other cases, a chemical can cause burns to the skin or eyes when used improperly. We can eliminate these risks by following safety procedures. - Tools. The tools and machinery we use are designed to make our jobs easier, but can cause injuries when used improperly. We can eliminate these hazards by following some simple rules. Always leave machine guards in place. Always wear proper personal protective equipment; always use the tool for the task it was designed to perform. - Electricity. Electricity is vital to our operation. It provides power to our tools to make our jobs easier and powers fans to make our jobs more comfortable, but electricity can be deadly when it is not respected. It can cause fires, shocks, and burns if not used and maintained properly. Always deenergize equipment before doing maintenance. Always plug equipment into circuits protected by GFCI or other form of circuit protection. Only use equipment that is free of recognized hazards, like missing ground pins, damaged insulation, and other visible damage. - Housekeeping. This is an essential part of safety. A clean workplace is a safe workplace, without exception. Most on-the-job injuries are the results of slips, trips, and falls that could have been prevented by a clean work area. - Material Handling. Handling the materials required to do your jobs everyday can be a hazard if you don’t know how to lift properly or don’t follow safe procedures when using material handling equipment. To lift properly: Always lift with your legs, not your back. NEVER lift and twist, move your feet to change directions. Always seek assistance for lifting items that are too heavy, bulky, or awkward. -

It is up to you to help OJ Construction Inc. identify hazards. You are our first line of defense against workplace hazards. These are some of your responsibilities: - ALWAYS report any defective or malfunctioning tool, machine, or protective equipment immediately. - ALWAYS wear all personal protective equipment. - ALWAYS follow instructions on using tools and machines safely. - ALWAYS report accidents or injuries. - NEVER participate in horseplay or ignore safety rules. - ALWAYS keep your work area clean and aisles clear. - ALWAYS ask questions about anything you don’t understand. - ALWAYS be alert to possible hazards or anything that “just doesn’t seem right”.


As you now realize, OJ Construction Inc. is very serious about preventing accidents, injuries, and illnesses. We take safety very seriously and we expect you to take safety just as seriously. All the training and programs in the world will not prevent injuries and won’t protect people who do not follow the rules or who don’t use the protections we have in place. When you cut corners and ignore safety, you endanger yourself and everyone around you. At OJ Construction Inc. we promise to give you what you need to work safely. We promise to provide proper personal protective equipment, proper safety procedures, and full support. In return we want you to promise to follow our procedures, wear the personal protective equipment, and ask questions when you are not sure about something. We ask that you report any unsafe condition, whether it’s unsafe equipment or unsafe acts by fellow employees, to your supervisor. At OJ Construction Inc. “Better safe than sorry” is a way of life. You will find that working safely becomes second nature…especially when you realize the safety we are talking about is YOURS.


NEW HIRE ORIENTATION SIGNATURE PAGE

I, ____________________, have been through new hire orientation at OJ Construction Inc. and agree to comply with the terms presented to me in this training. I will report any unsafe conditions that I recognize and I will report any on-the-job injury that I sustain while working at OJ Construction Inc.

X_____________________________ Date_________________________

A OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative is to be given a copy of this signed document to retain in file.


DISCIPLANARY ACTION PURPOSE: The purpose of this policy is to assist supervisors in the uniform application of disciplinary action for violation of Health and Safety rules, and to facilitate a disciplinary system that is fair and consistent. POLICY: It is the goal to maintain a safe workplace for our employees. Therefore, violations of policies and procedures and standard safe work practices will not be tolerated. Supervisors are responsible for and shall be held directly accountable for the safety performance of their subordinates. Supervisors must accept the responsibility of discipline for their subordinates. All employees have equal authority and responsibility to correct an unsafe act and/or condition. Any employee observing a policy violation, or unsafe act/condition, shall take immediate corrective action. Only Supervisors or designated Foreman may administer disciplinary action. Subordinates being disciplined shall be initially disciplined by his or her direct supervisor. Supervisors are expected to use reasonable judgment in applying the guidelines outlined below. Methods of discipline available to the supervisor consist of: 1. Oral Warning with Documentation 2. Written Warning 3. Time Off Without Pay 4. Probation 5. Termination of Employment All final decisions relating to disciplinary action shall be the responsibility of Jolene Davila. Whenever a decision has been made to take disciplinary action that requires more than a one shift suspension, Jolene Davila shall be contacted prior to informing the involved employee. Jolene Davila will advise the Supervisor of the proper method of administering discipline. If Jolene Davila not available, the Supervisor may suspend the employee and inform them to contact Jolene Davila for an interview.

INTRODUCTION TO DISCIPLINARY ACTION GUIDELINES

It is not possible to list all the potential violations of Health and Safety Rules. The following list is an effort to provide the Supervisor with an overview of potential violations and recommended progressive disciplinary action for employees violating Health and Safety rules. For violations that are not listed, use reasonable judgment and/or seek advice from Human Resources prior to taking action. Depending on circumstances, any violation can result in disciplinary action that is stricter or more lenient than the listed recommendations.


Remember to follow established company disciplinary action policies and procedures. Management must document all events, interviews, witnesses etc. Any disciplinary action must be documented on the Disciplinary Action Form. The employee’s past performance must be considered in determining appropriate level of progressive discipline, i.e. if the violation is a second or subsequent event, progressive discipline should be elevated. The form must be signed by the employee and others involved in the process. Should the employee refuse to sign, note that in the employee signature box.

LEVEL I 1. Hearing Protection: Not wearing required hearing protection i.e. ear plugs, ear muffs etc. 2. Work Boots: Improper type or excessive wear. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Safety Glasses: Not wearing safety glasses Progressive Discipline Oral warning with documentation. Written Warning. Remainder of shift suspension and/or one shift suspension. Three shift suspension. Up to a 10 shift suspension, with probation. Termination.

LEVEL II

1. Barricade: Violating a barricaded area. Failure to barricade when required. 2. Confined Space: Non-entrant breaking plane of a confined space. Failure to follow Stand-by attendant’s instructions. Failure to properly sign-in and out on confined space entry/exit log. 3. Daily Work Exit Report: Signing out before the end of a shift. Failure to sign out. 4. Eye protection: Not wearing Z87 safety glasses, side shields, goggles, face shield, double layer protection when required. 5. Fire Prevention: Any violation of standard fire prevention practices. 6. Grinders: Operating grinder without a guard or with a modified guard. 7. Hard hat: Not worn. 8. Health and Safety Rules: Any violation of a Health and Safety rule or safe work practice, or engaging in any conduct which tends to create a safety hazard. 9. Improper conduct: i.e. Roughhousing, horseplay etc. 10. Material Handling: Manually handling heavy material without help 11. Oxy-acetylene torch: Leaving torch pressured and unattended in a confined space.


12. PPE: Failure to wear minimum policy/permit required PPE. Failure to wear upgraded PPE as required by supervisor. 13. Respiratory protection: Wearing respiratory protection without current; training, fit test and/or physical exam. 14. Staging: Unauthorized modification. Working on untagged or tagged “unsafe to use” staging. 15. Tools and Equipment: Any improper use or modification of tools and equipment. Using cheater bars. 16. Ventilation:

tampering with ventilation equipment (i.e. reducing air power to copus blowers).

Progressive Discipline 1. Remainder of shift suspension and/or one shift suspension. 2. Three shift suspension. 3. Up to a fifteen shift suspension, with probation. 4. Termination.

LEVEL III

1. Daily Work Exit Report: Signing out for another worker. 2. Fall Protection: Not wearing harness and lanyard when required. Not tied off as required by policy. 3. Ladders: Climbing with tools in hand, ladder not properly secured at top, more than one person on a ladder at a time. 4. Radiographic: Intentionally violating X-ray barricade. 5. Hazard Analysis: Working without a completed hazard analysis. 6. Injury/Incident: Failure to report promptly. Failure to report. 7. Insubordination: To refuse to follow a Supervisor’s work direction. 8. Hot Work: Performing hot work without a fire watch. 9. Mobile Motorized Equipment: Operating Mobile Equipment in a reckless or careless manner (i.e., speeding, unsecured loads, unsafe for current road or weather conditions). Failure to walk the path of travel and use spotters in congested areas or areas with limited clearance. Operating Mobile Equipment without; (1) current certification (always required) and/or valid driver’s license if required by the site/policy; (2) seat belt; and (3) a completed daily equipment inspection form. 10. Permit Violation: Working without a required permit. Performing work outside scope of permit. Failure to read permit. Failure to comply with permit requirements. Any major permit/policy violation that results in or could have resulted in serious injury or major property damage. 11. Poor craftsmanship: Any poor quality work that results in or could have resulted in a leak, plant upset, fire etc. i.e. improper gasket, poor bolt-up.


12. Smoking: Smoking in unauthorized areas or at unauthorized times (i.e. during evacuation). 13. Stand-by attendants: Leaving assignment without proper relief. Failure to remain alert to changing conditions. 14. Offensive language or a superior attitude when giving work orders or assignments. 15. Piping Valve and Fitting Safety: Equipment not clearly identified by Supervisor, system not walked and verified by Supervisor and Crew. First break PPE requirements not followed. Equipment depressure verification procedures not followed. Progressive Discipline 1. Three shift suspension. 2. Up to a twenty shift suspension, with probation. 3. Termination.

LEVEL IV

1. Contraband: Possession of contraband on company/client premises. Contraband can include weapons, hand guns, drugs or drug paraphernalia, alcoholic beverages, etc. 2. Disorderly conduct of any kind i.e. fighting, wrestling or any other unauthorized activity considered to be potentially dangerous to life and limb. 3. Drug /Alcohol: Refer to Drug and Alcohol Policy Section H-Disciplinary Action. 4. Falsifying company records or reports. Falsifying signatures on records or reports. 5. Lockout-Tagout: Any violation of client/company LOTO procedure. i.e. Failure to place personal lock. Unauthorized removal of another worker’s lock. Failure to de-energize equipment prior to beginning work. 6. Unauthorized entry or unauthorized leaving client premises: Any employee entering or assisting another person to enter client premises in an unauthorized manner. 7. Sleeping on the job. 8. Stealing or destruction of another party’s property. 9. Supervisor intimidation of subordinates. 10. Harassment: Jokes, slurs, innuendoes or derogatory comments, written or verbal directed at a particular group or person (such as sex, race, or ethnic group); Intimidation, threats or disparaging conduct directed at a particular group or person; or Sexual Harassment (see TIMEC Group of Companies Human Resources Policy, Harassment and Discrimination, HR-007 for complete description of sexual harassment, harassment, and discrimination). Progressive Discipline


1. Up to a thirty shift suspension, with one year probation. 2. Termination.

LEVEL V

1. Instigating a fight. 2. Sabotage. 3. Worker’s Compensation: Filing fraudulent claim. 4. Intentional, careless and/or negligent act that results in or could have resulted in injury to self or another worker and/or major equipment/property damage. Discipline 1. Termination. Conclusion The Company reserves the right to modify this policy. All decisions regarding interpretation and application of this policy shall be in the sole discretion of the Company. The company will not retaliate against any employee for reporting or identifying, or correcting, any unsafe act or condition in the workplace or for participating in any investigation or proceeding related to this policy.


FIRE PROTECTION PROGRAM 1926.24 - FIRE PROTECTION AND PREVENTION.

INTRODUCTION OSHA standards require employers to provide proper exits, fire-fighting equipment, emergency plans, and employee training to prevent fire deaths and injuries in the workplace. When OSHA conducts workplace inspections, it checks to see whether employers are complying with OSHA standards for fire safety. This sample plan includes: • Building fire exit inspections • Portable fire extinguisher rules • Emergency evacuation plan procedures • Fire prevention plan procedures • Fire suppression plan procedures Employers Covered

All employers are covered by these rules and should have a written Fire Safety Plan as part of their Emergency Action Plan. However, for employers with 10 or fewer employees, the plan may be communicated to them orally and need not be maintained in written form


FIRE SAFETY PROGRAM FOR OJ Construction Inc.

FIRE EXITS Each workplace building must have at least two means of escape remote from each other to be used in a fire emergency. Fire doors must not be blocked or locked to prevent emergency use when employees are within the buildings. Delayed opening of fire doors is permitted when an approved alarm system is integrated into the fire door design. Exit routes from buildings must be clear and free of obstructions and properly marked with signs designating exits from the building. The written plan must be available for employee review. An employee alarm system must be available throughout the workplace complex and must be used for emergency alerting for evacuation. The alarm system may be voice communication or sound signals such as bells, whistles, or horns. Employees must be trained in the following: • recognizing the evacuation signal • Their role in the emergency evacuation plan. All new or transferred employees must be trained in the emergency evacuation program when beginning their job duties or upon initial assignment and at least annually thereafter. All employees must be trained in any changes in the plan.

FIRE PREVENTION PLAN Stopping unwanted fires from occurring is the most efficient way to handle them. A OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative will draft a written fire prevention plan to complement the fire evacuation plan to minimize the frequency of evacuation. The plan must include: • housekeeping procedures for storage of flammable materials • cleanup procedures for flammable waste • handling and packaging procedures

for

flammable

waste,

including

recycling


• safety rules regarding smoking, welding, and other burning within the workplace

Policy and planning for fire safety takes into account the special fire hazards for specific operating areas, the protection of high-value property, and the safety of employees.

FIRE DEPARTMENT The Community Fire Department is responsible for protecting people and property from fires, explosions, and other hazards through prevention and expeditious control of such events. In addition, the Fire Department provides first-response rescue and transportation services in medical emergencies. The Fire Department's inspection staff is responsible for ensuring company-wide compliance with fire safety and protection requirements and for reviewing all plans and procedures for compliance with these requirements; for inspecting and testing automatic fire protection and alarm systems and ensuring their maintenance and repair; for conducting fire safety and protection inspections; and for providing fire prevention recommendations. Other responsibilities include training employees in fire safety equipment, practices, and procedures. All these fire protection and response functions are performed in conformance with OSHA regulations, State law, company policies, and nationally recognized standards and guidelines for fire and life safety. The Fire Chief and the Fire Marshall have the authority to enforce applicable requirements of the Uniform Building Code- the Uniform Fire Code; National Fire Protection Association Codes (including the Life Safety Code), Standards, and Recommended Practices- and the fire protection provisions of OSHA Orders. All employees must immediately report fires, smoke, or potential fire hazards to the Fire Department (dial 911). Fire extinguishers are selected for the types of materials and placed in areas where they are to be used. Where fire extinguishers are provided, training will take place to familiarize employees with the general principles of fire extinguisher use and the hazards involved in incipient stage fire fighting.


These fire extinguishers are classified as follows: • Class A - Ordinary combustible materials fire. • Class B - Flammable liquid, gas or grease fires. • Class C - Energized-electrical equipment fires. Fire extinguishers must be visually inspected on a monthly basis in addition to documented annual inspections.


EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 29CFR 1910.38 (a) (5)(iii) Objective: To assist in identifying, evaluating and correcting hazards including unsafe acts and conditions by planning for emergencies and educating employees.

EMERGENCY ACTION PLAN GUIDELINES Even with the most effective workplace safety programs, we are still faced with the human element of error, and unfortunately accidents still may occur. This makes it necessary to plan for emergencies to minimize employee injury and property damage. These emergencies include, but are not limited to: accidental releases of toxic gases, chemical spills, fires, explosions, acts of God and personal injury. The Emergency Action Plan you write should address all potential emergencies that can be expected at all your job locations, either your own plant/office, or wherever your employees perform while contracted to others. The amount of planning put into your program, and the training performed, will determine the effectiveness of response during emergencies. The plan should be written in such a manner as to eliminate misunderstanding. It should have precise terms that easily define safety programs and the importance of emergency planning. Employee input during the formulation of the plan is encouraged. Management must ensure that the program that’s initiated is frequently reviewed and updated. If you employ more than ten employees, the plan must be in writing. With less than ten employees, the plan may be orally transmitted to employees. 29CFR 1910.38 (a) (5)(iii) At a minimum, the plan must consist of: 1. Reporting Procedures must be established for reporting fires and other emergencies. 2. Emergency Evacuation Plans using floor plans or maps that clearly show the escape route and “safety zone”. 3. Establish a “Chain of Command” to minimize confusion. Employees must have no doubt about whom the authority to make decisions in emergency situations has. It is important that knowledge and responsible individuals be identified to coordinate the emergency response team. 4. Method of Alerting the Employees. An alert system must be established, and easily recognized over ambient noise or light levels as a signal to evacuate, and activate Emergency Response Teams. The Alert must be seen or heard by all, and have an alternate power source. Keep in mind, emergencies may eliminate some or all established power sources. With less than ten employees, your alarm may be verbal.


5. Personnel accounting methods need to be instituted. A “Safe Zone” must be determined for assembly for all employees for accountability. 6. Emergency Response Teams must be established and individual emergency duties must be established and assigned. These are specific duties they are expected to perform in potential emergency situations. All “First Responders” should be trained in First Aid and CPR. Employee’s assigned emergency duties must be trained in those requirements. 7. Training must be conducted (and documented) when the plan is first initiated, whenever it is revised, when emergency duties change, or at least annually. All new hires should be educated on the plan as part of their orientation training. 8. Performance Drills including all personnel should be performed (and documented) at least annually, to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the program. 9. Coordination with others, fire, police, ambulance, hospital. Assign reporting responsibilities, eliminating the problem of everyone assuming someone else initiated the report. This is an abbreviated guide to emergency action plans. You should read the OSHA standard (29 CFR 1910.38) and familiarize yourself with the requirements. Every application differs. This is a general guide to get you started. “Anticipate what might happen, plan what you will do in response to an emergency, and train your employees so they know what to do.”

EMERGENCY & EVACUATION During every emergency an organized effort should be made to protect personnel from further injury and to minimize property damage. Each supervisor must know what to do during an emergency in his or her area and must be certain that his or her employees understand their roles.

BUILDING EMERGENCY PLAN A specific emergency plan for each building or facility must be prepared under the direction of the Building Manager. A Building Manager must be appointed for each building or complex. Generally, the Building Manager is the person in charge of a building or facility. The Building Manager has specific responsibility for the preparation, updating, and implementation of the emergency plan for this area.


Each plan must contain the following information: • The names of the Building Manager and Assistant Manager(s). •

• •

• • • •

A list of people with specific duties during an emergency and a description of their duties. For example, specific people should be assigned to supervise evacuation and to carry out a rapid search of the area (assuming this can be done safely). Floor plans showing evacuation routes, the location of shutoff switches and valves for the utility systems (water, gas, electricity), and the locations of emergency equipment and supplies (including medical). Indications on the floor plans of areas where specific hazards (i.e., toxic, flammable, and/or radioactive materials) exist. Location and description of special hazards or hazardous devices should be included in the text together with shutdown procedures if applicable. Designation of a primary assembly point for evacuees, well away from the building. An alternate site should also be designated in case the first choice cannot be used. Re-entry procedures. No one should reenter an evacuated building or area without specific instructions from the Building Manager or other person in charge. Department Head and Supervisor responsibilities regarding emergency preparedness and action procedures. Emergency plans for facilities or equipment requiring an Operational Safety Procedure (OSP).

SUPERVISORS RESPONSIBILITIES

During an emergency, the supervisor must: • Ensure that those under his or her supervision are familiar with the plan for the building, particularly the recommended exit routes and how to report an emergency. • Render assistance to the person in charge during an emergency, as required. • Maintain familiarity with the shutdown procedures for all equipment used by those under his or her supervision. • Know the location and use of all safety equipment •

Keep employees from reentering an evacuated area until authorized agents declare reentry safe.

EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES Employees, other than emergency-response groups, involved in any emergency greater than a minor incident are expected to act as follows:


If there is threat of further injury or further exposure to hazardous material, remove all injured persons, if possible, and leave the immediate vicinity. If there is no threat of further injury or exposure, leave seriously injured personnel where they are. • Report the emergency immediately by phone. State what happened, the specific location, whether anyone was injured, and your name and phone number. • Proceed with first aid or attempt to control the incident only if you can do so safely and have been trained in first aid or the emergency response necessary to control the incident. • Show the ranking emergency-response officer where the incident occurred & inform him or her of the hazards associated with the area

NO LOITERING POLICY Employees not involved in the emergency must stay away from the scene and not reenter an area that they have evacuated until notified that it is safe to return.


HAZARD COMMUNICATION 1926.59 - Hazard Communication. 1910.1200 - Hazard Communication. Objective: To communicate with employees about the hazards of particular chemicals used in the workplace. On May 25, 1986 the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) placed in effect the requirements of a new standard called Hazard Communication (29 CFR 1910.1200). This standard establishes requirements to ensure that chemical hazards in the workplace are identified and that this information, along with information on protective measures, is transmitted to all affected employees. When hazardous substances are used in the workplace, a hazard communication program dealing with Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), labeling and employee training must be set up and operational. MSDS materials will be readily available for each hazardous substance used. A training program plus regular question and answer sessions on dealing with hazardous materials will be given to keep employees informed. The program will include: • • •

explanation of what an MSDS is and how to use and obtain one explanation of the "Right to Know"; identification of where employees can see the written hazard communication program

• • •

Identify hazards for respective work areas. Ensure hazards are properly labeled. Have the written Hazard Communication Program available to all employees. Provide hazard-specific training for employees. Develop a written Hazard Communication Program. Maintain a central file of material safety data sheets. Provide generic training programs. Assist supervisors in developing hazard-specific training programs. Oversee the Hazard Communication Standard written policy and implementation plans Alert on-site contractors to hazardous materials in work areas.

• • • • • • •

RESPONSIBILITIES OF SUPERVISORS/MANAGEMENT


Alert on-site contractors that they must provide to their employees information on hazardous materials they bring to the work site.

• Attend safety-training meetings.

EMPLOYEES RESPONSIBILITY

• Perform operations in safe manner. • Notify management immediately of any safety hazards or injuries.

“Your best defense against accidents is your knowledge and use of safe practices.”

INTRODUCTION OSHA requires employers to develop a written plan to communicate with employees about the hazards of particular chemicals used in the workplace. Perhaps the most significant part of this requirement is the reading of Material Data Safety Sheets (MSDS). A plan includes: • Container labeling procedures • MSDS procedures (Material Safety Data Sheets) • Employee information and training guidelines • Sample forms to be used as part of the plan • Information on how to request, read, and understand a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)

EMPLOYERS COVERED Any employer using a hazardous material (any material that has or requires a Material Safety Data Sheet) is covered. The OSHA requirements for a written plan found in 29 CFR 1910.1200.

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


(1)

In order to comply with 29 CFR 1910.1200, the following written Hazard Communication Plan (HCP) is to be implemented for personnel of: OJ Construction Inc. (2) The plan will be used by all personnel; further all personnel speak and understand English. (2) A OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative will be responsible for ensuring that the plan is current and enforced. (5) A copy of this plan must be available to employees on hiring, and a copy will be supplied to any employees on request. (6) The OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative will be contacted when a copy of the plan is needed. (7) The plan will be updated when new chemicals or hazards are introduced into the working environment and will be reviewed annually.

PURCHASES Leadership will check all chemical purchase requests (PR) and verify that a statement requesting a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) appears on each purchase request before it is processed.

CONTAINER LABELING (1)

Present leadership will be responsible for monitoring all containers of hazardous chemicals entering the present workplace. He or she will ensure that the chemical containers are properly labeled with: • Chemical name • Hazard warning • Name and address of manufacturer, importer, or responsible party (2) No chemical will be used until it has been checked by leadership (3) If chemicals are to be transferred to a separate container, leadership will ensure that the new container is properly labeled and that all secondary containers are labeled. Secondary labels can be an extra copy of the manufacturer’s label or a generic label. All secondary labels must list Chemical Identity, Hazard Warning, and Manufacturer. (4) A OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative will review the labeling system annually and update it as required. (5) Contractors should ensure that pipes are labeled properly. (6) Contractors should also inform employees of the hazards associated with the chemicals contained in pipes within the work area.


MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS (MSDS) - GENERAL PROCEDURES A OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative will be responsible for obtaining and maintaining the MSDS system for this company. Copies of all MSDSs will be kept by: a OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative. And they will review annually for the accuracy and completeness of each MSDS. The MSDS system includes the following requirements: • A current master inventory list of all MSDSs will be maintained. The list will be indexed by number to the MSDS referenced on the inventory list. • The chemical name or identity used on each MSDS will be the same as that used on the container label. • The chemical and common name of all ingredients determined to present a hazard will appear on all MSDSs. The information on an MSDS includes: • • • • • • • • • •

Physical and chemical characteristics of the chemical, including vapor pressure, flash point, etc. Fire, explosion, and reactivity hazards of the chemical, including boiling point, flash point, and autoignition temperature. Health hazards of the chemical mixture, including signs and symptoms of exposure, medical conditions recognized as aggravated by exposure, and primary routes of entry. Permissible exposure limits (PEL) or any other exposure limit used or recommended by the manufacturer, importer, or employer. Whether the chemical is listed as a carcinogen by the National Toxicology Plan (NTP) or has been found to be a potential carcinogen by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) or OSHA. Control measures for the chemical, including fire, engineering, and personal protective equipment. General precautions for safe handling and use, including protective measures during repair and maintenance of equipment involving the chemical. Procedures for cleanup of spills and leaks. Emergency first aid procedures. Date the MSDS was prepared or revised.


Name, address, and telephone numbers of manufacturer, importer, or responsible party to call in an emergency. MSDS originals will be kept on file. The MSDS will also be part of the plan for use by employees. Each supervisor will keep a current copy of the plan on file. A new chemical will not be used until its MSDS has been obtained. Reading and Understanding the MSDS The Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is the primary document in hazard communication. OSHA standards require manufacturers and importers to provide an MSDS with each of the chemicals they ship. OSHA standards also require employers to have an MSDS for each hazardous chemical they use. The importance of the MSDS can’t be overstated. This form contains all known hazard and protection information on a hazardous chemical. The MSDS is a guide to safety. OSHA has developed a sample Material Safety Data Sheet form that many companies are using. Although the agency doesn’t insist that everyone use OSHA’s form, OSHA does expect all MSDSs to include the same basic information. A Material Safety Data Sheet should include information on these topics:

SECTION I IDENTITY This section tells you the name of the chemical as it appears on the container label. The only time identity information is not provided is if the chemical name is a trade secret. Even in that situation, the MSDS must provide full hazard protection data. The identity section also lists the name, address, and telephone number of the company that makes the chemical. An employer may contact the manufacturer for additional information.

SECTION II HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS/IDENTITY INFORMATION This section lists the hazardous parts of the chemical. The chemical is identified by its common and scientific names in this section. If it’s a compound with more than one hazardous ingredient, the principal ingredients are listed here - usually by percentage. This section also lists the exposure limits set by OSHA and other organizations. Both OSHA’s Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) and the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) set by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) are listed. These limits specify the maximum amount of exposure to the substance a worker can have based on an eight-hour workday. The OSHA limit is a legal one; ACGIH’s limit is the stricter one and is a recommendation. Both limits are usually given in parts per million (PPM) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3).


Section II may also give a ceiling, or top exposure limit, which is the maximum allowable exposure at one time. Short-term (15-minute) exposure limits (STEL) may be provided. There may also be information on whether the substance is “Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health” (IDLH). If the chemical is IDLH, the respiratory protection supplied by the employer must take this rate into consideration.

SECTION III PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS This section lists the chemical’s normal state and helps define how the chemical will behave when it is released. For example, a chemical that is normally a liquid may evaporate quickly in a hot environment, thus increasing its risk as a fire hazard. A chemical’s physical characteristics could also affect its health hazards and the protection that an employee needs. A liquid may be dangerous if it splashes on skin, thus requiring that the employee wear protective clothing. But if the same chemical changes to a vapor, the chief risk may result from inhalation, requiring respiratory protection. The chemical’s normal appearance and odor are described in this section. Knowing the chemical’s normal appearance, an employee can spot any changes or differences that could indicate trouble. In addition to the normal state of the chemical, this section lists the circumstances, such as temperature, that could change that state. • Melting Point The melting point is the temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid. • Boiling Point The boiling point is the temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas. • Evaporation Rate The evaporation rate is how long the chemical takes to evaporate. Butyl acetate has a relative evaporation rate of 1. A chemical with a higher number evaporates faster; one with a lower number evaporates slower. • Specific Gravity The specific gravity is the density of the chemical compared to water, which has a relative value of 1. If the chemical’s specific gravity is greater than 1, the chemical is heavier than water and will sink in water. If the chemical’s specific gravity is less than 1, the chemical will float on water. • Vapor Density The vapor density is the density of the chemical’s vapor compared to air, which has the density of 1. If a chemical’s vapor density is higher than 1, the vapor is heavier than air and will go to the floor. If the chemical’s vapor density is lower than 1, the vapor will rise in the air. •

Vapor Pressure Vapor pressure measures how volatile a liquid is. Vapor pressure also measures how easily a liquid evaporates. The higher the number, the faster the liquid evaporates. This section of the MSDS also has a space that explains how much of the chemical will dissolve in water. The ability to dissolve is usually stated as a percent or as parts per million (PPM).

SECTION IV FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA This section states whether the chemical has a potential to catch fire or explode.


Flash point is the lowest temperature at which a chemical’s vapors are concentrated enough to ignite. The lower the flash point number, the more dangerous the material. Example: Gasoline’s flash point is -45°F. Diesel fuel #2 has a flash point of +125°F. This section contains the upper (UFL) and lower (LFL) flammable limits. Between these limits the substance is likely to ignite. This section also lists the upper (UEL) and lower (LEL) explosive limits. These provide the minimum and maximum concentration of the chemical’s vapor in the air required for an explosion to occur. Finally, this section contains fire-fighting procedures and the extinguishing media.

SECTION V REACTIVITY DATA Some substances are unstable. They can react with other substances or in specific kinds of conditions. This section lists the chemicals or conditions to avoid. Any hazardous byproducts the chemical could generate are also listed, along with the hazards (such as toxic gases) that could be created if the chemical decomposes

SECTION VI HEALTH HAZARD DATA This section describes how the chemical gets into the human body and what effects it has on the body. The following are the usual methods of exposure: • inhalation or breathing • ingestion or swallowing • direct skin contact This section also lists the health hazards the chemical poses: • acute: effects that show up immediately after exposure • chronic: effects that develop over time (usually serious) • carcinogenic: It notes whether the conclusion that the chemical causes cancer is based on findings of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) or National Toxicology Program (NTP). The section also states whether OSHA regulates the chemical for its cancer hazard. This section of the MSDS also lists the symptoms of exposure. SECTION VII PRECAUTIONS FOR SAFE HANDLING AND USE This section provides the following types of information: • how to handle the chemical under normal conditions • how to handle a spill • what to use to clean up a spill


• •

whether to evacuate immediately if there is a spill how to dispose of waste chemical

SECTION VIII CONTROL MEASURES, PROTECTIVE CLOTHING, AND EQUIPMENT This section describes the type of ventilation needed, for example: • local exhaust • mechanical exhaust • other It also describes respiratory protection needed (if any). This section contains OSHA’s recommended protective devices and clothing. SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS are also listed in this section.

EMPLOYEE INFORMATION AND TRAINING Before a new employee starts work, the employee’s supervisor or foreman will go over the employee’s copy of the Hazard Communication Plan (HCP) and each MSDS applicable to the employee’s job. Before any new chemical is used, all employees will be informed of its use. Each affected employee will be instructed on safe use and trained on the hazards of the new chemical. All employees will attend additional training, as appropriate, to review the HCP and MSDS. Appropriate library reference material will also be discussed during the training sessions. The minimum orientation and training for a new employee contains the following: • an overview of the requirements contained in the Hazard Communication Standard, 29 CFR 1910.1200 • the chemicals present in the workplace operations and this office • location and availability of the written HCP • the physical and health effects of the hazardous materials listed on the inventory list of this plan • methods and observation techniques used to determine the presence or release of hazardous chemicals in the work area • how to lessen or prevent exposure to these hazardous chemicals through use of control/work practices and personal protective equipment • •

steps taken by: the inventory list.

OJ Construction Inc. to lessen or prevent exposure to the chemicals listed on

emergency

procedures

to

follow

if

exposed

to

any

chemicals


• location of MSDS file • location of the hazardous chemical inventory list Before a new chemical hazard is introduced into any section of the workplace, each employee will be given information and training as outlined. This person is also responsible for ensuring that the MSDS on each new chemical is available before the chemical is used. After attending the training class, each employee will sign a form to verify that he or she attended the training. Each employee will sign a form to verify that the written Hazard Communication Plan was or is made available for review and that he or she understands the HCP. Before entering a questioned establishment, a OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative will ascertain what hazards he or she may be exposed to and then take appropriate action to be protected. If an employee has any questions about what protection he or she will need, the employee will immediately contact the safety representative.

EMPLOYEE TRAINING GUIDELINES 1.

Prepare Objectives: • Develop safety attitudes. • Make employees aware of the hazardous chemicals. • Motivate employees to protect themselves by preventing exposure to hazardous chemicals.

• Learn how to read and understand labels and MSDSs. 2. Design a Training Plan that Teaches the Following: • which hazardous chemicals are found in the work area and where they are found • what the chemicals look like and the odor of the chemicals • the nature of the operation in which an employee might be exposed • information to aid employees in recognizing conditions or situations that may result in the release of a hazardous chemical • the purpose and description of detection or monitoring devices • the purpose for, and application of, specific first aid procedures and practices • availability of personal protective equipment •

type,

use,

and

limitations

of

personal

protective

equipment


• location of personal protective equipment • the overview on MSDSs • review of the Hazard Communication Standard, located at 29 CFR 1910.1200 3. Implement the Following Techniques in the Training Plan: • handout materials - examples of MSDSs and labels, employer’s form for request of MSDS and checklist of completeness for material safety data sheets. • audiovisuals - examples of labels and MSDSs •

demonstration of protective equipment: what it is, how to use it, where protective equipment is located, etc.

• tests and quizzes • attendance records 4.

Assess Effectiveness: • Were training objectives met? • What part of the training plan needs to be revised? • What part of the training plan was already known and unnecessary? • What material was confusing? • What material was missing? • How often should training be repeated?

• What did the employees learn? • What did the employees fail to learn? 5. Implement the Use of MSDSs: • Were employees taught how to read and understand an MSDS? • Did the Hazard Communication Plan include instructions from the overview on reading and understanding MSDSs, and the checklist for MSDSs?


NON-ROUTINE TASKS Note: If no non-routine tasks are known to exist at the time of preparation of this plan, skip this section. Before any non-routine task is performed, the employee will be advised of special precautions to follow. If the employee receives no instruction, the employee should contact a OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative. In the event such tasks are required, a OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative will provide the following information about the activity as it relates to the specific chemicals expected to be encountered: • specific chemical names • hazards of the chemicals • personal protective equipment required • safety measures to be taken • emergency procedures •

measures that have been taken to lessen the hazards, including ventilation, respirators, and the presence of other employees


WORKPLACE VIOLENCE PREVENTION PLAN INTRODUCTION

OSHA has no specific regulations that apply to workplace violence. However, it has recently developed advisory guidelines designed especially for the health care/social services industry and night retail establishments. The guidelines suggest what OSHA looks for in a Workplace Violence Prevention (WPVP) Plan for any employer. They have been finalized for the health care industry, but are only in the draft stage (as of January 1997) for night retail establishments. Though employers cannot be cited for violating the advisory guidelines, they can be cited for security hazards under the “general duty” clause. It requires all employers to furnish a workplace that is free from recognized hazards that may cause death or serious injury to employees. As incidents of workplace violence have commanded public attention, OSHA has begun citing more and more employers under the general duty clause for failing to protect employees against those hazards.

OSHA GUIDELINES The draft night retail establishment guidelines can be used by a variety of employers, including those in the automotive industry, to help fulfill their responsibilities under the general duty clause. A Workplace Violence Prevention Plan is not mandatory at the time of printing; however, OSHA may make such a plan mandatory in the near future. An employer may check with OSHA to determine the plan’s status. The draft guidelines recommend that employers establish a Workplace Violence Prevention Plan with four essential components: • Management commitment and employee involvement in violence prevention • Assessment and analysis of the workplace for security hazards • Prevention and control of these hazards • Training on how to prevent these hazards The guidelines only address violence that third parties may commit against employees. They do not include violence between co-workers, except to suggest zero tolerance for any kind of violence. In addition, the guidelines do not address the problem of employer responsibility for violence committed by employees against others (third parties). Like the guidelines, this sample plan focuses almost entirely on preventing violence by third parties against employees. It is not directed at preventing violence by employees against non-employees and only incidentally touches on preventing violence between co-workers. This sample plan includes: • a policy statement • procedures for establishing: a threat assessment team


• • • •

workplace security and hazard assessment workplace hazard control and prevention workplace security training and education reporting and investigation of violent incidents recordkeeping sample self-inspection security checklist sample incident report form for violent incidents sample employee security survey sample workplace security training record

EMPLOYERS COVERED Under the general duty clause, all employers are required to protect their employees from workplace violence. OSHA regulations also require that employers perform a hazard assessment to determine any workplace hazards that may endanger employees. Employees of employers are especially at risk if they are involved with any of the following: • exchanging money with the public • working alone or in small numbers • working late at night or early in the morning hours • working in a high-crime area • guarding valuable property or possessions • working with patients, clients, customers, etc., who are known or suspected to have a history of violence •

working with co-employees who have a history of any threatening, violent, or belligerent behavior

WORKPLACE VIOLENCE PREVENTION PLAN POLICY STATEMENT Our establishment, OJ Construction Inc. is concerned with and committed to our employees’ safety and health. Therefore, we have a zero-tolerance policy toward violence in the workplace. We will make every effort to prevent violent incidents through our Workplace Violence Prevention (WPVP) Plan. We will also seek


to provide the resources to responsible parties to meet our goals. To that end, our WPVP Plan will be reviewed and updated annually. All managers and supervisors are responsible for executing our WPVP Plan. We encourage employee participation in designing and implementing our plan. A copy of this Policy Statement and our WPVP Plan is readily available to all employees from each manager and supervisor. Our Plan requires that all employees follow work practices to improve workplace security. Employees may not engage in verbal threats or physical actions that create a security hazard for others in the workplace. We require prompt reporting of all violent threats and incidents, whether or not physical injury has occurred. All employees, including managers and supervisors, are responsible for: • using safe work practices; • following workplace security directives, policies, and procedures; and helping to maintain a safe and secure work environment • Our managers and supervisors are also responsible for ensuring that: • all policies and procedures involving workplace security are clearly communicated and understood by all employees; and • workplace security rules are enforced fairly and uniformly.

THREAT ASSESSMENT TEAM Our WPVP Plan began with the establishment of a threat assessment team. It assessed our vulnerability to workplace violence and suggested actions to improve workplace security and to lessen hazards. The team evaluated our overall WPVP Plan. The team: • began its work by reviewing previous incidents of violence at our workplace • reviewed all necessary records (as permitted by law) • analyzed and reviewed the records to identify patterns and causes of violent incidents • inspected the workplace and reviewed tasks of all employees to detect conditions and operations that might lead to violence • surveyed employees: to identify the potential for violent incidents to assess the need for improved security measures


• • • • •

communicated with similar local businesses and trade associates concerning their experiences with workplace violence identified any changes necessary to correct security hazards developed a plan for responding to acts of violence and communicated this plan to all employees developed an employee training plan in violence prevention performed periodic inspections of the workplace to identify security hazards

HAZARD ASSESSMENT

A hazard assessment will consist of the following: • Records review; • On-site inspection of the workplace; • Periodic inspection of the workplace; and • Employee survey.

RECORDS REVIEW

The threat assessment team completed its record review. The team reviewed the following records: • OSHA 300 logs for the last three years • Past incident report forms • Records of assault • Incidents or near assault incidents • Insurance records • Workers’ compensation records • Police reports • Accident investigations • Training records • Grievances • Other relevant records or information:


ON-SITE WORKPLACE INSPECTION As part of an inspection, a Self-Inspection Security Checklist, included in this WPVP Plan is used. Also reviewed are the work tasks of our employees to detect conditions or operations that might pose additional workplace security hazards. The following were among the factors considered: • Employees exchanging money with the public • Employees working alone or in small numbers • Employees working late at night or early in the morning hours • Employees working in a high-crime area • Employees guarding valuable property or possessions • Employees working with patients, clients, customers, etc., who are known or suspected to have a history of violence • Employees with a history of any threatening, violent, or belligerent behavior

PERIODIC INSPECTION OF THE WORKPLACE To make sure that our hazard assessment stays current, periodic inspections for workplace security will be performed by a representative of our workplace:

EMPLOYEE SURVEY A threat assessment team completed its distribution and review of a workplace violence survey to all our employees. The survey was designed to help identify any additional issues that were not raised in the initial stages of the hazard assessment. To complete the survey, the team used the Self-Inspection Security Checklist, included as part of this WPVP Plan.

WORKPLACE HAZARD CONTROL AND VIOLENCE PREVENTION Based on a workplace security inspection, recommendations were made.

TRAINING AND EDUCATION Our standard training plan for workplace security will be: • required for all employees, including managers and supervisors • given before an employee’s initial job assignment • given to all new employees as part of their orientation • repeated at least once a year


• updated to reflect changes in our Workplace Violence Prevention Pro-gram • Subject to a general review every two years

PLAN ELEMENTS Standard training includes: • • • •

A review and definition of workplace violence A full description of our plan (all employees will be given a copy of this plan at orientation) Instructions on how to report all violent incidents, including threats and verbal abuse Methods of: - recognizing and responding to workplace security hazards - identifying potential workplace security hazards (no lights in parking lot while leaving late at night, unknown person loitering outside the building, etc.) • Review of measures to prevent workplace violence, including: Use of security equipment and procedures diffusing hostile or threatening situations summoning assistance in case of an emergency or hostage situation • Information on post-incident procedures, including medical follow-up and the availability of counseling And referral • Employee evaluation of the training at the end of each training session (including questions on how to improve the training) • Use of qualified and knowledgeable trainers

TRAINING RECORD A Workplace Violence Prevention Training Record should be completed to reflect standard training for each employee. Specialized training will be repeated at least once every two years.


VIOLENT INCIDENT REPORTING AND INVESTIGATION Violent incident reporting and investigation must comply with the following requirements: • All violent incidents must be reported to a OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative. Violent incidents include all incidents of abuse, verbal attack, or aggressive behavior that may be threatening to an employee, even though they do not result in actual physical harm. • In reviewing violent incidents, a team of OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. representatives will respect the rights of confidentiality and privacy of victims and employees. When disclosure is allowed, information will be given only to those who have a legitimate interest in or reason to know of the information. • Each violent incident will be evaluated by the threat assessment team: • To determine possible causes of the incident; and • To help the team recommend changes to the plan to prevent similar incidents from recurring. • All changes to the plan will be put into writing and made available to every employee.

RECORDKEEPING

Recordkeeping must comply with the following requirements: • We will maintain an accurate record of all workplace violence incidents for a minimum o five years. • Records of training plan contents, and the sign-in sheets of all attendees, will be kept for a minimum of five years. • We will also keep minutes of the threat assessment team meetings. The minutes will be kept for a minimum of five years. • All reporting records, training records, and minutes of meetings will be filed with a OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative. • Any injury that requires more than first aid (involves lost work-time, requires modified duty, or causes loss of consciousness) will be recorded on the OSHA 300 log • Doctors’ reports and supervisors’ reports will be kept for each recorded incident (if applicable). • In keeping records, we will respect the legal rights of confidentiality and privacy of victims and employees. When disclosure is allowed, information will be given only to those who have a legitimate interest in or reason to know of the information.


ERGONOMICS Ergonomics is the study of the relationship between people and their work environment, and it's very important to your health and safety. Good ergonomics adapt the job to fit the person rather than forcing the person to fit the job. An ergonomic workplace designs tasks and tools to fit individual capabilities and limitations so people can do their jobs without being injured. Ergonomics has emerged as a hot issue because it shows us the link between certain types of injuries and the way people perform their jobs. We now realize that the body can only stay in awkward or unnatural positions for just so long without paying a price. The study of ergonomics—both in general and in terms of specific tasks and motions—has helped to identify what types of positions and movements can cause physical pain and injury as well as ways to prevent these problems. Today, we're going to talk about ergonomics and learn more about how to avoid the poor ergonomics that put our bodies at risk. I hope you'll take this discussion very seriously. After all, ergonomics affects each of us personally. We're the ones who get aches and pains when tasks or tools have poor ergonomic design. In addition, you are the only one who knows when you are experiencing pain and strain. And you're the one who's best able to determine what tasks, tools, and positions cause those symptoms. By being alert to problems, you help us identify injury causes—and solutions. That means you play an essential role in helping our company create a workplace in which you can work productively and comfortably.

GENERAL HAZARDS Poor ergonomics leads to a number of serious physical problems. Often, we brush off the symptoms that could help us identify problems in an early stage. But that's the worst possible thing to do. With the types of physical problems we're discussing today, it's important to deal with them as early as possible. If you wait until the pain is too much to bear, you may already have permanent damage. Probably the most talked-about physical problem resulting from poor ergonomics is cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs). CTDs are the fastest-growing occupational illness. CTDs develop over long periods of time. They're painful, sometimes even crippling, conditions that affect nerves, tendons, tendon sheaths, and muscles, especially in the arms, hands, and wrists. CTDs are sometimes called repetitive motion syndrome, because repetitive motions are one common cause of the problem. Other causes include forceful exertion, vibration, and awkward positions or movements. The longer you expose your body to any of these situations, the more likely you are to develop a painful problem. One of the most common CTDs is carpal tunnel syndrome. The carpal tunnel is a passageway in the wrist. When the nerve that runs through that tunnel gets pinched, it can cause tingling, numbness, and pain in the hand, wrist, and even the arm. It can also reduce the strength and mobility of your hand and could, in the worst cases, lead to permanent nerve damage and even partial paralysis. 72


Other CTDs primarily affect the tendons, especially at or near the joints. One common problem is tendonitis, an inflammation that results from using the wrist or shoulder too much or in ways that they're not meant to go. If the condition is bad enough, the tendon fibers may even fray or tear. The longer CTDs are ignored, the worse they get. In addition, if you let them go long enough, they may not be able to be "cured." Failing to take early action may force you to live with the pain and with limited use of your hand or arm forever. So pay attention to how your arm, neck, shoulder, hand, wrist, and fingers feel. Let me know immediately if you experience: • Pain or achiness • Numbness or tingling • Stiffness • Burning • Swelling • Weakness Another type of ergonomic problem relates to vibration. Repeated, prolonged exposure to vibration may cause Reynaud’s syndrome, or white finger. That means the skin and muscles aren't getting enough oxygen from the blood. It may take months or even years for your fingers and hands to feel the effects of working with vibrating tools. But once the symptoms get really bad, it can be too late. In the worst cases, the tissue in the fingers can die or you might lose the use of your hand. So if you work with pneumatic tools, grinders, chain saws, or other tools that vibrate, you have to be very alert. If you work with these tools when it's cold or if you smoke, you're particularly at risk. Here are the symptoms to watch out for: • Tingling • Numbness • Pain • Fingers turning white and losing feeling • Loss of finger dexterity

OSHA REGULATIONS AND FREQUENT VIOLATIONS


OSHA has been studying ergonomics very closely for a number of years. While the agency has not yet issued a regulation on this problem, it has issued ergonomic guidelines for meatpacking plants (OSHA 3123), where CTDs are very common. These guidelines are also useful for many other kinds of industries. Just because OSHA doesn't have an ergonomics regulation doesn't mean that OSHA inspectors ignore it. In fact, the agency has cited many companies for ergonomic violations in recent years, and big penalties are not uncommon. OSHA has issued these citations for violations of the General Duty Clause of the Occupational and Safety Act of 1970 that created OSHA. That clause (Section 5) states clearly that "each employer shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or likely to cause death or serious physical harm to its employees." Since poor ergonomics are now recognized as a hazard, OSHA believes they definitely qualify as violations of its regulations.

IDENTIFYING HAZARDS As I mentioned before, the study of ergonomics has identified a number of tasks and positions that are most likely to lead to cumulative trauma disorders and other physical problems. Among the risk factors for cumulative trauma disorders of the arm and hand are: • Repetitive activities—making the same motion, over and over. The longer you repeat the same movement, the greater the risk. • Forceful exertions, particularly with the hands. The combination of repetitive motion and force—such as pushing on a tool over and over—is a particular risk. • Staying in the same position, whether sitting or standing, for an extended time. • Awkward body postures, such as reaching above your shoulders or behind your back or twisting your wrists to perform tasks. • Continued physical contact between hands or arms and a work surface or surface edge. • Excessive power tool vibration. • Hand tools that either don't fit the job or don't fit the hand. Poor ergonomics can also injure the back. Among the factors that raise the risks of back injury are: • • •

Bending continually from the waist Lifting from below the knees or above the shoulders Twisting at the waist, especially while lifting


• Lifting or moving objects that are too heavy or awkward • Sitting for long periods of time, especially if you have poor posture. I'll get a little more specific in a minute about the kinds of movements, positions, or tools that you should watch out for. But in general, poor ergonomics means forcing your body into unnatural movements and positions. When you do that, your body uses pain, achiness, numbness, etc., to tell you there's a problem. It's crucial that you be alert to those symptoms. Because if you just keep doing what you're doing, your body will finally send signals so strong that you can't ignore them—and you may have to live with the results for the rest of your life.

PROTECTION AGAINST HAZARDS In its ergonomic guidelines for meat packers, OSHA explains that there are four parts to a good ergonomics program: • Worksite analysis • Hazard prevention and control • Medical management • Training and education By including training and education, OSHA is emphasizing that good ergonomics is everyone's responsibility. It's up to the employer to provide you with information and guidance on how to avoid risk. But only you can use that information to do your job the proper way. You also play a key role in both worksite analysis and hazard prevention and control. We can't analyze the work area and its ergonomics without your input and cooperation. We may not even know that something could be a problem unless you tell us. And while different equipment can reduce some ergonomic stresses, many of the steps we take to prevent injuries require you to change the way you do things in order to give your body a rest. Engineering and Work Practice Controls When it comes to preventing and controlling hazards, OSHA recommends that employers look first at engineering controls that can help improve the way the job fits the person, rather than forcing the person to fit the job. One type of engineering control might be to modify the design of a workstation—for instance, moving the work surface to a height that's more comfortable for the individual worker. It's also possible to redesign the work method. You could, for example, put handles on boxes to make them easier to lift.


Engineering controls can also mean redesigning tools. One recommendation is to provide tools with a selection of handle sizes so that each individual—of any size, right- or left-handed—can find one that's comfortable to hold and use. When engineering controls aren't enough, we can try to ease the strain with work practice or administrative controls. That might mean scheduling more rest pauses for someone who works with a vibrating tool, rotating tasks so the worker is not constantly in the same position using the same muscles, or using mechanical equipment for a task rather than doing it by hand. Safety Procedures Let's talk now about things you can do to improve the ergonomics of your work and reduce the chance of injury. As I hope you've gathered, the positions you work in and the movements you make are a key part of ergonomics. And these are things over which you have control. First, look at how your workstation is organized. Do you have to reach more than 20 inches to get to tools or materials you need? If so, try to rearrange your workstation to bring those things closer. Bending and twisting are also problems. For most people, a comfortable work surface is at about waist height. A work surface that's more than six inches below your waist is probably not good ergonomics. If you can't make these changes yourself, talk to me. We'll figure out a way to make your workstation more comfortable. Here are some other things you can do to reduce the risk of injuries caused by poor ergonomics. • • • • • • •

Keep your elbows down on the work surface instead of leaning on the elbows. Work with your palms down. Work with your wrists straight, not bent. Shift positions every so often; don't sit or stand for too long at a stretch. Perform tasks with two hands rather than one when possible. Grip objects with your whole hand and your fingers—a power grip—in order to distribute the force over a larger area of your hand. Try to avoid applying pressure to a tool with the center of your palm; that spot is much weaker than the parts of the hand padded with more muscle.

TOOL USE AND SELECTION Tools are another important part of ergonomics. First and foremost, select a tool that fits the job. If a tool is too small or not really designed for your purpose, you're going to be forcing the tool—and yourself—into bad positions. It's also a good idea to use a power tool rather than a hand tool when possible. Another suggestion is to use the lightest available tool for the job.


Other ergonomically desirable things to look for in tools include: • Padded handles • Textured grips, rather than grips with precut finger-hold grooves • Triggers that are operated by more than one finger. • Tools that can be supported by two hands or an overhead suspension system.

SAVING YOUR BACK When it comes to avoiding back problems, the most important thing is to lift properly—letting your knees rather than your back do the work. The details of back safety, including proper lifting, are important enough for their own safety meeting. But in general, remember to: • Avoid lifting; whenever possible, use material handling systems. • Don't try to lift objects that are too heavy for you or whose size and shape are too awkward to allow a good grip. • Don't twist while lifting or carrying a load—that's one of the fastest routes to back injury. Vibration-related injuries can, as I said, be permanently crippling if you don't catch them early. To minimize vibration and its negative physical effects: • Operate tools at the lowest speed possible without lengthening the time it takes to do the job. • Keep tools well maintained. • Hold tools as loosely as safety permits. • Wear gloves designed to protect against vibration. • Use offset or spring-loaded handles or shock-absorbing exhaust mechanisms to reduce vibration. • Use mechanical aids rather than your hands to grasp and hold pieces. • Avoid bending your wrists or placing your hands and arms in awkward positions. • Keep your body—especially your hands—warm. • Try to alternate tasks so you don't spend all day operating a vibrating tool.


SAFE LIFTING-BACK SAFETY PROGRAM

PURPOSE

Most workers, at one time or another, will have to handle materials on the job. Improper lifting and handling of materials can result in a back injury. Back injuries are considered the most common serious job related injury among workers. Most back injuries are caused by lifting objects that are too heavy, lifting objects incorrectly or handling the load incorrectly. The purpose of this policy is to eliminate back injuries to employees.

POLICY To minimize the risk of back injuries, employees will receive training in proper lifting, bending and stretching techniques. Employees shall not lift in excess of 60 pounds without either the help of co-workers or mechanical assistance. Whenever possible the first choice for lifting and moving materials is mechanical equipment designed for this purpose.

PROCEDURE Employees shall utilize safe lifting procedures and techniques at all times. An overview of proper lifting techniques follows: Preparing for a lift: • Prior to performing work that could result in unusual bodily stress, it is highly recommended that workers warm-up and stretch. • Size up the load and get help or use mechanical lifting devices if needed. • Inspect load for slivers, jagged edges, burrs, rough or slippery surfaces. • Keep hands free of oil and grease and wipe off greasy, wet, slippery or dirty objects. •

Check paths of travel for obstructions or slippery areas and perform any required corrective action.

Manually lifting a load: • Face object & get close. • Balance yourself. • Squat down with back straight and knees bent. • Grip object firmly.


• Keep back straight. • Lift with legs. • Lift smoothly and maintain control of object. • Keep load close to body. While lifting a load, NEVER: • Lift objects overhead. • Twist your body. • Reach over an object to lift a load. • Try to lift a load that is too large, heavy or bulky - GET HELP or use mechanical lifting devices. Lowering a load: • Pivot your feet to guide your body into position. Never twist. • Move slowly and avoid jerky motions.

• Squat down, bending at the knees and hips. • Keep your back arched inward. • Avoid placing hands or fingers in pinch or crush points.


CONFINED SPACE POLICY 1910.146 - Permit-required confined spaces

PURPOSE Employees often have to perform entries into confined spaces for the purpose of performing maintenance, cleaning, or make repairs. Workers may encounter a wide range of hazards while working in a confined space. The purpose and intent of this policy is to identify confined spaces, provide employees with the general requirements of practice and procedure to ensure protection while performing tasks in a confined space, as well as comply with applicable regulations.

POLICY All employees, host and contract, must comply with general confined space requirements and/or permit required confined space requirements before entering into a confined space. No employee is permitted to enter into a permit required confined space unless he/she has: • Received applicable training • Confirmed an entry permit has been issues • Complied with all permit requirements • Confirmed that the standby attendant is in place • Confirmed the emergency communication procedures • Participated in completing Pre-Entry Hazard Abatement • Signed onto the entry log as an authorized entrant

DEFINITIONS Confined Space is defined as: • Is large enough and configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work. • Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit (for example, tanks, vessels, silos, storage bins, hoppers, vaults, and pits are spaces that may have limited means of entry). • Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy. Permit Required Confined Space is defined as: 1. Contains or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere 2. Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant


3. Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross-section 4. Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard Non-Permit Required Confined Space is defines as: A confined space that does not contain or, with respect to atmospheric hazards, have the potential to contain any hazard capable of causing death or serious physical harm. •

GENERAL CONFINED SPACE PROCEDURE

The employer shall evaluate its workplace and determine if any spaces are permit required confined spaces and if any spaces are non-permit required confined spaces. When permit confined spaces are identified, the employer shall provide pedestrian, vehicle, or other barriers as necessary to protect entrants from external hazards.

When permit confined spaces are identified they shall inform exposed employees by posting danger

signs, or other equally effective means of the existence, location, and dangers posed by the permit required confined spaces.(Signs that read “DANGER-PERMIT REQUIRED CONFINED SPACE-DO NOT ENTER” would satisfy the requirement for a sign) If an employer decides that its employees will not enter permit required spaces 1. The employer shall take effective measures to prevent its employees from entering the permit required spaces. 2. The employer shall evaluate and reclassify, if necessary, non-permit required confined spaces when there are changes that in the use or configuration of the non-permit required confined space that might increase the hazards to entrants. If an employer decides that its employees will enter permit required confined spaces then, the employer shall implement a written permit required confined space program that complies with OSHA regulation. (CFR 1910.146) The written program shall be available for inspection by the employees. If an employer (Host Employer) arranges to have employees of another employer (Contractor) perform work that involves entry into permit required confined spaces then the host employer shall: 1. Inform the contractor that permit required confined space entry is only allowed through compliance with a permit required confined space program that meets OSHA regulations. 2. Inform the contractor of any elements, including the hazards identified and any past experience with the space, that make the space in question a permit required confined space.


3. Inform the contractor of any precautions or procedures that the host has implemented for the protection of employees in or near permit required confined spaces where contract personnel will be working. 4. If employees of more than one employer will be working in a permit required confined space then there shall be a procedure developed and implemented to coordinate entry operations, so the employees of one employer do not endanger the employees of another employer. 5. Debrief the contractor/contractors at the end of entry operations regarding the permit required •

space program followed and regarding any hazards confronted or created during entry operations. In addition to complying with permit required confined space requirements that apply to all employers, each contractor who is retained to perform permit required confined space entry operations shall: 1. Obtain any available information regarding permit required confined space hazards and entry operations from the host employer 2. Coordinate entry operations with the host employer when both employers will have employees working in or near the permit required confined space in question 3. Inform the host employer of the permit confined space program that the contractor will follow, and of any hazards encountered or created during entry operation.

HAZARD EVALUATION

PERMIT REQUIRED CONFINED SPACE ENTRY PROGRAM

To determine if there are permit required confined spaces in a OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative has conducted a hazard evaluation of our work place. This evaluation has provided the necessary information to determine the existence and location of permit required confined spaces that must be covered by the Permit Required Confined Space Entry Program and the hazards associated with each. (This written hazard evaluation is kept as an appendix of the Permit Required Confined Space Entry Program.) The hazardous energy isolation points for these confined spaces can be found on the equipment list of the Hazardous Energy Control Program (LOTO).

UNAUTHORIZED ENTRY • To prevent the unauthorized entry of employees into permit required confined spaces a OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative has implemented the following procedures to inform all employees of the existence, location, and dangers posed by permit required confined spaces. • To inform the employees of the existence and location of permit required confined spaces a OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative may post signage outside of entrances of the permit required confined spaces reading “DANGER—PERMIT REQUIRED CONFINED SPACE—DO NOT ENTER”. 82


To prevent unauthorized entry into permit required confined spaces leadership will ensure that entrances into the spaces have been covered with a solid material. If it is not feasible to cover an entrance into a permit required confined space, the entrance may be barricade with red streamer tape which reads, “DANGER—PERMIT REQUIRED CONFINED SPACE—DO NOT ENTER”.

PREPARATION OF THE PERMIT REQUIRED CONFINED SPACE Before any authorized employees enter into a permit required confined space to perform work, the space must be properly prepared and hazards evaluated. This may include but is not limited too: • Shut down flow/feed, cool down, depressurize, drain, empty, the space • Isolate the space using LOTO procedures, blanking/blinding, double block & bleed or by other acceptable and effective means • Pump out, flush, purge, inert, or ventilate the permit space to effectively eliminate or control atmospheric hazards. • Open the entrance or other sampling points • Take atmospheric readings inside of the space 1.

Atmospheric evaluation, testing, and monitoring will performed in the following order:  Oxygen Content  Flammable and explosive gasses and vapors (LEL)  Toxic Gasses and vapors

• Ensure that entrance has signage reading, “DANGER—PERMIT REQUIRED CONFINED SPACE—DO NOT ENTER”. • Issue or obtain appropriate permits for entering into the permit required confined space • Monitor the atmospheric conditions of the permit required confined space periodically When performing the initial atmospheric monitoring on the permit required confined space notify the authorized entrants and/or their representative. They must have the opportunity to observe any monitoring or testing of the permit space. The authorized entrants and/or their representatives can also and at any time request re-evaluation or testing of the space. The atmospheric testing must evaluate the oxygen content, combustible gasses and vapors (LEL), and toxic gasses and vapors. The atmospheric testing must be done in this order.

ACCEPTABLE ENTRY CONDITIONS Employees of OJ Construction Inc. do not enter or work in permit required confined spaces that have any of the following hazards without the proper specific training.


• Those that have an entrapment hazard • Those that have an oxygen content outside of the range of 19.5-23.5% • Those that have Lower Explosive limit (LEL) above 10% • Those that contain any toxic level at or above the Permissible Exposure Limits • Those that have any other uncontrolled/unmitigated safety and health hazard

PERMIT SYSTEM Before entry is authorized completion of the measures of this program shall be documented by preparing an entry permit. • The entry supervisor identified on the permit must sign the permit • The permit shall be made available at the time of entry and for the duration of the entry to all authorized entrants and their representatives, by posting it at the entrance of the space, or by other equally effective means so the entrants can confirm that the pre-entry preparations have been completed. • The duration of the permit shall not exceed the time needed to complete the assigned tasks or job identified on the permit • The entry supervisor shall cancel the entry and permit when the job/tasks are completed or a condition that is not allowed under the entry permit arises in or near the permit required confined space. • The employer shall retain each permit on file for a period of one year to facilitate an annual program review. Any problems or encountered during any entry operation shall be recorded on the pertinent permit and used during the annual review.

ENTRY PERMIT An entry permit shall contain the following information; • The permit required confined space to be entered • The purpose of the entry • Date and authorized duration of the entry permit • Authorized entrants within the permit required confined space. o All entry permits will be accompanied with a sign in/out log. This log will be maintained by the outside attendant and will allow quick and accurate tracking of the authorized entrants. • The name of the outside attendant. If an outside attendant is replaced during the entry, the new name must be added to the permit.


• The name and signature of the entry supervisor who initially authorized the entry, as well as the name the current entry supervisor if responsibility has been transferred. • The hazards of the permit required confined space in question. • The measures used to isolate the permit space and eliminate or control the permit space hazards before entry. (LOTO, blanking, blinding, venting, purging, ventilating, etc) • Acceptable atmospheric entry conditions • The results of initial and periodic atmospheric testing, the name of the tester, time that each test was performed • Rescue services that can be summoned, and the means designated to do so. • Communication procedures used between the outside attendant and the authorized entrants • Equipment such as; communication, Personal Protective Equipment, atmospheric testing equipment, alarm systems, rescue equipment. • Any other information necessary to ensure employee safety in a particular permit space Sample permits are as an appendix of this written program.

TRAINING AND DUTIES All employees will be trained before working in confined spaces, when there are changes in permit space operations and procedures, or if the employer feels there is an inadequacy of an employee’s knowledge in the use of the Permit Required Confined Space Procedures. Each affected employee must be trained prior to initial assignment, prior to a change in assigned duties, if a new hazard has been created or special deviations have occurred. The employer must certify that the required training has been accomplished... The training must be documented and contain the employee’s name & signature, trainers name & signature, and date the training was performed.

AUTHORIZED ENTRANTS All OJ Construction Inc. employees who will be entering into a Permit Required Confined Space shall receive training prior to assignment. The employer shall ensure that authorized entrants know, at a minimum, the following: • Entry Permit-How to read/review an entry permit along with the hazards and restrictions of the permit. • Hazards that may be faced during entry operations, sings/symptoms of exposure and the consequences of the exposure. Reference to the applicable MSDS sheets


Communication Procedures-Acceptable methods used to communicate with outside attendants. This includes how to communicate evacuation, signs of exposure, and unsafe conditions by both the authorized entrants and outside attendants • Evacuation-Evacuation Procedures, related alarms, and should immediately inform the attendant if they detect any dangerous condition • Sign in/out-The procedures for signing in/out of the permit space on the log kept by the outside attendant. • Emergency and Rescue Procedures •Equipment-Communication,

Testing/Monitoring,

Ventilation

OUTSIDE ATTENDANTS All OJ Construction Inc. employees who will be working as an outside attendant shall be receive training prior to assignment. The employer shall ensure that the outside attendants know, at a minimum, the following: • Hazards that may be faced during entry, signs/symptoms of exposure and the consequences of the exposure. Reference to the applicable MSDS sheets • Possible behavioral effects of exposure to authorized entrants • How to accurately maintain the sign in/out log • Never leave the Permit Space during entry operations unless relieved by another attendant • Communication methods to be used to monitor entrant status and relay emergency and evacuation information and related alarms • How to monitor activities inside and outside the space and order an evacuation if: o There is detection a prohibited condition o Notices behavioral effects of hazard exposure in an authorized attendant o There is detection of an outside condition that could affect the authorized entrants o If the attendant can’t effectively manage all of the duties. • How to summon rescue and other emergency services • Deny entry of the permit space to unauthorized entrants and inform the entry supervisor if an unauthorized person has entered the space. • At no time shall a single attendant be allowed to monitor several confined spaces.


ENTRY SUPERVISOR Entry Supervisors shall be trained in and have the duties of the following: • Hazards that may be faced during entry operations, signs/symptoms of exposure and the consequences of the exposure. Reference to the applicable MSDS sheets • Verifies, by checking that the appropriate information has been put on the permit, all tests have been conducted, and that all procedures and equipment specified on the permit are in place prior to endorsing the entry permit and allowing entry operations to begin. • Terminates entry operations when necessary • Verifies that rescue services are available, and means of summoning are operable. • Continually evaluates and determines if entry conditions remain consistent with the entry permit, and if entry conditions remain acceptable.

RESCUE AND EMERGENCY SERVICES (Choose only one of the following) 1. At OJ Construction Inc. we provide rescue and emergency services and the ERT members are at a minimum is trained to: • Perform the assigned rescue duties • Correctly use personal protective equipment required for the job • Be proficient as an authorized entrant • Has at least one member trained in basic first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) • The rescue team may practice a Permit Required Confined Space rescue at least every 12 months. 2. At OJ Construction Inc. we rely on local Fire and Rescue Personnel for our rescue and emergency services. A OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative has evaluated the Emergency Rescue Team and found that they are adequately trained and equipped and can also respond in a timely manner. Alternate procedures for Entry into a Permit Required Confined Space: The alternate entry procedures into a Permit Required Confined Space may only utilized under the following conditions. • The only hazard posed is an actual or potential hazardous atmosphere. • Forced air ventilation alone can maintain the space safe for entry.


o The monitoring and inspection data supporting this must be recorded and documented. o If an initial entry is required to obtain the monitoring and inspection data, the entry must be made according to the Permit Required Confined Space Entry Program • The determinations of the space and all supporting data (monitoring and inspection data) must be made available to all employees entering the space or to their authorized representative. • A certification must be produced that contains the date, the location of the space, and signature of the person providing the certification. The certification shall verify that the space is safe, and that the preentry requirements listed below have been satisfied. o This certification must be made available to all employees and/or their authorized representatives. If a Permit Required Confined Space meets the above conditions and the alternate entry procedures will be used, it must be used in conjunction with the following requirements. • Any conditions making it unsafe to remove an entrance cover will be eliminated before the cover is removed. • After removing the entrance cover, the opening shall be guarded to prevent accidental fall through of employees and/or foreign objects from entering the space. •

Forced air ventilation must be on, directed at areas the employees will be working, and be on at all times employees are in the space. • The air supply for the forced air ventilation must be from a clean source and not able to increase the hazards in the space. • Before the initial entry is made the atmosphere must be tested for acceptable atmospheric conditions, and periodically to ensure that the forced air ventilation is preventing the accumulation of a hazardous atmosphere. (Employees or their representatives are entitled to request additional monitoring at any time.) If a hazardous atmosphere or other hazards are detecting at any time throughout the entry operation the following must occur: • All entrants must immediately evacuate the space • The space must be evaluated to determine how the hazard developed • Measures must be implemented to protect the entrants from the hazards before any subsequent entry takes place •

If

necessary

reclassify

it

back

to

a

Permit

Required

Confined

Space.


Reclassifying a Permit Required Confined Space to a Non Permit Required Confined Space: A Permit Required Confined Space can be reclassified as a non-permit required confined space, but only under the following conditions: • If the space poses no actual or potential hazardous atmosphere and all other hazards within the space can be eliminated or controlled without entry into the space. It may remain reclassified as long as the non-atmospheric hazards remain eliminated. • If it is necessary to enter the space to eliminate the hazards for reclassification, then the entry must be performed as a Permit Required Confined Space. Once the hazards have been eliminated, testing and inspections have confirmed elimination, then the space can be reclassified as a non-permit required confined space, and may remain so as long as the non-atmospheric hazards remain eliminated. • A certification must be produced that contains the date, the location of the space, and signature of the person providing the certification. The certification shall document the basis for determining the hazards in the space have been eliminated, that the space is safe, and that the pre-entry requirements have been satisfied. o

This certification must be made available to all employees and/or their authorized representatives. If at any time hazards arise in the space the following must be done: • Entrants must Immediately Evacuate the Space • Employer must re-evaluate the space, reclassifying it as a Permit Required Confined Space if necessary. A OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative is responsible for the periodic review and updating of the Permit Required Confined Space Entry Program. Cancelled permits are kept for 12 months and reviewed to assist in finding deficiencies and areas of improvement.

FORMS & SAMPLE DOCUMENTS


ENTRY PERMIT


ENTRY/EXIT LOG


PRE-ENTRY HAZARD ABATEMENT CHECKLIST I


ADDITIONAL SAFETY EQUIPMENT


PRE-ENTRY HAZARD ABATEMENT CHECKLIST II


CONFINED SPACE DECISION FLOW CHART


CRANE, DERRICK, AND HOIST SAFETY POLICY 1926 Subpart N - Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Elevators, and Conveyors

PURPOSE The purpose of this policy is to establish basic safety procedures for the use of cranes, derricks, hoists, and at OJ Construction Inc. This policy also governs operator use, and ensures proper care and maintenance of the equipment. In this policy crane, derrick, and hoist is referred to as hoisting equipment.

OPERATOR REQUIREMENTS Operators must meet the physical qualifications, pass a physical, a written examination, understand and be able to use a load chart as well as calculate loads for the crane type.

POLICY All use of cranes, derricks, and hoists by OJ Construction Inc. employees will be done in accordance to OSHA regulation and all other client, company or local regulations, policies, procedures and standard safe work practices. Equipment must have proof of current periodic or yearly certification, and inspections on site and all equipment must have sufficient rated capacity for the work being performed. All hoisting equipment shall only be operated by trained and authorized employees. • • • • • • •

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS The employer shall comply with the manufacturer's specifications and limitations applicable to the operation of any and all cranes, hoists, and derricks. Where manufacturer's specifications are not available, the limitations assigned to the equipment shall be based on the determinations of a qualified engineer competent in this field and such determinations will be appropriately documented and recorded. Attachments used with cranes shall not exceed the capacity, rating, or scope recommended by the manufacturer. Rated load capacities, and recommended operating speeds, special hazard warnings, or instruction, shall be conspicuously posted on all equipment. Instructions or warnings shall be visible to operators while they are at their control stations. Hand signals to crane and derrick operators shall be those prescribed by the applicable ANSI standard for the type of crane in use. An illustration of the signals shall be posted at the job site. The operator shall perform a pre-operation inspection prior to each use, and during use, to make sure it is in safe operating condition. The inspections will be documented and turned in to the supervisor daily,


• Any deficiencies shall be repaired, or defective parts replaced, before continued use. • A thorough, annual inspection of the hoisting machinery shall be made by a competent person, or by a government or private agency recognized by the U.S. Department of Labor. The employer shall maintain a record of the dates and results of inspections for each hoisting machine and piece of equipment.

INSPECTIONS OF HOISTING MACHINERY • OSHA requires that inspections of hoisting equipment be done frequently and periodically. Frequent Inspections are conducted before each use, or daily. Below is a sample frequent inspection guideline. Refer to the manufacturers’ guidelines for more specific inspection criteria. • A thorough, annual or periodic inspection of the hoisting machinery shall be made by a competent person, or by a government or private agency recognized by the U.S. Department of Labor. The employer shall maintain a record of the dates and results of inspections for each hoisting machine and piece of equipment. Refer to the manufacturers’ requirements to check if the periodic inspections or more frequent.

Items to Be Inspected

Inspection Interval

All control mechanisms for maladjustment interfering with proper operation. Daily All control mechanisms for excessive wear of components and contamination by lubricants or other foreign matter. Daily All safety devices for malfunction. Deterioration or leakage in air or hydraulic systems.

Daily

Crane hooks for deformations or cracks. Hooks with cracks, or more than 15% in excess of normal throat opening, or more than a 10 degree twist from the plan of the unbent hook must be discarded. Repairs by welding or reshaping are not generally recommended. Rope reeving for noncompliance with crane manufacturer’s recommendations.

Daily Daily

Electrical apparatus for malfunctioning, signs of excessive deterioration, and dirt and moisture accumulations.

Daily

Use the daily checklist form as a guide to record keeping for daily inspections. Inspection records must be maintained and kept readily available.

INSPECTION OF WIRE ROPES


The wire rope on hoisting machines (cranes, derricks, and hoists) shall be inspected regularly. For specific frequency of inspection refer to the manufacturers’ requirements. Wire rope shall be taken out of service when any of the following conditions exist: • In running ropes, six randomly distributed broken wires in one lay or three broken wires in one strand in one lay; • Wear of one-third the original diameter of outside individual wires. Kinking, crushing, bird caging, or any other damage resulting in distortion of the rope structure; •

Evidence of any heat damage from any cause; Reductions from nominal diameter of more than onesixty-fourth inch for diameters up to and including five-sixteenths inch, one-thirty-second inch for diameters three-eighths inch to and including one-half inch, three-sixty-fourths inch for diameters nine-sixteenths inch to and including three-fourths inch, one-sixteenth inch for diameters seveneighths inch to 1 inches inclusive, three-thirty-seconds inch for diameters 1¼ to 1½ inches inclusive;

In standing ropes, more than two broken wires in one lay in sections beyond end connections or more than one broken wire at an end connection. • Wire rope safety factors shall be in accordance with American National Standards Institute B30.5-1968 or SAE J959-1966.

HOISTING EQUIPMENT GUARDING AND DESIGN The following design and guarding criteria is required and shall be maintained on all hoisting equipment. •

• • •

Belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles, drums, fly wheels, chains, or other reciprocating, rotating, or other moving parts or equipment shall be guarded if such parts are exposed to contact by employees, or otherwise create a hazard. Guarding shall meet the requirements of the American National Standards Institute B15.1-1958 Rev., Safety Code for Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus. Accessible areas within the swing radius of the rear of the rotating superstructure of the crane, either permanently or temporarily mounted, shall be barricaded in such a manner as to prevent an employee from being struck or crushed by the crane. All exhaust pipes shall be guarded or insulated in areas where contact by employees is possible in the performance of normal duties. Whenever internal combustion engine powered equipment exhausts in enclosed spaces, tests shall be made and recorded to see that employees are not exposed to unsafe concentrations of toxic gases or oxygen deficient atmospheres. All windows in cabs shall be of safety glass, or equivalent, that introduces no visible distortion that will interfere with the safe operation of the machine.


• Where necessary for rigging or service requirements, a ladder, or steps, shall be provided to give access to a cab roof. Guardrails, handholds, and steps shall be provided on cranes for easy access to the car and cab, conforming to American National Standards Institute B30.5. • Platforms and walkways shall have anti-skid surfaces. • Fuel tank filler pipe shall be located in such a position, or protected in such manner, as to not allow spill or overflow to run onto the engine, exhaust, or electrical equipment of any machine being fueled. • An accessible fire extinguisher of 5BC rating, or higher, shall be available at all operator stations or cabs of equipment.

OPERATION OF HOISTING EQUIPMENT NEAR POWER LINES Except where electrical distribution and transmission lines have been de-energized and visibly grounded at point of work or where insulating barriers, not a part of or an attachment to the equipment or machinery, have been erected to prevent physical contact with the lines, equipment or machines shall be operated proximate to power lines only in accordance with the following: • All overhead power lines are to be considered energized or hot and a safe working clearance is to be maintained. A minimum clearance of 10 feet is to be maintained at all times. This is the minimum safe distance and does increase as line voltage ratings increase. • The minimum safe clearance for truck mounted or mobile hoisting equipment, while in transit with no load and boom lowered, shall be 4 feet. This distance is the minimum safe distance and does increase as line voltage rating increases.

Line Rating Over 50 kV

Minimum Crane or Load Distance 10 ft plus 0.4 in. For each 1 kV over 50 kV or

Twice the length of the line insulator, but never less than 10 ft. During transit with boom lowered: 50 kV or less 4 ft 50 kV to 345 kV 10 ft 345 kV to 750 kV 16 ft • A person shall be designated to observe clearance of the equipment and give timely warning for all operations where it is difficult for the operator to maintain the desired clearance by visual means; • Cage-type boom guards, insulating links, or proximity warning devices may be used on cranes, but the use of such devices shall not alter the requirements of any other regulation of this part even if such device is required by law or regulation; 99


• Prior to work near transmitter towers where an electrical charge can be induced in the equipment or materials being handled, the transmitter shall be de-energized or tests shall be made to determine if electrical charge is induced on the crane. The following precautions shall be taken when necessary to dissipate induced voltages: o The equipment shall be provided with an electrical ground directly to the upper rotating structure supporting the boom; and o Ground jumper cables shall be attached to materials being handled by boom equipment when electrical charge is induced while working near energized transmitters. Crews shall be provided with nonconductive poles having large alligator clips or other similar protection to attach the ground cable to the load. o Combustible and flammable materials shall be removed from the immediate area prior to operations.

SAFE OPERATING GUIDELINES • • • • • • • • •

Hoisting machines may look flashy and fast, but a real operator knows that a smooth well balanced work cycle gets more work done, and safely. It prevents machine wear, damage, and regrettable accidents. Operators must be currently certified and have proof of certification on their persons. Follow a definite plan for inspection and safe operation. Report or correct any unsafe conditions immediately. Cranes shall be inspected at the beginning of the shift and the operator shall complete a daily checklist form. The forms will be kept in the cab and turned into the supervisor the end of the shift. Load capacity charts, recommended operating speeds, special hazard warning, and other essential information will be posted on all cranes. Annual and quadrennial (4-year) crane inspection records will be kept on the crane. Routine maintenance, fueling and/or repairs shall not be performed while the equipment is in use or power on. Load weight is to be provided to the operator. Load weight estimates are to be avoided when possible. When they are required, a qualified person shall make the estimate. Final responsibility always rests with the operator. This responsibility cannot be abdicated. No loads exceeding the rated capacity of a crane shall be lifted. Plates or signs showing safe load for various radius or boom angles must be attached to each crane. All loads approaching maximum lift capabilities shall be tested by lifting the load a foot or two off the ground prior to the final lift. This method shall also be used to test rigging and center of gravity. When a load is left suspended for any time, both the drum and brake shall be applied. The operator shall remain at the controls any time a load is suspended.


Standard operating signals will be used to direct all operations. Only one person is permitted to give signals to a crane operator unless a load is being transferred to a point that is out of the signal man’s sight. In such cases, a second signal man must be designated or radios provided. • Outriggers with pads or cribbing will be used at all times on rubber tired cranes, unless a load is secured for travel. Cranes shall not be operated with any wheels off the ground unless supported by an outrigger. • If the operator needs to leave the cab for any reason, the power is to be shut off and controls locked out. • Red Danger Tape is to be used to barricade lift areas and to protect workers from exposure to crane’s counterweight. No lifts shall be attempted until all non-essential people are removed from the area. • A fully charged, currently serviced fire extinguisher shall be kept in the cab of the crane. (5bc rating a minimum). The extinguisher is to be visually inspected daily by the operator and remain accessible. • All crane hooks shall be inspected daily and after each use and will have properly functioning safety latches. • Crane operators must use extreme caution when operating near the edge of excavations, and maintain adequate clearance. • Tag lines or guide ropes will be used on all loads. • Workers are prohibited from riding loads. • The operator is to sound a horn or other warning device prior to and during each lift. • Workers are to be clear of the “danger zone.” No one is to be allowed under loads or in the swing path. • Crane hook must be positioned directly over any load being lifted to minimize strain on the crane as well as load sliding. Only shackles are to be used. • Cranes are only to be moved when directed by a signal man. Workers on the ground should be kept away from the moving machine. No one is permitted to get on or off a moving crane. • Any crane movement requires either a safe number of ground spotters or a pilot vehicle. It is the crane

operator’s responsibility to comply with this requirement and brief the spotters and/or pilot vehicle operator prior to crane movement. In congested or tight work areas, walk paths of travel prior to crane movement. Crane booms shall not be left over process equipment or pipe racks when the operator is out of the cab or the crane is shut down. For overnight storage the boom must be stored in an upright position at a 45-60 degree angle. Crane operators shall test all controls for proper operation at the beginning of each work day or shift. These inspections should be documented and a daily log kept. Findings of concern must be reported to their job site supervisor and corrective actions taken.

Under no circumstance shall modifications or additions be made to hoisting equipment which affects the capacity or safe operation without the manufacturers’ written approval. If approval is obtained and changes are made, the capacity, operation, and maintenance instructions plates, tags, or decals shall be changed accordingly. In no case shall the original safety factor of the equipment be reduced.


EQUIPMENT SPECIFIC INFORMATION

CRAWLER, LOCOMOTIVE, AND TRUCK CRANE

All jibs shall have positive stops to prevent their movement of more than 5o above the straight line of the jib and boom on conventional type crane booms. The use of cable type belly slings does not constitute compliance with this rule. All crawler, truck, or locomotive cranes in use shall meet the applicable requirements for design, inspection, construction, testing, maintenance and operation as prescribed in the ANSI B30.5-1968, Safety Code for Crawler, Locomotive and Truck Cranes. However, the written, dated, and signed inspection reports and records of the monthly inspection of critical items prescribed in section 5-2.1.5 of the ANSI B30.5-1968 standard are not required. Instead, the employer shall prepare a certification record which includes the date the crane items were inspected; the signature of the person who inspected the crane items; and a serial number, or other identifier, for the crane inspected. The most recent certification record shall be maintained on file until a new one is prepared.

HAMMERHEAD TOWER CRANES • •

• • •

Adequate clearance shall be maintained between moving and rotating structures of the crane and fixed objects to allow the passage of employees without harm. Each employee required to perform duties on the horizontal boom of hammerhead tower cranes shall be protected against falling by guardrails or by a personal fall arrest system in conformance with Subpart M, Fall Protection. Buffers shall be provided at both ends of travel of the trolley. Cranes mounted on rail tracks shall be equipped with limit switches limiting the travel of the crane on the track and stops or buffers at each end of the tracks. All hammerhead tower cranes in use shall meet the applicable requirements for design, construction, installation, testing, maintenance, inspection, and operation as prescribed by the manufacturer.

OVERHEAD AND GANTRY CRANES • The rated load of the crane shall be plainly marked on each side of the crane, and if the crane has more than one hoisting unit, each hoist shall have its rated load marked on it or its load block, and this marking shall be clearly legible from the ground or floor. • Bridge trucks shall be equipped with sweeps which extend below the top of the rail and project in front of the truck wheels. • Except for floor-operated cranes, a gong or other effective audible warning signal shall be provided for each crane equipped with a power traveling mechanism. • All overhead and gantry cranes in use shall meet the applicable requirements for design, construction, installation, testing, maintenance, inspection, and operation as prescribed in the ANSI B30.2.0-1967,

Cranes.

DERRICKS

Safety Code for Overhead and Gantry


All derricks in use shall meet the applicable requirements for design, construction, installation, inspection, testing, maintenance, and operation as prescribed in American National Standards Institute B30.6-1969, Safety Code for Derricks.

BASE MOUNTED HOIST DRUMS Exposed moving parts such as gears, projecting screws, setscrews, chain, cables, chain sprockets, and reciprocating or rotating parts, which constitute a hazard, shall be guarded. All controls used during the normal operation cycle shall be located within easy reach of the operator's station. Electric motor operated hoists shall be provided with: • A device to disconnect all motors from the line upon power failure and not permit any motor to be restarted until the controller handle is brought to the "off" position; • Where applicable, an over speed preventive device; • A means whereby remotely operated hoists stop when any control is ineffective. All base-mounted drum hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements for design, construction, installation, testing, inspection, maintenance, and operations, as prescribed by the manufacturer.

OVERHEAD HOISTS • • • • •

The safe working load of the overhead hoist, as determined by the manufacturer, shall be indicated on the hoist, and this safe working load shall not be exceeded. The supporting structure to which the hoist is attached shall have a safe working load equal to that of the hoist. The support shall be arranged so as to provide for free movement of the hoist and shall not restrict the hoist from lining itself up with the load. The hoist shall be installed only in locations that will permit the operator to stand clear of the load at all times. Air hoists shall be connected to an air supply of sufficient capacity and pressure to safely operate the hoist. All air hoses supplying air shall be positively connected to prevent their becoming disconnected during use. All overhead hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements for construction, design, installation, testing, inspection, maintenance, and operation, as prescribed by the manufacturer.


CRANE OPERATOR’S DAILY CHECKLIST


CUTTING AND WELDNG POLICY 1926 Subpart J - Welding and Cutting

PURPOSE The purpose of this policy is to establish safe cutting and welding procedures that are to be followed when any employee of OJ Construction Inc. work with welding/cutting equipment. These procedures are designed to comply with applicable OSHA standards.

ADMINISTRATIVE DUTIES A OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative has the responsibility to for developing, maintaining, and training employees on the information contained within this policy.

GAS WELDING AND CUTTING TRANSPORTING, MOVING, AND STORING COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS  Valve protection caps shall be in place and secured.  When cylinders are hoisted, they shall be secured on a cradle, sling board, or pallet. They shall not be

hoisted or transported by means of magnets or choker slings.  Cylinders shall be moved by tilting and rolling them on their bottom edges. They shall not be

intentionally dropped, struck, or permitted to strike each other violently.  When cylinders are transported by powered vehicles, they shall be secured in a vertical position.  Valve protection caps shall not be used for lifting cylinders from one vertical position to another. Bars

shall not be used under valves or valve protection caps to pry cylinders loose when frozen. Warm, not boiling, water shall be used to thaw cylinders loose.  Unless cylinders are firmly secured on a special carrier intended for this purpose, regulators shall be

removed and valve protection caps put in place before cylinders are moved. 

A suitable cylinder truck, chain, or other steadying device shall be used to keep cylinders from being knocked over while in use.



When work is finished, when cylinders are empty, or when cylinders are moved at any time, the cylinder valve shall be closed.

 Compressed gas cylinders shall be secured in an upright position at all times, if necessary, for short

periods of time while cylinders are actually being hoisted or carried. 105


Oxygen cylinders in storage shall be separated from fuel-gas cylinders or combustible materials (especially oil or grease), a minimum distance of 20 feet (6.1 m) or by a noncombustible barrier at least 5 feet (1.5 m) high having a fire-resistance rating of at least one-half hour.

Inside of buildings, cylinders shall be stored in a well-protected, well-ventilated, dry location, at least 20 feet (6.1 m) from highly combustible materials such as oil or excelsior. Cylinders should be stored in definitely assigned places away from elevators, stairs, or gangways. Assigned storage places shall be located where cylinders will not be knocked over or damaged by passing or falling objects, or subject to tampering.

The in-plant handling, storage, and utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tank cars, or motor vehicle cargo tanks shall be in accordance with Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet P-1-1965.

PLACING CYLINDERS  

Cylinders shall be kept far enough away from the actual welding or cutting operation so that sparks, hot slag, or flame will not reach them. When this is impractical, fire resistant shields shall be provided. Cylinders shall be placed where they cannot become part of an electrical circuit. Electrodes shall not be struck against a cylinder to strike an arc.

Fuel gas cylinders shall be placed with valve end up whenever they are in use. They shall not be placed in a location where they would not be subject to open flame, hot metal, or other sources of artificial heat.

Cylinders containing oxygen or acetylene or other fuel gas shall not be taken into confined spaces.

TREATMENT OF CYLINDERS 

Cylinders, whether full or empty, shall not be used as rollers or supports.

No person other than the gas supplier shall attempt to mix gases in a cylinder. No one except the owner of the cylinder or person authorized by the owner shall refill a cylinder. No one shall use a cylinder's contents for purposes than those intended by the supplier. All cylinders used shall meet the Department of Transportation requirements published in 49 CFR Part 178, Subpart C, Specification for Cylinders.  No damaged or defective cylinder shall be used. 


USE OF FUEL GAS The employer shall thoroughly instruct employees in the safe use of fuel gas, as follows:  Fuel gas shall not be used from cylinders through torches or other devices which are equipped with

shutoff valves without reducing the pressure through a suitable regulator attached to the cylinder valve or manifold.  Before a regulator to a cylinder valve is connected, the valve shall be opened slightly and closed immediately. (This action is generally termed "cracking" and is intended to clear the valve of dust or dirt that might otherwise enter the regulator.) The person cracking the valve shall stand to one side of the outlet, not in front of it. The valve of a fuel gas cylinder shall not be cracked where the gas would reach welding work, sparks, flame, or other possible sources of ignition.  The cylinder valve shall always be opened slowly to prevent damage to the regulator. for quick closing,

valves of fuel gas cylinders shall not be opened more than 1= turns. When a special wrench is required, it shall be left in position on the stem of the valve while the cylinder is in use so that the fuel gas flow can be shut off quickly in case of an emergency. In the case of manifolded or coupled cylinders, at least one such wrench shall always be available for immediate use. Nothing shall be placed on top of a fuel gas cylinder, when in use, which may damage the safety device or interfere with the quick closing of the valve. 

Before a regulator is removed from a cylinder valve, the cylinder valve shall always be closed and the gas released from the regulator.

 If, when the valve on a fuel gas cylinder is opened, there is found to be a leak around the valve stem,

the valve shall be closed and the gland nut tightened. If this action does not stop the leak, the use of the cylinder shall be discontinued, and it shall be properly tagged and removed from the work area. In the event that fuel gas should leak from the cylinder valve, rather than from the valve stem, and the gas cannot be shut off, the cylinder shall be properly tagged and removed from the work area. If a regulator attached to a cylinder valve will effectively stop a leak through the valve seat, the cylinder need not be removed from the work area. 

If a leak should develop at a fuse plug or other safety device, the cylinder shall be removed from the work area.

FUEL GAS AND OXYGEN MANIFOLDS • Fuel gas and oxygen manifolds shall bear the name of the substance they contain in letters at least 1inch high which shall be either painted on the manifold or on a sign permanently attached to it. These manifolds shall be placed in safe, well ventilated, and accessible locations and not be located within enclosed spaces.


• Manifold hose connections, including both ends of the supply hose that lead to the manifold, shall be such that the hose cannot be interchanged between fuel gas and oxygen manifolds and supply header connections. Adapters shall not be use to permit the interchange of hose. Hose connections shall be kept free of grease and oil. When not in use, manifold and header hose connections shall be capped. Nothing shall be placed on top of a manifold, when in use, which will damage the manifold or interfere with the quick closing of the valves. Hose Fuel gas and oxygen hose shall be easily distinguishable from each other. The contrast may be made by different colors or by surface characteristics readily distinguishable by the sense of touch. Oxygen and fuel gas hoses shall not be interchangeable. (See accompanying figure for example.) A single hose having more than one gas passage shall not be used. When parallel sections of oxygen and fuel gas hose are taped together, not more than 4 inches out of 12 inches shall be covered by tape. • All hose in use, carrying acetylene, oxygen, natural or manufactured fuel gas, or any gas or substance which may ignite or enter into combustion, or be in any way harmful to employees, shall be inspected at the beginning of each working shift. Defective hose shall be removed from service. Hose which has been subject to flashback, or which shows evidence of severe wear or damage, shall be tested to twice the normal pressure to which it is subject, but in no case less than 300 p.s.i. Defective hose, or hose in doubtful condition, shall not be used. • Hose couplings shall be of the type that cannot be unlocked or disconnected by means of a straight pull without rotary motion. • Boxes used for the storage of gas hose shall be ventilated. •

Hoses, cables, and other equipment shall be kept clear of passageways, ladders, and stairs.

Torches •

Clogged torch tip openings shall be cleaned with suitable cleaning wires, drills, or other devices designed for such purpose.

• Torches in use shall be inspected at the beginning of each working shift for leaking shutoff valves, hose couplings, and tip connections. Defective torches shall not be used. • Torches shall be lighted by friction lighters or other approved devices, and not by matches or from hot work.


Regulators and Gauges Oxygen and fuel gas pressure regulators, including their related gauges, shall be in proper working order while in use. Oil and Grease Hazards Oxygen cylinders and fittings shall be kept away from oil or grease. Cylinders, cylinder caps and valves, couplings, regulators, hose, and apparatus shall be kept free from oil or greasy substances and shall not be handled with oily hands or gloves. Oxygen shall not be directed at oily surfaces, greasy clothes, or within a fuel oil or other storage tank or vessel. Additional Rules For additional details not covered in this subpart, applicable technical portions of American National Standards Institute, Z49.1-1967, Safety in Welding and Cutting, shall apply.

MANUAL ELECTRODE HOLDERS

ARC WELDING AND CUTTING

• Only manual electrode holders which are specifically designed for arc welding and cutting, and are of a capacity capable of safely handling the maximum rated current required by the electrodes, shall be used. • Any current-carrying parts passing through the portion of the holder which the arc welder or cutter grips in his hand, and the outer surfaces of the jaws of the holder, shall be fully insulated against the maximum voltage encountered to ground.

WELDING CABLES AND CONNECTORS

• All arc welding and cutting cables shall be of the completely, insulated, flexible type, capable of handling the maximum current requirements of the work in progress, taking into account the duty cycle under which the arc welder or cutter is working. • Only cable free from repair or splices for a minimum distance of 10 feet from the cable end to which the electrode holder is connected shall be used, except that cables with standard insulated connectors or with splices whose insulating quality is equal to that of the cable are permitted. • Cables in need of repair shall not be used. When a cable, other than the cable lead referred to above, becomes worn to the extent of exposing bare conductors, the portion thus exposed shall be protected by means of rubber and friction tape or other equivalent insulation. • When it becomes necessary to connect or splice lengths of cable one to another, substantial insulated connectors of a capacity at least equivalent to that of the cable shall be used. If connections are effected by means of cable lugs, they shall be securely fastened together to give good electrical contact and the exposed metal parts of the lugs shall be completely insulated.

GROUND RETURNS AND MACHINE GROUNDING


• •

A ground return cable shall have a safe current-carrying capacity equal to or exceeding the specified maximum output capacity of the arc welding or cutting unit which it services. When a single ground return cable services more than one unit, its safe current-carrying shall exceed the total specified maximum output capacities of the all the units which it services. Pipelines containing gases or flammable liquids, or conduits containing electrical circuits, shall not be used as a ground return. When a structure or pipeline is employed as a ground return circuit, it shall be determined that the required electrical contact exists at all joints. The generation of an arc, sparks, or heat at any point shall cause rejection of the structures as a ground circuit. When a structure or pipeline is continuously employed as a ground return circuit, all joints shall be bonded, and periodic inspections shall be conducted to ensure that no condition of electrolysis or fire hazard exists by virtue of such use. The frames of all arc welding and cutting machines shall be grounded either through a third wire in the cable containing the circuit conductor or through a separate wire which is grounded at the source of the current. Grounding circuits, other than by means of the structure, shall be checked to ensure that the circuit between the ground and the grounded power conductor has resistance low enough to permit sufficient current to flow to cause the fuse or circuit breaker to interrupt the current. All ground connections shall be inspected to ensure that they are mechanically strong and electrically adequate for the required current.

OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS Employers shall instruct employees in the safe means of arc welding and cutting as follows: When electrode holders are to be left unattended, the electrodes shall be removed and the holders shall be so placed or protected that they cannot make electrical contact with employees or conducting objects.  Hot electrode holders shall not be dipped in water; to do so may expose the arc welder or cutter to electric shock. 

When the arc welder or cutter has occasion to leave his work or to stop work for any appreciable length of time, or when the arc welding or cutting machine is to be moved, the power supply switch to the equipment shall be opened.

Any faulty or defective equipment shall be reported to the supervisor and operators discontinue use of equipment until its safety has been assured. Repairs shall be made only by qualified personnel.


A disconnecting means shall be provided in the supply circuit for each motor generated arc welder, and for each AC transformer and DC rectifier arc welder which is not equipped with a disconnect mounted as an integral part of the welder. A switch or circuit breaker shall be provided by which each resistance welder and its control equipment can be isolated from the supply circuit. The ampere rating of this disconnecting means shall not be less than the supply conductor ampacity. Workman assigned to operate arc welding equipment must be properly instructed and qualified to operate such equipment.

Workmen assigned to operate and maintain welding equipment must be familiar with these OSHA standards, section (1910.254) and with 1910.252(a) (b) & (c). Cutters, welders and their supervisors must be suitably trained in the safe operations of their equipment and the safe use of the process. 

SHIELDING Whenever practicable, all arc welding and cutting operations shall be shielded by noncombustible or flameproof screen which will protect employees and other persons working in the vicinity from the direct rays of the arc.

FIRE PREVENTION When practical, objects to be welded, cut, or heated shall be moved to a designated safe location or, if these objects cannot be readily moved, all movable fire hazards in the vicinity shall be taken to a safe place, or otherwise protected. If these objects cannot be moved and if all the fire hazards cannot be removed, positive means shall be taken to confine the heat, sparks, and slag, and to protect the immovable fire hazards from them. If the requirements stated in paragraphs 1910.252 (a) (1) (i) and 1910.252 (a) (1) (ii) of this section cannot be followed the welding and cutting shall not be performed. •

• •

Before cutting or welding shall take place in any area, it shall be inspected by the inspector of record for that project and granted permission for authorized welding and cutting operations. Precautions that are to be taken shall be in the form of a written permit. No welding, cutting or heating shall be done where the application of flammable paints or the presence of other flammable compounds, or heavy dust concentrations creates a hazard. Suitable fire extinguishing equipment shall be immediately available in the work area and shall be maintained in a state or readiness for instant use.


When the welding, cutting, or heating operation is such that normal fire prevention precautions are not sufficient, additional personnel shall be assigned to guard against fire while the actual welding, cutting, or heating operation is being performed, and for a sufficient period of time after completion of the work to ensure that no possibility of fire exists. Such personnel shall be instructed as to the specific anticipated fire hazards and how the firefighting equipment provided is to be used. When welding, cutting, or heating is performed on walls, floors, and ceilings, since direct penetration of sparks or heat transfer may introduce a fire hazard to an adjacent area, the same precautions shall be taken on the opposite side as are taken on the side on which the welding is being performed. For the elimination of possible fire in enclosed spaces as a result of gas escaping through leaking or improperly closed torch valves, the gas supply to the torch shall be positively shut off at some point outside the enclosed space whenever the torch is not to be used or whenever the torch is left unattended for a substantial period of time, such as during the lunch period. Overnight and at the change of shifts, the torch and hose shall be removed from the confined space. Open end fuel gas and oxygen hoses shall be immediately removed from enclosed spaces when they are disconnected from the torch or other gas-consuming device. Except when the contents are being removed or transferred, drums, pails, and other containers which contain or have contained flammable liquids shall be kept closed. Empty containers shall be removed to a safe area apart from hot work operations or open flames. Drums, containers, or hollow structures which have contained toxic or flammable substances shall, before welding, cutting, or heating is undertaken on them, either be filled with water or thoroughly cleaned of such substances and ventilated and tested. Before heat is applied to a drum, container, or hollow structure, a vent or opening shall be provided for the release of any built-up pressure during the application of heat.

FIRE WATCH Five (5) conditions that require fire watch: • Locations where other than a minor fire might develop. • Combustible materials closer than 35 ft. (10.7M) to point of operation. • Combustibles that are 35 ft. (10.7M) or more away but are easily ignited. • Wall or floor openings within 35 feet (10.7M) radius expose combustible materials. • Combustible materials are adjacent to the opposite side of metal partitions, ceilings or roofs. Additional requirements include:


• Fire watchers shall have fire extinguishers readily available. A fire watch shall be maintained at least a half an hour after the welding or cutting operation was completed. • Assigned fire watchers must be trained in the use of fire extinguishing equipment and familiar with the facilities for sounding an alarm in the event of a fire.

VENTILATION AND PROTECTION IN WELDING, CUTTING, AND HEATING Mechanical Ventilation •

Mechanical ventilation shall consist of either general mechanical ventilation systems or local exhaust systems. • Ventilation shall be deemed adequate if it is of sufficient capacity and so arranged as to remove fumes and smoke at the source and keep their concentration in the breathing zone within safe limits as defined in Subpart D of Part 1926, Occupational Health and Environmental Controls. • Contaminated air exhausted from a working space shall be discharged clear of the source of intake air. • All air replacing that withdrawn shall be clean and respirable. • Oxygen shall not be used for ventilation purposes, comfort cooling, blowing dust from clothing, or for cleaning the work area. The following information is the recommended minimum precautionary measure to be followed in performing the types of hot work listed. If, in the opinion of the supervisor, additional protection is required for a particular welding or burning job, such added protective measures should be used. Open Area includes most outside work, the mechanical shop (except vessels or partitioned areas inside the building) and well-ventilated large rooms, buildings or tanks. Confined Spaces include work areas such as inside small tanks, drums, towers, or other vessels, whether indoors or out, as well as small rooms, deep excavations, and manholes.


Welding and Burning Stick Electrode Welding

Electrode AWS E-6010 AWS E-6011 AWS E-6012 AWS E-6013 AWS E-6020 E-316 Stainless 18-12 E-310 Stainless 25-20

Basic Elements Iron Iron Iron Iron Iron Chromium, Nickel, Iron Chromium, Nickel, Iron

e-308 Stainless 18-8

Chromium, Nickel, Iron

E-610 12% Cr E-502 5% Cr

Chromium, Iron Chromium, Iron

E-605 9% Cr

Chromium, Iron

E-7018 Low Hydrogen E-8018 B-2 (1-1/4% Cr) E-9018 B-3 (2-1/4% Cr) E-8108 C-2 (3-1/2% Ni)

Iron Chromium, Iron Chromium, Iron Nickel, Iron

Stoody 6

65% Cobalt, 45% Tungsten, 28% Chromium Cobalt High Chromium, Nickel

Eutectic 680 Inco-A Inconel 182 Monel 190 Ni-Rod 55 Carpenter 20

Byproducts

Chromium, Nickel Chromium, Nickel Chromium, Nickel Chromium Chromium Fluorides

Chromium Chromium, Nickel

68% Nickel

Nickel

65% Nickel

Nickel

60% Nickel, 23% Copper

Nickel, Copper

60% Nickel

Nickel

36% Nickel, 20% Chromium

Precautions A A A A A B B B B A B C A A B B B B B B B


Precautions: A. No special precautions are needed in open or well-ventilated areas. Work in poorly ventilated areas will require respiratory protection. Work in confined spaces may require fume filter-type respirators or supplied air. Adhere to or upgrade permit requirements. Consult the Welding Supervisor. B. Moderate amounts of fumes generated: 1. Use exhaust blowers or air siphons to remove fumes from breathing zone in open areas. 2. Work in confined spaces will require high efficiency particulate respirators. C. Fumes and gases generated: 1. Use exhaust blowers or air siphons to remove gases and fumes from breathing zone in open areas. 2. Work in confined spaces will require air-supplied respirator. D. Intense arc. Large amounts of metal fumes and gases generated: 1. Provide adequate ventilation of work. Use fume exhausters to remove fumes and gases from breathing zone in open areas. Do not direct exhaust air toward other employees. Use fume filter-type respirators in open areas. 2. In confined areas, adequate ventilation must be provided and air-supplied respirator must be worn. E. Use only in metalizing hood. If necessary to metalize in other locations, use air-supplied respirator and protect other workers in the vicinity. Do not use any lead alloys in open shop area.

Tungsten Arc Welding, Gas Shielded (Heliarc)* (TIG) Rod Evedur 1010 Oxweld 372 Copper AWS ER 4043 AWS ER 5356 Oxweld 28

Basic Elements 05.6% Copper Silicon 98% Copper Aluminum, Silicon Magnesium, Aluminum 18% Chromium, 8% Nickel, Iron

Harmful Byproducts Copper, Ozone Copper, Ozone Ozone Ozone Chromium, Nickel Ozone

Precautions C C C C C


Steel 1-1/4% Chromium 2-1/4% Chromium

Steel Chromium, Iron Chromium, Iron

Ozone Ozone Ozone

C C C

*High levels of ultraviolet light produced. Avoid eye flash with side shield goggles. Avoid skin burns with proper clothing.

C. Fumes and gases generated:

1. Use exhaust blowers or air siphons to remove gases and fumes from breathing zone in open areas. 2. Work in poorly ventilated areas will require respiratory protection. 3. Work in confined spaces will require air-supplied respirator.

Short Arc Consumable Electrode Gas Shield* (MIG) Wire

Basic Elements

18-8 Stainless 25-20 Stainless Oxweld 63 Airco 110 Oxweld 62 Type 316 Stainless Aluminum

18% Chromium, 8 % Nickel, Steel 25% Chromium, 20% Nickel, Steel 98% Copper 98% Copper 91.5% Copper, Aluminum 18% Chromium, 13% Nickel, Steel Aluminum

Harmful Byproducts Chromium, Nickel, Ozone Chromium, Nickel, Ozone Copper, Ozone Copper, Ozone Copper, Ozone Copper, Nickel, Ozone Ozone

Precautions* B B B B B B B


Hastelloy B Inconel 62 Oxweld 65

Nickel, Molybdenum Chromium, Nickel Iron

Nickel, Ozone Nickel, Ozone

B B B

*High levels of ultraviolet light produced. Avoid eye flash with side shield goggles. Avoid skin burns with proper clothing.

B. Moderate amounts of fumes generated: 1. Use exhaust blowers or air siphons to remove fumes from breathing zone in open areas. 2. Work in confined spaces or poorly ventilated areas will require high efficiency particulate respirators.

Acetylene Welding and Brazing Wire Hastelloy D Oxweld 5M 1 Oxweld Aluminum Everdur 1010 Arcosil J Oxweld 28 18-8 Stainless Easy-Flo Sil-Fos

Basic Elements Silicon, 90% Nickel Copper, Zinc, Tin Steel Aluminum Copper, Silicon 56% Silver, 22% Copper 17% zinc, 5% Tin 18% Chromium, 8% Nickel, Steel 18% Chromium, 8% Nickel, Steel 45% Silver, 15% Copper 25% Cadmium, 16% Zinc 15% silver, 80% Copper

Harmful Byproducts Nickel Copper, Zinc Copper Copper, Zinc Chromium, Nickel Chromium, Nickel Copper, Cadmium Zinc Copper

Precautions A B A A A B B B B B


Oxweld 372 Colmonoy 6 Chromium Stoodite Borod

5% Phosphorus 98% Copper 65% Cobalt, 28% Chromium Tungsten Iron, 30% Chromium Tungsten Carbide, Iron

Copper Cobalt, Chromium

B B

Chromium

B

A. No special precautions are needed in open or well-ventilated areas. Work in confined spaces or poorly ventilated areas may require fume filter-type respirators. Consult the mechanical welding and metals supervisor. B. Moderate amounts of fumes generated: 1. Use exhaust blowers or air siphons to remove fumes from breathing zone in open areas. 2. Work in confined spaces will require high efficiency particulate respirators. Silver Soldering and Soldering Rod, Wire 1801 Super Cadmium, Zinc 1602 18 FC 16 FC 15 Phoson Phosphorous 11 Allstate

Basic Elements Silver, Copper, Silver, Copper, Tin Copper, Tin Zinc Silver Copper, Nickel Silver Copper Copper, Zinc, Nickel

Harmful Byproducts Copper, Cadmium, Zinc Copper Copper, Zinc Copper, Nickel

Precautions* B B B B

Copper

B

Copper, Zinc, Nickel

B

B. Moderate amounts of fumes generated: 1. Use exhaust blowers or air siphons to remove fumes from breathing zone in open areas.


2. Work in confined spaces will require high efficiency particulate respirators. Air Arc Cutting and Gouging (Carbon Rod)* Material Worker Steel Cast Iron Monel Stainless Steels Chrome Steels Brass Copper Aluminum High Nickel

Basic Elements Iron Iron Copper, Nickel Chromium Nickel, Iron Chromium, Iron Copper, Zinc Copper Aluminum Nickel

Harmful Byproducts Iron Oxides Iron Oxides Copper, Nickel Chromium, Nickel Chromium Copper, Zinc Copper Nickel Oxides Nickel Oxides

Precautions* D D D D D D D D D

*Air gouging produces much higher metal fume levels than ordinary cutting or welding. Hearing protection needed for high noise levels. D. Intense arc. Large amounts of metal fumes and gases generated: 1. Provide adequate ventilation of work. Use fume exhausters to remove fumes and gases from breathing zone in open areas. Do not direct exhaust air toward other employees. Use fume filter-type respirators in open areas. 2. In confined areas, adequate ventilation must be provided. Plasma Arc Cutting Metals Cut Steel Cast Iron

Basic Elements Iron Iron

Harmful Byproducts Iron Oxides Iron Oxides

Precautions* D D


Monel Stainless Steel Chrome Steel Brass Aluminum Everdur Copper

Copper, Nickel Chromium, Nickel Steel Copper , Steel Copper, Zinc Aluminum Silicon, Copper Copper

Copper Nickel Chromium, Nickel Chromium Copper, Zinc Aluminum Oxides Copper Copper

D D D D D D D

*High levels of ultraviolet light produced. Avoid eye flash with proper eye protection. Avoid skin burns with proper clothing. High noise levels produced. Hearing protection required. D. Intense arc. Large amounts of metal fumes and gases generated: 1. Provide adequate ventilation of work. Use fume exhausters to remove fumes and gases from breathing zone in open areas. Do not direct exhaust air toward other employees. Use fume filter-type respirators in open areas. 2 adequate ventilation must be provided in confined areas.

WELDING, CUTTING, AND HEATING IN CONFINED SPACES • Except where air line respirators are required or allowed as described below, adequate mechanical ventilation meeting the requirements described above shall be provided whenever welding, cutting, or heating is performed in a confined space. • When sufficient ventilation cannot be obtained without blocking the means of access, employees in the confined space shall be protected by air line respirators in accordance with the requirements of Subpart E of 29 CFR Part 1926, Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment. • An employee on the outside of the confined space shall be assigned to maintain communication with those working within it and to aid them in an emergency. •

Where a welder must enter a confined space through a small opening, means shall be provided for quickly removing him in case of emergency. When safety belts and lifelines are used for this purpose they shall be so attached to the welder's body that his body cannot be jammed in a small exit opening.


An attendant with a pre-planned rescue procedure shall be stationed outside to observe the welder at all times and be capable of putting rescue operations into effect.

WELDING, CUTTING, OR HEATING OF METALS OF TOXIC SIGNIFICANCE Welding, cutting, or heating in any enclosed spaces involving the following metals shall be performed with adequate mechanical ventilation as described above: • Zinc-bearing base or filler metals or metals coated with zinc-bearing materials; • Lead base metals; • Cadmium-bearing filler materials; • Chromium-bearing metals or metals coated with chromium-bearing materials. Welding, cutting, or heating in any enclosed spaces involving the following metals shall be performed with adequate local exhaust ventilation as described above or employees shall be protected by air line respirators. • Metals containing lead, other than as an impurity, or metals coated with lead-bearing materials; • Cadmium-bearing or cadmium-coated base metals; • Metal coated with mercury-bearing metals; • Beryllium-containing base or filler metals. •

Because of its high toxicity, work involving beryllium shall be done with both local exhaust ventilation and air line respirators. Employees performing such operations in the open air shall be protected by filter-type respirators, except that employees performing such operations on beryllium-containing base or filler metals shall be protected by air line respirators. Other employees exposed to the same atmosphere as the welders or burners shall be protected in the same manner as the welder or burner. Inert-Gas Metal-Arc Welding Since the inert-gas metal-arc welding process involves the production of ultra-violet radiation of intensities of 5 to 30 times that produced during shielded metal-arc welding, the decomposition of chlorinated solvents by ultraviolet rays, and the liberation of toxic fumes and gases, employees shall not be permitted to engage in, or be exposed to the process until the following special precautions have been taken:


The use of chlorinated solvents shall be kept at least 200 feet, unless shielded, from the exposed arc, and surfaces prepared with chlorinated solvents shall be thoroughly dry before welding is permitted on such surfaces. Employees in the area not protected from the arc by screening shall be protected by filter lenses. When two or more welders are exposed to each other's arc, filter lens goggles of a suitable type, meeting the requirements of Subpart E, shall be worn under welding helmets. Hand shields to protect the welder against flashes and radiant energy shall be used when either the helmet is lifted or the shield is removed. Welders and other employees who are exposed to radiation shall be suitably protected so that the skin is covered completely to prevent burns and other damage by ultraviolet rays. Welding helmets and hand shields shall be free of leaks and openings, and highly reflective surfaces. When inert-gas metal-arc welding is being performed on stainless steel, adequate local exhaust ventilation as described above or air line respirators in accordance with the requirements of Subpart E shall be used to protect against dangerous concentrations of nitrogen dioxide.

GENERAL WELDING, CUTTING, AND HEATING Welding, cutting, or heating not involving conditions or toxic materials described above may normally be done without mechanical ventilation or respiratory protective equipment. These protections shall be provided, however, where an unsafe accumulation of contaminants exists because of unusual physical or atmospheric conditions.

EYE PROTECTION Employees performing any type of welding, cutting, or heating shall be protected by suitable filtering eye protective equipment described in the following table. Shade

Welding Operation

Numb er 10

11 12

Shielded metal arc welding 1/16, 3/32, 1/8, 5/32-in. diameter electrodes Gas-shielded arc welding (nonferrous) 1/16, 3/32, 1/8, 5/32-in. diameter electrodes

Gas-shielded arc welding (ferrous) 1/16, 3/32, 1/8, 5/32-in. diameter electrodes Shielded metal-arc welding 3/16, 7/32, 1/4-in. diameter electrodes


12 Shielded metal-arc welding 5/16, 3/8-in. diameter electrodes. 14 Atomic hydrogen welding 10 to 14 Carbon arc Welding 14 Soldering 2 Torch Brazing 3 or 4 Light cutting, up to 1 in. 3 or 4 4 or 5

Medium cutting, 1 in. to 6 in.

5 or 6

Heavy cutting, over 6 in.

4 or 5

Gas welding (light), up to 1/8-in.

5 or 6

Gas welding (medium), 1/8-in. to 1/2-in.

6 or 8

Gas welding (heavy), over 1/2-in.

WELDING, CUTTING, AND HEATING IN WAY OF PRESERVATIVE COATINGS


Before welding, cutting, or heating is commenced on any surface covered by a preservative coating whose flammability is not known, a test shall be made by a competent person to determine its flammability. Preservative coatings shall be considered to be highly flammable when scrapings burn with extreme rapidity. When coatings are determined to be highly flammable, they shall be stripped from the area to be heated to prevent ignition. Protection against toxic preservative coatings: •

In enclosed spaces, all surfaces covered with toxic preservatives shall be stripped of all toxic coatings for a distance of at least 4 inches from the area of heat application, or the employees shall be protected by air line respirators meeting the requirements of Subpart E. • In the open air, employees shall be protected by a respirator, in accordance with the requirements of Subpart E. The preservative coatings shall be removed a sufficient distance from the area to be heated to ensure that the temperature of the un-stripped metal will not be appreciably raised. Artificial cooling of the metal surrounding the heating area may be used to limit the size of the area required to be cleaned.

FIRST AID First aid equipment shall be available at all times.


EXCAVATIONS 1926 Subpart P - Excavations

PURPOSE The purpose of this policy is to develop safe work procedures to be followed by the employees of OJ Construction Inc. for working in or around excavations.

POLICY All excavation work done by the employees of OJ Construction Inc. shall be done under the supervision of a competent person, and in accordance with applicable OSHA regulations. General procedure will consist of site a site assessment to identify conditions that may cause future hazards, locating underground installations, typing of the soil, choosing the appropriate protective system, inspection of the excavation & protective equipment, and ensure employees have had the appropriate training. These items are to be addressed prior to employees working in or around an excavation. The excavation site and related equipment will also be inspected regularly and as needed throughout the duration of excavation operations.

DEFINITIONS Benching (Benching system)-- means a method of protecting employees from cave-ins by excavating the sides of an excavation to form one or a series of horizontal levels or steps, usually with vertical or near-vertical surfaces between levels. Cave-in-- means the separation of a mass of soil or rock material from the side of an excavation, or the loss of soil from under a trench shield or support system, and its sudden movement into the excavation, either by falling or sliding, in sufficient quantity so that it could entrap, bury, or otherwise injure and immobilize a person. Competent person-- means one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings, or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them. Excavation-- means any man-made cut, cavity, trench, or depression in an earth surface, formed by earth removal.. Hazardous atmosphere-- means an atmosphere which by reason of being explosive, flammable, poisonous, corrosive, oxidizing, irritating, oxygen deficient, toxic, or otherwise harmful, may cause death, illness, or injury. Protective system-- means a method of protecting employees from cave-ins, from material that could fall or roll from an excavation face or into an excavation, or from the collapse of adjacent structures. Protective 125


systems include support systems, sloping and benching systems, shield systems, and other systems that provide the necessary protection. Shield (Shield system) -- means a structure that is able to withstand the forces imposed on it by a cave-in and thereby protect employees within the structure. Shields can be permanent structures or can be designed to be portable and moved along as work progresses. Additionally, shields can be either pre-manufactured or jobbuilt in accordance with 1926.652(c) (3) or (c) (4). Shields used in trenches are usually referred to as "trench boxes" or "trench shields." Shoring (Shoring system)-- means a structure such as a metal hydraulic, mechanical or timber shoring system that supports the sides of an excavation and which is designed to prevent cave-ins. Sloping (Sloping system)-- means a method of protecting employees from cave-ins by excavating to form sides of an excavation that are inclined away from the excavation so as to prevent cave-ins. The angle of incline required to prevent a cave-in varies with differences in such factors as the soil type, environmental conditions of exposure, and application of surcharge loads. Support system-- means a structure such as underpinning, bracing, or shoring, which provides support to an adjacent structure, underground installation, or the sides of an excavation. Trench (Trench excavation) -- means a narrow excavation (in relation to its length) made below the surface of the ground. In general, the depth is greater than the width, but the width of a trench (measured at the bottom) is not greater than 15 feet (4.6 m). If forms or other structures are installed or constructed in an excavation so as to reduce the dimension measured from the forms or structure to the side of the excavation to 15 feet (4.6 m) or less (measured at the bottom of the excavation), the excavation is also considered to be a trench.

SPECIFIC EXCAVATION REQUIREMENTS Surface Encumbrances •

All surface encumbrances shall be removed or supported as necessary to eliminate any hazard.

Underground Utilities • The location of underground utilities shall be determined prior to excavating. • Utility companies or utility owners shall be contacted within established local response times, and asked to establish the location of the utility installations. • While the excavation is open, underground installations shall be protected, supported, or removed as necessary to safeguard employees.


Access and Egress • Structural ramps used for access and egress of employees only, shall be designed by a competent person. • Structural ramps used for access and egress of equipment shall be designed by a person qualified in structural design. • Means of egress from trench excavations of 4 feet or more shall be located with no more than 25 feet of travel for employees. Exposure to Vehicle Traffic • Employees exposed to pubic traffic shall be provided and wear warning vests made of highly reflective or highly visible material. Warning Systems for Mobile Equipment • When mobile equipment is operated near excavations or is required to approach the edge of an excavation, and the operator does not have clear view of the edge, then a warning system of barricades, stop logs, or mechanical or hand signs shall be used. Hazardous Atmospheres • Where oxygen deficiency or other hazardous atmosphere exists or could reasonably be expected to exist, then the atmosphere in excavations 4 feet or more in depth shall be tested before employees enter. Adequate precautions shall be taken to prevent employees from exposure to oxygen deficient and other hazardous atmospheres such as, proper respiratory protection and ventilation. • Where controls are used to reduce the levels of atmospheric contaminants to acceptable levels then monitoring shall be conducted as often as necessary to ensure the effectiveness of the controls. •

Emergency rescue equipment, breathing apparatus, safety harness and line, or basket stretcher shall be readily available where hazardous atmospheres exist or could reasonably expected to develop during work in an excavation. • Employees entering bell bottom pier holes or similar deep and confined excavations shall wear a harness with lifeline attached. The lifeline must be separate from any lines handling other materials and shall be individually attended (at the top of the excavation); at all times the employee is in the excavation. Water Accumulation •

Employees shall not work in excavations where there is accumulated water, or water accumulating, unless adequate precautions have been taken to protect the employees from the hazards associated with this situation. Precautions may include cave in protection, water removal, safety harness and


lifeline, and water drainage in areas adjacent to the excavation. The precautions with each situation could vary, will be addressed individually, and will include special precautions if necessary. Stability of Adjacent Structures • Where the stability of adjoining structures is endangered by excavation operations, then support systems shall be used to ensure the stability of the structures for the protection of the employees. If necessary consult a professional registered engineer to assess support systems needed, design, and approve installations of such systems. Protection of Employees from Loose Rock and Soil • Protection shall be provided to protect employees from material rolling or falling from the face of an excavation. This may include scaling the face, installing protective barricades, or other adequate means of protection. • Materials and equipment shall be kept at a minimum of 2 feet from the edge of an excavation, or be secured by the used of retaining devices or by combination of both. Inspections of Excavations • At a minimum, the excavation, adjacent areas, and protective systems shall be inspected daily by a competent person for evidence of hazardous conditions and protective equipment failure. This inspection shall take place prior to work beginning and as necessary throughout the shift to ensure the protection of the employees. • Inspections shall be conducted after every rain storm and after every hazard increasing occurrence if an employee hazard can be reasonably anticipated. Walkways over Excavations • Where walkways exist and employees or equipment are required or are permitted to cross over excavations, then standard guardrails shall be installed if the walkway is 6 feet or more above the lower level.


SOIL CLASSIFICATIONS AND TEST METHODS Definitions: Cemented Soil—Soil in which the particles are held together by a chemical agent, such as calcium carbonate, such that a hand size sample cannot be crushed into powder or individual soil particles by finger pressure. Cohesive Soil—Soil comprised of clay (fine grained soil), or soil with a high clay content. It has cohesive strength. Cohesive soil does not crumble, can be excavated with vertical sides, and is plastic like when moist. Cohesive soil is hard to break up when dry, and exhibits significant cohesion when submerged. Cohesive soils include clayey silt, sandy clay, silty clay, clay and organic clay. Dry Soil—Soil that does not exhibit visible signs of moisture content. Fissured— Is soil that has a tendency to break along definite planes of fracture with little resistance, or a material that exhibits open cracks, such as tension cracks, in an exposed surface. Granular Soil—Is gravel, sand, or silt (course grained soil) with little or no clay content. Granular soil has no cohesive strength. Granular soil cannot be molded when moist and crumbles easily when dry. Layered System—Is two or more distinctly different soil types found in layers. Moist Soil—Soil that looks and feels wet Stable Rock—Natural solid mineral matter that can be excavated with vertical sides and remain intact while exposed. Type A Soil—Cohesive Soil with an unconfined compressive strength of 1.5 tons per square foot or greater. Types A soil consist of clays, cemented soils, and hardpan. Type B Soil—Cohesive soil with an unconfined compressive strength greater than .5 tons per square foot but less than 1.5 tsf. Type B soils consist of silts and sandy or silty clay loams and dry rock that is not stable. Type C Soil—Cohesive soil with an unconfined compressive strength less than .5 tons per square foot. Type C includes granular soils, sand, loamy sands, gravel, submerged soil, or soil that is freely seeping, or submerged rock that is not stable.

SOIL TESTING Each soil and rock deposit shall be classified by a competent person as stable rock, type A, type B, or type C. This classification shall be based on at least one visual and one manual test. Acceptable Visual Test Methods:


• Observe samples of soil that are excavated and in the soil in the sides of the excavation. Estimate the range of the particle size. Fined grained material is generally cohesive, course grained material generally is not cohesive, but granular. • Observe as it is being excavated, soils that stays clumped together are cohesive soils that breaks up are granular. • Observer the sides of the open excavation. Crack like openings indicate fissured material. If chunks of soil spall off the sides, the material may be fissured. • Observe the sides of the excavations for layered material. • Observe the adjacent area of the excavation for surface water; observe the sides of the excavation for seeping water, or the location of the water table. • Observe the excavation and surrounding area for sources of vibration. Acceptable Manual Test Methods: • Plasticity. Mold a moist or wet sample of soil into a ball and attempt to roll it into threads as thin as 1/8 inch diameter and approximately 2 inches long, hold the material by one end. If it does not tear it is cohesive or type A. • Dry Strength. If the soil is dry and crumbles on its own or with little applied pressure, into grains or powder then it is granular. If the soil is dry and falls in to clumps which break into smaller clumps and the smaller clumps can only be broken with difficulty then the soil is a combination of clay and granular material. • Thumb Penetration. The thumb penetration test is used to estimate the unconfined compressive

strength. Type A soils can easily be indented by the thumb, however, they can only be penetrated by the thumb with great effort. Type C soils can easily be penetrated several inches with little effort and can be molded by light finger pressure. The thumb penetration test should be conducted on undisturbed soil sample, such as a large clump of excavated material, as soon as practicable after excavation to keep to a minimum the effects of exposure to drying influences Other manual accepted manual test includes the use of a penetrometer, and use of a hand operated shearvane.

PROTECTIVE SYSTEMS Employees working in excavations shall be protected against cave-ins by an adequate protective system unless, the excavation is entirely stable rock, or the excavation is less than 5 feet deep and examination of the earth by a competent person provides no indication of potential cave-in. All protective systems shall be able to withstand expected loads and forces.

DESIGN OF SLOPING AND BENCHING Sloping and benching design has to be in accordance with one of the following four options: Option One (No Soil Typing)


• When soil typing has not been performed or taken into consideration, then sloping and benching shall not be steeper than the ratio of 1.5 horizontal to 1 vertical (34 degrees measured from the horizontal). Option Two (Soil Typing) • Determination of benching and sloping ratios using appendices A & B, titled Maximum Allowable Slopes, and Allowable Configurations for Sloping and Benching. The use of these appendices requires the typing of soil to being excavated. Option Three (Other Tabulated Data) • Designs using other tabulated data. This data shall be written and include the following: o Identification of the parameters that affect the selection of a sloping or benching system drawn from such data o Identification of the limits of use of the data, to include the magnitude and configuration of slopes determined to be safe o Explanatory information to aid the user in selecting the correct protective system from the data o One copy of the tabulated data, which contains the identification of the registered professional engineer who approved the data, must be kept on the jobsite during the construction of the protective system. Option Four (By Design of Registered Professional Engineer) •

Design by a registered professional engineer. This design shall be written and include the following: o The magnitude of the slopes that were determined to be safe for the particular project o The configurations that were determined to be safe for the particular project o The identity of the registered professional engineer approving the design o At least one copy of the design shall be maintained at the jobsite while the slope is being constructed.

DESIGN OF SUPPORT SYSTEMS • • • •

The materials and equipment used in protective systems shall be free from damage and defects that might impair proper function. Manufactured systems components shall be maintained and used in conjunction with manufacturer guidelines. When material or components is damaged, it shall be inspected by a competent person to evaluate its suitability for continued use. If it is not suitable for use the damaged material or component must be repaired or replaced before work resumes in the excavation. Support systems such as shield systems or other support systems must be in accordance with one of the following four options.


Option one (Timber & Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring) • Design by using appendices A, C, and D. Timber shoring shall be designed in accordance with appendices A and C. Aluminum hydraulic shoring shall be designed in accordance with appendix D only if the manufacturer’s tabulated data cannot be utilized. Option Two (Design Using Manufacturer’s Tabulated Data) • Designs that are drawn from manufacturer’s tabulated data should only be used in accordance with all specifications, recommendations, and limitations issued by the manufacturer. • Deviation from the specifications, recommendations, and limitations must be approved by the manufacturer in writing. The written approval of the manufacturer must be kept on the jobsite during construction of the protective system. Option Three (Design Using Other Tabulated Data) • Designs using other tabulated data. This data shall be written and include the following: o Identification of the parameters that affect the selection of a protective system drawn from such data o Identification of the limits of use of the data o Explanatory information to aid the user in selecting the correct protective system from the data o One copy of the tabulated data, which contains the identification of the registered professional engineer who approved the data, must be kept on the jobsite during the construction of the protective system. Option Four (Design of a Registered Professional Engineer) • Design by a registered professional engineer. This design shall be written and include the following: o A plan indicating the sizes, types, and configurations of the materials to be used in the protective system o The identity of the registered professional engineer approving the design o At least one copy of the design shall be maintained at the jobsite while the protective system is being constructed.


Maximum Allowable Slopes SOIL OR ROCK TYPE

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE SLOPES (H:V)(1) FOR EXCAVATIONS LESS THAN 20 FEET DEEP(3)

STABLE ROCK VERTICAL (90º) TYPE A (2) 3/4:1 (53º) TYPE B 1:1 (45º) TYPE C 1 ½:1 (34º) Footnote (1) Numbers shown in parentheses next to maximum allowable slopes are angles expressed in degrees from the horizontal. Angles have been rounded off. Footnote(2) A short-term maximum allowable slope of 1/2H:1V (63º) is allowed in excavations in Type A soil that are 12 feed (3.67 m) or less in depth. Short-term maximum allowable slopes for excavations greater than 12 feet (3.67 m) in depth shall be 3/4H:1V (53º). Footnote (3) Sloping or benching for excavations greater than 20 feet deep shall be designed by a registered professional engineer.

SLOPE CONFIGURATIONS (All slopes stated below are in the horizontal to vertical ratio) Excavations made in Type A soil. 1. All simple slope excavation 20 feet or less in depth shall have a maximum allowable slope of ¾:1.

SIMPLE SLOPE - GENERAL Exception: Simple slope excavations which are open 24 hours or less (short term) and which are 12 feet or less in depth shall have a maximum allowable slope of ½:1.


SIMPLE SLOPE - SHORT TERM 2. All benched excavations 20 feet or less in depth shall have a maximum allowable slope of 3/4 to 1 and maximum bench dimensions as follows:

SIMPLE BENCH

MULTIPLE BENCH 3. All excavations 8 feet or less in depth which have unsupported vertically sided lower portions shall have a maximum vertical side of 3½ feet.


UNSUPPORTED VERTICALLY SIDED LOWER PORTION - MAXIMUM 8 FEET IN DEPTH) All excavations more than 8 feet but not more than 12 feet in depth with unsupported vertically sided lower portions shall have a maximum allowable slope of 1:1 and a maximum vertical side of 3½ feet.

UNSUPPORTED VERTICALLY SIDED LOWER PORTION - MAXIMUM 12 FEET IN DEPTH) All excavations 20 feet or less in depth which have vertically sided lower portions that are supported or shielded shall have a maximum allowable slope of ¾:1. The support or shield system must extend at least 18 inches above the top of the vertical side.

SUPPORTED OR SHIELDED VERTICALLY SIDED LOWER PORTION 4. All other simple slope, compound slope, and vertically sided lower portion excavations shall be in accordance with the other options permitted under § 1926.652(b).


Excavations Made in Type B Soil 1. All simple slope excavations 20 feet or less in depth shall have a maximum allowable slope of 1:1.

SIMPLE SLOPE 2. All benched excavations 20 feet or less in depth shall have a maximum allowable slope of 1:1 and maximum bench dimensions as follows:

SINGLE BENCH

MULTIPLE BENCH


3. All excavations 20 feet or less in depth which have vertically sided lower portions shall be shielded or supported to a height at least 18 inches above the top of the vertical side. All such excavations shall have a maximum allowable slope of 1:1.

VERTICALLY SIDED LOWER PORTION 4. All other sloped excavations shall be in accordance with the other options permitted in § 1926.652(b). Excavations Made in Type C Soil 1. All simple slope excavations 20 feet or less in depth shall have a maximum allowable slope of 1½:1.

SIMPLE SLOPE 2. All excavations 20 feet or less in depth which have vertically sided lower portions shall be shielded or supported to a height at least 18 inches above the top of the vertical side. All such excavations shall have a maximum allowable slope of 1½:1.


VERTICAL SIDED LOWER PORTION 3. All other sloped excavations shall be in accordance with the other options permitted in ยง 1926.652(b). B-1.4 Excavations Made in Layered Soils 1. All excavations 20 feet or less in depth made in layered soils shall have a maximum allowable slope for each layer as set forth below.

B OVER A

C OVER A


SAFETY MANUAL

C OVER B

A OVER B

A OVER C

B OVER C 2. All other sloped excavations shall be in accordance with the other options permitted in ยง 1926.652(b).


Minimum Timber Shoring Requirements


Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring


FALL PROTECTION FOR GENERAL INDUSTRY PURPOSE

The purpose of this policy is to ensure that the employees of OJ Construction Inc., working in areas where exposure to fall hazards of 4 feet or more exist are protected against accidental falls. This includes but is not limited to floor openings, skylights, pits, manholes, excavations, floor holes, wall openings, wall holes, open sided floors, and stairway railings. Note: This plan does not cover scaffolds, portable ladders, or motorized work platforms. The fall protection requirements for each of these areas are contained in its respective written plan.

POLICY No employees of OJ Construction Inc. shall be permitted to work in areas where unprotected fall hazards of 4 feet or more exist, without specific training and use of proper fall protection procedures and equipment. Duty to Have Fall Protection To protect our employees from fall exposures of 4 feet and greater, OJ Construction Inc. has a duty to anticipate the need for fall protection, and to plan work activities accordingly. Employers are required to assess the workplace to determine if the walking/working surfaces on which employees are to work have the strength and structural integrity to safely support workers. Employees are not permitted to work on those surfaces until it has been determined that the surfaces have the requisite strength and structural integrity to support the workers. Once employers have determined that the surface is safe for employees to work on, the employer must select one of the options listed for the work operation if a fall hazard is present. For example, if an employee is exposed to falling 4 feet (l .8 meters) or more from an unprotected side or edge, the employer must select a guardrail system, or personal fall arrest system to protect the worker. Similar requirements are prescribed for other fall hazards as follows.

ADMINISTRATIVE DUTIES A OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative is responsible for the developing and maintaining this fall protection plan. This includes employee training, record keeping, enforcement, and periodic fall protection plan evaluation. The employer shall provide for prompt rescue of employees in the event of a fall or shall assure that employees are able to rescue themselves.

DEFINITIONS


• Floor Opening-an opening measuring more than 12 inches in its least dimension, in any floor, platform, pavement, or yard in which a person may fall. • Wall Opening-an opening at least 30 inches high and 18 inches wide, in any wall or partition, through which person may fall • Standard Railing-railing that consists of top rail, mid rail, and upright posts. Top rail shall measure 42 inches from the floor, platform, etc, to the top of the rail. The mid rail shall be midway between the top rail and floor, platform, etc. The ends of the rails shall not extend past the terminal posts except where such overhang does not constitute a projection hazard. • Stair Railing-constructed similar to a standard railing, but the vertical height shall be no more than 34 inches or less than 30 inches. Hand Rail-lengthwise member mounted directly to a wall or partition by means of brackets attached to the lower side of the handrail. The height of handrails shall not be more than 34 inches or less than 30 inches measured from the top of the hand rail. All railings and covers must be constructed to with stand a load of 200 pounds in all directions. Note: Covers for use on roadways must be constructed to withstand a truck rear axle load of at least 20,000 pounds.

PRE-WORK FALL HAZARD CHECKLIST Prior to beginning work in any area where a fall hazard exist, a pre-work checklist must be completed that includes the following items. • Stairways o All standard covers or railings in place o All hand rails and guard rails in place o All treads and risers on stairs are in good repair o Non-slip surfaces in place on stair tread surface o All stars meet OSHA and ANSI specifications • Loading Docks o Dock blocks are up and in place when dock is not in immediate use o Dock door is kept closed when a truck is not backed against it. • Floor & Wall Openings, Skylights, Pits, Manholes, Excavations


o All floor and wall openings are safely covered or blocked from access o If not adequately guarded or covered has someone been assigned to constantly monitor the area surrounding the fall hazard and alert other employees that may get closer than 6 feet. o All pits and manholes properly guarded • Platforms and Runways o All sides protected with standard railing o All floor holes adequately covered

FALL PROTECTION SYSTEMS AND CRITERIA Guardrail Systems If, the employer chooses to use guardrail systems to protect workers from falls, the systems must meet the following criteria: • Top rails and midrails of guardrail systems must be at least one-quarter inch (0.6 centimeters) nominal diameter or thickness to prevent cuts and lacerations. • If wire rope is used for top rails, it must be flagged at not more 6 feet intervals (1.8 meters) with highvisibility material. • Steel and plastic banding cannot be used as top rails or midrails. • Manila, plastic, or synthetic rope used for top rails or midrails must be inspected as frequently as necessary to ensure strength and stability. • The top edge height of top rails, or (equivalent) guardrails must be 42 inches plus or minus 3 inches, above the walking/working level. • When workers are using stilts, the top edge height of the top rail, or equivalent member, must be increased to an amount equal to the height of the stilts. •

• •

Screens, midrails, mesh, intermediate vertical members, or equivalent intermediate structural members must be installed between the top edge of the guardrail system and the walking/working surface when there are no walls or parapet walls at least 21 inches high. When midrails are used, they must be installed at a height midway between the top edge of the guardrail system and the walking/working level. When screens and mesh are used, they must extend from the top rail to the walking/working level and along the entire opening between top rail supports.


• • •

• • •

• •

Intermediate members, such as balusters, when used between posts, shall not be more than 19 inches apart. Other structural members, such as additional midrails and architectural panels, shall be installed so that there are no openings in the guardrail system more than 19 inches. The guardrail system must be capable of withstanding a force of at least 200 pounds applied within 2 inches of the top edge in any outward or downward direction. When the 200 pound test is applied in a downward direction, the top edge of the guardrail must not deflect to a height less than 39 inches above the walking/working level. Midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, solid panels, and equivalent structural members shall be capable of withstanding a force of at least 150 pounds applied in any downward or outward direction at any point along the midrail or other member. Guardrail systems shall be surfaced to protect workers from punctures or lacerations and to prevent clothing from snagging. The ends of top rails and midrails must not overhang terminal posts, except where such overhang does not constitute a projection hazard. When guardrail systems are used at hoisting areas, a chain, gate, or removable guardrail section must be placed across the access opening between guardrail sections when hoisting operations are not taking place. At holes, guardrail systems must be set up on all unprotected sides or edges. When holes are used for the passage of materials, the hole shall have not more than two sides with removable guardrail sections. When the hole is not in use, it must be covered or provided with guardrails along all unprotected sides or edges. If guardrail systems are used around holes that are used as access points (such as ladder ways), gates must be used or the point of access must be offset to prevent accidental walking into the hole. If guardrails are used at unprotected sides or edges of ramps and runways, they must be erected on each unprotected side or edge.

PERSONAL FALL ARREST SYSTEMS These consist of an anchorage, connectors, and a body belt or body harness and may include a deceleration device, lifeline, or suitable combinations. If a personal fall arrest system is used for fall protection, it must do the following: • Limit maximum arresting force on an employee to 900 pounds when used with a body belt; • Limit maximum arresting force on an employee to 1,800 pounds when used with a body harness; • Be rigged so that an employee can neither free fall more than 6 feet nor contact any lower level;


Bring an employee to a complete stop and limit maximum deceleration distance an employee travels to 3.5 feet ; and

Have sufficient strength to withstand twice the potential impact energy of an employee free falling a distance of 6 feet (1.8 meters) or the free fall distance permitted by the system, whichever is less. As of January 1, 1998, the use of a body belt for fall arrest is prohibited. • Personal fall arrest systems must be inspected prior to each use for wear damage, and other deterioration. • Defective components must be removed from service. •

• Dee-rings and snap hooks must have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds. • Dee-rings and snap hooks shall be proof-tested to a minimum tensile load of 3,600 pounds without cracking, breaking, or suffering permanent deformation. • Snap hooks shall be sized to be compatible with the member to which they will be connected, or shall be of a locking configuration. Unless the snap hook is a locking type and designed for the following connections, they shall not be engaged; • Directly to webbing, rope or wire rope; • To each other; • To a dee-ring to which another snap hook or other connecter is attached; • To a horizontal lifeline; or • To any object incompatible in shape or dimension relative to the snap hook, thereby causing the connected object to depress the snap hook keeper and release unintentionally. OSHA considers a hook to be compatible when the diameter of the dee-ring to which the snap hook is attached is greater than the inside length of the snap hook when measured from the bottom (hinged end) of the snap hook keeper to the inside curve of the top of the snap hook. Thus, no matter how the dee-ring is positioned or moved (rolls) with the snap hook attached, the dee-ring cannot touch the outside of the keeper, thus depressing it open. As of January 1, 1998, the use of non-locking snap hooks is prohibited. Anchorages shall be designed, installed, and used under the supervision of a qualified person, as part of a complete personal fall arrest system that maintains a safety factor of at least two, i.e., capable of supporting at least twice the weight expected to be imposed upon it. Anchorages used to attach personal fall arrest systems shall be independent of any anchorage being used to support or suspend platforms and must be capable of supporting at least 5,000 pounds per person attached.


Lanyards and vertical lifelines must have a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds.

POSITIONING DEVICE SYSTEMS THESE

BODY BELT OR BODY HARNESS SYSTEMS ARE TO BE SET UP SO THAT A WORKER CAN FREE FALL

NO FARTHER THAN

2

FEET

(0.6

METERS).

THEY

SHALL BE SECURED TO AN ANCHORAGE CAPABLE OF

SUPPORTING AT LEAST TWICE THE POTENTIAL IMPACT LOAD OF AN EMPLOYEE'S FALL OR 3,000 POUNDS, WHICHEVER IS GREATER.

Requirements for snap hooks, dee-rings, and other connectors used with positioning device systems must meet the same criteria as those for personal fall arrest systems. Toe Boards-Protection from Falling Objects When toe boards are used as protection from falling objects, they must be erected along the edges of the overhead walking/working surface for a distance sufficient to protect persons working below. Toe boards shall be capable of withstanding a force of at least 50 pounds applied in any downward or outward direction at any point along the toe board. Toe boards shall be a minimum of 3.5 inches tall from their top edge to the level of the walking/working surface, Have no more than 0.25 inches clearance above the walking/working surface Be solid or have openings no larger than l inch in size. Where tools, equipment, or materials are piled higher than the top edge of a toe board, paneling or screening must be erected from the walking/working surface or toe board to the top of a guardrail system's top rail or midrail, for a distance sufficient to protect employees below. TRAINING Employers must provide a training program that teaches employees who might be exposed to fall hazards how to recognize such hazards and how to minimize them. Employees must be trained in the following areas: The nature of fall hazards in the work area; The correct procedures for erecting, maintaining, dis-assembling, and inspecting fall protection systems; The use and

operation

of

guardrails,

personal

The limitations on the use of the fall protection equipment;

fall

arrest,

and

positioning

systems;


Employees' role in fall protection plans. Employers must prepare a written certification that identifies the employee trained and the date of the training. The employer or trainer must sign the certification record. Retraining also must be provided when necessary. Retraining will occur when the following conditions occur: 1) Deficiencies in training. 2) Work place changes. 3) Fall protection systems or equipment changes that render previous training obsolete, and the training is documented. A training program is provided for each employee who might be exposed to fall hazards. Training shall enable each employee to recognize the hazards of falling & shall train each employee in the procedures to follow to minimize these hazards. The program should maintain written certification records showing the following: 1) Who was trained, when, dates of training 2) Signature of person providing training & date employer determined training was deemed adequate.


FALL PROTECTION PLAN FOR CONSTRUCTION 1926 Subpart M - Fall Protection

PURPOSE The purpose of this policy is to establish safe work procedures that ensure the employees of OJ Construction Inc. expected to be working in areas where an exposure to fall hazards of 6 feet or more exist, are protected against accidental falls through training and use of a fall protection system.

POLICY It is the policy of OJ Construction Inc. that employees expected to be working in areas where a fall exposure of 6 feet or more exist have received appropriate training in identifying fall hazards and in the selection and use of fall protection systems. Employees that have not received the appropriate training will not work in areas that have fall hazard exposure, nor will they attempt to use fall protection equipment. This policy includes but is not limited to the following common fall hazards areas. • Unprotected sides and edges • Leading edge work • Hoist areas • Holes • Formwork & reinforcing steel • Ramps, runways and other walkways • Excavations • Working over dangerous equipment • Overhand Bricklaying • Roofing work with a pitch of 4 in 12 or less • Roofing work with a pitch of 4 in 12 or more • Pre Cast concrete erection • Residential construction • Wall openings


ADMINISTRATIVE DUTIES A OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative is responsible for developing and maintaining this fall protection plan. This includes employee training, record keeping, enforcement, periodic fall protection plan evaluation, worksite assessment, and fall protection system selection. The employer shall provide for prompt rescue of employees in the event of a fall or shall assure that employees are able to rescue themselves. Duty To Have Fall Protection To protect our employees from fall exposures of 6 feet and greater, OJ Construction Inc. has a duty to anticipate the need for fall protection, and to plan work activities accordingly.

WORKSITE ASSESSMENT AND FALL PROTECTION SYSTEM SELECTION In the construction industry fall hazards can change, particularly from jobsite to jobsite. These fall hazards must be mitigated. To do this work areas and platforms that pose a fall hazard of 6 feet or more will be inspected. This includes the following: • Inspect the jobsites prior to working to determine what fall hazards exist, or may arise during work processes. • Identify the fall hazards and select the appropriate fall protection equipment • Give specific and instructions to workers to prevent exposure to unsafe conditions • Ensure the employees follow procedures given and understand training that has been provided • Inspect platforms for strength and structural integrity to safely support employees

COMMON FALL HAZARDS AND PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS Controlled Access Zones A Controlled access zone is a work area designated and clearly marked in which certain types of work (such as overhand bricklaying) may take place without the use of conventional fall protection systems to protect the employees working in the zone. Controlled access zones are used to keep out workers other than those authorized to enter work areas from which guardrails have been removed. Where there are no guardrails, masons are the only workers allowed in controlled access zones. Controlled access zones, when created to limit entrance to areas where leading edge work and other


operations are taking place, must be defined by a control line or by any other means that restrict access. Control lines shall: Consist of ropes, wires, tapes or equivalent materials, and supporting stanchions • Each must be flagged or otherwise clearly marked at no more than 6-foot intervals with a high-visibility material • Rigged and supported in such a way that the lowest point, including sag, is not less than 39 inches from the walking/working surface and the highest point is not more than 45 inches from the walking/working surface. This increases to 50 inches when overhand bricklaying operations are being performed from the walking/working surface • Strong enough to support a force greater than 200 pounds, and the control lines shall extend along the entire length of the unprotected or leading • Control lines also must be connected on each side to a guardrail system or wall When control lines are used, they will be erected not less than 6 feet or more than 25 feet from the unprotected or leading edge, except when precast concrete members are being erected. In the latter case, the control line is to be erected not less than 6 feet or more than 60 feet or half the length of the member being erected, whichever is less, from the leading edge. Controlled access zones, when used to determine access to areas where overhand bricklaying and related work are taking place are to be defined by a control line erected not less than 10 feet or more than 15 feet from the working edge. Additional control lines must be erected at each end to enclose the controlled access zone. Only employees engaged in overhand bricklaying or related work is permitted in the controlled access zones. On floors and roofs where guardrail systems are not in place prior to the beginning of overhand bricklaying operations, controlled access zones will be enlarged as necessary to enclose all points of access, material handling areas, and storage areas. On floors and roofs where guardrail systems are in place, but need to be removed to allow overhand bricklaying work or leading edge work to take place, only that portion of the guardrail necessary to accomplish that day's work shall be removed. Excavations Each employee at the edge of an excavation 6 feet or more deep will be protected from falling by guardrail systems, fences, barricades, or covers. Where walkways are provided to permit employees to cross over excavations, guardrails are required on the walkway if it is 6 feet or more above the excavation. Formwork and Reinforcing Steel


For employees, while moving vertically and/or horizontally on the vertical face of rebar assemblies built in place; fall protection is not required when employees are moving. OSHA considers the multiple hand holds and foot holds on rebar assemblies as providing similar protection as that provided by a fixed ladder; consequently, no fall protection is necessary while moving point to point for heights below 24 feet. An employee must be provided with fall protection when climbing or moving at a height more than 24 feet the same as for fixed ladders. Hoist Areas Each employee in a hoist area shall be protected from falling 6 feet or more by guardrail systems or personal fall arrest systems. If guardrail systems or system components must be removed to facilitate hoisting operations, then the affected employees must be protected by a personal fall arrest system. Holes Personal fall arrest systems, covers, or guardrail systems shall be erected around holes (including skylights) that are more than 6 feet above lower levels. Leading Edges Employees who are constructing or performing work from a leading edge 6 feet or more above lower levels shall be protected by guardrail systems, safety net systems, or personal fall arrest systems. If the employer can demonstrate that it is infeasible or creates a greater hazard to implement these systems then a fall protection plan that meets the requirements of 29 CFR 1926.502(k) must be implemented. Overhand Bricklaying and Related Work Employees performing overhand bricklaying and related work 6 feet or more above lower level will be protected by guardrail systems, safety net systems, or personal fall arrest systems, or will work in a controlled access zone. All employees reaching more than 10 inches below the level of a walking/working surface on which they are working will be protected by a guardrail system, safety net system, or personal fall arrest system. Precast Concrete Erection and Residential Construction Employees who are 6 feet or more above lower levels while erecting precast concrete members and related operations such as grouting of precast concrete members will be protected by guardrail systems, safety net systems, or personal fall arrest systems. Where the employer can demonstrate, however, that it is infeasible or creates a greater hazard to use those systems, the employer must develop and implement a fall protection plan that meets the requirements of 29 CFR 1926.502(k). Residential Construction


Employees engaged in residential construction and are exposed to falls of 6 feet or greater will be protected by guardrail systems, safety net systems, or personal fall arrest systems. Where the employer can demonstrate, however, that it is infeasible or creates a greater hazard to use those systems, the employer must develop and implement a fall protection plan that meets the requirements of 29 CFR 1926.502(k). Ramps, Runways, and Other Walkways Employees using ramps, runways, and other walkways shall be protected from falling 6 feet or more or more by guardrail systems. Roofing Low-slope Roofs Employees performing roofing activities on low-slope roofs with unprotected sides and edges 6 feet or more above lower levels shall be protected from falling by guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems or a combination of a warning line system and guardrail system, warning line system and safety net system, warning line system and personal fall arrest system, or warning line system and safety monitoring system. On roofs 50 feet or less in width, the use of a safety monitoring system without a warning line system is permitted. Steep Roofs Employees on a steep roof with unprotected sides and edges 6 feet or more above lower levels shall be protected by guardrail systems with toe boards, safety net systems, or personal fall arrest systems. Wall Openings Employees working on, at, above, or near wall openings (including those with chutes attached) where the outside bottom edge of the wall opening is 6 feet or more above lower levels and the inside bottom edge of the wall opening is less than 39 inches above the walking/working surface must be protected from falling by the use of a guardrail system, a safety net system, or a personal fall arrest system.

FALL PROTECTION SYSTEMS CRITERIA AND PRACTICES Guardrail Systems If the employer chooses to use guardrail systems to protect workers from falls, the systems must meet the following criteria. • Top rails and mid rails of guardrail systems must be at least one-quarter inch diameter or thickness to prevent cuts and lacerations.


• • • • •

• • •

If wire rope is used for top rails, it must be flagged at not more 6 feet intervals with a high-visibility material. Steel and plastic banding cannot be used as top rails or midrails. Manila, plastic, or synthetic rope used for top rails or midrails must be inspected as frequently as necessary to ensure strength and stability. The top edge height of top rails, or guardrails must be 42 inches plus or minus 3 inches, above the walking/working level. When workers are using stilts, the top edge height of the top rail, or equivalent member, must be increased an amount equal to the height of the stilts. Screens, midrails, mesh, and intermediate vertical members must be installed between the top edge of the guardrail system and the walking/working surface when there are no walls or parapet walls at least 21 inches high. When midrails are used, they must be installed at a height midway between the top edge of the guardrail system and the walking/working level. When screens and mesh are used, they must extend from the top rail to the walking/working level and along the entire opening between top rail supports. Intermediate members, such as balusters, when used between posts, shall not be more than 19 inches apart. Other structural members, such as additional midrails and architectural panels, shall be installed so that there are no openings in the guardrail system more than 19 inches. The guardrail system must be capable of withstanding a force of at least 200 pounds applied within 2 inches of the top edge in any outward or downward direction. When the 200 pound test is applied in a downward direction, the top edge of the guardrail must not deflect to a height less than 39 inches above the walking/working level. Midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, solid panels, and equivalent structural members shall be capable of withstanding a force of at least 150 pounds applied in any downward or outward direction at any point along the midrail or other member. Guardrail systems shall be surfaced to protect workers from punctures or lacerations and to prevent clothing from snagging. The ends of top rails and midrails must not overhang terminal posts, except where such overhang does not constitute a projection hazard. When guardrail systems are used at hoisting areas, a chain, gate, or removable guardrail section must be placed across the access opening between guardrail sections when hoisting operations are not taking place.


• At holes, guardrail systems must be set up on all unprotected sides or edges. When holes are used for the passage of materials, the hole shall have not more than two sides with removable guardrail sections. When the hole is not in use, it must be covered or provided with guardrails along all unprotected sides or edges. • If guardrail systems are used around holes that are used as access points (such as ladder ways), gates must be used or the point of access must be offset to prevent accidental walking into the hole. • If guardrails are used at unprotected sides or edges of ramps and runways, they must be erected on each unprotected side or edge. Personal Fall Arrest System Requirements Personal fall arrest systems consist of an anchorage, connectors, and a body harness and may include a deceleration device, lifeline, or suitable combinations. If a personal fall arrest system is used for fall protection, it must do the following: Limit maximum arresting force on an employee to 1,800 pounds when used with a body harness; Be rigged so that an employee can neither free fall more than 6 feet or contact any lower level; • Bring an employee to a complete stop and limit maximum deceleration distance an employee travels to 3.5 feet • •

Have sufficient strength to withstand twice the potential impact energy of an employee free falling a distance of 6 feet or the free fall distance permitted by the system, whichever is less. As of January 1, 1998, the use of a body belt for fall arrest is prohibited. • Personal fall arrest systems must be inspected prior to each use for wear damage, and other deterioration. • Defective components must be removed from service. • Dee-rings and snap hooks must have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds. Dee-rings and snap hooks shall be proof-tested to a minimum tensile load of 3,600 pounds without cracking, breaking, or suffering permanent deformation. • Snap hooks shall be sized to be compatible with the member to which they will be connected, or shall be of a locking configuration. Unless the snap hook is a locking type and designed for the following connections, they shall not be engaged: • Directly to webbing, rope or wire rope; • To each other; •

To

a

Dee-ring

to

which

another

snap

hook

or

other

connecter

is

attached;


• To a horizontal lifeline; • To any object incompatible in shape or dimension relative to the snap hook, thereby causing the connected object to depress the snap hook keeper and release unintentionally. OSHA considers a hook to be compatible when no matter how the dee-ring is positioned or moved (rolls) with the snap hook attached, the dee-ring cannot touch the outside of the keeper, thus depressing it open. As of January 1, 1998, the use of nonlocking snaphooks is prohibited. On suspended scaffolds or similar work platforms with horizontal lifelines that may become vertical lifelines, the devices used to connect to a horizontal lifeline shall be capable of locking in both directions on the lifeline. Horizontal lifelines shall be designed, installed, and used under the supervision of a qualified person, as part of a complete personal fall arrest system that maintains a safety factor of at least two. Lifelines shall be protected against being cut or abraded. Self-retracting lifelines and lanyards that automatically limit free fall distance to 2 feet or less shall be capable of sustaining a minimum tensile load of 3,000 pounds applied to the device with the lifeline or lanyard in the fully extended position. Self-retracting lifelines and lanyards that do not limit free fall distance to 2 feet or less, rip stitch lanyards, and tearing and deforming lanyards shall be capable of sustaining a minimum tensile load of 5,000 pounds applied to the device with the lifeline or lanyard in the fully extended position. Ropes and straps (webbing) used in lanyards, lifelines, and strength components of body belts and body harnesses shall be made of synthetic fibers. Anchorages shall be designed, installed, and used under the supervision of a qualified person, as part of a complete personal fall arrest system that maintains a safety factor of at least two, i.e., capable of supporting at least twice the weight expected to be imposed upon it. Anchorages used to attach personal fall arrest systems shall be independent of any anchorage being used to support or suspend platforms and must be capable of supporting at least 5,000 pounds per person attached. Lanyards and vertical lifelines must have a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds. Positioning Device Systems These body belt or body harness systems are to be set up so that a worker can free fall no farther than 2 feet. They shall be secured to an anchorage capable of supporting at least twice the potential impact load of an employee's fall or 3,000 pounds, whichever is greater. Requirements for snap hooks, dee-rings, and other connectors used with positioning device systems must meet the same criteria as those for personal fall arrest systems. Positioning Systems are not to be used as fall arrest systems.


Safety Monitoring Systems When no other alternative fall protection has been implemented, the employer shall implement a safety monitoring system. Employers must appoint a competent person to monitor the safety of workers. The appointed person must be able to fulfill the following requirements: • Is competent in the recognition of fall hazards; • Is capable of warning workers of fall hazard dangers and in detecting unsafe work practices; • Is operating on the same walking/working surfaces of the workers and can see them; • Is close enough to work operations to communicate orally with workers and has no other duties to distract from the monitoring function. Mechanical equipment shall not be used or stored in areas where safety monitoring systems are being used to monitor employees engaged in roofing operations on low-sloped roofs. No worker, other than one engaged in roofing work (on low-sloped roofs) or one covered by a fall protection plan, shall be allowed in an area where an employee is being protected by a safety monitoring system. All workers in a controlled access zone shall be instructed to promptly comply with fall hazard warnings issued by safety monitors. Safety Net Systems Safety nets must be installed as close as practicable under the walking/working surface on which employees are working and never more than 30 feet below such levels. Defective nets shall not be used. Safety nets shall be inspected at least once a week for wear, damage, and other deterioration. The maximum size of each safety net mesh opening shall not exceed 36 square inches or be longer than 6 inches on any side, and the openings, measured center-to-center, of mesh ropes or webbing, shall not exceed 6 inches. All mesh crossings shall be secured to prevent enlargement of the mesh opening. Each safety net or section shall have a border rope for webbing with a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds. Connections between safety net panels shall be as strong as integral net components and be spaced no more than 6 inches apart.


Safety nets shall be installed with sufficient clearance underneath to prevent contact with the surface or structure below. When nets are used on bridges, the potential fall area from the walking/working surface to the net shall be unobstructed. Safety nets must extend outward from the outermost projection of the work surface as follows: Vertical distance from working level to horizontal plane of net.

Minimum required horizontal distance of outer edge of net from the edge of the working surface.

Up to 5 feet (1.5 meters)

8 feet (2.4 meters)

More than 5 feet (1.5 meters) up to 10 feet (3 meters)

10 feet (3 meters) 13 feet (3.9 meters)

More than 10 feet (3 meters)

Safety nets shall be capable of absorbing an impact force of a drop test consisting of a 400-pound bag of sand 30 inches in diameter dropped from the highest walking/working surface at which workers are exposed, but not from less than 42 inches above that level. Items that have fallen into safety nets including—but not restricted to, materials, scrap, equipment, and tools— must be removed as soon as possible and at least before the next work shift. Warning Line Systems Warning line systems consist of ropes, wires, or chains, and supporting stanchions and must be constructed to meet the following requirements: Flagged at not more than 6-foot intervals with a high-visibility material; Rigged and supported so that the lowest point (including sag) is no less than 34 inches from the walking/working surface and its highest point is no more than 39 inches from the walking/working surface. • Stanchions, after being rigged with warning lines, shall be capable of resisting, without tipping over, a force of at least 16 pounds applied horizontally against the stanchion, 30 inches above the walking/working surface, perpendicular to the warning line and in the direction of the floor, roof, or platform edge; • •

The rope, wire, or chain shall have a minimum tensile strength of 500 pounds and after being attached to the stanchions, must support without breaking, the load applied to the stanchions as prescribed above.


•

Shall be attached to each stanchion in such a way that pulling on one section of the line between stanchions will not result in slack being taken up in the adjacent section before the stanchion tips over.

Warning lines shall be erected around all sides of roof work areas. When mechanical equipment is being used, the warning line shall be erected not less than 6 feet from the roof edge parallel to the direction of mechanical equipment operation, and not less than 10 feet from the roof edge perpendicular to the direction of mechanical equipment operation. When mechanical equipment is not being used, the warning line must be erected not less than 6 feet from the roof edge. Covers Covers located in roadways and vehicular aisles must be able to support at least twice the maximum axle load of the largest vehicle to which the cover might be subjected. All other covers must be able to support at least twice the weight of employees, equipment, and materials that may be imposed on the cover at any one time. To prevent accidental displacement resulting from wind, equipment, or workers' activities, all covers must be secured. All covers shall be color coded or bear the markings "HOLE" or "COVER."

PROTECTION FROM FALLING OBJECTS When guardrail systems are used to prevent materials from falling from one level to another, any openings must be small enough to prevent passage of potential falling objects. No materials or equipment except masonry and mortar shall be stored within 4 feet of working edges. Excess mortar, broken or scattered masonry units, and all other materials and debris shall be kept clear of the working area by removal at regular intervals. During roofing work, materials and equipment shall not be stored within 6 feet of a roof edge unless guardrails are erected at the edge, and materials piled, grouped, or stacked near a roof edge must be stable and selfsupporting. Canopies When used as protection from falling objects canopies must be strong enough to prevent collapse and to prevent penetration by any objects that may fall onto them. Toe boards When toe boards are used as protection from falling objects, they must be erected along the edges of the overhead walking/working surface for a distance sufficient to protect persons working below. They must be constructed to meet the following requirements Toe boards shall be capable of withstanding a force of at least 50 pounds applied in any downward or outward direction at any point along the toe board.


Toe boards shall be a minimum of 3.5 inches tall from their top edge to the level of the walking/working surface, have no more than 0.25 inches clearance above the walking/working surface, and be solid or have openings no larger than l inch in size. Where tools, equipment, or materials are piled higher than the top edge of a toe board, paneling or screening must be erected from the walking/working surface or toe board to the top of a guardrail system's top rail or midrail, for a distance sufficient to protect employees below.

TRAINING Employers must provide a training program that teaches employees who might be exposed to fall hazards how to recognize such hazards and how to minimize them. Employees must be trained in the following areas: • The nature of fall hazards in the work area • The correct procedures for erecting, maintaining, disassembling, and inspecting fall protection systems • The use and operation of the selected fall protection system(s) to be used • The role of each employee in the safety monitoring system when the system is in use • The limitations on the use of mechanical equipment during the performance of roofing work on lowsloped roofs • The correct procedures for equipment and materials handling and storage and the erection of overhead protection • The employees' role in fall protection plans. Employers must prepare a written certification that identifies the employee trained and the date of the training. The employer or trainer must sign the certification record. Retraining also must be provided when necessary.

DEFINITIONS Anchorage -a secure point of attachment for lifelines, lanyards or deceleration devices. Body belt-A strap with means both for securing it about the waist and for attaching it to a lanyard, lifeline, or deceleration device. Body harness -Straps that may be secured about the person in a manner that distributes the fall-arrest forces over at least the thighs, pelvis, waist, chest, and shoulders with a means for attaching the harness to other components of a personal fall arrest system. Connector-A device that is used to couple (connect) parts of a personal fall arrest system or positioning device system together. Controlled access zone-A work area designated and clearly marked in which certain types of work (such as overhand bricklaying) may take place without the use of conventional fall protection systems—guardrail, personal arrest or safety net—to protect the employees working in the zone.


Deceleration device-Any mechanism-such as rope, grab, ripstitch lanyard, specially-woven lanyard, tearing or deforming lanyards, automatic self-retracting lifelines/lanyards-which serves to dissipate a substantial amount of energy during a fall arrest, or otherwise limits the energy imposed on an employee during fall arrest. Deceleration distance-The additional vertical distance a falling person travels, excluding lifeline elongation and free fall distance, before stopping, from the point at which a deceleration device begins to operate. Guardrail system-A barrier erected to prevent employees from falling to lower levels. Hole-A void or gap 2 inches (5.1 centimeters) or more in the least dimension in a floor, roof, or other walking/working surface. Lanyard-A flexible line of rope, wire rope, or strap that generally has a connector at each end for connecting the body belt or body harness to a deceleration device, lifeline, or anchorage. Leading edge-The edge of a floor, roof, or formwork for a floor or other walking/working surface (such as the deck) which changes location as additional floor, roof, decking, or formwork sections are placed, formed or constructed. Lifeline-A component consisting of a flexible line for connection to an anchorage at one end to hang vertically (vertical lifeline), or for connection to anchorages at both ends to stretch horizontally (horizontal lifeline) and that serves as a means for connecting other components of a personal fall arrest system to the anchorage. Low-slope roof-A roof having a slope less than or equal to 4 in 12 (vertical to horizontal). Opening-A gap or void 30 inches (76 centimeters) or more high and 18 inches (46 centimeters) or more wide, in a wall or partition, through which employees can fall to a lower level. Personal fall arrest system-A system including but not limited to an anchorage, connectors, and a body belt or body harness used to arrest an employee in a fall from a working level. As of January 1, 1998, the use of a body belt for fall arrest is prohibited. Positioning device system-A body belt or body harness system rigged to allow an employee to be supported on an elevated vertical surface, such as a wall, and work with both hands free while leaning backwards. Rope grab-A deceleration device that travels on a lifeline and automatically, by friction, engages the lifeline and locks to arrest a fall. Safety-monitoring system-A safety system in which a competent person is responsible for recognizing and warning employees of fall hazards.


Self-retracting lifeline/lanyard-A deceleration device containing a drum-wound line which can be slowly extracted from, or retracted onto, the drum under minimal tension during normal employee movement and which, after onset of a fall, automatically locks the drum and arrests the fall. Snaphook-A connector consisting of a hook-shaped member with a normally closed keeper, or similar arrangement, which may be opened to permit the hook to receive an object and, when released automatically closes to retain the object. Steep roof-A roof having a slope greater than 4 in 12 (vertical to horizontal). Toeboard-A low protective barrier that prevents material and equipment from falling to lower levels and which protects personnel from falling. Unprotected sides and edges-Any side or edge (except at entrances to points of access) of a walking/working surface (e.g. floor, roof, ramp, or runway) where there is no wall or guardrail system at least 39 inches (1 meter) high. Walking/working surface-Any surface, whether horizontal or vertical, on which an employee walks or works, including but not limited to floors, roofs, ramps, bridges, runways, formwork, and concrete reinforcing steel. Does not include ladders, vehicles, or trailers on which employees must be located to perform their work duties. Warning line system-A barrier erected on a roof to warn employees that they are approaching an unprotected roof side or edge and which designates an area in which roofing work may take place without the use of guardrail, body belt, or safety net systems to protect employees in the area.


HEARING CONSERVATION 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure. 1910.95 - Occupational noise exposure.

PURPOSE

OSHA requires all employees who are exposed to noise that equals or exceeds an 8-hour time-weightedaverage (TWA) sound level of 85 decibels, in any facility, to use hearing protection. Due to the complexity and changing conditions found at most construction sites, it is difficult, if not impossible, to institute effective engineering controls for noise exposures. Therefore, this policy has been developed to establish a Hearing Conservation Program to protect employees from noise induced hearing loss while working.

POLICY Suitable engineering controls to reduce levels will be provided whenever possible. Due to the changing conditions in the workplace, which can result in significant variations in sound levels, employees are required to wear hearing protection at all times while in the work area. Work area is defined as areas where a minimum level of PPE is required. The minimum level of protection required is earplugs with a 26 NRR. In areas posted or identified as excessive noise areas additional hearing protection, such as earmuffs, will be provided when required to provide adequate attenuation. Hearing protectors will be provided to employees, without cost, by the company and must be replaced as frequently as necessary to ensure adequate personal protection and hygiene.

EMPLOYEE EDUCATION AND TRAINING

PROCEDURE

Each new employee will be trained in hearing conservation, and then annually thereafter. This training will include the following: • A summary of the State noise standard. • Information on the effects of noise on hearing. • Specific information about job site machine noise. • The role of administrative and engineering controls. • The contents of the Company's noise control plan. • A discussion of hearing protectors - the advantages and disadvantages of various types, and instructions on the selection, fitting, use, and care of the protectors. • An explanation of the purpose of the audiometric testing and the test procedure, as well as the specific noise exposure for employees. •


AUDIOMETRIC TESTING New employees will receive baseline audiograms as part of their pre-employment process. Employees who experience a standard threshold shift will receive formal notification within 21 days and will be given the opportunity to retest. If employees are exposed at or above an 8-hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels, employees may retest annually. These audiograms will be supplied at no cost to the employee.

MONITORING AND ANALYSIS OF WORKPLACE NOISE LEVELS The Company, or designee, will periodically or as necessary, conduct noise level surveys of the workplace. The results of these surveys will be made available to employees upon request. Employees will be notified when any job area or company location is found to be in excess of the allowable designated noise levels and cannot be brought into compliance with the noise standard. These areas will be designated as high noise level areas where additional hearing protection is to be worn.

PROGRAM MANAGEMENT A OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative is responsible for overall program management. The representive will maintain all record keeping for this program. Records will include audiometric testing results, noise surveys, employee training, engineering controls implemented, and distribution and purchase of hearing protectors. Prior to establishment of a baseline audiogram, at least 14 hours without exposure to workplace noise is observed. Hearing protection may be used to meet the requirement. Employees shall also be notified to avoid high levels of noise.


LOCKOUT/TAGOUT - HAZARDOUS ENERGY CONTROL 1926 Subpart K - Electrical 1910.147

-

The

control

of

hazardous

energy

(lockout/tagout).

PURPOSE This procedure establishes this company’s requirements for the lockout of energy isolating devices whenever maintenance, servicing, or repairs is done on machines or equipment, in accordance with the requirements of OSHA’s 1910.147. It is used to ensure that the machines or equipment is stopped, isolated, from all potentially hazardous energy sources and locked out before employees perform any servicing or maintenance where the unexpected energization or start-up of the machine or equipment or release of stored energy could cause injury. This program applies to all work operations at OJ Construction Inc. where employees must deal with lockout/tagout situations as part of their job duties.

AUTHORIZED AND AFFECTED EMPLOYEES An authorized employee is one who lockouts out or tags out a piece of equipment or machine in order to perform maintenance, repair, or service. An affected employee is one whose job requires that they operate a piece of equipment or machine that is serviced, maintained, or repaired under lockout/tagout, or are required to work in the area where a piece of equipment or machine is covered under the lockout/tagout program.

MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT The machinery and equipment in this facility that falls under the Control of Hazardous energy Standard may be dependent on location.

LOCKOUT/TAGOUT PROCEDURES

• Lockout or tagout devices shall be affixed to each energy isolating device by authorized employees.  Affected Employees - are to be notified verbally, by the authorized employee who is locking out/tagging out the equipment/machine in question, when the affected employee’s machine or machine in their area is to be locked out for service, repair, or maintenance.  Group Lockout - When servicing is to be conducted by a crew, or multiple tradesmen, each authorized employee involved in the service or maintenance must affix their own personal lock and tag. This can be accomplished by using a multiple lock adapter.  Shift or Personnel Changes - During continuing service and maintenance between shifts, ensuring continuity of energy control during personnel changes requires that the on-coming shift worker affix his/her lock and tag to the energy isolating device immediately after the off-shift worker removes his/her devices.


   (For the machines and equipment listed above, individually list them again, the energy sources for each, energy control devices of each, and the methods to be used to effectively secure the machine/equipment in a zero energy state) The authorized employee shall reference this to help identify the power sources and control devices of the machine/equipment in question. If the equipment/machine is running, shut it down by using the normal stop control. Locate and de-activate the energy isolation devices for the equipment/machine. (Switches, valves, blocks, etc.) Lock out and Tag out the energy isolating devices with individual locks. Lockout devices, where used, shall be affixed in a manner that will hold the energy isolating devices in a safe or off position.  Tagout devices, where used, shall be affixed in such a manner as will clearly indicate that the operation or movement of energy isolating devices from the safe or off position.  Where tagout devices are used with energy isolating devices designed with the capability of being locked, the tag attachment shall be fastened at the same point at which the lock would have been attached.  Where a tag cannot be affixed directly to the energy isolating device, the tag shall be located as close as safely as possible to the device in a position that will be immediately obvious to anyone attempting to operate the device.  Now stored energy must be dissipated. (The energy source can be of any origin including electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, thermal, or other energy.)  Test the machine/equipment by attempting to start it to ensure all energy sources have been isolated, locked out, and stored energy has been released. After testing and verifying the isolation of the equipment/machine return, all controls to the off position.  To restore a piece of equipment/machine back to service, check the immediate area to ensure that non essential items and personnel have been removed and the machine/equipment is clear, verify that all controls are in the off position, remove locks and re-energize the energy sources. LOTO Guidelines: • LOCKOUT DEVICE: If an energy source can be locked out this method shall be utilized. A device that utilizes a lock, either key or combination to hold an energy isolating device in a safe position. • TAGOUT DEVICE: If an energy source cannot be locked out a tagout system shall be utilized, a warning tag (weather & chemical resistant) standardized in size, color, with wording warning of hazardous energy (Do Not Start) (Do Not Open) (Do Not Close) (Do Not Energize) (Do Not Operate).


A lock being utilized for LOTO shall have only one key. The key shall remain in control of the Authorized employee who installed the lock for the purpose of LOTO. NO EMPLOYEE WILL REMOVE A LOTO LOCK THAT HE/SHE DID NOT INSTALL. All locks installed for the purpose of LOTO shall be accompanied by at tag with at least the following information; o The name of the authorized employee who installed the lock and date o Identification of the machine/equipment being locked out o The time the lock was installed, and the expected time lock removal. Transfer of LOTO locks and responsibilities. In such case where the LOTO must run through shift change, the initiating authorized employee will remove his/her lock only after the authorized employee from the oncoming shift has installed their LOTO lock. The LOTO procedure is then the responsibility of the authorized employee of the oncoming shift, and he/she shall inform the affected employees of the oncoming shift of the equipment/machine that are locked out and tagged out. In a situation where an energy source can not be locked out, it must be turned to the off position, closed, etc. and tagged. The tag must read “DO NOT OPERATE”, the name of the authorized employee who installed the tag, time & date installed, equipment/machine being isolated, time and date of expected time of tag removal. NO EMPLOYEE SHALL OPERATE A TAGGED ENERGY SOURCE, OR REMOVE ANOTHER EMPLOYEES ISOLATION TAG. All locks and tags used for the purpose of LOTO must be durable and able to resist the conditions and environment in which it is to be used.

TRAINING Each authorized employee shall be trained as follows:  The recognition of hazardous energy source, type & magnitude of energy available, methods & means necessary for energy isolation & control.  That all affected employees are instructed in the purpose & use of the energy control procedure.  Training will address when tagout systems are used including the limitations of a tag (tags are warning devices & do not provide physical restraint).  That a tag is not to be removed without authorization.  That a tag is never to be ignored or discounted in any way.  Retraining is required when there is a change in job assignments, in machines, a change in the energy control procedures, or a new hazard is introduced.


 Training provisions will be made for any other employee whose work operations are or may be in an area where energy control procedures may be utilized.  All training and/or retraining must be documented and signed.

PERIODIC PROCEDURE INSPECTION A periodic inspection will be conducted & documented, at least annually, to ensure procedures & requirements are being followed. This inspection will include date, equipment, employees & the inspector's name. These inspections will be performed by a OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative.

ADMINISTRATIVE DUTIES A OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative is responsible for the overall responsibility of the LOTO program. Copies of the written program can be obtained from a OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative or viewed in the written safety program that is located at the OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. office.

MACHINE GUARDING 1910 Subpart O - Machinery and Machine Guarding

PURPOSE The purpose of this policy is to establish safe work practices regarding machine guarding, hazard awareness, and to achieve compliance with OSHA machine guarding regulations.

POLICY It is the policy of OJ Construction Inc. to ensure that all equipment, machines, and tools have sufficient guarding to prevent injury from use as well as from accidental contact with moving parts. All employees potentially exposed to machine guarding hazards will be trained in hazard recognition as well as in common machine guarding options. No piece of equipment, machinery, or tool will be used without sufficient guarding.

ADMINISTRATIVE DUTIES A OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative has the responsibility of developing and maintaining this plan, as well as ensuring that all potentially exposed employees have had sufficient training in the identification of machine guarding hazards.

GENERAL MACHINE GUARDING REQUIREMENTS Any machine, or power operated tool, function, or process which may cause injury will be guarded. This includes guarding of points of operation, in going nip points, rotating parts, flying chips, and sparks. Permanent guards will be securely attached in good working order and all removable guards will be in place on the machine or equipment before starting or operating. Guards must meet the following requirements:


• They must prevent contact of any part of an employee’s body from making contact with dangerous or moving parts. • They must be rigid and not easy to alter. They must be made of a durable material that will withstand the conditions of normal use. They must be firmly in place on the machine or equipment. • They must protect from employees or objects from falling into moving parts. • They must create no new hazard.

If a guard is defective or does not meet the above criteria, the machine or equipment must not be used and immediately notify (Responsible Person’s Name). Employees may never remove a guard for any reason while operating any piece of machinery, equipment, or tool. Employees must always use a push sticks or blocks when so that their hands are away from the point of operation when they work on small pieces.

TYPES OF MACHINE GUARDS: Types of Machine Guards Type

Safeguarding Action

Advantages

Limitations

Examples

Fixed

Provides a barrier and • Can be constructed • May interfere with is a permanent part of to suit many specific visibility. machine. applications. • Machine adjustment • Can provide and repair often maximum protection. require removal of • Usually requires guard. little maintenance. • Other means of • Suitable to high protecting production, repetitive maintenance operations. personnel often required (i.e., lockout).

Use on: • In-running rolls. • Belts and pulleys • Power transmission apparatus. • Cutting heads of planers and other automatic-feed equipment

Adjustable

Provides a barrier that may be adjusted to facilitate a variety of production

Used on woodworking machinery, such as: • Table saws • Routers.

• Can be constructed to suit many specific applications. • Can be adjusted to

• Hands may enter danger area protection may not be complete at all times.


operations.

Self-adjusting barrier that

Provides

admit varying sizes of stock.

a

moves according to the size of the stock entering the point of operation. Guard is in place when machine is at rest. Guard pushes away when worker moves stock into point of operation.

• Off-the-shelf guards are often commercially available. • Do not require manual adjustments.

• May require • Shapers. frequent maintenance • Band saws or adjustment. • Operator may make guard ineffective. • May interfere with visibility. • Does not Used on provide woodworking maximum machinery, such as: protection. • Table • May interfere • Radial saws. • Band with saws. • Jointers visibility. • May require frequent maintenance and adjustment.

OTHER MACHINE GUARDING METHODS Other Methods of Safeguarding Machines Method

Safeguarding Principle

Examples

Comments

Location/distance

Dangerous parts of machinery positioned so that they are not accessible to workers during normal operation.

• Placement of machine's power apparatus against wall. • Fencing off access to automatic machines. • Feeding long stock into machine.

Not always feasible, particularly on non automatic machines.

Automatic Feeding and Ejection Methods

Operator not required to place his or her hands in the danger area.

• Self-feeder planers. • Sanders. • Lathes.

Malfunctioning can create hazard. Controls should be set at a distance.


Prevent Accidental Startup Controls shrouded or recessed.

Standard on many machines.

Miscellaneous

Hazardous part of Counterweight/stroking machine automatically mechanisms that return retracted after operation blade to rest after stock is complete. has been cut on over-head swing and radial saws.

Placement of Controls

Place controls sufficiently Two hand controls sit at a far from point of distance from the point of operation to prevent operation. reaching into point of operation.

Off switch should be easily accessible, and operator should be able to operate machine with ease. Improperly adjusted counterweights can create hazard. Blade may travel in wrong direction or may fail to retract.

Stopping time of machine is a factor I n calculating the distance.

SPECIFIC WOOD WORKING MACHINERY REQUIREMENTS All circuit boxes and fuse boxes must be labeled to indicate their purpose, or what machines or shop areas they control power for. All machines not plug and cord, must have a main power disconnect for lock out/tag out applications. A magnetic switch or other device must be installed to prevent automatic restarting of the machine after a power failure. This applies to any machine that has a constant on/off switch. It is not required on machines with pressure sensitive switches. Clearly marked controls must be within easy reach of the operator and away from any hazard area. Circular/Crosscut/Ripsaws: • Ripsaws and Crosscuts must have the portion of the blade above the table enclosed by a self adjusting guard. The guard must automatically adjust to the thickness of the material being cut, and remain in contact with it. • Ripsaws shall have spreaders to prevent material from squeezing the saw and causing a kick back. Ripsaws shall also be equipped with anti kickback fingers. • The portion of the blade below the table must also be guarded against accidental contact. • Guard all belts, pulleys (in going nip points), and moving parts of their power transmission components or drive train. Radial Saws:


• The upper half of the blade must be enclosed by a fixed hood. Guard the lower half with a self adjusting, floating guard that rises and falls and automatically adjusts to the thickness of the material being cut. •

The saw must have return device. The front end of the unit must be slightly higher than the rear, so that the cutting head will return to its original position when released by the operator. Band Saws: • Guard the blade entirely, except at the point of operation, or at the working portion of the blade. • The guard for the blade portion between the sliding guide and the upper saw should be adjustable so that it raises and lowers with the guide. • Always adjust the blade guide post to fit the thickness of the stock. • Fully enclose the motor and pulley mechanism. • Guard the ingoing nip points of any automatic feed rolls if they are used. • The saw shall also have a tension control device to maintain proper blade tension. Jig Saws: • Use a threshold rest (slotted foot) to hold the stock. • Guard the blade with an adjustable for self adjusting guard. • Guard drive belts and pulleys. • Guard the portion of the blade below the table to prevent accidental contact Jointers: • Enclose the cutter head with an automatic (spring loaded, self enclosing) guard that exposes the cutter head only when the stock is being fed. The guard must automatically adjust to cover the unused portion of the head, and it must remain in contact with the material at all times. • Adjust the cylindrical cutter head so that the knife projects no more than 1/8 inch beyond the cylindrical body of the head. • Adjust the cutter head so that the clearance between the path of the knife projection and the rear table is no more than 1/8 inch. • Keep the clearance between the table and the head as small as possible. • For vertical head jointers, completely enclose the cutter head, except for a slot to apply the material for jointing. This guard can be part of the local exhaust system. Shapers: As shown in the following figure, enclose the spindle with and adjustable guard or cage. For straight line shaping, the fence frame should include the guard. The fence should contain as small an opening as possible for the knives, and should extend at least 18 inches on either side of the spindle. Split adjustable fences are useful for guarding when the entire edge of the stock is to be shaped. • Mount a ring around the cutting bit to reduce contact with it. • Guard automatic feed rollers if used. • Ensure that double-spindle shapers have a starting and stopping device for each spindle


• Use a proper collar to minimize the potential for tool projection.

Power Feed Planers/Moulders: • Completely enclose the belts and pulleys of the sine shaft with a substantial metal guard. The line shaft must be guarded regardless of its location. • Cover cutting heads with a metal guard or cage. The exhaust system may be integrated with the guard. • Guard feed rolls with a wide metal strip or bar that will allow boards to pass but that will keep the operators fingers out. • Provide barriers at the loading and unloading ends to keep hands out of the point of operation. • Install anti kickback fingers on the in feed side across the width of the machine.

Lathes: •

For automatic wood turning lathes with rotating knives, cover the cutter head with a metal shield or hood that completely covers the knives and material, except at the contact points, when the machine is in operation. • For manual lathes, cover the cutter heads as completely as possible with a hood or shield. • Cover lathes used for turning long stock with long curved guards extending over the top of the lathe. Such guards prevent the stock from being thrown from the machine, should the stock become loose. •

Install a brake for bringing the stock to a complete stop after the power has been shot off.


On hand fed lathes, guard the tool and point of operation with a plexiglass tool guard shown on the following figure.

• Enclose the moving power transmission components with fixed guards. Sanders: •

Guard feed rolls with a semi cylindrical guard to prevent the operator’s hands from coming in contact with the in running rolls on automatic sanders. The guard design must allow for adjustment to any thickness of stock.

Guard the unused portion of the sanding belt against accidental contact. These guards must also prevent contact with the ingoing nip points. • Enclose drum and disc sanders with guards, except for the portion of the sanders drum above the table. • Enclose the power transmission pulleys and belts with fixed guards.

Routers: • Enclose the tool with an adjustable tool guard as shown in the following figure. • Equip routers with a spindle braking system that gradually engages. • Guard feed rolls if they are used.


Tenoning Machines: • Enclose feed chains and sprockets of double end machines, except for the portion of the chain conveying stock. • The cutting head and saws must be guarded with metal guards. Cover the unused part of the periphery of the cutting head. If an exhaust system is used, the guard must form part of the exhaust system. Tenoning Machine

Boring/Mortising Machine: • Use safety bit chucks that have no projecting screws. • Enclose boring bits with a guard that encloses the bit and chuck above the material being worked. • Enclose the top of the cutting chain and driving mechanism. • If a counterweight is used, prevent it from dropping by bolting it to the bar or attaching a safety chain to it. • Cover operating treadles with inverted u shaped guard to prevent accidental tripping.


PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT 1910 Subpart I - Personal Protective Equipment 1926

Subpart

E

-

Personal

Protective

and

Life

Saving

Equipment

PURPOSE The purpose of this policy is to comply with OSHA and other regulatory compliance standards which require employers to provide employees with and train them in the use of suitable personal protective equipment (PPE) where there is a “reasonable probability� that injury can be prevented by such equipment. While use of PPE is important, it is only a supplemental form of protection, necessary where all potential hazards have not been controlled through other means such as administrative and engineering controls. For example, administrative and engineering controls are especially important in hearing and respiratory protection, which have specific standards that require employers to take all feasible steps to control the hazards.

POLICY

PPE shall be used in conjunction with administrative and engineering controls to provide for maximum levels of employee safety and health in the workplace. Employees must be aware that PPE does not eliminate the hazard. If the PPE fails, exposure will occur. To reduce the possibility of failure, equipment must be properly fitted and maintained in a clean and serviceable condition. PPE must not be altered in any manner. Payment for PPE General Rule: All PPE required by this standard must be provided by the employer at no cost to employees.


Exception: The employer is not required to pay for safety-toe protective footwear, or for prescription safety eyewear, provided that all three of the following conditions are met: 1. The employer permits such footwear or eyewear to be worn off the job-site. 2. The footwear or eyewear is not used at work in a manner that renders it unsafe for use off the job-site (e.g., contaminated safety-toe footwear would not be permitted to be worn off a job-site). 3.

Such

footwear

or

eyewear

is

not

designed

for

special

use

on

the

job.

HAZARD ASSESSMENT A hazard assessment is conducted of our facilities. Based on this assessment specific items of personal protective equipment are deemed necessary during performance of certain activities. All PPE and equipment will be of safe design and construction for the work to be performed and shall be maintained in a sanitary and reliable condition. Only those items that meet NIOSH or ANSI standards will be procured or accepted for use

EYE AND FACE PROTECTION Prevention of eye injuries requires that all persons who may be in eye hazard areas wear protective eyewear. This includes employees, visitors, contractors, or other entering into an identified eye hazard area. To provide protection for these personnel, supervisors will ensure that only persons with appropriate eyewear are allowed to enter into these areas. ANSI Z87.1 safety glasses with rigid side shields are the minimum level of eye protection to be worn whenever eye/face protection is required. (Discuss

specifics

regarding

areas

requiring

eye

protection

and

types

to

be

used.

HEAD PROTECTION Hard hats must be worn at all times while in the work areas, except in offices and fully enclosed cabs of motor vehicles. Forklifts, backhoes, or other open equipment are not considered fully enclosed vehicles. Hard hats shall be worn per manufactures specifications. The hard hats & suspension of the hard hats shall not be modified or altered in any way. Hard hats shall meet ANSI Z89-1987 standards. Replace any hard hat that has been involved in a fall other head impact. Replace any hard hat that has been dented, cracked or has any other signs of damage.

FOOT PROTECTION In an effort to prevent foot injuries, the following is established for employees working outside of the office. Work boots. Employees are required to furnish and wear sturdy, leather work boots with a steel or safety toe.


The work boots shall be of substantial weight, and have an upper construction which extends high enough to be covered by the pant leg. Traditional leather or leather equivalent man-made material meets this requirement.

HAND PROTECTION Gloves are necessary and required for work. Most injuries to the hands can be prevented with the proper use of gloves. Work gloves must be worn any time work can be performed with gloves on, and any times employees may come in contact with sharp or abrasive surfaces.

CLEANING AND MAINTENANCE All PPE clothing and equipment should be of safe design and construction, and should be maintained in a clean and reliable fashion.

EMPLOYEE TRAINING Employers are required to train each employee who must use PPE. Employees must be trained to know at least the following. • When PPE is necessary • What PPE is necessary • How to properly put on, take off, adjust and wear the PPE • The limitations of the PPE • Proper care, maintenance, useful life and disposal of PPE Retraining of the employee is required when the workplace changes, making the earlier training obsolete; the type of PPE changes; or when the employee demonstrates lack of use, improper use, or insufficient skill or understanding. Training must be documented and include the employee name, the dates of training, and the training subject. Hazard Assessment This assessment survey may be conducted to ensure this workplace will meet requirements of CFR 1910.132 and related standards. This does not include respiratory protection as it is discussed in a separate section. Head Hazards Tasks that can cause head hazards include but are not limited to: working below others, working on energized electrical equipment, working with chemicals, and working under machinery or processes which might cause materials for objects to fall, and working in restricted or tight areas.


Check the appropriate box for each hazard: Burn Chemical Splash Electrical Shock Impact Add Other Hazards

Yes Yes Yes Yes

No No No No

Yes Yes

No No

Eye Hazards Tasks that can cause eye hazards include but are not limited to: Working with chemicals, chipping, grinding, furnace operations, sanding, welding, and woodworking. Check the appropriate box for each Hazard: Chemicals Dust Heat Impact Light/Radiation Add Other Hazards

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

No No No No No

Yes Yes

No No

Hand Hazards Tasks that can cause hand hazards include but are not limited to: cutting materials, working with chemicals, working with hot objects, and working with objects that have sharp or abrasive edges/surfaces.


Check the appropriate box for each hazard: Burns Yes No Chemical Exposure Yes No Cuts/Abrasions Yes No Puncture Yes No Add Other Hazards Yes No Yes No Foot Hazards Task that can cause foot hazards include but are not limited to: carrying or handling materials that could be dropped, manual material handling, walking on sharp or rough surfaces, chemical exposure. Check the appropriate box for each hazard: Chemical Exposure Yes No Compression Yes No Impact Yes No Puncture Yes No Add Other Hazards Yes No Yes No Based on the hazard assessment the following is the required PPE. • Safety Glasses • Steel/Safety Toe Boots • Hard Hats Defective or damaged PPE shall NOT be used.

Signature: _____________________________________________________


RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PROGRAM

PURPOSE

The purpose of this program is to ensure that all workers at OJ Construction Inc. are protected from exposure to these respiratory hazards. Engineering controls, such as ventilation and substitution of less toxic materials, are the first line of defense at OJ Construction Inc. However, engineering controls have not always been feasible for some of our operations or have not always completely controlled the identified hazards. In these situations, respiratory and other protective equipment must be used. Respirators are also needed to protect employees’ health during emergencies. The work processes requiring respirator use at OJ Construction Care outlined in the Scope and Application section of this program. In addition, some employees have expressed a desire to wear respirators during certain operations that do not require respiratory protection. As a general policy, we will review each of these requests on a case-by-case basis. If the use of respiratory protection in a specific case will not jeopardize the health or safety of the worker(s), we will provide respirators for voluntary use. As outlined in the Scope and Application section of this program, voluntary respirator use is subject to certain requirements of this program.

SCOPE AND APPLICATION This program applies to all employees who are required to wear respirators during normal work operations, and during some non-routine or emergency operations such as a spill of a hazardous substance. All employees in the departments listed in the Purpose section and any employees engaged in certain processes or tasks (as outlined in the table below) must be enrolled in the company’s respiratory protection program. In addition, any employee who voluntarily wears a respirator when a respirator is not required is subject to the medical evaluation, cleaning, maintenance, and storage elements of this program, and must be provided with certain information specified in this section of the program. Employees who voluntarily wear filtering facepieces (2-strap, NIOSH approved disposable dust masks) are not subject to the medical evaluation, cleaning, storage, fit-testing, and maintenance provisions of this program. Employees participating in the respiratory protection program do so at no cost to them. The expense associated with training, medical evaluations and respiratory protection equipment will be borne by the company.

RESPONSIBILITIES The Program Administrator, a OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative is responsible for administering the respiratory protection program. Duties of the program administrator include: • Identify work areas, processes or tasks that require workers to wear respirators, and evaluating hazards. • Selecting of respiratory protection options. •

Monitoring respirator use to ensure that respirators are used in accordance with their certifications.


Arranging for and/or conducting training. Ensuring proper storage and maintenance of respiratory protection equipment. Conducting fit testing Administering the medical surveillance program. Maintaining records required by the program. Evaluating the program. Updating the written program as needed. The Program Administrator is a OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative. • • • • • • •

Supervisors are responsible for ensuring that the respiratory protection program is implemented in their particular areas. In addition to being knowledgeable about the program requirements for their own protection, supervisors must also ensure that the program is understood and followed by the employees under their charge. Duties of the supervisor include: • Ensuring that employees under their supervision have received appropriate training, fit testing and annual medical evaluation. •

Ensuring the availability of appropriate respirators and accessories.

Being aware of tasks requiring the use of respiratory protection.

Enforcing the proper use of respiratory protection when necessary. • Ensuring that respirators are properly cleaned, maintained, and stored according to the respiratory protection plan. • Ensuring that respirators fit well and do not cause discomfort. • Continually monitoring work areas and operations to identify respiratory hazards. • Coordinating with the Program Administrator on how to address respiratory hazards or other concerns regarding the program. Employees have the responsibility to wear their respirator(s) when and where required and in the manner in which they were trained. Employees must also: • Care for and maintain their respirators as instructed, and store them in a clean sanitary location. •

• Inform their supervisor if the respirator no longer fits well, and require a new one that fits properly. Inform their supervisor or the Program Administrator of any respiratory hazards which they feel are not adequately addressed in the workplace and of any other concerns which they have regarding the program.


PROGRAM ELEMENTS The Program Administrator will select respirators to be used on site, based on the hazards to which workers are exposed and in accordance with all OSHA standards. The Program Administrator will conduct a hazard evaluation for each operation, process, or work area where airborne contaminants may be present in routine operations or during an emergency. The hazard evaluation will include: • Identification and development of a list of hazardous substances used in the workplace by department or work process. • Review of work processes to determine where potential exposures to these hazardous substances may occur. This review shall be conducted by surveying the workplace, reviewing process records and talking with employees and supervisors. Exposure monitoring to quantify potential hazardous exposures. Monitoring may be contracted out or you may perform your own monitoring. The Program Administrator must revise and update the hazard assessment as needed (i.e. any time work •

process changes may potentially affect exposure). If an employee feels that respiratory protection is needed during a particular activity, they are to contact the supervisor or the Program Administrator. The Program Administer will evaluate the potential hazard, arranging for outside assistance as necessary. The Program Administrator will then communicate the results of that assessment back to the employees. If it is determined that respiratory protection is necessary, all other elements of this program will be in effect for those tasks and this program will be updated accordingly. All respirators must be certified by NIOSH and shall be used in accordance with the terms of that certification. Also, all filters, cartridges and ca canisters must be labeled with the appropriate NIOSH approval label. The label must not be removed or defaced while it is in use. Respirators for voluntary use will be provided at no charge to employees for the following work processes: The Program Administrator will provide all employees who voluntarily choose to wear either of the above respirators with a copy of Appendix D of the standard, 1910.134. This Appendix details the requirements for voluntary use of respirators by employees. Employees choosing to wear any respiratory other than a filtering face piece (2-strap, NIOSH approved, disposable, dust mask) must comply with the procedures for Medical Evaluation, Respirator Use, and Cleaning, Maintenance and Storage. The Program Administrator shall authorize voluntary use of respiratory protective equipment as requested by all other workers on a case-by-case basis, depending on specific workplace conditions and the results of the medical evaluations.

MEDICAL EVALUATION


Employees who are either required to wear respirators or who choose to wear an air purifying respirator (APR) voluntarily, must pass a medical exam before being permitted to wear a respirator on the job. Employees are not permitted to wear respirators until a physician has determined that they are medically able to do so. Any employee refusing the medical evaluation will not be allowed to work in an area requiring respirator use. A licensed physician/nurse practitioner (designate the licensed professional health care provider) will provide the medical evaluations. Medical evaluation procedures are as follows: • The medical evaluation will be conducted using the questionnaire provided in Appendix C of the respiratory protection standard. The Program Administrator will provide a copy of this questionnaire to all employees requiring medical evaluations. The questionnaire can be found in this sample program. Please refer to the table of contents. •

To the extent feasible, the company will assist employees who are unable to read the questionnaire. When this is not possible, the employee will be sent directly to the physician for the medical evaluation. All affected employees will be given a copy of the medical questionnaire to fill out, along with a stamped and addressed envelope for mailing the questionnaire to the company healthcare provider. Employees will be permitted to fill out the questionnaire on company time. Some employers may opt to send the employees to a healthcare facility where the confidential questionnaire can be administered by the healthcare staff. Please indicate how you will conduct the completion of the questionnaire in your written program.

Follow-up medical exams will be granted to employees as required by the standard, and/or as deemed necessary by the licensed health care provider.

All employees will be granted the opportunity to speak with the physician about their medical evaluation, if they so request. The Program Administrator has provided the licensed health care provider with a copy of this program, a copy of the Respiratory Protection standard, the list of hazardous substances by work area, and for each employee requiring evaluation: the work area or job title, proposed respirator type and weight, length of time required to wear the respirator, expected physical work load, potential temperature and humidity extremes, and any additional protective clothing required.

• •

Any employee required for medical reasons to wear a positive pressure air purifying respirator will be provided with a powered air purifying respirator. After an employee has received clearance and begun to wear his or her respirator, additional medical evaluations will be provided under the following circumstances: o Employee reports signs and/or symptoms related to their ability to use a respirator such as shortness of breath, dizziness, chest pains, or wheezing.


o

The licensed health care provider or supervisor informs the Program Administrator that the employee needs to be reevaluated. o Information from this program, including observations made during fit testing and program evaluation, indicates a need for reevaluation. o A change occurs in workplace conditions that may result in an increased physiological burden on the employee. A List

list

of the

employees employees

currently who

included are

in

medical

in

the

surveillance medical

is

provided

surveillance

below: program:

1. 2. 3. All examinations and questionnaires are to remain confidential between the employee and the physician.

FIT TESTING Fit testing is required for employees wearing negative or positive pressure, tight fitting respirators. A fit test is not required by OSHA for voluntary users of filtering face piece respirators or for escape only respirators. Employees who are required to wear tight fitting respirators will be fit tested: • Prior to being allowed to wear any respirator with a tight fitting face piece. • Annually. • When there are changes in the employee’s physical condition with could affect respiratory fit (e.g., obvious change in body weight, facial scarring, etc.) Employees will be fit tested with the make, model, and size of respirator that they will actually wear. Employees will be provided with several models and sizes of respirators so that they may find an optimal fit. Fit testing of powered air purifying respirators (PAPRs) or any positive pressure tight fitting respirator is to be conducted in the negative pressure mode. Name the person or job title will conduct fit tests following the OSHA approved Name the fit test method used. The protocol in Appendix B of the standard, 1910.134, will be followed. The Program Administrator will evaluate on a case-by-case basis if a different type of fit test procedure is needed.


General use procedures are listed below: • Employees will use their respirators under conditions specified by this program and in accordance with the training they receive on the use of each particular model. In addition, the respirator shall not be used in a manner for which it is not certified by NIOSH or by its manufacturer. All employees shall conduct user seal checks each time that they wear their respirator. Employees shall use either the positive or negative pressure check as specified in Appendix B-1 of the standard, 1910.134. • All employees shall be permitted to leave the work area to go to the locker room to maintain their respirator for the following reasons: to clean their respirator if the respirator is impeding their ability to work, change filters or cartridges, replace parts or to inspect the respirator if it stops functioning as intended. Employees should notify their supervisor before leaving the area. •

Employees are not permitted to wear tight-fitting respirators if they have any condition, such as facial scars, facial hair, or missing dentures that prevents them from achieving a good seal. Employees are not permitted to wear headphones, jewelry, or other articles that may interfere with the facepiece-to face seal. Respirator malfunction procedures are listed below: • For any malfunction of an air purifying respirator (APR), such as breakthrough, facepiece leakage, or •

improperly working valve, the respirator wearer should inform his or her supervisor that the respirator no longer functions as intended, and go to the designated safe area to maintain the respirator. The supervisor must ensure that the employee receives the needed parts to repair the respirator, or is provided with a new respirator. • All workers wearing supplied air respirators (SAR) will work with a buddy. Buddies shall assist workers who experience a SAR malfunction by donning a SAR or emergency escape respirator and aid the worker in immediately exiting the area. Please note this is not an immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) environment since it would not be appropriate to enter an IDLH environment with an escape respirator.

AIR QUALITY For SARs, only Grade D breathing air shall be used. The Program Administrator will coordinate deliveries of compressed air with the company’s vendor (Name the vendor) and require the vendor to certify that the air in the cylinders meets the specifications of Grade D breathing air. The Program Administrator will maintain a minimum air supply of one fully charged replacement cylinder for each SAR unit. Cylinders will be recharged as needed by the vendor.


The Program Administrator will ensure that the air provided to the spray painter (or whoever is utilizing the airline) by the oil-less compressor does not exceed 10 parts per million (PPM) of carbon monoxide. The Program Administrator shall also ensure that the sorbent beds and filters are maintained and replaced following the manufacturers recommendations and that a tag containing the most recent change date and signature of the person authorized to perform the change is maintained at the compressor. The Program Administrator will ensure that the air provided to the abrasive blasting worker (or whoever is utilizing the airline) by the oil lubricated compressor has suitable in-line filters and sorbent beds which are maintained and replaced following the manufacturers recommendations and that a tag containing the most recent change date and signature of the person authorized to perform the change is maintained at the compressor. In addition, the oil lubricated compressor shall use either a high temperature alarm or carbon monoxide alarm or both to monitor carbon monoxide levels which cannot exceed 10 parts per million. If only a high temperature alarm is utilized, the breathing air shall be monitored at intervals sufficient to prevent carbon monoxide in the breathing air from exceeding 10 PPM. The Program Administrator will ensure that breathing air couplings are incompatible with outlets for nonrespirable worksite air or other gas systems. No asphyxiating substance shall be introduced into breathing air lines.

CLEANING, MAINTENANCE, CHANGE SCHEDULES AND STORAGE Respirators are to be regularly cleaned and disinfected at the designated respirator cleaning station located in (Name the location) Respirators issued for the exclusive use of any employee shall be cleaned as often as necessary. Respirators used for emergency use and atmosphere supplying respirators are to be cleaned and disinfected after each use. The following procedure is to be used when cleaning and disinfecting respirators: • Disassemble respirator, removing any filters, canisters, or cartridges. • Wash the facepiece and associated parts in a mild detergent with warm water. Do not use organic solvents. • Rinse completely in clean warm water. • Wipe the respirator with disinfectant wipes to kill germs. 70% isopropyl alcohol may be used if it is not damaging to the respirator. • Air dry in a clean area. • Reassemble the respirator and replace any defective parts. •

Place

in

a

clean,

dry

plastic

bag

or

other

air

tight

container.


The Program Administrator will ensure an adequate supply of appropriate cleaning and disinfection material at the cleaning station. If supplies are low, employees shall contact their supervisor, who will inform the Program Administrator. Respirators are to be properly maintained at all times in order to ensure that they function properly and adequately protect the employee. Maintenance involves a thorough visual inspection for cleanliness and defects. Worn or deteriorated parts will be replaced prior to use. No components will be replaced or repairs made beyond those recommended by the manufacturer. Repairs to regulators or alarms of atmospheresupplying respirators will be conducted by the manufacturer. The following checklist will be used when inspecting respirators: • Facepiece: Look for cracks, tears, holes, facemask distortion, cracked or loose lenses/faceshield. • Headstraps: Look for breaks, tears, and broken buckles. • Valves: Look for residue, dirt, cracks or tears in the valve material. • Filters/Cartridges: Look for the NIOSH approval designation, cracks or dents in the housing, gaskets, and whether or not this is the proper cartridge/filter for the hazard. • Air Supply System: Ensure the breathing air is Grade D quality or better, look at the condition of the hoses and hose connections and observe the settings on the regulators and valves. Respirators that are defective or have defective parts shall be taken out of service immediately. If, during an inspection, an employee discovers a defect in a respirator, he/she is to bring the defect to the attention of the supervisor. Supervisors will give all defective respirators to the Program Administrator. The Program Administrator will decide whether to: • Temporarily take the respirator out of service until it can be repaired. • Perform a simple fix on the spot such as replacing a headstrap. • Dispose of the respirator due to an irreparable problem or defect. When a respirator is taken out of service for an extended period of time, the respirator will be tagged out of service, and the employee will be given a replacement of similar make, model and size. All tagged out respirators will be kept in the storage cabinet inside the Program Administrator’s office.

The inspection schedule is as follows: •

Routinely used respirators issued for exclusive use of a single employee: Inspect before and after each use. 194


Routinely used respirators issued for use by more than one employee: Inspect before and after each use.

Respirators used for emergency, rescue, escape, or firefighting: Inspect after each use and at least monthly. Employees are permitted to leave their work area to perform limited maintenance of their respirators in a designated area that is free of respiratory hazards. Situations when this is permitted include washing of face and respirator to prevent any eye or skin irritation, replacing the filter/cartridge or canister, and if the employee detects vapor or gas breakthrough or leakage in the facepiece or if they detect any other damage to the respirator or its components. Employees wearing air purifying respirators APRs) or powered air purifying respirators PAPRs) with approved filters (i.e. P100, N100, R100) for protection against dust/fume/mist and other particulates shall change the cartridges on their respirators when they first begin to experience difficulty breathing (i.e. resistance) while wearing their masks. •

OSHA requires that APRs for protection against gases and vapors must have cartridges/canisters with an end of service life indicator (ESLI) or if cartridges/canisters with an ESLI are not available, a change out schedule must be implemented based upon objective information which will ensure the cartridge/canisters are changed before the end of their service life. Respirators must be stored in a clean, dry area, and in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. Each employee will clean and inspect their own APR in accordance with the provisions of this program and will store their respirator in a plastic bag in their own locker. Each employee will have their name on the bag and that bag will only be used to store that employee’s respirator. •

TRAINING The Program Administrator will provide training to respirator users and their supervisors on the contents of the Respiratory Protection Program and their responsibilities under it, and on the OSHA Respiratory Protection standard, 1910.134. Workers will be trained prior to using a respirator in the workplace. Supervisors will also be trained prior to using a respirator in the workplace or prior to supervising employees that must wear respirators. The training course will cover the following topics: • The company Respiratory Protection Program. • The OSHA Respiratory Protection standard, 1910.134. • Respiratory hazards encountered at this company and their health effects. • Proper selection and use of respirators. • Limitations of respirators. 195


Respirator donning and user seal (fit) checks. Fit testing. Emergency use procedures. Maintenance and storage. Medical signs and symptoms limiting the effective use of respirators. Employees will be retrained annually or as needed (e.g., if they change departments and need to use a • • • • •

different respirator). Employees must demonstrate their understanding of the topics covered in the training through hands-on exercises and a written test. Respirator training will be documented by the Program Administrator and the documentation will include the type, model, and size of respirator for which each employee has been trained and fit tested.

EVALUATION The Program Administrator will conduct periodic evaluations of the workplace to ensure that the provisions of this program are being implemented. The evaluations will include regular consultations with employees who use respirators and their supervisors, site inspection, air monitoring and a review of records. Problems identified will be noted in an inspection log and addressed by the Program Administrator. These findings will be reported to management, and the report will list plans to correct deficiencies in the respirator program and target dates for the implementation of those corrections.

DOCUMENTATION AND RECORDKEEPING A written copy of this program and the OSHA standard is kept in the Program Administrator’s office and is available to all employees who wish to review it. Also maintained in the Program Administrator’s office are copies of training and fit test records. These records will be updated as new employees are trained, as existing employees receive refresher training, and as new fit tests are conducted. Appendix D and F of this sample program contain sample training certificates and fit test documentation. The Program Administrator will also maintain copies of the medical records for all employees covered under the respirator program. The completed medical questionnaire and the physician’s documented findings are confidential. The company will only retain the physician’s written recommendation regarding each employee’s ability to wear a respirator.

196


APPENDIX A WORKSITE SPECIFIC RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PLAN Processes/Hazardous Substances:

Atmospheric Hazards: • Oxygen levels: Is this level appropriate? • Monitoring (List the monitoring frequency, method for each atmospheric hazard (i.e., colorimetric tubes, badges, direct reading instrument, low flow pump, etc.), time weighted average, ceiling, short term exposure level, type of sampling (i.e. area or personal breathing zone)and duration of sampling ):

Respirators to be Used to Reduce Employees Exposure to Atmospheric Hazards (list type, cartridge/canister/filter, etc):

Authorized Employees:

Emergency Response: •

Signs and symptoms of over-exposure 197


Evacuation procedures

First aid and emergency medical procedures

Reporting procedures

Supervisor Signature:

Date:

Respirator Administrator Signature:

Date:

198


APPENDIX B Employee Respirator Assignment Record 1. Plant Name: 2. Date: 3. Employee Name: 4. Employee No. 5. Job Title: 6. Work Location: Respirator Issue 7. Type and weight of respirator to be used: ________ 8. To be used under the conditions specified here: A. Duration and frequency of respirator use B. Expected physical work effort C. Additional protective clothing and equipment to be worn D. Temperature and humidity extremes which may be encountered 9. Estimated frequency of cartridge/filter replacement or respirator replacement (disposable and air purifying respirators only: Nonapplicable Hourly Twice/ shift Daily Weekly Monthly Other (specify ) Medical Evaluation • Is employee medically able to use the respirator? Yes No • Any limitations on respirator use _____ • Follow-up medical evaluation on (date) Employee has been provided with copy of this recommendation. Yes No Physician or other licensed health care provider signature

Date

199


APPENDIX C RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PROGRAM EVALUATION CHECKLIST All “NO” answers shall be explained and action planned or taken to correct the situation. MANAGEMENT ASPECTS •

YES

Is there a written respiratory protection program? • Do all

employees wear respiratory protection where required? • Are respiratory protection compliance audits performed routinely and documented? •

Do employees know which jobs/tasks require respirators?

Are results of compliance audits discussed at management safety meetings?

HAZARD •

RECOGNITION

AND

CONTROL

YES

YES

NO

YES

NO

YES

NO

YES

NO

YES

NO

YES

NO

YES

NO

NO

Are facility respiratory hazards identified?

Are personal exposures to respiratory hazards periodically assessed and results given to respective employees? • Are engineering/administrative controls of respiratory hazards evaluated and, where feasible, implemented? RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES • Are respirators required in areas where employee exposures are likely to exceed permissible exposure limits? • Are respirators selected in consideration of nature and concentration of air contaminants and of the job requirements and respiratory equipment limitations? • Do employees have ready access to respirators and replacement parts (if applicable)? • Does the care, maintenance, inspection, and storage of respirators meet the requirements prescribed by OSHA and the company? •

YES

NO

YES

NO

NO

YES

NO


MEDICAL CONSIDERATIONS • Are employees medically evaluated to determine their ability to wear respirators? • Are employees who may be exposed to air contaminants above the action level provided with medical surveillance? • Are employees informed or results of medical surveillance testing? • Are records of air monitoring and medical surveillance maintained in individual personal/medical files or safety files and made available to employees upon request? EDUCATION AND TRAINING • Do respirator users receive annual education/training? • Are the following topics covered in annual respiratory program training? o employee responsibility/procedures for use and maintenance of respiratory equipment? o nature and hazards of air contaminants to which employees may be exposed? YES o potential consequences of improper respirator use?

Signature of Person Performing the Evaluation

YES

NO

YES YES YES

NO NO NO

YES

NO

YES

NO

NO YES

NO

Date


APPENDIX D TRAINING CERTIFICATE Name of Employee

______________________________________________

Date

_____________________ was trained on the use and limitation of the following

respirator(s):

Other Training Topics Covered:

NOTE: At a minimum the training will cover the plant Respiratory Protection Program; the standard, 1910.134; respiratory hazards encountered in this workplace and their health effects; proper selection and use of respirators; limitations of the respirators; respirator donning and user seal (fit) checks; fit testing; emergency use procedures; maintenance and storage; and medical signs and symptoms limiting the effective use of respirators.

Name of Instructor

202


APPENDIX E FIT TEST RESULTS NOTE:

This form is specifically for the conditions described in Item 8 and relates to the respirator described in Item 7 of the sample form titled “Employee Respirator Assignment Record”. This form can be found in Appendix B of this program. If conditions, such as work practices, raw materials, processes or respirators, change, a new form must be completed and filed. This form will remain in the employee’s personnel file. Fit Test Method: (e.g., quantitative, irritant smoke, banana oil)

Type (2 facepiece or full face)

Make/Model/Size

Fit Factor/Results

\ Name of Person Performing the Fit Test Date _____________________________________ Mandatory Appendix A to 1910.134 , “Fit Testing Procedures”, will be adhered to when conducting the fit test.

203


CHECKLIST FOR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PROGRAMS Check to ensure that your facility has:  A written respiratory protection program that is specific to your workplace and covers the following:  Procedures for selecting respirators.  Medical evaluations of employees required to wear respirators.  Fit testing procedures.  Routine use procedures and emergency respirator use procedures.  Procedures and schedules for cleaning, disinfecting, storing, inspecting, repairing, discarding, and maintaining respirators.  Procedures for ensuring adequate air quality for supplied air respirators.  Training in respiratory hazards.  Training in proper use and maintenance of respirators. O Program evaluation procedures.  Procedures for ensuring that workers who voluntarily wear respirators (excluding filtering face pieces) comply with the medical evaluation, and cleaning, storing and maintenance requirements of the standard.  A designated program administrator who is qualified to administer the program.  Updated the written program as necessary to account for changes in the workplace affecting respirator use.  Provided equipment, training, and medical evaluations at no cost to employees.

204


CHECKLIST FOR RESPIRATOR SELECTION Check that at your facility:  Respiratory hazards in your workplace have been identified and evaluated. Employee exposures that have not been, or cannot be, evaluated are considered IDLH.  Respirators are NIOSH certified, and used under the conditions of certification.  Respirators are selected based on the workplace hazards evaluated and workplace and user factors affecting respirator performance and reliability.  A sufficient number of respirator sizes and models are provided to be acceptable and correctly fit the users.  For IDLH atmospheres:  Full facepiece pressure demand SARs with auxiliary SCBA unit or full facepiece pressure demand SCBAs, with a minimum service life of 30 minutes, are provided.  Respirators used for escape only are NIOSH certified for the atmosphere in which they will be used.  Oxygen deficient atmospheres are considered IDLH.  For Non-IDLH atmospheres:  Respirators selected are appropriate for the chemical state and physical form of the contaminant.  Air-purifying respirators used for protection against gas and vapors are equipped with ESLls or a change schedule has been implemented.  Air-purifying respirators used for protection against particulates are equipped with NIOSH-certified HEPA filters or other filters certified by NIOSH for particulates under 42 CFR part 84.

205


CHECKLIST FOR FIT TESTING Check that at your facility:  Employees who are using tight fitting respirator facepieces have passed an appropriate fit test prior to being required to use a respirator.  Fit testing is conducted with the same make, model, and size that the employee will be expected to use at the worksite.  Fit tests are conducted annually and when different respirator facepieces are to be used.  Provisions are made to conduct additional fit tests in the event of physical changes in the employee that may affect respirator fit.  Employees are given the opportunity to select a different respirator facepiece, and be retested, if their respirator fit is unacceptable to them.  Fit tests are administered using OSHA-accepted QNFT or QLFT protocols.  QLFT is only used to fit test either PAPRs, SCBAs, or negative pressure APRs that must achieve a fit factor of 100 or less.  QNFT is used in all situations where a negative pressure respirator is intended to protect workers from contaminant concentrations greater than 10 times the PEL.  When QNFT is used to fit negative pressure respirators, a minimum fit factor of 100 is achieved for tight-fitting half-facepieces and 500 for full-facepieces.  For tight-fitting atmosphere-supplying respirators and powered air-purifying respirators:  Fit tests are conducted in the negative pressure mode.  QLFT is achieved by temporarily converting the facepiece into a negative pressure respirator with appropriate filters, or by using an identical negative pressure APR  QNFT is achieved by modifying the facepiece to allow for sampling inside the mask midway between the nose and mouth. The facepiece is restored to its NIOSH approved configuration before being used in the workplace.

206


CHECKLIST FOR MEDICAL EVALUATION Check that at your facility:  All employees have been evaluated to determine their ability to wear a respirator prior to being fit    

tested for or wearing a respirator for the first time in your workplace. A physician or other licensed health care professional (PLHCP) has been identified to perform the medical evaluations. The medical evaluations obtain the information requested in Sections 1 and 2, Part A of Appendix C of the standard, 29 CFR 1910.134. Employees are provided follow-up medical exams if they answer positively to any of questions I through 8 in Section 2, Part A of Appendix C, or if their initial medical evaluation reveals that a followup exam is needed. Medical evaluations are administered confidentially during normal work hours, and in a manner that is understandable to employees.

 Employees are provided the opportunity to discuss the medical evaluation results with the PLHCP .  The following supplemental information is provided to the PLHCP before he or she makes a decision about respirator use:  Type and weight of the respirator.

 Duration and frequency of respirator use.  Expected physical work effort.  Additional protective clothing to be worn.  Potential temperature and humidity extremes.  Written copies of the respiratory protection program and 'the Respiratory Protection standard.  Written recommendations are obtained from the PLHCP regarding each employee's ability to wear a respirator, and that the PLHCP has given the employee a copy of these recommendations.  Employees who are medically unable to wear a negative pressure respirator are provided with a powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) if they are found by the PLHCP to be medically able to use a PAPR.  Employees are given additional medical evaluations when:  The employee reports symptoms related to his or her ability to use a respirator. 207


 The PLHCP, respiratory protection program administrator, or supervisor determines that a medical reevaluation is necessary.

 Information from the respiratory protection program suggests a need for reevaluation.  Workplace conditions have changed in a way that could potentially place an increased burden on the employee's health. If temporary modifications cannot be made, you will need to permanently convert the facepiece to allow for testing. If you permanently convert the facepiece-for example, by drilling a hole in the respirator facepiece to insert the probe-you cannot repair the hole and put the respirator back in service. Once a hole is drilled in the facepiece, the respirator can only be used for fit testing purposes. It is no longer approved for workplace use. TABLE 2

Acceptable Fit-testing Methods

Respirator Half-Face, Negative Pressure, APR «100 fit factor) Full-Face, Negative Pressure, APR «100 fit factor) used in atmospheres up to 10 times the PEL Full-Face, Negative Pressure, APR (>100 fit factor) PAPR Supplied-Air Respirators (SAR), or SCBA used in Negative Pressure (Demand Mode) (> 100 fit factor) Supplied-Air Respirators (SAR), or SCBA used in Positive Pressure (Pressure Demand Mode) SCBA -Structural Fire Fighting, Positive Pressure SCBA/SAR -IDLH, Positive Pressure Mouthbit Respirators Loose-fitting Respirators (e.g., hoods, helmets) How are user seal checks conducted? 208

QLFT Yes Yes

QNFT Yes Yes

No Yes No

Yes Yes Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes Fit-testing Not Required


To conduct a user seal check, the worker performs a negative or positive pressure fit check. For the negative pressure check, the worker: covers the respirator inlets (cartridges, canisters, or seals) gently inhales, and holds breath for 10 seconds. The facepiece should collapse on the worker's face and remain collapsed. For the positive pressure check, the worker: covers

the

respirator

exhalation

valve(s);

and

exhales. The facepiece should hold the positive pressure for a few seconds. During this time, the worker should not hear or feel the air leaking out of the face-to-facepiece seal.

Appendix B-1 of the Respiratory Protection standard provides detailed instructions on how to conduct the user seal check.

The manufacturer’s recommended procedures for checking the facepiece seal may be used if the employer demonstrates that the manufacturer's procedures are as effective as those described in Appendix B-1 of the Respiratory Protection standard, e.g., these procedures are effective in identifying respirators that fit poorly when put on or adjusted. Can a user seal check be used as a substitute for a qualitative fit test? A user seal check is not a substitute for a qualitative fit test. Fit testing is a more rigorous procedure that is used to determine whether the respirator fits the face of the worker. Section (1) of this Compliance Guide contains a complete discussion on respirator fit testing.

209


Checklist For Proper Use Of Respirators

Check your facility to be certain that:  Workers using tight-fitting respirators have no conditions, such as facial hair, that would interfere with a face-to-facepiece seal or valve function.  Workers wear corrective glasses, goggles, or other protective equipment in a manner that does not interfere with the face-to-facepiece seal or valve function.  Workers perform user seal checks prior to each use of a tight-fitting respirator.  There are procedures for conducting ongoing surveillance of the work area for conditions that affect respirator effectiveness, and that, when such conditions exist, you take steps to address those situations.  Employees are permitted to leave their work area to conduct respirator maintenance, such as washing the facepiece, or to replace respirator parts.  Employees do not return to their work area until their respirator has been repaired or replaced in the event of breakthrough, a leak in the facepiece, or a change in breathing resistance.  There are procedures for respirator use in IDLH atmospheres and during interior structural fire fighting to ensure that: the appropriate number of standby personnel are deployed; standby personnel and employees in the IDLH environment maintain communication; standby personnel are properly trained, equipped, and prepared; you will be notified when standby personnel enter an IDLH atmosphere; and you will respond to this notification.  Standby personnel are equipped with a pressure demand or other positive pressure SCBA, or a positive pressure supplied air respirator with an escape SCBA, and appropriate retrieval equipment or other means for rescue.  Procedures for interior structural fire fighting require that: at least two employees enter the IDLH atmosphere and remain in contact with one another at all times; at least two standby personnel are used; and all firefighting employees use SCBAs.

210


CHECKLIST FOR RESPIRATOR MAINTENANCE AND CARE Check to make sure that your facility has met the following requirements: Cleaning and Disinfecting

 Respirators are provided that are clean, sanitary, and in good working order.  Respirators are cleaned and disinfected using the procedures specified in Appendix B-2 of the standard.  Respirators are cleaned and disinfected:

 As often as necessary when issued for the exclusive use of one employee.  Before being worn by different individuals.  After each use for emergency use respirators.

After

each

use

for

respirators

used

for

fit

testing

and

training.

Storage

 Respirators are stored to protect them from damage from the elements, and from becoming deformed.  Emergency respirators are stored:

To

be

accessible

to

the

work

area.

 In compartments marked as such.  In accordance with manufacturer's recommendations. Inspections  Routine-use respirators are inspected before each use and during cleaning.  SCBAs and emergency respirators are inspected monthly and checked for proper function before and after each use.

 Emergency escape-only respirators are inspected before being carried into the workplace for use.  Inspections include:

Check

of

respirator

function

 Tightness of connections  Condition of the facepiece, head straps, valves, and cartridges.  Condition of elastomeric parts.


 For SCBAs, inspection includes checking that cylinders are fully charged, and that regulators and warning devices function properly.  Emergency use respirators are certified by documenting the inspection, and by tagging the information either to the respirator or its compartment, or storing it with inspection reports. Repairs

 Respirators that have failed inspection are taken out of service.  Repairs are made only by trained personnel.  Only NIOSH-approved parts are used.

 Reducing and admission valves, regulators and alarms are adjusted or repaired only by the manufacturer or a technician trained by the manufacturer.

212


CHECKLIST FOR BREATHING AIR QUALITY AND USE

Check that at your facility: General

 Compressed breathing air meets the requirements for Grade D breathing air.  Compressed oxygen is not used in respirators that have previously used compressed air.  Oxygen concentrations greater that 23.5 percent are used only in equipment designed for oxygen service or distribution.  Breathing air couplings are incompatible with outlets for other gas systems.  Breathing gas containers are marked with appropriate NIOSH certification. Breathing Air Cylinders

 Cylinders are tested and maintained according to DOT 49 CFR Part 173 and 178.  A certificate of analysis for breathing air has been obtained from the supplier.  Moisture content in the cylinder does not exceed a dew point of -50° F at 1 atmosphere pressure. Compressors

 Are constructed and situated to prevent contaminated air from getting into the system.  Are set up to minimize the moisture content.  Are equipped with in-line air-purifying sorbent beds and/or filters that are maintained or replaced following manufacturer's instructions.  Are tagged with information on the most recent change date of the filter and an authorizing signature.  Carbon monoxide does not exceed 10 ppm in the breathing air from compressors that are not oil-lubricated.  High-temperature and carbon monoxide alarms are used on oil-lubricated compressors, or that the air is monitored often enough to ensure that carbon monoxide does not exceed 10 ppm if only a high-temperature alarm is used.


INFORMATION FOR VOLUNTARY RESPIRATOR USERS For employees who choose to wear a respirator but are not required to do so, you are only required to provide the advisory information in Appendix D of the standard. This basic information on the proper use of respirators can be presented to the employee either verbally or in written form. Training is not required for employees who are not required to wear respirators, i.e., for employees who are wearing respirators voluntarily.

TRAINING AND INFORMATION CHECKLIST Check that at your facility:  Employees can demonstrate knowledge of:  Why the respirator is necessary and the consequences of improper fit, use, or maintenance.  Limitations and capabilities of the respirator.  How to effectively use the respirator in emergency situations.  How to inspect, put on, remove, use, and check the seals of the respirator.  Maintenance and storage procedures.  The general requirements of the respirator standard.  Training is understandable to employees.  Training is provided prior to employee use of a respirator.  Retraining is provided:  Annually.  Upon changes in workplace conditions that affect respirator use.  Whenever retraining appears necessary to ensure safe respirator use.  Appendix D of the standard is provided to voluntary users. 214


PROGRAM EVALUATION CHECKLIST Check that at your facility:  Workplace evaluations are being conducted as necessary to ensure that the written respiratory protection program is being effectively implemented.  Employees required to wear respirators are being regularly consulted to assess the employees' views and to identify problems with respirator fit, selection, use and maintenance.  Any problems identified during assessments are corrected. RECORDKEEPING CHECKLIST Check that at your facility:  Records of medical evaluations have been retained.  Fit testing records have been retained.  A copy of the current respiratory protection program has been retained.  Access to these records is provided to affected employees.

215


1910 - APPENDIX D Part Number: 1910 Part Title: Occupational Safety and Health Standards Subpart: I Subpart Title: Personal Protective Equipment Standard Number: 1910.134 App D Title: (Mandatory) Information for Employees Using Respirators When not Required Under Standard. Appendix D to Sec. 1910.134 (Mandatory) Information for Employees Using Respirators When Not Required Under the Standard Respirators are an effective method of protection against designated hazards when properly selected and worn. Respirator use is encouraged, even when exposures are below the exposure limit, to provide an additional level of comfort and protection for workers. However, if a respirator is used improperly or not kept clean, the respirator itself can become a hazard to the worker. Sometimes, workers may wear respirators to avoid exposures to hazards, even if the amount of hazardous substance does not exceed the limits set by OSHA standards. If your employer provides respirators for your voluntary use, of if you provide your own respirator, you need to take certain precautions to be sure that the respirator itself does not present a hazard. You should do the following: 1. Read and heed all instructions provided by the manufacturer on use, maintenance, cleaning and care, and warnings regarding the respirators limitations. 2. Choose respirators certified for use to protect against the contaminant of concern. NIOSH, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, certifies respirators. A label or statement of certification should appear on the respirator or respirator packaging. It will tell you what the respirator is designed for and how much it will protect you. 3. Do not wear your respirator into atmospheres containing contaminants for which your respirator is not designed to protect against. For example, a respirator designed to filter dust particles will not protect you against gases, vapors, or very small solid particles of fumes or smoke. 4. Keep track of your respirator so that you do not mistakenly use someone else's respirator. [63 FR 1152, Jan. 8, 1998; 63 FR 20098, April 23, 1998]


SAFE RIGGING

PURPOSE

The purpose of this policy is to establish safe rigging guidelines to be used by the employees of OJ Construction Inc. to prevent injuries and property damage associated with rigging and material handling.

POLICY All rigging shall be done in compliance with applicable OSHA regulations, work practices and guidelines. All rigging equipment must have sufficient rated capacity for the task being performed. Rigging equipment must never be overloaded. All employees involved in rigging operations will be aware of the Safe Rigging Policy and its contents.

ADMINISTRATIVE DUTIES A OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative has the responsibility of implementing, maintaining, enforcing, evaluating, and informing employees of this policy.

GENERAL RIGGING SAFETY RULES 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Check the angle between the load and slings when multiple slings or bridles are used. If the angle exceeds 60 degrees reposition the slings to lessen the angle to less than 60 degrees. The greater the angle on the slings, the greater amount of tension is imposed on them. This could have the same result as overloading a sling. Determine the weight and balance of the loads or object to be lifted to ensure that lifting equipment will be within its capabilities. Never point load hooks. Inspect cables, slings, ropes, and other lifting equipment regularly and prior to each lift. If lifting equipment is found to be damaged or defective, it must be taken out of service and tagged “Do Not Use�. If rigging around sharp corners or sharp objects, use softeners to protect slings, rope, wire rope, and other lifting equipment. Store lifting equipment off of the ground in a clean and dry environment. Before lifting check for twisted or knotted equipment. Also check for faulty hook up. Knots, twist, or improper hook up can result in overload of the lifting equipment. Lift and lower load with slow controlled actions. Fast jerky actions cause shock loads to be imposed on the lifting equipment that can easily exceed capacity. Center the boom point or lifting device directly over the load to be lifted. Never impose side loads on lifting devices. Never leave a load suspended while unattended Sling eyes should ride on the pin of a shackle. 217


12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

17. Shackles 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Rope and cable slings will be made of new material. Never exceed the manufacturers rated working load on any piece of rigging equipment. The tables included in this policy are estimates, you should always adhere to the manufacturers ratings. Rigging equipment not in use shall be removed from the immediate work area so as not to present a hazard to employees. Tag lines shall be used unless their use creates an unsafe condition. Hooks on overhaul ball assemblies, lower load blocks, or other attachment assemblies shall be of a type that can be closed and locked, eliminating the hook throat opening. Alternatively, an alloy anchor type shackle with a bolt, nut and retaining pin may be used. All employees shall be kept clear of loads about to be lifted and of suspended loads.

Use a properly rated shackle. The working load should be stamped on the bow section and be in tons. Never replace the pin of a shackle with a bolt. Never use a screw pin shackle if the pin can roll under load. Shackles are meant for vertical pulls. Use a larger shackle when lifting with 2 or more slings. The pin of a shackle should be on the hook, with the slings in the body. Safe Working Loads for Shackles (In tons of 2,000 pounds) Size(inches) Pin Diameter (inches) Safe working Load (tons) ½ 5/8 1.4 5/8 ¾ 2.2 ¾ 7/8 3.2 7/8 1 4.3 1 1 1/8 5.6 1 1/8 1¼ 6.7 1¼ 1 3/8 8.2


1 3/8 1½ 1¾ 2

1½ 1 5/8 2 2¼

10 11.9 16.2 21.2

Eye Bolts 1. Use proper eye bolt for the load being lifted. For added safety always use eyebolts of the shoulder type. Side loads should never be applied to an eye bolt. 2. Never insert a hook into the eye of an eye bolt, always use a shackle. 3. Never run a sling, chain, or rope through a pair of eye bolts. This will result in applying a side pull to the bolts. Safe Working Loads for Eye Bolts (Pounds)

Alloy Steel Chain Slings 1. Welded alloy steel chain slings shall have a durable identification affixed to them containing the rated capacity, manufacturer, size, and grade. 2. Hooks, rings, couplings etc. used in conjunction with alloy steel chain slings shall have at least the rated capacity of the alloy steel chain sling.


3.

In addition to being inspected prior to each use, alloy steel chain slings shall have documented thorough periodic inspections. Thorough inspection intervals shall not exceed 12 months. 4. Whenever wear of any portion of any link within a chain exceeds amount shown in the link wear table, the chain shall be removed from service. Minimum Allowable Chain Size at any Point of a Link Chain size, inches

Minimum allowable chain size, inches 1/4

13/64

3/8

19/64

1/2

25/64

5/8

31/64

3/4

19/32

7/8

45/64

1

13/16

1 1/8

29/32

1 1/4

1

1 3/8

1 3/32

1 1/2

1 3/16

1 3/4

1 13/32

220


Rated Capacity (Working Load Limit in Pounds) for Alloy Steel Chain Slings [Horizontal angles shown in parentheses] Triple and quadruple sling (3) Double sling vertical vertical angle (1) Chain size, angle (1) 30º 45º 60º inches (60º) (45º) (30º) 30º 45º 60º (60º) (45º) (30º) ¼

3,250

5,650

4,550

3,250

8,400

6,800

4,900

3/8

6,600

11,400

9,300

6,600

17,000

14,000

9,900

½

11,250

19,500

15,900

11,250

29,000

24,000

17,000

5/8

16,500

28,500

23,300

16,500

43,000

35,000

24,500

¾

23,000

39,800

32,500

23,000

59,500

48,500

34,500

7/8

28,750

49,800

40,600

28,750

74,500

61,000

43,000

1

38,750

67,100

5,800

38,750 101,000

82,000

58,000

1 1/8

44,500

77,000

63,000

44,500 115,500

94,500

66,500

57,500

99,500

61,000

57,500 149,000 121,500

86,000

1 3/8

67,000 116,000

94,000

67,000 174,000 141,000

100,500

80,000 138,000 112,900

80,000 207,000 169,000

119,500

100,000 172,000 140,000

100,000 258,000 210,000

150,000

Wire Rope: 1. Protruding ends in splices on slings and bridles shall be covered or blunted. 2. Never tie knots in wire rope, never used wire rope that has been kinked. 3. An eye splice in wire rope shall have at a minimum 3 full tucks. 4. Except for eye splices and for endless rope slings, each wire rope used for rigging shall be one piece free of knots and splices.


5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10.

Wire rope shall not be used when if in any length of 8 diameters there are 10 or more visible broken wires or the number broken exceeds 10 percent of the total number of wires. Never apply a shock load to wire rope, this will cause bird caging of the wire Rope. Protect wire rope from sharp edges. Follow all manufacturer recommendations concerning temperature and use. Welding of end attachments shall be done prior to the assembly of the sling, and must be proof tested to twice its rated capacity prior to use. This proof testing must be documented and retained. The following tables are estimates of safe working loads for improved plow steel wire rope with various attachments. These tables are acceptable for use when the manufacturers’ ratings are unavailable. If the size or grade in use is not listed, always use the manufacturers rated capacity.


Natural Rope and Synthetic Fiber 1. All splices made in rope slings shall comply with the manufacturer’s recommendations. 2. In manila rope, eye splices shall contain at least three full tucks, and short splices shall contain at least 6 full tucks.(Three on each side of the centerline of the splice) 3. In layed synthetic fiber rope, eye splices shall contain at least four full tucks, and in short splices shall contain at least 8 full tucks. (Four on each side of the centerline of the splice)


4. 5. 6. 7.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

On synthetic and natural fiber ropes, strand and tail ends shall not be trimmed immediately adjacent to the full tucks. Always leave at least 6 full inches. The tail ends can be spliced into the body of the rope with at least 2 full tucks. Knots shall not be used as splices. Always adhere to the manufactures operating temperatures for rope, and adjust the working load accordingly. Rope slings shall be taken out of service if one of the following conditions is observed: a. Abnormal wear b. Powder between the strands c. Broken or cut fibers d. Variations in the size or roundness of the strands e. Discoloration or rotting f. Distortion of hardware in the sling Synthetic Webbing Each shall be marked with the name of the manufacturer, rated capacities for the different hitches. Rated capacities shall not be exceeded. Fittings breaking strengths shall equal the breaking strength of the webbing and free from sharp edges. Always adhere to the manufacturers recommendations for environmental usage and chemical incompatibilities Always adhere to the manufactures recommendations for operating temperatures. Remove synthetic webbings form service if any of the following conditions occur: a. Burns due to exposure to acids or caustics b. Melting or charring due to excess heat exposure c. Snags, punctures, tears, cuts, broken & wore stitches, or distortion of fittings.


229


230


SCAFFOLDING POLICY 1926 Subpart L - Scaffolds

PURPOSE The purpose of this policy is to ensure that scaffolds are erected in compliance with regulatory requirements and to protect workers from injury while they are erecting or working on scaffolds. This policy provides an overview of the requirements for scaffold construction and safe work practices.

POLICY This policy and procedure is not intended as a substitute for formal training which is required for personnel who erect, move, alter, or dismantle scaffold. Scaffold erectors, dismantlers, and users shall be properly trained and comply with this policy and all applicable codes, standards, regulations, and standard safe work practices. To minimize inherent and potential risks, all scaffolds shall be routinely inspected by a “Competent” person, and by all users prior to and during each use. (An OSHA defined “Competent” person shall supervise the erection of all scaffolds.) Trained

and

qualified

scaffold

erectors

only

are

permitted

to

repair

and

modify

scaffolds.

SCAFFOLD ERECTOR TRAINING All erectors shall receive formal training and retraining on applicable Codes, Standards, and regulations affecting scaffolds. The training shall be conducted by a competent person. The training shall include, but is not limited to: • The prevention and control of hazards that are inherent to scaffold construction •

The correct procedures for erecting, disassembling, moving, operating, repairing, inspecting, and maintaining the type of scaffold being built (There are many types of scaffolds, each having specific requirements). • The design criteria, maximum intended load-carrying capacity and intended use of the scaffold • The types of fall arrest systems • The requirement to comply with tagged damaged or unsafe equipment/conditions.


ADDITIONAL TRAINING REQUIREMENTS Whenever an employer has reason to believe that an employee lacks the skill or understanding needed for safe work involving the erection, use, or dismantling of scaffold, the supervisor shall retrain each such employee so that the necessary understanding and skill is regained. Retraining is required in at least the following situations: •

Where changes at the worksite present a hazard that an employee has not been previously trained

• Where changes in the types of scaffolds, fall protection, falling object protection or other equipment present a hazard that an employee has not been previously trained • Where inadequacies in an affected employee’s work involving scaffolds indicate that the employee has not retained previous training. •

• • •

SAFETY GUIDELINES FOR SCAFFOLD ERECTION

A qualified person shall evaluate, design, and plan the job. Since each jobsite presents unique conditions, the planner must use his/her training, education, and experience to evaluate the following: 1. Fall protection Systems 2. Proximity of electric lines (never closer than 10’) 3. Job site access 4. Weather conditions and wind/weather protection 5. Openings, pits, and ground conditions 6. Adequate foundations of sufficient strength to support the scaffold and intended loads 7. Conflicting jobs 8. Environmental hazards 9. Proper bracing that is rigid in all directions 10. Safe and unobstructed means of access and egress to the platform 11. Proper guardrails and toe boards 12. Adequate decking materials and overhead protection, as needed 13. Protection of persons passing and working near or underneath the scaffold All scaffold components shall be carefully inspected prior to use to ensure that they are serviceable and in good condition. Damaged or unsafe equipment/condition must be tagged out by a Competent Person and tags must be complied with at all times by all employees. The scaffold erection area and exposed areas shall be properly barricaded


• All scaffold erectors will wear a full body harness and lanyards while working 6’ or above and tie off when stationary for more than few moments Requirements for Scaffolds 10ft. and Higher: •

• •

• • • • • • • • • • •

Shall be equipped with a perimeter guardrail. The top rail to be between 39” and 45” above the work platform and capable of withstanding 200 pounds of lateral force. The Mid rail is to be centered between the top rail and platform. Cross bracing is acceptable in place of a mid-rail when the crossing point between 20” and 30” above the work platform. Cross bracing is also acceptable in place of the top rail if the crossing point is between 38” and 48” above the work platform. (Cross bracing cannot serve as both top and mid rail.) Toe boards, consisting of a minimum of 4” in vertical height, installed on all sides. Where persons are required to pass/work under the scaffold, safety mesh, or other suitable material shall be installed between the toe boards and mid rails. If using mesh it shall have no larger than ½” openings. Ladders must extend at least 3’ above the working platform. Landing platforms shall be provided at intervals of not more than 30’. Access ladders must be attached to the scaffolds for access and egress. A free standing scaffold shall not exceed four times its minimum base width. All scaffolds must be placed on a firm and solid footing. Placing legs on dunnage, bricks or blocks is prohibited. All holes or voids in working platforms shall be covered with a minimum of ¾” plywood. Maximum dimensional span of the ¾” plywood is 21” Scaffolding and its components shall be capable of supporting four times the maximum intended load. Any scaffolding, including accessories such as braces, brackets, trusses, screw legs, ladders, etc., which are damaged or weakened in any way, shall be immediately removed from service and replaced. Scaffold planks shall extend over their supports not less than 6” or more than 18” if the scaffold is more than 10’in length. If the scaffold is 10’ or less in length then the planks shall extend over their supports not less than 6” or more than 12”. Scaffold platforms shall not be less than 18” wide unless otherwise specifically required or exempted. All Scaffolds must be erected level and plumb and on solid footing. All working decks must be level. Do not alter any scaffolding members by welding, cutting, burning, drilling, or bending.


Components should always match to ensure proper fit and be of consistent integrity, mixing of components or dissimilar should only be done with the approval of the competent person.

On the inside face (Next to building or structure), the scaffold shall be as close to the building as possible, but in no case shall the platform planks be more than 14” from the building or structure unless utilizing a standard guard rail on the inside face of the scaffold and/or a personal fall arrest system. • Maintain good housekeeping on scaffold decks. All tools/materials stored on scaffold decks shall be stacked, blocked, interlocked, or otherwise secured to prevent sliding or falling. • All scaffolds shall be inspected by a competent person at the beginning of each shift and after any alterations or modifications are made to the scaffold. Requirements for scaffolds less than 10ft high: • Guard rails, toe boards, and wire mesh shall be installed as determined by the competent person. • All scaffolds shall be inspected by a competent person at the beginning of each shift and after any alterations or modifications are made to the scaffold.

SCAFFOLD USER TRAINING The employer shall have each employee who performs work while on a scaffold trained by a person qualified in the subject matter to recognize the hazards associated with the type of scaffold being used and to understand the procedures to control or minimize those hazards. Training shall include but is not limited to the following: • The nature of any electrical hazards and the proper procedures for dealing with electrical hazards. • Fall hazards and falling object hazards in the work areas, as well as erecting, maintaining, and disassembling the fall protection systems and falling object protection system being used. • The proper use of the scaffold of the scaffold, and the proper handling of materials on the scaffold •

The maximum intended load and the load-carrying capacity of the scaffolds used.

GENERAL SAFETY GUIDELINES FOR SCAFFOLD USERS •

Scaffold and scaffold components shall be inspected for visible defects by a competent person at the beginning of each shift and after any alterations or modifications are made to the scaffold. • Before starting work on a scaffold the work crew should perform a user inspection, which consist of: 1. Guard rails in place 2. Bars and clamps tight and secure


• • • • • • • • •

3. Toe boards and falling object protection in place 4. Ladders in place and secure 5. Fall protection systems in place, inspected, and found safe for use 6. Holes in deck adequately covered 7. Planks in safe condition and secured 8. Free of overhead hazards 9. Weather conditions do not present a hazard Scaffolding will not be modified by except under the supervision of the competent person. All employees outside of the guardrails of a scaffold where there is a fall hazard of 6 ft or greater shall wear a personal fall arrest system and remain tied off at all times. Never lean on, stand on, or work from top rails and/or mid-rails. Never use cross bracing as an access ladder unless the scaffold system has been designed accommodate such use. While moving between platforms use ladders, ramps, or walkways. Never cross from one scaffold to another unless both platforms are level and properly joined. Do not attempt to extend working height with boxes, ladders, or by standing on other materials. Keep work area clean and unobstructed. Do not allow unneeded tools or material to accumulate on the work platforms. Do not overload the work platforms. Scaffolds are manufactured to meet one of three weight carrying capacities, light, medium, or heavy. Know what type of scaffold is in use and its weight carrying capacity, 25lbs per square foot, 50lbs per square foot, or 75lbs per square foot.

The example below shows how to calculate the maximum capacity of a scaffold platform. The total square feet of the scaffold platform x Pounds per square feet rating = Maximum capacity in pounds. Total square feet is obtained by multiplying the length and the width of the scaffold platform. A light duty

scaffold platform measuring 4’x 6’ would have total square feet of 24’. Now multiply 24’ by the light duty rating of 25 lbs per foot to obtain the maximum capacity of 600 pounds. •

Weight limits also apply to individual planks. Never Place more than 250 lbs on a single plank.


BLOODBORNE PATHOGENS AND EXPOSURE CONTROL PLAN 1910.1030 - Bloodborne pathogens.

PURPOSE OJ Construction Inc. is committed to providing a safe and healthful work environment for our entire staff. In pursuit of this endeavor, the following exposure control plan (ECP) is provided to eliminate or minimize occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens in accordance with OSHA standard 29 CFR 1910.1030, "Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens." The ECP is a key document to assist our firm in implementing and ensuring compliance with the standard, thereby protecting our employees. This ECP includes: • Determination of employee exposure; • Implementation of various methods of exposure control, including: o Universal procedures, o Engineering and work practice controls, o Personal protective equipment, and o Housekeeping • Hepatitis B vaccination; • Post-exposure evaluation and follow-up; • Communication of hazards to employees and training; • Recordkeeping; and • Procedures for evaluating circumstances surrounding an exposure incident. The methods of implementation of these elements of the standard are discussed in the subsequent pages of this ECP.

ADMINISTRATIVE DUTIES A OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative is responsible for the implementation of the ECP. A OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative will maintain, review, and update the ECP at least annually, and whenever necessary to include new or modified tasks and procedures. Those employees who are determined to have occupational exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials (OPIM) must comply with the procedures and work practices outlined in this ECP.


A OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative will maintain and provide all necessary personal protective equipment (PPE), engineering controls (e.g., sharps containers), labels, and red bags as required by the standard. Leadership will ensure that adequate supplies of the aforementioned equipment are available in the appropriate sizes. A OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative will be responsible for ensuring that all medical actions required are performed and that appropriate employee health and OSHA records are maintained. A OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative will be responsible for training, documentation of training, and making the written ECP available to employees, OSHA, and NIOSH representatives.

EMPLOYEE EXPOSURE DETERMINATION This employer currently does not have employees with occupational exposure as defined in 1910.1030(b). In the event that this changes the employer shall prepare and exposure determination using the guidelines below. The following is a list of job classifications in which some employees at our establishment have occupational exposure. Included is a list of tasks and procedures, or groups of closely related tasks and procedures, in which occupational exposure may occur for these individuals: (list in space provided) • Personnel trained in FirstAid and who are personnel expected to provide emergency care. Part-time, temporary, contract, and per diem employees are covered by the standard. How the provisions of the standard will be met for these employees is described in this ECP, if applicable. The exposure determination shall be made without regards to the use of personal protective equipment.

METHODS OF IMPLEMENTATION AND CONTROL UNIVERSAL PROCEDURES All employees will utilize universal procedures. Under circumstances in which differential between body fluids is difficult or impossible, all body fluids will be considered potentially infectious.

EXPOSURE CONTROL PLAN Employees covered by the bloodborne pathogens standard receive an explanation of this ECP during their initial training session conducted prior to their initial assignment. It will also be reviewed in their annual refresher training. All employees have an opportunity to review this plan at any time during their work shifts by contacting a OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative. A OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative is responsible for reviewing and updating the ECP annually or more frequently if necessary to reflect any new or modified tasks and procedures that affect occupational exposure and to reflect new or revised employee positions with occupational exposure.


The review and update of such plans must also: Reflect changes in technology that eliminate or reduce exposure to bloodborne pathogens; and Document annually consideration and implementation of appropriate commercially available and effective safer medical devices designed to eliminate or minimize occupational exposure. A OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative documents all devices considered.

ENGINEERING AND WORK PRACTICE CONTROLS Engineering and work practice controls will be used to prevent or minimize exposure to bloodborne pathogens. The specific engineering controls and work practice controls used are listed below: • In the event hand-washing facilities are not feasible, the employer shall provide either an appropriate antiseptic hand cleanser in conjunction with cloth/paper towels or antiseptic towelettes.

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE)

PPE is provided to our employees at no cost to them. Training is provided by a OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative in the use of the appropriate PPE for the tasks or procedures employees will perform.

HOUSEKEEPING Regulated waste (blood soaked bandages, etc.) is placed in containers that are closable, constructed to contain all contents and prevent leakage, appropriately labeled or color-coded (see Labels section), and closed prior to removal to prevent spillage or protrusion of contents during handling. Contaminated sharps are discarded immediately or as soon as possible in containers that are closable, punctureresistant, leak-proof on sides and bottoms, and labeled or color-coded appropriately. Bins and pails (e.g., wash or emesis basins) are cleaned and decontaminated as soon as feasible after visible contamination. All equipment or environmental surfaces shall be cleaned & decontaminated after contact with blood or other infectious materials. Broken glassware that may be contaminated is picked up using mechanical means, such as a brush and dustpan.

POST-EXPOSURE EVALUATION AND FOLLOW-UP Should an exposure incident occur, contact OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative. An immediately available confidential medical evaluation and follow-up will be conducted. Follow the initial first aid instructions (clean the wound, flush eyes or other mucous membranes, etc.).

ADMINISTRATION OF POST-EXPOSURE EVALUATION AND FOLLOW-UP A OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative ensures that health care professional(s) responsible for employee’s hepatitis B vaccination and post-exposure evaluation and follow-up are given a copy of OSHA’s bloodborne pathogens standard.

PROCEDURES FOR EVALUATING THE CIRCUMSTANCES SURROUNDING AN EXPOSURE INCIDENT


A OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative will review the circumstances of all exposure incidents. If it is determined that revisions need to be made, a OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative will ensure that appropriate changes are made to this ECP.

EMPLOYEE TRAINING

• All employees who have occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens receive training. • All employees who have occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens receive training on the epidemiology, symptoms, and transmission of bloodborne pathogen diseases. •

All

personnel

TRAINING RECORDS

trained

in

First

Aid

are

expected

to

provide

emergency

care

RECORDKEEPING

Training records are completed for each employee upon completion of training. Training records will include the following: Dates and Contents of Training, Names and Job Titles of persons attending. Training records shall be maintained for 3 years from the date of training OJ Construction Inc. Availability and transfer of records comply with 29 CFR 1910.1020(h). Such requests should be addressed to a OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative.

MEDICAL RECORDS Medical records are maintained for each employee with occupational exposure in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020, "Access to Employee Exposure and Medical Records." A OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative is responsible for maintenance of the required medical records. These confidential records are kept at OJ Construction Inc. for at least the duration of employment plus 30 years. Medical records must have written consent of employee before released. The employer shall comply with the requirements involving transfer of records set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1020(h). Such requests should be sent to a OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative.

OSHA RECORDKEEPING An exposure incident is evaluated to determine if the case meets OSHA’s Recordkeeping Requirements (29 CFR 1904). This determination and the recording activities are done by a OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative.


AERIAL LIFTS 1926.453 - Aerial lifts. 1926.556 - Aerial lifts. In this handout we will look at the requirements for aerial lifts in construction. The OSHA rules are found in the scaffold section (1926.453).

WHAT TYPES OF PLATFORMS DO THE REGULATIONS COVER? The regulations cover vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating aerial devices described in the American National Standard for Vehicle Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms— ANSI A92.2-1969. This includes extensible and articulating boom platforms, aerial ladders, vertical towers, or a combination of these. In Appendix C to 1926.453, there are seven other standards listed that cover a wide variety of aerial lifts. These standards, and the aerial lifts they represent, are considered to provide protection equivalent to that provided through the application of the OSHA aerial lift rules. This greatly widens the coverage of 1926.453. The umbrella increases to include: manually propelled elevated work platforms (scissors lifts), boom supported elevating work platforms, and self-propelled elevating work platforms (scissor lifts).

BODY BELTS OR FULL BODY HARNESSES? In the fall protection rule at 1926.502(d), it states that as of January 1, 1998, body belts are not acceptable as part of a personal fall arrest system. Does this include aerial lifts? No. In 1926.453(b) (2) (v) it says that a body belt must be worn and a lanyard attached to the boom or basket when working from an aerial lift. A note below this scaffold rule says that the use of a body belt in a tethering system or in a restraint system is acceptable. The specifications for the body belt itself are found in the fall protection rules at 1926.502(e). The bottom line: For fall protection you can only use a body belt as a positioning device. For aerial lifts, where restraint is required (i.e., bucket trucks), a body belt, meeting the require-ments of 1926.502(e) is acceptable. When using scissors lifts that usually go straight up and down and do not “bounce,” the guardrail is acceptable.

OTHER REQUIREMENTS  Any field modification of an aerial lift must be certified in writing by the manufacturer or an equivalent entity to be in conformity with ANSI A92.2-1969.  Only authorized persons shall operate an aerial lift.  Lift controls must be tested daily before use to ensure they are in safe working condition.  Belting off to an adjacent pole, structure, or equipment while working from an aerial lift is not permitted.  Climbers must not be worn when working from an aerial lift.  Except for equipment designed for this type of operation, an aerial lift truck must not be moved when the boom is elevated in a working position with men in the basket.


• Aerial lifts acquired for use on or after January 22, 1973 shall be designed and constructed in conformance with the applicable requirements of the American National Standards for "Vehicle Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms," ANSI A92.2-1969, including appendix. Aerial lifts acquired before January 22, 1973 which do not meet the requirements of ANSI A92.2-1969, may not be used after January 1, 1976, unless they shall have been modified so as to conform with the applicable design and construction requirements of ANSI A92.2-1969. • Boom and basket load limits specified by the manufacturer shall not be exceeded. • The vehicle will have a reverse signal alarm audible above the surrounding noise level or the vehicle is backed up only when an observer signals that it is safe to do so. • Minimum clearance between electrical lines rated 50 kV. or below and any part of the equipment or load shall be 10 feet. • Employees shall always stand firmly on the floor of the basket, and shall not sit or climb on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position


ELECTRICAL SAFETY 1910 Subpart S - Electrical 1926 Subpart K - Electrical Personnel performing work on electrical systems and equipment will follow standards set by the National Electrical Code (NEC) and OSHA in selection of materials and methods of installation and maintenance. Only qualified personnel will work on electrical systems and equipment. This procedure specifies the requirements for electrical equipment and methods and is an overview of the requirements of 29 CFR 1910, Subpart S-Electrical, If work is to be performed on any electrical circuit, lockout/tagout may be required. Refer to the Lockout/Tagout procedure and the handbook included with this safety manual.

No electrical work should be done on an energized circuit. Only approved electricians will be permitted to work on electrical equipment or permanent electrical wiring. Use proper clearance and grounding procedures. All electrical circuits and equipment shall be de-energized and lockout/tagout accomplished before maintenance or repair work is started. Single-phase electric hand tools and other single-phase portable electrical equipment must be approved by a recognized testing agency, and all exposed non-current-carrying metal parts must be grounded, or be double insulated. Before each use, portable electrical appliances are to be examined for obvious deficiencies in the appliance, cord, and plug. If any deficiency is noted, the appliance is not to be used. Extension cords are to be kept clean, dry, free of kinks, and protected from oil, hot or sharp surfaces, and chemicals. Extension cords used outdoors shall be Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) protected. All extension cords shall be free from damage and are not to be placed across aisles, through doors, through holes in a wall, or in areas where the cord may be damaged or become a tripping hazard. Extension cords must not be placed in walkways or on stairs or steps where the cords may pose a tripping hazard.

PORTABLE ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

Double insulated portable industrial type electric tools meeting the requirements of the Underwriters Laboratory are authorized for use (ground wire not required). Where such a system is employed, the equipment must be distinctly marked. Portable electrical tools not provided with special insulating or grounding protection are not intended for use in damp, wet or conductive location (persons standing on the ground or on metal floors). All portable electrical appliances and equipment where the non-current carrying metal parts are exposed to contact by personnel shall be grounded by continuous conductor of adequate capacity from the device to a


grounded receptacle. The site safety officer shall resolve any question which arises as to whether or not a particular appliance should be grounded. Grounding of receptacles shall be accomplished in one of two ways: • A built-in ground wire of green color may be attached to the ground pole of the receptacle. • The conduit system, if installed in an approved manner, may be relied upon for grounding of a receptacle serving single phase appliances with ratings up to 230 volts. At outside locations all single-phase 15 and 20 ampere receptacle outlets operating at 230 volts or less which are not a part of the permanent wiring of the building or structure must have GFCI for personnel protection. The GFCI should be located at the power source so that all extension cords and tools are protected by the GFCI. The outlet box for portable extension cords for outdoor use shall be of weatherproof type maintained in good condition.

ELECTRICAL GUARDING

Suitable access and working space shall be provided and maintained about all electric equipment to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance of such equipment. The dimension of the working space is the direction of access to energized parts in switchboards, control panels, fused switches, circuit breakers, panel boards, motor controllers, and similar equipment which require examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance while energized, shall not be less that 36" in depth (30" for installations built prior to 1981) and the side being 30' or the width of the equipment, whichever is greater. The working space shall not be used for storage purposes. The "keep clear" area may be identified with suitable floor markings and/or posting of signs or decals on the equipment. Energized parts of electrical equipment operating at 50 volts or more shall be guarded against accidental contact by the use of approved cabinets or enclosures. Entrance to rooms and other guarded location containing exposed energized parts shall be marked with a conspicuous warning sign forbidding unqualified persons to enter. Temporary covers, warning signs, and/or barricades are to be used when it is necessary to remove covers of electrical panels during construction, major refurbishment, or for the purpose of providing temporary power to an area. All openings in boxes, enclosures, or fittings shall be effectively guarded or closed to afford protection substantially equivalent to that of the wall of the box, enclosure, or fitting. All electrical components over 230 volts shall have signs stating "High Voltage" 240 volts.


EXTENSION CORD REQUIREMENTS Extension cords are designed for and will be used for TEMPORARY USE ONLY! All other electrical connections will be made permanent by proper construction methods. Use of indoor extension cords greater than 50 feet in length is to be discouraged. Ali extension cords shall include a grounding conductor within the cable jacket and shall be equipped at each end with either explosion-proof or non-explosion-proof three-wire, grounded receptacles and plugs (but not with one of each), depending on the location and intended use. (No "hybrid", ungrounded or external ground wire extension cords are allowed.) If a cord is damaged, it shall be shortened or replaced by an electrician never patched with electrical tape. Cords shall be protected against contact with oil, hot surfaces and chemicals. Cords must not be hung over nails or other sharp edges or placed where vehicles may run over them.

ELECTRICAL FUSE REQUIREMENTS Circuits must be de-energized by lockout and tagout procedures before attempting to replace fuses. Bridging of fuses or circumventing the normal operation of circuit breakers is prohibited. Blown fuses shall not be replaced with fuses having a higher amperage or voltage rating. Fuses should be replaced in kind to maintain proper circuit protection.

Use a fuse puller to remove fuses. ASSURED ELECTRICAL GROUNDING REQUIREMENTS This program provides the minimum requirements for an assured equipment grounding conductor program and reflects the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.304. It also applies to circuits and equipment not attached to a permanent building or structure. OHM and its contractors will implement either a written assured equipment grounding conductor program or use GFCI's when using temporary wiring (cords and plugs) in field work using any temporary electrical power source. Cords and equipment will be inspected prior to each use for damage or missing parts. Equipment which is found to be defective will be taken out of service and repaired. The Assured Equipment Grounding Conductor Program will include the following: This written program. • Designation of a competent person(s) to implement the program. •


• •

Visual inspection of cords on a daily basis for deformed and missing pins, insulation damage, and indications of possible internal damage. Equipment found damaged or defective will be removed from service and repaired or expended. Cords and electrical circuits will be tested for the following: Electrical grounding continuity Correct attachment of grounding conductor

• •

Tests outlined above shall be performed before the first use, before being returned to use after repair, after possible damage (such as being run over by a vehicle), and at least every three mouths.

The tests outlined above must be recorded and cords which have been tested identified. Electrical Safety -

Related Work Practices Name: Safety-Related Work Practices Synonym:

Electrical

Safety-Related

Work

Practices

Regulatory Citation: 29 CFR 1910.331-1910.335 What it is: Regulations that establish safe work practices as a means to prevent electrical accidents. Exemptions: Limited exceptions may apply if adequate protection is provided under other OSHA standards. (For example, the lockout/tagout procedures of §1910.147 may be used to comply with paragraph (b) (2) if certain conditions are met.) Who it Protects: All employees who face risk of shock, burns, or related injuries that is not reduced to a safe level by electrical installation requirements. Who it Applies to: Employers of the following persons: All persons working on, near or with: Premises wiring; wiring for connection to supply; other wiring such as outside conductors on the premises; and optical fiber cable, where the fiber cable installations are made along with electric conductors. All unqualified persons working on, near, or with: Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution installations located outdoors or in buildings used for such purposes; Communications installations covered under §1910.268; installations in vehicles, other than mobile homes and recreational vehicles; and railway installations. When in Effect: When work is performed on or near equipment or circuits which are or may be energized. TRAINING: The employer must provide classroom or on-the-job training to all employees who face a risk of electric shock that is not reduced to a safe level by the Electrical Design Safety Standards. This training must be appropriate for the tasks being performed. At minimum, training for unqualified persons is to address: • Safe work practices detailed in the standard that pertain to their respective job assignments.

• Other electrically-related safe work practices not addressed by the standard but which are necessary for their safety.


SAFETY MANUAL • Clearance distances Training for qualified persons must include: • Safe work practices detailed in the standard that pertain to their respective job assignments.

• Skills and. techniques necessary to distinguish exposed live parts from other parts, as well as determine the nominal voltage of exposed live parts. • Clearance distances and corresponding voltages to which they will be exposed. WRITTEN DOCUMENTATION: The employer must maintain a written copy of procedures for working on or near exposed deenergized parts. These procedures must be made available for inspection by employees and authorized agency representatives. The procedures may consist of a copy of part of the regulation. POSTING: Where necessary, safety signs, symbols, or tags must be used to warn employees of electrical hazards which could cause injury.

PPE Protective Apparel Appropriate PPE must be provided by the employer and used in areas where there are potential electrical hazards. To ensure its reliability, it must be periodically inspected or tested as required by ANSI. (See PPE-Electrical Protective Equipment chapter in this manual for more information on this topic.) If insulating material is subject to damage during use, it must be adequately protected (e.g., rubber gloves may be protected by an outer leather covering). Protective Equipment and Tools — Tools and handling equipment must be insulated if there is potential for contact with ex- posed energized circuits or parts. If the insulating material is subject to damage during use, it must be protected. Fuse handling equipment, insulated for the circuit voltage, must be used to remove or install fuses when the fuse terminals are energized. Ropes and hand-lines must be nonconductive. Protective shields, barriers, and insulating materials must be used, as necessary. Positions Involved

Qualified Persons — Employees with training in avoiding the electrical hazards of working on or near exposed energized parts. Unqualified Persons — Employees with little or no training in this area. Employee Notification


Safety signs, tags, barricades, and/or attendants must be used, as appropriate, to warn employees of electrical hazards which could cause injury Reviewing

Before beginning work on deenergized circuits or equipment, a qualified person must verify that the equipment cannot be restarted. Before reenergizing the circuits or equipment, the qualified person must conduct tests and visual inspections to ensure that it can be done safely. Portable equipment, as well as test instruments and equipment, must be visually inspected for defects before use. Plug and receptacle contacts must be checked for proper mating configurations.

OTHER REQUIREMENTS Work on or near exposed deenergized parts — Live parts to which an employee may be exposed must be deenergized before an employee works on or near them. Deenergizing is not required if it creates additional or increased hazards, is infeasible, or if live parts operate at less than 50 volts to ground. Before working on parts which have been deenergized, the circuits which energize the parts must be properly locked out and tagged. A lock may be used without a tag if only one circuit or piece of equipment is deenergized, the lockout period is for one workshift, and employees are familiar with the procedure. Parts of electric equipment and circuits that have been deenergized, but have not been locked out and tagged, are to be treated as energized. Before beginning work on deenergized circuits or equipment, a qualified person must verify that the equipment cannot be re- started. Before reenergizing: o The qualified person must conduct tests and visual inspections; o Employees in the area must be warned to stay clear of circuits and equipment; o Each lock and tag must be removed by appropriate personnel; and o A visual inspection must be conducted to ensure employees are away from circuits and equipment. Work On or Near Exposed Energized Parts If exposed live parts are not deenergized, other safety-related work practices must be followed to provide protection from direct or indirect contact. Practices must be suitable for work conditions and voltage levels, and should include the following, as appropriate: Work on Energized Equipment — Only qualified persons may work on equipment or circuits that have not been deenergized. Overhead Lines — If work is to be performed near overhead lines, the lines must be deenergized and grounded, or other protective measures provided before work is started. Where lines are un- guarded and


energized, minimum approach distances must be maintained. These are specified for employees, tools, and vehicular and mechanical equipment. Illumination — Adequate illumination is required to work on exposed energized parts, as well as enter spaces that contain such parts. Employees may not reach blindly into areas which may contain exposed energized parts. Confined Spaces — When working in confined or enclosed areas, protective shields, barriers, or insulating materials must be used as necessary Doors, hinged panels, etc. must be secured. Conductive Materials and Equipment — Conductive materials and equipment must not contact exposed energized conductors or circuit parts if they are in contact with any part of the body. When long conductive objects are used, work practices to minimize the hazards must be followed. Ladders — Portable ladders must have nonconductive siderails if there is potential for contact with exposed energized parts Conductive Apparel — Conductive articles of clothing and jewelry must not be worn unless they are rendered nonconductive by covering, wrapping, etc. Housekeeping — Duties must be performed at sufficient distances to avoid contact with live parts. Electricallyconductive cleaning materials may not be used near energized parts unless specific procedures are followed to avoid contact. Interlocks — Interlocks may only be defeated by a qualified person and only while he/she is working on the equipment. The interlock system must be made operable when the work is complete. Equipment Use Electric equipment must be used and handled in accordance with the following practices: Portable Power Equipment Portable equipment must be visually inspected before use and handled in a manner that will not cause damage. Any items that are found to be defective or damaged must not be used until repairs have been made, and the equipment has been made safe. Plug and receptacle contacts must be checked for proper mating configurations. Flexible cords used with grounding-type equipment must contain an equipment grounding conductor. Attachment plugs and receptacles may not be altered to prevent proper continuity, or to allow the grounding pole of a plug to be inserted into slots intended for connection to the current-carrying conductors. Adapters which interrupt the continuity of the equipment grounding connection may not be used. Portable electric equipment used in highly-conductive work areas must be approved for such locations.


Hands must be dry when plugging and unplug g flexible cords and cord- and plug-connected equipment. Energized plug and receptacle connections must be handled with insulated protective equipment. Locking-type connectors must be properly secured after connection. Electric Power and Lighting Circuits Devices specifically designed as disconnecting means must be used for opening, reversing, or closing circuits under load conditions. Cable connectors (not of the load-break type), fuses, terminal lugs, and cable splice connections may only be used for such purposes in emergency situations. Circuits may be reenergized manually only after it has been determined that it can be done so safely. The repetitive manual reclosing of circuit breakers or reenergizing of circuits through replaced fuses is prohibited. Over current protection of circuits and conductors may not be modified beyond that allowed by installation requirements. Test Instruments and Equipment Only qualified persons may perform testing work on electric circuits or equipment. Test instruments and equipment must be visually inspected for defects before use, and be rated for the circuits and equipment to which they will be connected and the environment in which they will be used. Damaged or defective instruments and equipment may not be used until repairs have been made, and the items have been made safe. Flammable Materials When flammables are present only occasionally, precautions must be taken to prevent a hazardous condition from developing. When they are present on a routine basis, electrical installations must be made in accordance with OSHA regulations.

RELATED STANDARDS & REGULATIONS

Related Standards Refer to the Related Standards listing in the Electrical Design Safety Standards chapter in this manual. The list is the same for this chapter. Related Regulations 29 CFR 1910.137 — Electrical Protective Equipment PPE used to protect against electrical hazards must be maintained in a reliable condition and periodically inspected or tested, as required by this regulation. 29 CFR 1910.145 — Specifications for Accident Prevention Signs and Tags


Signs and tags used to warn employees must meet applicable size, color, design, and construction specifications. 29 CFR 1910.147 — The Control of Hazardous Energy These procedures may be used to comply with the lockout/tagout requirements of this regulation under specified conditions. 29 CFR 1910.268 — Telecommunications Installations of communications equipment covered by this regulation are subject to the safety-related work practices if performed by unqualified persons. 29 CFR 1910.269 — Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution For work on or associated with utilization installations, an employer who complies with the work practices of this section will be in compliance with 1910.333(c) and 1910.335. 29 CFR 1910.303 through 1910.308 — Design Safety Standards for Electrical Systems Training is required for employees who face a risk of electric shock that is not reduced to a safe level by the electrical installation requirements. 29 CFR 1910.399 —Definitions Terms used in the safety-related work practices standard are defined in this section. Other Sources OSHA Instruction STD 1-16.7, "Electrical Safety-Related Work Practices" A guidance document used to ensure uniform enforcement of the standard by OSHA compliance officers.

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS AND RULES The following general considerations and rules apply to all employees of OJ Construction Inc. Qualified person is a term applied to the professional electrician employed at OJ Construction Inc. Unqualified person is the term applied to all other OJ Construction Inc. employees. 1. Safety related work practices will be a common part of every OJ Construction Inc. job site. All necessary precautions in regard to personal protection will be employed when work is performed near or on equipment or circuits which are or may become energized. In every case where this risk exists, a qualified personal shall be on the job site performing such work. 2. Live parts to which an employee may be exposed will be de-energized before any employee works on or near them. In some cases, de-energization may be possible, such as: a. Deactivation of emergency alarm systems.


b. Shut down of hazardous location ventilation equipment. c. Removal of illumination for an area. In these cases, de-energization would introduce additional or increased hazards and only those personnel who have been trained and deemed competent will perform this work. Journeyman Electricians will be considered competent persons to perform such work for OJ Construction Inc. 3.

4.

5.

6. 7.

8.

Conductors and parts of electric equipment that have been de-energized but have not been locked out and tagged in accordance with the Lockout/Tagout procedures of this company shall be treated as energized parts. When this occurs, safety related work practices hall be used to protect employees

against contact with circuit parts directly or indirectly. In all cases involving energized equipment, only qualified persons will be permitted to perform work. These persons will be capable of working safely on energized circuits and shall be familiar with the proper use of special precautionary techniques, personal protective equipment, insulating and shielding materials and insulated tools. The persons who qualify for these tasks are the above mentioned competent persons. If OJ Construction Inc. is to perform work near overhead lines, management will see to it that the lines are de-energized or grounded or other protective measures provided before work is started. If lines must be de-energized, arrangements will be made with the contracting authority before work commences and all necessary documentation will be on file. When a unqualified person is working in an elevated position near an overhead line, the location of the person and the longest conductive object he/she may come into contact with will not come closer to an unguarded, energized line than the following distances: a. For voltage to ground 50 kV or below-10 feet. b. For voltages to ground over 50 kV-10 feet plus 4 inches for every 10 kV over 50 kV. When an unqualified person is working on the ground in the vicinity of overhead lines, the person will not bring any conductive object closer to the lines than the distances given above. When a qualified person is working in the vicinity of overhead lines, whether in an elevate position or on the ground, the person will not approach or take any conductive object without and approved insulated handle closer to exposed energized parts than the following distances: a. 300 V and less-avoid contact. b. Over 300 V, less than 750 V-1 foot. c. Over 750 V, less than 2 kV-1 foot 6 inches. d. Over 2 kV, less than 15 kV-2 feet. e. Over 15 kV, less than 37 kV-3 feet. f. Over 37 kV, less than 87.5 kV- 3 feet 6 inches. g. Over 87.5 kV, less than 121 kV-4 feet. h. Over 121 kV, less than 140 kV-4 feet 6 inches. If any OJ Construction Inc. vehicle or mechanical equipment capable of having parts of its structure elevated near energized overhead lines, it will b operated so that a clearance of 10 feet is


9.

10.

11.

12. 13. 14.

maintained. If voltage is higher than 50 kV, then a clearance of 4 inches for every 10 kV over 50 kV will be maintained. OJ Construction Inc. employees will not enter spaces containing exposed energized parts without proper illumination so that employees can perform the work safely. Where there is lack of illumination, employees will not perform tasks near exposed energized parts. Employees will not reach blindly into areas which may contain energized parts. When an employee is expected to work in a confined space or enclosed space that contains exposed energized parts, OJ Construction Inc. shall provide, and employees shall use, protective shields, barriers or insulating materials as necessary to avoid inadvertent contact with these parts. Conductive materials and equipment that are in contact with any part of an employee’s body will be handled in a manner that will prevent them from coming into contact with exposed energized conductors or circuit parts. If an occasion arises that a OJ Construction Inc. employee must handle long dimensional conductive objects (such as ducts and pipes) in areas with exposed live parts, OJ Construction Inc. management will institute work practices which will minimize hazards. These work practices may include insulation, guarding and material handling techniques. All portable ladders belonging to OJ Construction Inc. which are used where the employee or the ladder could contact exposed energized parts, will have non-conductive side rails. Employees of OJ Construction Inc. are instructed that articles of conductive jewelry and clothing (such as watch bands, bracelets, rings, key chains, necklaces, metallic aprons, cloth with conductive thread or metal head gear) may not be worn if they might contact exposed energized parts. Where live parts present an electrical contact hazard, employees shall not perform housekeeping duties at distances to the parts that a possibility of contact may exist. Electrically conductive cleaning materials such as steel wool, metallic cloth or silicon carbide may not be used in proximity to energized parts unless procedures are followed which will prevent electrical contact

ENERGIZED EQUIPMENT

This section contains safety requirements that must be met in constructing electrical equipment and in working on energized electrical equipment. Special emphasis is placed on problems associated with personnel working on hazardous electrical equipment in an energized condition. Such work is permissible, but only after extensive effort to perform the necessary tasks with the equipment in a securely de-energized condition has proven unsuccessful, or if the equipment is so enclosed and protected that contact with hazardous voltages is essentially impossible. No OJ Construction Inc. employee is allowed to work on energized equipment with a rating in excess of 5,000 volts.


FORKLIFT SAFETY •

GENERAL RULES

Only employer authorized employees, including supervisors, who have been certified regarding competency on each related type of equipment may operate that equipment.

Do not use the forklift if any of the following conditions exist:  The mast has broken or cracked weld-points.  The forks are unequally spaced or cracks exist along the blade or at the heels.  The hydraulic

lines

and

fittings

have

excessive

wear

or

are

crimped.

 Fluid is leaking from the lift or the tilt cylinders.  The battery has cracks or holes, uncapped cells, frayed cables, broken cable insulation, loose connections or clogged vent caps.  The horn or backup alarm does not sound. Follow the manufacturer's guidelines concerning changes in the lift capacity before adding an attachment to a forklift. Only forklift operators are to ride the forklift; no passengers.

• •

DRIVING RULES

• • • • • • • •

Drive with the load at a minimum ground clearance height of 6-8 inches at the tips and 4 inches at the heels in order to clear most uneven surfaces and debris. Do not raise or lower a load while you are en route. Wait until you are in the loading area and have stopped before raising or lowering the load. Do not exceed a safe working speed of five miles per hour and slow down in congested areas. Do not drive over objects in your pathway. Drive in reverse and use a signal person when your vision is blocked by the load. Look in the direction that you are driving; proceed when you have a clear path. Steer wide when making turns. Do not drive up to anyone standing or working in front of a fixed object such as a stationary saw or an edge Bandar.


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

PICKING UP A LOAD Do not exceed the lift capacity of the forklift. Read the lift capacity plate on the forklift if you are unsure. "Square up" on the center of the load and approach it straight on with the forks in the travel position. Stop when the tips of your forks are about a foot from the load. Level the forks and slowly drive forward until the load is resting against the backrest of the mast. Lift the load an inch or two to test for stability: If the rear wheels are not in firm contact with the floor, take a lighter load or use a forklift with a greater lift capacity. Lift the load high enough to clear whatever is under it. Back up about one foot, and then slowly tilt the mast backwards to stabilize the load. After picking up a load, adjust the forks so that the load is tilted slightly backward for added stability. In situations where trailers are being loaded/unloaded they must be chocked and secured.

PUTTING A LOAD DOWN

Square up and stop about one foot from the desired location. Level the forks and drive to the loading spot. Slowly lower the load to the ground, truck bed or other loading surface. Tilt the forks slightly forward so that you do not hook the load. When the path behind you is clear of obstructions, back straight out until the forks have cleared the loading surface. In situations where trailers are being loaded/unloaded they must be chocked and secured.

SHUTTING OFF THE FORKLIFT • Tip the mast slightly forward then lower the mast completely until the tips of the fork are touching the ground. •

Leave the forklift in gear and turn off the engine before leaving the forklift


TRAINING PROGRAM •

Training program content will include information on all minimally-required items (23 items Reference: 1910.178 (l)(3)), including load capacity, instructions, distance, differences between cars vs. PITs, operating instructions, controls refueling/recharging, ramps, visibility, balance/counterbalance, etc. Formal instruction may lecture, discussion, interactive computer learning, videos, and written materials. Practical training may involve instructor demonstrations and trainee exercises. Operator evaluation and critiques required. Reference: 1910.178 (l) (2)(ii) All trainers must have the knowledge and ability to teach and evaluate operators. Reference: 1910.178 (l) (2)(iii)

Mandatory refresher training is required in the event that any of the following elements are present: Unsafe operations, accident, change in vehicle type being used, and changes in conditions. Reference: 1910.178 (l) (4)(ii)

Re-certification is required every 3 years. Reference: 1910.178 (l) (4)(iii)

Employer training documentation will include operator name, training date, evaluation date, and trainer/evaluator name. Reference: 1910.178 (l)(6)

Employees can use the checklist on the following sheet for daily operations to ensure forklift safety.


FORKLIFT OPERATOR’S DAILY EQUIPMENT CHECKLIST Operator: print name

Forklift #: OK

signature

Shift:

Date:

Needs Service

1. Engine oil 2. Radiator level 3. Fuel level 4. Battery level 5. Damage or leaks 6. Tire condition 7. Fire extinguisher 8. Horn 9. Warning lights 10. Headlights and taillights 11. Steering 12. Brakes 13. Parking brake 14. Battery load test 15. Battery plug condition

Remarks:

256


HAND AND POWER TOOLS 1910 Subpart P - Hand and Portable Powered Tools and Other Hand-Held Equipment Tools are such a common part of our lives that it is difficult to remember that they may pose hazards. All tools are manufactured with safety in mind but, tragically, a serious accident often occurs before steps are taken to search out and avoid or eliminate tool-related hazards. In the process of removing or avoiding the hazards, workers must learn to recognize the hazards associated with the different types of tools and the safety precautions necessary to prevent those hazards. All hand and power tools and similar equipment, whether furnished by the employer or the employee, shall be maintained in a safe condition.

MACHINERY, TOOLS, MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT COMPLIANCE

The use of any machinery, tool, material, or equipment which is not in compliance with any applicable requirement of this CFR29;1926.20 is prohibited. Such machine, tool, material, or equipment shall either be identified as unsafe by tagging or locking the controls to render them inoperable or shall be physically removed from its place of operation.

GUARDING

When power operated tools are designed to accommodate guards, they shall be equipped with such guards when in use. Belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles, drums, fly wheels, chains, or other reciprocating, rotating or moving parts of equipment shall be guarded if such parts are exposed to contact by employees or otherwise create a hazard. Guarding shall meet the requirements as set forth in American National Standards Institute, B15.1-1953 (R1958), Safety Code for Mechanical Power-Transmission Apparatus. Types of guarding One or more methods of machine guarding shall be provided to protect the operator and other employees in the machine area from hazards such as those created by point of operation, in-going nip points, rotating parts, flying chips and sparks. Examples of guarding methods are - barrier guards, two-hand tripping devices, electronic safety devices, etc. "Point of operation guarding." Point of operation is the area on a machine where work is actually performed upon the material being processed. The point of operation of machines whose operation exposes an employee to injury shall be guarded. The guarding device shall be in conformity with any appropriate standards therefore, or, in the absence of applicable specific standards, shall be so designed and constructed as to prevent the operator from having any part of his body in the danger zone during the operating cycle. Special hand tools for placing and removing material shall be such as to permit easy handling of material without the operator placing a hand in the danger zone. Such tools shall not be in lieu of other guarding required by this section, but can only be used to supplement protection provided.


The following are some of the machines that usually require point of operation guarding: Guillotine cutters • Powered presses. • Jointers. • Shears. • Milling machines. • • Portable power Alligator shears. • Power saws. • •

tools.

Forming rolls & calenders.

"Exposure of blades." When the periphery of the blades of a fan is less than 7 feet (2.128 m) above the floor or working level, the blades shall be guarded. The guard shall have openings no larger than 1/2 inch (1.27 cm). "Anchoring fixed machinery." Machines designed for a fixed location shall be securely anchored to prevent walking or moving. "Guarding of abrasive wheel machinery - exposure adjustment." Safety guards of the types described in paragraphs (b) (8) and (9) of this section, where the operator stands in front of the opening, shall be constructed so that the peripheral protecting member can be adjusted to the constantly decreasing diameter of the wheel. The maximum angular exposure above the horizontal plane of the wheel spindle as specified in paragraphs (b) (8) and (9) of this section shall never be exceeded. Also, the distance between the wheel periphery and the adjustable tongue or the end of the peripheral member at the top shall never exceed 1/4 inch (0.635 cm). Showing adjustable tongue giving required angle protection for all sizes of wheel used. Showing movable guard with opening small enough to give required protection for the smallest size wheel used. Showing movable guard with size of opening correct for full size wheel but too large for smaller wheel. Bench and floor stands. The angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides for safety guards used on machines known as bench and floor stands should not exceed 90 degrees or one-fourth of the periphery. This exposure shall begin at a point not more than 65 degrees above the horizontal plane of the wheel spindle. (See Figures I-7 and I-8 and paragraph (b) (7) of this section.) Whenever the nature of the work requires contact with the wheel below the horizontal plane of the spindle, the exposure shall not exceed 125 degrees (See Figures I-9 and I-10.) Cylindrical grinders. The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides for safety guards used on cylindrical grinding machines shall not exceed 180 degrees. This exposure shall begin at a point not more than 65 degrees above the horizontal plane of the wheel spindle. Personal protective equipment. Employees using hand and power tools and exposed to the hazard of falling, flying, abrasive, and splashing objects, or exposed to harmful dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, or gases shall be provided with the particular personal protective equipment necessary to protect them from the hazard. All personal protective equipment shall meet requirements and be maintained.


SWITCHES All hand-held powered platen sanders, grinders with wheels 2-inch diameter or less, routers, planers, laminate trimmers, nibblers, shears, scroll saws, and jigsaws with blade shanks one-fourth of an inch wide or less may be equipped with only a positive "on-off" control. All hand-held powered drills, tappers, fastener drivers, horizontal, vertical, and angle grinders with wheels greater than 2 inches in diameter, disc sanders, belt sanders, reciprocating saws, saber saws, and other similar operating powered tools shall be equipped with a momentary contact "on-off" control. They may have a lockon control provided that turnoff can be accomplished by a single motion of the same finger or fingers that turn it on. All other hand-held powered tools, such as circular saws, chain saws, and percussion tools without positive accessory holding means, shall be equipped with a constant pressure switch that will shut off the power when the pressure is released. The requirements of this paragraph shall become effective on July 15, 1972. Exception: This paragraph does not apply to concrete vibrators, concrete breakers, powered tampers, jack hammers, rock drills, and similar hand operated power tools.

HAND TOOLS 1926.301

• •

Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools. Wrenches, including adjustable, pipe, end, and socket wrenches shall not be used when jaws are sprung to the point that slippage occurs. Impact tools, such as drift pins, wedges, and chisels, shall be kept free of mushroomed heads. The wooden

handles of tools shall be kept free of splinters or cracks and shall be kept tight in the tool.

POWER-OPERATED HAND TOOLS 1926.302 Electric power-operated tools. Electric power operated tools shall either be of the approved double-insulated type or grounded in accordance with Subpart K of this part. The

use

of

electric

cords

for

hoisting

or

lowering

tools

shall

not

be

permitted.

PNEUMATIC POWER TOOLS Pneumatic power tools shall be secured to the hose or whip by some positive means to prevent the tool from becoming accidentally disconnected. Safety clips or retainers shall be securely installed and maintained on pneumatic impact (percussion) tools to prevent attachments from being accidentally expelled.


All pneumatically driven nailers, staplers, and other similar equipment provided with automatic fastener feed, which operate at more than 100 p.s.i. pressure at the tool shall have a safety device on the muzzle to prevent the tool from ejecting fasteners, unless the muzzle is in contact with the work surface. Compressed air shall not be used for cleaning purposes except where reduced to less than 30 p.s.i. and then only with effective chip guarding and personal protective equipment which meets the requirements of Subpart E of this part. The 30 p.s.i. requirement does not apply for concrete form, mill scale and similar cleaning purposes. The manufacturer's safe operating pressure for hoses, pipes, valves, filters and other fittings shall not be exceeded. The use of hoses for hoisting or lowering tools shall not be permitted. All hoses exceeding 1/2-inch inside diameter shall have a safety device at the source of supply or branch line to reduce pressure in case of hose failure. Airless spray guns which atomize paints and fluids at high pressures (1,000 pounds or more per square inch) shall be equipped with automatic or visible manual safety devices which will prevent pulling of the trigger and the subsequent release of the paint or fluid until the safety device is manually released. In lieu of the above, a diffuser nut which will prevent high pressure, high velocity release, while the nozzle tip is removed, plus a nozzle tip guard which will prevent the tip from coming into contact with the operator, or other equivalent protection, shall be provided. "Abrasive blast cleaning nozzles." The blast cleaning nozzles shall be equipped with an operating valve that must be held open manually. A support shall be provided on which the nozzle may be mounted when it is not in use.

FUEL POWERED TOOLS All fuel-powered tools shall be stopped while being refueled, serviced, or maintained, and fuel shall be transported, handled, and stored in accordance with Subpart F of this part. When fuel powered tools are used in enclosed spaces, the applicable requirements for concentrations of toxic gases and use of personal protective equipment, as outlined in Subparts D and E of this part, shall apply.

HYDRAULIC POWER TOOLS The fluid used in hydraulic powered tools shall be fire-resistant fluids approved under Schedule 30 of the U.S. Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, and shall retain its operating characteristics at the most extreme temperatures to which it will be exposed. The manufacturer's safe operating pressures for hoses, valves, pipes, filters, and other fittings shall not be exceeded.


POWDER-ACTUATED TOOLS Only employees who have been trained in the operation of the particular tool in use shall be allowed to operate a powder-actuated tool. The tool shall be tested each day before loading to see that safety devices are in proper working condition. The method of testing shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's recommended procedure. Any tool found not in proper working order, or that develops a defect during use, shall be immediately removed from service and not used until properly repaired. Personal protective equipment shall be in accordance with Subpart E of this part. Tools shall not be loaded until just prior to the intended firing time. Neither loaded nor empty tools are to be pointed at any employees. Hands shall be kept clear of the open barrel end. Loaded tools shall not be left unattended. Fasteners shall not be driven into very hard or brittle materials including, but not limited to, cast iron, glazed tile, surface-hardened steel, glass block, live rock, face brick, or hollow tile. Driving into materials easily penetrated shall be avoided unless such materials are backed by a substance that will prevent the pin or fastener from passing completely through and creating a flying missile hazard on the other side. No fastener shall be driven into a spalled area caused by an unsatisfactory fastening. Tools shall not be used in an explosive or flammable atmosphere. All tools shall be used with the correct shield, guard, or attachment recommended by the manufacturer. Powder-actuated tools used by employees shall meet all other applicable requirements of American National Standards Institute, A10.3-1970, Safety Requirements for Explosive-Actuated Fastening Tools.

ABRASIVE WHEELS & TOOLS 1926.303

Power. All grinding machines shall be supplied with sufficient power to maintain the spindle speed at safe levels under all conditions of normal operation. Guarding. Grinding machines shall be equipped with safety guards in conformance with the requirements of American National Standards Institute, B7.1-1970, Safety Code for the Use, Care and Protection of Abrasive Wheels, and paragraph (d) of this section. "Guarding design." The safety guard shall cover the spindle end, nut, and flange projections. The safety guard shall be mounted so as to maintain proper alignment with the wheel, and the strength of the fastenings shall exceed the strength of the guard, except:


Safety guards on all operations where the work provides a suitable measure of protection to the operator may be constructed so that the spindle end, nut, and outer flange are exposed. Where the nature of the work is such as to entirely cover the side of the wheel, the side covers of the guard may be omitted; and The spindle end, nut, and outer flange may be exposed on machines designed as portable saws. Use of abrasive wheels. Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels, used for external grinding, shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods). The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides shall be not more than 90 degrees, except that when work requires contact with the wheel below the horizontal plane of the spindle, the angular exposure shall not exceed 125 degrees. In either case, the exposure shall begin not more than 65 degrees. above the horizontal plane of the spindle. Safety guards shall be strong enough to withstand the effect of a bursting wheel. Floor and bench-mounted grinders shall be provided with work rests that are rigidly supported and readily adjustable. Such work rests shall be kept at a distance not to exceed one-eighth inch from the surface of the wheel. Cup type wheels used for external grinding shall be protected by either a revolving cup guard or a band type guard in accordance with the provisions of the American National Standards Institute, B7.1-1970 Safety Code for the Use, Care, and Protection of Abrasive Wheels. All other portable abrasive wheels used for external grinding, shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods) meeting the requirements of paragraph (c) (5) of this section, except as follows: When the work location makes it impossible, a wheel equipped with safety flanges, as described in paragraph (c) (6) of this section, shall be used. When wheels 2 inches or less in diameter which are securely mounted on the end of a steel mandrel are used. Portable abrasive wheels used for internal grinding shall be provided with safety flanges (protection flanges) meeting the requirements of paragraph (c) (6) of this section, except as follows: When wheels 2 inches or less in diameter which are securely mounted on the end of a steel mandrel are used. If the wheel is entirely within the work being ground while in use. When safety guards are required, they shall be so mounted as to maintain proper alignment with the wheel, and the guard and its fastenings shall be of sufficient strength to retain fragments of the wheel in case of accidental breakage. The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides shall not exceed 180 degrees. When safety flanges are required, they shall be used only with wheels designed to fit the flanges. Only safety flanges, of a type and design and properly assembled so as to ensure that the pieces of the wheel will be retained in case of accidental breakage, shall be used.


All abrasive wheels shall be closely inspected and ring-tested before mounting to ensure that they are free from cracks or defects. Grinding wheels shall fit freely on the spindle and shall not be forced on. The spindle nut shall be tightened only enough to hold the wheel in place. All employees using abrasive wheels shall be protected by eye protection equipment in accordance with the requirements of Subpart E of this part, except when adequate eye protection is afforded by eye shields which are permanently attached to the bench or floor stand. Other requirements. All abrasive wheels and tools used by employees shall meet other applicable requirements of American National Standards Institute, B7.1-1970, Safety Code for the Use, Care and Protection of Abrasive Wheels. "Work rests." On offhand grinding machines, work rests shall be used to support the work. They shall be of rigid construction and designed to be adjustable to compensate for wheel wear. Work rests shall be kept adjusted closely to the wheel with a maximum opening of 1/8 inch (0.3175 cm) to prevent the work from being jammed between the wheel and the rest, which may cause wheel breakage. The work rest shall be securely clamped after each adjustment. The adjustment shall not be made with the wheel in motion.

WOODWORKING TOOLS 1926.304 Disconnect switches. All fixed power driven woodworking tools shall be provided with a disconnect switch that can either be locked or tagged in the off position. Speeds. The operating speed shall be etched or otherwise permanently marked on all circular saws over 20 inches in diameter or operating at over 10,000 peripheral feet per minute. Any saw so marked shall not be operated at a speed other than that marked on the blade. When a marked saw is re-tensioned for a different speed, the marking shall be corrected to show the new speed. Self-feed. Automatic feeding devices shall be installed on machines whenever the nature of the work will permit. Feeder attachments shall have the feed rolls or other moving parts covered or guarded so as to protect the operator from hazardous points. Guarding. All portable, power-driven circular saws shall be equipped with guards above and below the base plate or shoe. The upper guard shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to permit the base to be tilted for bevel cuts. The lower guard shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to allow proper retraction and contact with the work. When the tool is withdrawn from the work, the lower guard shall automatically and instantly return to the covering position. Personal protective equipment. All personal protective equipment provided for use shall conform to Subpart E of this part. Other requirements. All woodworking tools and machinery shall meet other applicable requirements of American National Standards Institute, 01.1-1961, Safety Code for Woodworking Machinery.

RADIAL SAWS


The upper hood shall completely enclose the upper portion of the blade down to a point that will include the end of the saw arbor. The upper hood shall be constructed in such a manner and of such material that it will protect the operator from flying splinters, broken saw teeth, etc., and will defect sawdust away from the operator. The sides of the lower exposed portion of the blade shall be guarded to the full diameter of the blade by a device that will automatically adjust itself to the thickness of the stock and remain in contact with stock being cut to give maximum protection possible for the operation being performed.

HAND-FED CROSSCUT TABLE SAWS

Each circular crosscut table saw should be guarded by a hood, which shall meet all the requirements of paragraph (i) (1) of this section for hoods for circular ripsaws.

HAND-FED RIPSAWS Each circular hand-fed ripsaw shall be guarded by a hood that shall completely enclose the portion of the saw above the table and that portion of the saw above the material being cut. The hood and mounting shall be arranged so that the hood will automatically adjust itself to the thickness of and remain in contact with the material being cut but it shall not offer any considerable resistance to insertion of material to saw or to passage of the material being sawed. The hood shall be made of adequate strength to resist blows and strains incidental to reasonable operation, adjusting, and handling, and shall be so designed as to protect the operator from flying splinters and broken saw teeth. It shall be made of material that is soft enough so that it will be unlikely cause tooth breakage. The hood shall be so mounted as to insure that its operation will be positive, reliable, and in true alignment with the saw; and the mounting shall be adequate in strength to resist any reasonable side thrust or other force tending to throw it out of line.

PORTABLE LADDERS

Objective: All portable ladders used by employees must meet applicable OSHA requirements and American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards and be used for intended purpose. All elevated work platforms must also comply with OSHA and ANSI standards as well as this procedure. CARE AND USE OF LADDERS 1. Only Type I “Industrial” wooden, fiberglass or metal ladders shall be used by employees. 2. Ladders should be inspected prior to use. Ladders, which are defective, should be tagged “out of service” and be repaired or destroyed. 3. Ladders must be tied off when in use 4. Ladders are to be maintained in serviceable condition at all times. The joint between the steps and side rails must be tight, all hardware and fittings securely attached, and the movable parts must operate freely without binding or undue play. 5. Safety feet and other auxiliary equipment are to be kept in good condition to ensure proper performance.


6. Ladders shall be stored in such a manner as to provide ease of access or inspection, and to prevent danger of accident when withdrawing a ladder for use. Ladders are to be stored on racks designed to protect the ladder when not in use. These racks must have sufficient support points to prevent any possibility of excessive sagging. 7. When not in use, wood ladders shall be stored at a location where there is good ventilation, but where they will not be exposed to the elements. 8. Ladders carried on vehicles shall be adequately supported to avoid sagging and securely fastened in position to minimize chafing and the effects of road shocks. 9. Wood ladders shall be kept coated with a suitable protective material. Painting of wooden ladders is permissible provided a clear finish is used (steps should be painted with a clear non-slip finish). 10. Ladders are to be maintained in usable condition at all times. Hardware fittings and accessories must be checked frequently and kept in good working condition. 11. Ladders must not be placed in front of doors opening toward the ladder unless the door is blocked open, locked or guarded. 12. Ladders must not be placed on boxes, barrels, or other unstable bases to obtain additional height. 13. Ladders with broken or missing steps, rungs, or cleats, broken side rails, or other faulty equipment are not to be used. Improvised repairs are prohibited. 14. Tops of ordinary stepladders are not to be used as steps. 15. A ladder is not to be used to gain access to a roof unless the top of the ladder extends at least three (3) feet above the point of support at eaves, gutter or roofline. 16. The correct angle for using straight ladders is for the foot of the ladder to be placed from the wall a distance equal to one-fourth (1/4) the effective length of the ladder. (Effective length = length of ladder from base to point of support.) 17. On two-section extension ladders, the minimum overlap for the two sections is to be at least three (3) feet. 18. Personnel using ladders must: Face the ladder while working. • • • •

Work only within arm’s length of the ladder. Use both hands when ascending or descending. Allow no other person on the ladder. Use rope to raise or lower materials and tools.

19. A portable ladder is designed as a one-man working ladder based on a 200-pound load. The ladder base section is to be placed with a secure footing. Safety shoes of good substantial design are to be installed on all ladders.


20. Portable metal ladders or work platforms are not to be used in the vicinity of electrical circuits or in places where they may come in contact with them. They are to be legibly marked with signs reading “CAUTION - DO NOT USE NEAR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT” or equivalent wording.


HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H2S) AWARENESS

INTRODUCTION

When performing routine mechanical inspection, safety reviews, pressure vessel testing, or other assigned work for OJ Construction Inc., LLC, it has the potential to place you nearby refinery hydrocarbon processing operations that can produce potential airborne concentrations of deadly hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S). As a result of this exposure potential, the following written program is provided for employee safety and health protection.

PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS

H2S is a highly toxic, poisonous gas which is deadly to humans, and has no visible color. It is soluble in hydrocarbons and water at a ratio of 4: 1, and highly corrosive to certain metals due to either hydrogen embitterment or sulfide stress cracking. H2S is flammable when mixed with air at a temperature of 500 degrees F, and the lower flammability limit is 4.3% while the upper flammability limit is 46% by volume in air. When ignited, H2S produces Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) which is extremely hazardous and may leave victims disabled with pneumonia or respiratory damage. Hydrogen Sulfide gas is 20% heavier than air, and can be dispersed great distances with only a slight breeze. As a result, unidentified locations about refineries or industrial settings could indicate detectable levels of H2S. These may include low lying areas such as: utility vaults, pits, ditches, trenches, confined spaces, inside dikes, or poorly ventilated areas.

PERSONAL DETECTION

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S), also known as Sulfereted Hydrogen, Hydro sulfuric Acid, Sour Gas, Sulfur Hydride, Rotten-Egg Gas, or Sour Crude can be easily detected due to a strong odor of rotten eggs, or to others, a sweet, offensive, sickening odor. Although it can be detected at a low concentration of 1 ppm, this early warning property should not be depended upon as an accurate indicator of its presence. Hydrogen sulfide detection by your nose may not occur as a concentration of this gas between 100 and 150 ppm can deaden your sense of smell.

HEALTH EFFECTS

Hydrogen Sulfide gas is a rapidly-acting systemic poison which causes respiratory paralysis and asphyxia at high concentrations. It can irritate the eyes and respiratory tract at low concentrations. At a concentration greater than 700 ppm, inhalation of H2S may cause coma and/or death after a single breath. It is important to note here that each individual person may be affected differently by different concentration levels of H2S. Some individuals are more sensitive to H2S and will be affected by a smaller concentration, and others may be less sensitive and can tolerate higher concentrations without experiencing adverse health effects. If you should smell the presence of H2S or hear warnings from monitor alarms, then immediately evacuate this area and notify the host-facility operator or OJ Construction Inc. management. Do not re-enter this area without proper respiratory protection and Operator permission.


LOCATIONS AND SIGNAGE Locations where potentially high concentrations of H2S gas may be identified exist throughout refineries, industrial settings, waste treatment facilities, or petrochemical facilities as it can be found naturally in crude oil or produced as a byproduct of oil refining. (Other locations may be in sewers, cesspools, or stagnant water, as H2S is also formed by the decay of organic materials.) Process areas of most refineries/plants have been identified by the use of fixed or portable detection methods, and are usually indicated by a sign that is yellow with black print that states, “CAUTION” HIGH LEVELS OF H2S MAY BE PRESENT

MONITORING

Identification of hydrogen sulfide concentrations is the responsibility of the host-facility operator, who may rely on the use of fixed detector systems, or the use of a hand-held bellows pump or syringe-draw instrument that utilizes colorimetric tubes. Personal, battery-operated, electronic single-gas detectors may be required to be worn by personnel, or can be made available for use upon request of the host-facility operator. The exposure limit is set to alarm at a concentration of 10 ppm.

EMERGENCY ESCAPE/CONTINGENCY PLANS

Emergency escape equipment is usually placed in several different locations about most refineries’ process units, consisting of self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) located in high-density plastic storage boxes. This is the only approved type of respiratory equipment for work to be performed in concentrations exceeding the 10 ppm exposure limit. Most host-facility contingency plans are explained in detail at site-specific contractor orientations. Evacuation is generally initiated by a particular warning alarm sound, or personal detection of an H2S release. All affected employees would then check the current wind direction, move cross-wind out of the immediate area, and then proceed to a primary or secondary evacuation point for a head-count. All special precautions to be taken when performing work inside of a confined space are listed in the Confined Space Entry Program (see Confined Space on page 97).

FIRST AID

First aid needs will depend on the concentration level of contaminant H2S. Do not immediately rush to the aid of an affected coworker unless properly trained and without protecting you with proper PPE. Signs and symptoms of an exposure may be respiratory paralysis by inhalation, burning sensation of the eyes due to contact, or skin irritation. Inhalation - remove victim to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, administer mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration until medical assistance arrives or victim is deceased. If breathing is restored but slow and labored, administer 100% oxygen by canister/mask as H2S is rapidly detoxified by the body. Maintain normal body temperature. Transportation to medical services should follow immediately. Eye or skin contact - should be treated by a 15 minute wash/flush at a safety shower/eye-wash station. If irritation or discomfort persists, transportation to medical services should follow immediately.


Non-compliance by any OJ Construction Inc. employee, with any part of this described program will result in disciplinary action.


LEAD SAFETY 1926.62 - Lead

OVERVIEW 29 CFR 1910.1025 including Appendices A, B, C, and D This standard provides levels of lead exposure requiring employers to reduce hazards to employees through lead monitoring, engineering controls, good work practices, respiratory protection, medical surveillance, training, and signs. Definitions Lead: Lead means metallic lead, all inorganic lead compounds, and organic lead soaps. Excluded from this definition are all other organic lead compounds. When absorbed into the body in certain doses, lead is a toxic substance. Action Level: Employee exposure, without regard to the use of respirators, to an airborne concentration of lead of 30 micrograms per cubic meter of air (30 µg/m3) averaged over an 8-hour period. Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL): Employee exposure to lead at concentrations greater than 50 µg/m3 Exemptions These regulations do not apply to the construction industry or to agricultural operations covered by 29 CFR 1926 Who it Protects All employees who work with or around lead. Who it Applies To Employers with lead on-site in the quantities that trigger requirements When in Effect §1910.1025 became effective March 1, 1979.

LOCATION RESTRICTION There are a variety of location restrictions for lead work areas. See the table below for details. Change Rooms All protective clothing must be removed at the completion of a work shift only in change rooms equipped with separate storage facilities for protective work clothing and equipment and for street clothes which prevent


cross-contamination. Contaminated protective clothing which is to be cleaned, laundered, or disposed of, must be placed in a closed container in the change room which prevents dispersion of lead outside the container. Lunchrooms •

Provide lunchroom facilities for employees who work in areas where their airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL, without regard to the use of respirators.

• Assure that lunchroom facilities have a temperature controlled, positive pressure, filtered air supply and are readily accessible to employees. • Employees must not enter lunchroom facilities with protective work clothing or equipment unless surface lead dust has been removed by vacuuming, downdraft booth, or other cleaning method. • Areas where employees are exposed to lead above the PEL, without regard to the use of respirators Assure that: • •

Food or beverage is not present or consumed, tobacco products are not present or used, and cosmetics are not applied, except according to 29 CFR 1910.1O25(i)(2) through (i)4 Employees shower at the end of the work shift. Employees who are required to shower must not leave the workplace wearing any clothing or equipment worn during the work shift

Employees wash their hands and face prior to eating, drinking, smoking or applying cosmetics

INITIAL ASSESSMENT

PEL Assure that no employee is exposed to lead at concentrations greater than fifty micrograms per cubic meter of air (50 µg/m 3) averaged over an 8-hour period. If an employee is exposed to lead for more than 8 hours in any work day, the permissible exposure limit, as a time weighted average (TWA) for that day, shall be reduced according to the following formula: Maximum permissible limit (in µg/m 3) = 400 ÷ hours worked in the day. When respirators are used to supplement engineering and work practice controls to comply with the PEL and all the requirements for respiratory protection under §1910.1025(f) have been met, employee exposure, for the purpose of determining whether the employer has complied with the PEL, may be considered to be at the level provided by the protection factor of the respirator for those periods the respirator is worn. Those periods may be averaged with exposure levels during periods when respirators are not worn to determine the employee's daily TWA exposure.


SAFETY MANUAL Exposure Monitoring Determine if any employee may be exposed to lead at or above the action level. A sample of the exposed employees who the employer reasonably believes are exposed to the greatest airborne concentrations of lead must be taken. If the results show the possibility of any employee exposure at or above the action level, extensive monitoring is required according to §1910.1025. If results show that no employee is exposed to airborne concentrations of lead at or above the action level, make a written record of such a determination. Respiratory Protection Implement a respiratory program according to §1910.134(b) through (d) (except (d) (1) (iii)), and (f) through (m)). This includes fit testing. See the Respiratory Protection chapter. If an employee exhibits difficulty in breathing during the fitting test or during use, make available to the employee an examination according to §1910.1025(j)(3)(i)(C) to determine whether the employee can wear a respirator while performing the required duty. Medical surveillance Institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who are or may be exposed above the action level for more than 30 days per year. The program must include: • Blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) level sampling and analysis; • Medical examinations and consultations prior to assignment for each employee being assigned for the first time to an area in which airborne concentrations of lead are at or above the action level and as soon as possible, upon notification by an employee either that the employee has developed signs or symptoms commonly associated with lead intoxication, that the employee desires medical advice concerning the effects of current or past exposure to lead on the employee's ability to procreate a healthy child, or that the employee has demonstrated difficulty in breathing during a respirator fitting test or during use. Provide an initial physician conducting a medical examination or consultation with information listed in §1910.1025. Do the same upon request of the second and third physicians.


TRAINING Institute a training program for the participation of all employees who are subject to exposure to lead at or above the action level or for whom the possibility of skin or eye irritation exists. Initial training must be provided prior to the time of initial job assignment for those employees subsequently covered. Repeat the training program at least annually for each employee. Training includes the topics listed here: 29 CFR 1910.1025 and Appendices - The content of the rule and its appendices. Each employer who has a workplace in which there is a potential exposure to airborne lead at any level must inform employees of the content of Appendices A and B of this regulation. Include, among other things, coverage of lead hazards, the danger of lead to the body, and employee rights under the rule. Lead operations - The specific nature of the operations which could result in exposure to lead above the action level. Respirators - The purpose, proper selection, fitting, use, and limitations of respirators. Medical surveillance program - The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program, and the medical removal protection program including information concerning the adverse health effects associated with excessive exposure to lead (with particular attention to the adverse reproductive effects on both males and females). Engineering controls and work practices - The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment. Compliance plan - The contents of any compliance plan in effect. Chelating agents - Instructions to employees that chelating agents must not routinely be used to remove lead from their bodies and must not be used at all except under the direction of a licensed physician. Other materials - Distribute to employees, any materials pertaining to the Occupational Safety and Health Act, the regulations issued pursuant to that Act, and 29 CFR 1910.1025, which are made available to the employer by the Department of Labor. Provide, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and training program to the Department of Labor.


RECORDKEEPING Specific recordkeeping requirements for lead include: Keep the following records Negative initial determination - Where an initial exposure monitoring determination is made that no employee is exposed to airborne concentrations of lead at or above the action level, make a record of such a determination. Medical opinions - Obtain and furnish the employee with a copy of a writing medical opinion from each examining or consulting physician including items listed in §1910.1025(j). Copy of 29 CFR 1910.1025 and its appendices - Make readily available to all affected employees a copy of this standard and its appendices. Exposure monitoring - Establish and maintain (at least 40 years or for the duration of employment plus 20 years, whichever is longer) an accurate record of all monitoring required, including items listed in §1910.1025(n). Provide exposure monitoring records upon request to employees, and the Department of Labor. Medical surveillance - Establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance, including items listed in §1910.1025(n). Medical records - Keep (for at least 40 years, or for the duration of employment plus 20 years, whichever is longer), or assure that the examining physician keeps, the medical records listed in §1910.1025(n). Provide medical records upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the Department of Labor. Medical removals - Establish and maintain (for at least the duration of an employee’s employment) an accurate record for each employee removed from current exposure to lead, including items listed in §1910.1025(n). Provide medical removal records upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the Department of Labor. Transfer of records Along with requirements involving transfer of records set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1020(h) (see the Recordkeeping chapter), comply with the following: • When an employer ceases to do business, then the successor employer must receive and retain all exposure, medical surveillance, medical, and medical removal records. • When an employer ceases to do business and there is no successor employer to receive and retain the records required to be maintained then these records must be transmitted to the Department of Labor. • When the expiration of the retention period for the records required to be maintained then


notify the Department of Labor at least 3 months prior to the disposal of such records and transmit those records to the Department of Labor if requested within the period.

WRITTEN DOCUMENTATION The following lays out the required written documentation for lead: Compliance Program Establish and implement a written compliance program to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit and interim levels if applicable, solely by means of engineering and work practice controls including: • A description of each operation in which lead is emitted (e.g. machinery used, material processed, controls in place, crew size, employee job responsibilities, operating procedures and maintenance practices) • A description of the specific means that will be employed to achieve compliance, including engineering plans and studies used to determine methods selected for controlling exposure to lead; • A report of the technology considered in meeting the permissible exposure limit; • Air monitoring data which documents the source of lead emissions; ............... • A detailed schedule for implementation of the program, including documentation such as copies of purchase orders for equipment, construction contracts, etc.; • A work practice program which includes items for protective work clothing and equipment, housekeeping, and hygiene facilities and practices; • An administrative control schedule if applicable; • Other relevant information. Administrative control schedule, if applicable If administrative controls are used as a means of reducing employees TWA exposure to lead, establish and implement a job rotation schedule which includes: • Name or identification number of each affected employee; • Duration and exposure levels at each job or work station where each affected employee is located; and • Any other information which may be useful in assessing the reliability of administrative controls to reduce exposure to lead.


Respiratory program Implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with § 1910.134(b) through (d) (except (d) (1) (iii)), and (f) through (m). See Respiratory Protection chapter.

LABELING Assure that the containers of contaminated protective clothing and equipment required are labeled as follows: CAUTION: CLOTHING CONTAMINATED WITH LEAD. • DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING. DISPOSE

OF

LEAD

CONTAMINATED

WASH

WATER

IN

ACCORDANCE

WITH

APPLICABLE LOCAL, STATE, OR FEDERAL REGULATIONS.

POSTING Post the following warning signs in each work area where the PEL is exceeded: WARNING LEAD

WORK

AREA

POISON NO SMOKING OR EATING

PPE

Respirators — Where engineering and work practice controls do not reduce employee exposure to or below the 50 µg/m3 permissible exposure limit, supplement engineering and work practice controls with respirators. Where the use of respirators is required under this section, provide a respirator, at no cost to the employee, and assure the use of respirators which comply with the requirements. Respirators must housed during: • Periods necessary to install or implement engineering or work-practice controls except that no employer can require an employee to use a respirator longer than 4.4 hours per day. • Work operations for which engineering and work-practice controls are not sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit; and • Periods when an employee requests a respirator. Protective work clothing and equipment — If an employee is exposed to lead above the PEL, without regard to the use of respirators, or where the possibility of skin or eye irritation exists, provide protective work clothing


and equipment at no cost to the employee and assure that the employee uses appropriate protective work clothing and equipment such as, but not limited to: • Coveralls or similar full-body work clothing; • Gloves, hats, and shoes or disposable shoe coverlets; and • Face shields, vented goggles, or other appropriate protective equipment which complies with §1910.133.

Provide the protective clothing required in a clean and dry condition at least weekly and daily to employees whose exposure level without regard to a respirator are over 200 µg/m3 of lead as an 8-hour TWA. The removal of lead from protective clothing or equipment by blowing, shaking, or any other means which disperses lead into the air is prohibited.

EMPLOYEE NOTIFICATION Employee Notification requirements for lead include those listed in the table below: Notify the following person(s): Employee

Employee whose blood lead level exceeds 40 µg/100g

Any person who cleans or launders protective clothing or equipment

Of the following: Monitoring results (in writing) which represent that employee’s exposure. If results indicate that the & employee exposure, without regard to respirators, exceeds the PEL, include in the written notice a statement that the PEL was exceeded and a description of the corrective action taken or to be taken to reduce exposure to or below the PEL. That employee’s blood lead level (in writing); and That the standard requires temporary medical removal with Medical Removal Protection benefits when an employee’s blood lead level exceeds the numerical criterion for medical removal under 29 CFR 1910.1025(k) (in writing). The potentially harmful effects of exposure to lead (in writing).

Within: Five working days after receipt of results

Five working days after receipt of biological monitoring results


REVIEWING The lead regulation includes these reviewing requirements: Written programs review - Every six months. Either quantitative or qualitative face fit tests for each employee wearing negative pressure respirators - Every six months. Blood lead and ZPP level sampling and analysis availability • Every six months to each employee exposed above the action level for more than 30 days per year; • Every two months for each employee whose last blood sampling and analysis indicated a blood lead level at or above 40 µg/100g of whole blood. Continue this frequency until two consecutive blood samples and analyses indicate a blood lead level below 40 µg/100g of whole blood; and • Monthly during the removal period of each employee removed from exposure to lead due to an elevated blood lead level. Follow-up blood sampling tests availability - Whenever the results of a blood lead level test indicate that an employee's blood lead level exceeds the numerical criterion for medical removal (at or above 60 µg/100g), provide a second (follow-up) blood sampling test within two weeks after the employer receives the results of the first blood sampling test. Medical examinations and consultations availability for each employee exposed above the action level for more than 30 days per year • At least annually for each employee for whom a blood sampling test conducted at any time during the preceding 12 months indicated a blood lead level at or above 40 µg/100g. • As medically appropriate for each employee either removed from exposure to lead due to a risk of sustaining material impairment to health, or otherwise limited pursuant to a final medical determination.

OTHER REQUIREMENTS Other requirements are involved with lead: Additional monitoring


Whenever there has been a production, process, control, or personnel change which may result in new or additional exposure to lead, or whenever the employer has any other reason to suspect a change which may result in new or additional exposures to lead, additional monitoring must be conducted. Housekeeping • All surfaces must be maintained as free as practicable of accumulations of lead. • Floors and other surfaces where lead accumulates may not be cleaned by the use of compressed air • Shoveling, dry or wet sweeping, and brushing may be used only where vacuuming or other equally effective methods have been tried and found not to be effective • Where vacuuming methods are selected, the vacuums must be used and emptied in a manner which minimizes the reentry of lead into the workplace Engineering and work practice controls Where any employee is exposed to lead above the PEL for more than 30 days per year, implement engineering and work practice controls (including administrative controls) to reduce and maintain employee exposure to lead in accordance with the implementation schedule in Table I in §1910.1025(e) (1 ), except to the extent that the employer can demonstrate that such controls are not feasible. Wherever the engineering and work practice controls can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the PEL, the employer must nonetheless use them to reduce exposures to the lowest feasible level and supplement them by the use of respiratory protection which complies with the requirements of §1910.1025(f). Where any employee is exposed to lead above the PEL, but for 30 days or less per year, implement engineering controls to reduce exposures to 200 µg/m3, but there- after you may implement any combination of engineering, work practice (including administrative controls), and respiratory controls to reduce and maintain employee exposure to lead to or below 50 µg/m3 Examples of engineering controls include: • Exhaust ventilation • Encapsulation of lead surfaces • Substitution coatings instead of lead-containing coatings • Mobile hydraulic shears cutting instead of torch cutting • Chemical removal instead of hand scraping • HEPA vacuum filtration systems • Replacement

of

lead-based

painted

building

components


• Brush roller lead paint application rather than spraying • Isolation/distancing of abrasive blasting operations from other employees Examples of good work practices include the-use of protective work clothing and equipment and personal hygiene practices, and housekeeping. Hygiene facilities and practices • Provide clean change rooms for employees who work in areas where their airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL, without regard to the use of respirators. • Provide shower facilities in accordance with §1910.141(d) (3). • Provide an adequate number of lavatory facilities which comply with §1910.141(d) (1) and (2). No chelation Assure that any person whom an employer retains, employs, supervises or controls does not engage in prophylactic chelation of any employee at any time. Medical removal protection Follow §1910.1025(k) with regard to the following employee removal requirements: • Temporary removal due to elevated blood lead levels; • Temporary removal due to a final medical determination; • Return of the employee to former job status; • Removal of other employee special protective measure or limitations; • Employer options (removal or return) pending a final medical determination; • Medical removal protection benefits; • Follow-up medical surveillance during the period of employee removal or limitation; Workers' compensation claims; • Other credits; • Measures for employees whose blood lead levels do not adequately decline within 18 months of removal; • Voluntary removal or restriction of an employee


Because of the great detail and extensive regulatory requirements of the lead rule, employers are advised to acquire and work directly from §1910.1025 and related regulations.

RELATED REGULATIONS 29 CFR 1910.94 29 CFR 1910.120 29 CFR 1910.134 29 CFR 1910.141 29 CFR 19 0.252 29 CFR 1910.261 29 CFR 1910.1000 29 CFR 1910.1020 29 CFR 1910.1200

Ventilation (Abrasive Blasting) Hazardous Waste OperationsEmergency Response (HAZWOPER) Respiratory Protection Sanitation Welding, Cutting. and Brazing — General Requirements Pulp, Paper, and Cardboard Mills Air Contaminants Access to Employee Exposure and Medical Records Hazard Communication

OTHER SOURCES U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Air Quality Criteria for Lead. 1985. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Lead-Based Paint: Identification and Abatement in Public and Indian Housing. 1990.

Guidelines for Hazard

NIOSH. NIOSH Guide to Industrial Respiratory Protection. Pub. No. 87-116. 1987. NIOSH. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, Pub No. 84-100. 1984-1990. NIOSH. NIOSH Alert: Request for Assistance in Preventing Lead Poisoning in Construction Workers. Pub. No. 91116a. 1992. NIOSH/OSHA Guideline: Working with Lead in the Construction Industry. Publication OSHA 3126. 1991. OSHA. Lead in Construction. Publication OSHA 3142. 1993.


HADARDOUS WASTE (RCRA)

OVERVIEW

EPA Hazardous Waste Regulations (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act — RCRA) Synonyms RCRA regulations Regulatory Citation 40 CFR Parts 260-279 What It Is A waste is any solid, liquid, or contained gaseous material that you no longer use. Such wastes are hazardous if they have the potential to cause injury or pollute land, air, or water. These EPA regulations seek to control hazardous waste from its generation to its ultimate disposal — from "cradle to grave." As such, the regulation covers: o identifying hazardous waste; o determining one's generator status; o storing and handling hazardous waste; o shipping hazardous waste to a treatment facility; and treating and disposing of hazardous waste. EPA has established a toll-free hotline to help businesses with their questions at (800) 424-9346. Exemptions You do not need to be concerned with this whole body of regulation if you do not generate hazardous wastes. In addition, even if your business does generate a minor amount of hazardous waste, this amount may be small enough to exempt you from most of the requirements of this set of regulations. You may find that you qualify as a “conditionally-exempt small quantity generator” with limited responsibilities under the regulation. Look at your initial determination (see Initial Assessment section in this chapter) as more than a way to find you generator status. Look at this assessment as a way to assist you in doing whatever you can to be in the lowest generator class possible. State Requirements Individual states frequently have more difficult or stringent requirements for managing hazardous waste than the federal government. It is very important, therefore, to check with your state hazardous waste department before starting any compliance efforts. Who it Protects The regulation protects people's health and the environment from improper hazardous waste management practices.


Who it Applies To The regulation applies to all employers who produce specified quantities of hazardous wastes each month. See Initial Assessment section in this chapter for a description of the three classes of hazardous waste producers (most businesses will fall into either the "conditionally-exempt" or the "small quantity generator" categories). Your business is likely to produce hazardous waste if you use: • • • • • • • •

Petroleum products Dyes, paints, printing inks, thinners, solvents, or cleaning fluids Pesticides or other related chemicals Materials that dissolve metals, wood, paper, or clothing (acids and caustics) Flammable materials Materials that burn or itch upon contact with skin Materials that bubble or fume upon contact with water Products delivered accompanied by a shipping paper or label indicating that the product is hazardous

When in Effect The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was originally passed in 1976. Modifications and amendments have brought new requirements into being ever since then (see Other Requirements section in this chapter). The

Universal

Waste

Rule

(40

CFR

273)

was

effective

on

May

11,

1995.

LOCATION RESTRICTION Site Registration — If you produce enough hazardous waste to be considered a small quantity generator, you must obtain an EPA Identification Number (see Written Documentation section in this chapter). This number stays with the business site or location, not the business. If your business moves to a new location, you must notify the EPA or the state and apply for another ID number. If this new location previously handled hazardous waste and already has an ID number assigned to it, that number will be assigned to you.

INITIAL ASSESSMENT Determining if Hazardous Waste is Produced The first assessment required by this regulation is a determination of whether or not you even produce hazardous waste. If not, this regulation does not apply to you. You may determine whether a substance is hazardous in one of two ways:


•

See if it is listed among the more than 700 compounds named in Subpart D of 40 CFR 261; or • See if it demonstrates some of the typical characteristics of hazardous wastes as described in Subpart C of 40 CFR 261 (most of these are listed in the Who It Applies To section in this chapter). Determining One's Generator Status If you generate any amount of hazardous waste, the next assessment is to determine which of three generator status categories you fall into. Most businesses will fall into either the "condition- ally-exempt small quantity generator" or the "small quantity generator" categories. This is decided primarily by how much waste you produce each month. The more waste you produce, the more compliance obligations you will have. It is equally important that this assessment evaluate your on- premises storage practices. If the amount of hazardous waste stored on your premises exceeds the amount allowed by your generator class, you become subject to all the requirements of the next higher generator class. The same is true if you exceed the storage time limits for your generator class. The following are some of the criteria that define the three generator classes: Conditionally-Exempt Small Quantity Generators Generate no more than 100 kilograms/month (100 kilograms is about 220 pounds, an amount equal to about one half of a 55-gallon drum). Never accumulate more than 1,000 kilograms. No storage time limits. Small Quantity Generators Generate 100-1,000 kilograms/month (1,000 kilograms is about 2,200 pounds, an amount equal to about five 55gallon drums). Never accumulate more than 6,000 kilograms. Storage time limit of 180 days (or 270 days if the waste will be shipped over 200 miles away). Large Quantity Generators Generate over 1,000 kilograms/month. No quantity limit on accumulation. Storage time limit of 90 days. See the individual section subheads in this chapter for the required reports, records, and other requirements for each of these generator classes.


Federal law permits waste generators to move in and out of generator categories on a monthly basis depending upon the above criteria. However, some states have restrictions against this. Contact your state agency for details. Acutely Hazardous Wastes There is a separate category of hazardous waste considered. "acutely hazardous." If your company produces as little as one kilogram (2.2 pounds) of these wastes in a month or stores more than that for any period of time, you are subject to all of the regulations that apply to generators of more than 1,000 kilograms per month. A complete listing of acutely hazardous wastes is given in Section 262.33(e).

TRAINING & RECORDKEEPING

Training Specific training references are implied in the regulation's discussion of emergency contingency plans. There it states that employers "must ensure that all employees are thoroughly familiar with proper waste handling and emergency procedures" at their facilities through training. Recordkeeping Records must be kept according to this table: Conditionally-Exempt Small Keep copies of any tests or evaluations made of their hazardous wastes Quantity (i.e., those things done to determine whether the business is indeed "conditionally exempt.") • Keep copies of each hazardous waste manifest for a period of Small Quantity three years or until a signed copy is received from the designated facility which received the waste. • Keep records of any test results, waste analyses, or other determinations for at least three years. • Keep for a period of three years copies of any required Exception Reports • Keep any additional reports concerning quantities and disposition of wastes • Keep all of the above records required for Small Quantity Generators. • Keep a copy of correspondence required to be sent to Large Quantity transporters or TSD facilities if they have not received a copy of the manifest within 35 days (see "Re- ports"). • Keep a copy of each Biennial Report (see "Reports") for a period of at least three years.


WRITTEN DOCUMENTATION EPA Identification Numbers: If you produce enough hazardous waste to qualify as a small quantity generator, you must obtain an EPA Identification Number. While conditionally-exempt small quantity generators do not have to apply for a number under the federal regulation, they may have to under their state regulations. EPA issues ID numbers as part of a national program to identify and track hazardous waste activities and their sites. This 12-character ID number is used on all documents relating to hazardous wastes: manifests, biennial reports, and labels. Call or write your state hazardous waste department or your EPA regional office for Form 8700-12, Notification of Hazardous Waste Activity. They will assist you in filling out the form. Hazardous Waste Toxicity Testing — Both large and small quantity generators (but not conditionally-exempt small quantity generators) are required to document that their hazardous wastes have been evaluated for toxicity using the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP). This newer test replaces the less sensitive Extraction Procedure Toxicity (EP-Tox) test. Wastes that previously tested non-hazardous with the EP-Tox test may be considered hazardous with the TCLP. Generators will need to use the TCLP to re-test all wastes previously determined by the EP-Tox test to be non-hazardous. Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifests: The hazardous waste manifest is a multi-copy shipping document that accompanies shipments from SQGs and LQGs to those who ultimately dispose of the waste. Each person or company along the waste's route keeps a copy of the manifest for their records. The manifest includes information about the generator, a thorough description of the waste, the name of the transporter, and the name of the designated treatment facility. Though only one manifest needs to be filled out, this may be either a standardized EPA form or a state form. Determine which form to use by the following procedure: 1. Check with the state that you are disposing your waste in (the destination state). If it has its own manifest, use it. 2. If the destination state does not have its own manifest, check with your state. If it has its own manifest, use that. 3. If neither of the above have their own manifest, use the EPA's Form 8700-22, "Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest." Generators are ultimately responsible for the disposition of all hazardous wastes. The EPA manifest includes a certification to this effect. IA4Gs should be aware that by signing the manifest they are certifying that they have a hazardous waste minimization program in place. All generators should be aware of any state requirements concerning the preparation and maintenance of a hazardous waste minimization or pollution prevention plan. Shipment and Treatment Options for Conditionally- Exempt SQGs


Federal regulations do not require conditionally exempt SQGs to fill out the Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest described above. Federal regulations also give these generators several options for treating their hazardous wastes. However, as with many other subjects discussed in this chapter, individual states may have their own documentation and treatment requirements. Check with your state for their requirements, special provisions, and suggestions (for example, some states offer streamlined transport licensing requirements). Contingency Plans for SQGs, LQGs, and TSDs — Contingency plans to deal with emergency spills of hazardous wastes are required of all generator classes except conditionally-exempt SQGs. The content of these plans varies widely. LQGs, TSDs, and some transporters who exceed storage time exemptions need comprehensive plans. These plans involve such things as assigning an emergency coordinator, preparing equipment to deal with emergencies, and coordinating actions with local governmental units. If you fall into one of these categories, check the regulations for plan details. SQGs need only limited information in their plans: • • • •

Have a person available to coordinate emergency activities; Post certain emergency information near the phone; Ensure that employees are trained in normal and emergency operations; and Plan responses to such events as fires, spills, explosions, or other unplanned releases.

LABELING

Containers used by SQGs and LQGs (but not conditionally-exempt SQGs) to store hazardous wastes must be clearly marked with: • The words “HAZARDOUS WASTE” and • The date you started storing waste in that container. EPA Shipping Label Requirements SQGs and LQGs (but not conditionally-exempt SQGs) must mark each container of 110 gallons or less with the following words and information displayed in accordance with the requirements of 49 CFR 172.304: HAZARDOUS WASTE — Federal Law Prohibits Improper Disposal. If found, contact the nearest police or public safety authority or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. DOT Shipping Label Requirements Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements for packaging, labeling, and placarding of hazardous wastes are complex enough that this book has a separate chapter on them. Check the Hazardous Materials chapter for information on filling out your labels with the proper DOT shipping name, hazard class, identification numbers (UN or NA), and other information.

PPE


Employers must provide employees with PPE suitable for the hazardous wastes they will be handling Positions Involved: An Emergency Coordinator should be assigned under the provisions of some generators’ spill contingency plans (see Written Documentation section in this chapter). This person must be on the premises or on call at all times to coordinate the response to an emergency.

EMPLOYEE NOTIFICATION Employees should be informed about the hazards of the chemicals they are exposed to. Businesses required to have spill contingency plans have additional employee reporting obligations.

REPORTING Biennial Reports - Large quantity generators and TSD facilities are required to file biennial reports with the EPA Regional Administrator by March 1 of each even-numbered year. Transporters, conditionally-exempt small quantity generators and SQGs are exempt from this reporting. Many states also require annual - or even quarterly - reporting. Check with your state for details on the reports they require for your generator class. Exception Reporting Exception reporting is part of an EPA procedure to ensure that the hazardous waste sent to TSD facilities is actually received. There are exception reporting requirements for all but conditionally-exempt small quantity generators. Large quantity generators who do not receive a signed manifest from their TSD facility within 35 days must write the transporter to check on the waste's status. If the manifest has still not been returned after 45 days, an exception report must be filed. LQGs should check the regulations for the specifics on these reports. Small quantity generators have an exception reporting obligation if they have not received a copy of the manifest from the disposal facility within 60 days. In this case, they must send their EPA regional office a legible copy of the manifest and a note stating that the return copy was not received.

REVIEWING All generator classes must check their waste storage containers weekly to see that they are not leaking. Since hazardous waste generator status is based on such things as monthly production amounts, onsite storage amounts, and storage time limits, businesses must continually review these items to see whether they are in the correct generator class. These reviews may also serve to show how a business can drop to a lower generator class by adopting different storage and handling procedures.

OTHER REQUIREMENTS Non-Biodegradable Sorbent Disposal — EPA has banned the disposal of biodegradable "sorbents (absorbents and adsorbents) in landfills. Only non-biodegradable sorbents are permitted to be landfilled. This rule will help


assure the stability of materials in hazardous waste landfills. The regulation is found in 40 CFR Parts 264.314(e) and 265.314(f). Hazardous Debris Disposal — Contaminated debris including soil, metal, slag, glass, masonry, metal cans, bolts, and pipes — are subject to landfill restrictions. To determine the current state of these rules, contact the RCRA Hotline at (800) 424-9346. Lab Pack and Battery Disposal — Current rules exempt lab packs, very small containers such as ampules, and products that contain liquids for uses other than storage (e.g., batteries) from the liquids in landfills prohibition. Lab packs are small containers of liquids (typically one gallon or less), most commonly used for laboratory wastes, that are placed in a drum and surrounded by sufficient sorbent material to sorb the liquids should the containers fail. Used Oil Disposal — Used oil management standards apply to generators, collection centers, transporters, transfer facilities, processors, re-refiners, burners of off-specification used oil, marketers of used oil fuel, dust suppressors employing used oil, and disposers. Refer to Subparts C-I of Part 279 if you are engaged in the above activities for the storage, maintenance, labeling, notification, reporting, and other regulated practices that may apply to you. For more information on these rules, contact the RCRA Hotline at (800) 424-9346. EPA has removed the stay which halted the recycling of mixtures of used oil and hazardous waste in 279.10(3) (2). For more information, see the June 28, 1996, Federal Register. Oil Filter Disposal — Used oil filters of the "non-terne-plated" variety are not considered hazardous waste once properly drained. Tune, an alloy of tin and lead, is generally used in the manufacture of heavy-duty oil filters. The terne plating usually causes the filters to exhibit the characteristic of toxicity for lead. Therefore, filters that contain term plating cannot be exempted from the hazardous waste disposal requirements. However, EPA has determined that non-terne-plated used oil filters that have been hot-drained of used oil for a minimum of 12 hours after puncturing either the anti-drainback valve or the dome end do not appear to exhibit the toxicity characteristic. EPA recommends that these filters be recycled (contact your local recycler for de- tails on how they would like used oil filters brought to them). Contact the RCRA Hotline at (800) 4249346 for more information. Universal Wastes Disposal — The universal waste regulations (40 CFR 273) were issued to facilitate the environmentally sound collection of and increase the proper recycling or treatment of the following wastes: • nickel cadmium batteries, • mercury-containing thermostats, • hazardous waste pesticides, and • hazardous waste lamps. This regulation primarily affects four types of facilities according to the table below: Facility Type Requirements Small Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste • Subpart B of 40 CFR 273,


— handlers that generate or create universal • waste but do not accumulate 5,000 kilograms or more total (all universal waste categories combined) of universal waste at their locations at any time. Large Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste — handlers that generate or create universal waste and accumulate 5,000 kilograms or more total (all universal waste categories combined) of universal waste at any time, but only through the end of the calendar year. Universal Waste Transporters — persons who transport universal waste from handlers of universal waste to other handlers, destination facilities, or foreign destinations.

• •

• •

• • Destination Facilities — facilities that treat, • dispose of, or recycle a particular category of • universal waste, except those described in 273.13(a) and (c) and 273.33(a) and (c).

Including requirements for preventing releases, packaging, labeling/marking, accumulation time limits, employee training, responding to releases, off-site shipments, exporting, and importing. Subpart C of 40 CFR 273, Including requirements for EPA notification for an identification number, preventing releases, packaging, labeling/marking, accumulation time limits, employee training, responding to releases, off-site shipments, tracking universal waste shipments, exporting, and importing. Subpart D of 40 CFR 273, Department of Transportation requirements that would be applicable to the waste if it were being transported as a product, No hazardous waste manifests are required, Transporters may store waste for up to 10 days at a transfer facility during the course of transportation. Subpart E of 40 CFR 273, Same requirements that are applicable to treatment, storage, and disposal facilities under the full hazardous waste regulations, including permitting as well as general facility standards and unit specific requirements.

RELATED REGULATIONS

49 CFR Part 172 - DOT requirements for packaging and labeling hazardous wastes. 1910.119, Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals 1910.120, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) - This OSHA regulation protects workers exposed to hazardous wastes in cleanup operations at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites, at EPA-licensed waste treatment, storage, an' d disposal (TSD) facilities, and while responding to emergencies involving hazardous materials (i.e., spills). 1910.1200, Hazard Communication Federal Motor Carrier Act - Financial responsibility and liability requirements applicable to the shipment of hazardous wastes.


HAZWOPER Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Regulatory Citation: 29 CFR 1910.120 What It Is Regulations to provide individuals involved in hazardous waste and emergency response operations with information and training necessary to improve workplace safety and health. Exemptions A covered operation (see Who It Applies To section in this chapter) may be exempted if the employer can demonstrate that the operation does not involve employee exposure to safety or health hazards. In addition, limited exceptions from the requirements are provided as follows: • Routine operations at treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities that are regulated under 40 CFR 264 and 265 must only comply to the extent required by 1910.120(p). •

Small quantity generators (less than 1,000 kilograms per month) and employers with less than 90 days of accumulated hazardous waste are exempt from all requirements of this standard, unless they have emergency response teams that respond to releases of hazardous substances. In this case, they must comply with the requirements of 1910.120(q).

Emergency response operations at any workplace are subject to the standard to the extent required by 1910.120(q). Who it Protects All workers involved in covered hazardous waste and emergency response operations — including employees, contractors, and subcontractors. Who it Applies To This regulation applies to employers with: • • •

Clean-up operations at uncontrolled hazardous waste disposal sites that have been identified by a governmental health or environmental agency. Corrective actions taken in clean-up operations conducted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Voluntary clean-up operations at government-designated sites.


Routine operations at treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities that are regulated under 40 CFR 264 and 265; or • Emergency response operations at any workplace when there has been a release, or substantial threat of release, of hazardous substances. When in Effect: Effective date March 6, 1990.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS Monitoring Upon initial site entry, an employer must perform & air monitoring to identify any immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) condition, exposure over permissible or published exposure limits, exposure over a radioactive material's dose limits, or other dangerous condition. An employer must conduct periodic monitoring when the possibility of an IDLH condition or flammable atmosphere has developed, or when there is an indication that exposures may have risen over acceptable limits since prior monitoring. Once clean-up operations begin, an employer must monitor employees likely to have the highest exposures. If these employees are over acceptable limits, monitoring must continue to determine all employees above the limits. Engineering Controls An employer must institute engineering controls and work practices to reduce and maintain employee exposure to or below the permissible or published exposure limits, as applicable. When these are not feasible or required, any reasonable combination of engineering controls, work practices, and personal protective equipment (PPE) must be used. New Technology — An employer must develop and implement procedures for the evaluation and introduction of effective new technologies, equipment, and control measures that will enhance employee protection. These procedures must be incorporated into the employer's Safety and Health Program (see Written Documentation section in this chapter).

INITIAL ASSESSMENT Site Evaluation — A "qualified person must conduct a preliminary and detailed evaluation of the site to identify specific site hazards and determine appropriate control procedures needed to protect employees. The following information must be obtained, to the extent possible, before employees may enter the site: • All suspected conditions that are immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) or that may cause serious harm; • Location and approximate size; • Description of the response activity and/or job task to be performed;


• •

Duration of planned employee activity; Site topography and accessibility by air and roads; Safety and health hazards expected at the site; Pathways for hazardous substance dispersion; • Present status and capabilities of emergency response teams that would provide assistance; and • Hazardous substances involved or expected at the site, their health hazards, and chemical and physical properties. During initial site entry, PPE must be provided and used in accordance with 1910.120(cX5). In addition, monitoring must be conducted when there is the potential for ionizing radiation or 'DLIT conditions.

TRAINING Before an employee may engage in hazardous waste operations or perform emergency response, the employer must ensure that he has been properly trained. The level of training that each employee must receive will be dictated by his job function and level of responsibility. Training must be presented by a trainer who has completed a training course on the subjects, or who has the credentials and experience to demonstrate competency. Required content of the training is detailed in the applicable sections. Upon successful completion of training, each employee is to receive a written certificate. In addition, each employee must receive annual refresher training to maintain competency.

RECORDKEEPING Medical Surveillance Records — An employer must retain an accurate record of each covered employee's medical surveillance for the duration of his employment, plus 30 years. This record is to include: • Employee's name and social security number; • Physician's written opinions, recommended limitations, and results of examinations and tests; • Any employee medical complaints related to hazardous substance exposure; and • A copy of information provided to the attending physician. The records for an employee who has worked less than a year need not be retained after employment. Instead, they should be provided to the employee upon termination.

WRITTEN DOCUMENTATION The requirements for written programs and plans vary according to the type of operation, as shown in the following table:


SAFETY MANUAL TYPE OF OPERATION

WRITTEN DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS

Clean-up operations at all uncontrolled disposal sites Corrective actions taken clean-up operations

in

Voluntary clean-up operations

Must develop a written Safety and Health Program that includes all listed elements (see below). Must develop a written Safety and Health Program that includes all listed elements (see below). Must develop a written Safety and Health Program that includes all listed elements (see below). Must develop a written Safety and Health Program, as described for TSD facilities at 1910.120(p). Must develop an Emergency Response Plan, as described in 1910.120(g).

Routine operations at TSD facilities

Emergency workplace

response

at

my

SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Safety and Health Program — The written Safety and Health Program identifies, evaluates, and controls safety and health hazards, as well as provides for emergency response. It is to include the following parts: • Organizational structure; • Comprehensive workplan; • Site-specific safety and health plan (further described below); • Safety and health training program; • Medical surveillance program; • Standard operating procedures for safety and health; and ��� Necessary interface between general program and site-specific activities. Site-Specific Safety and Health Plan — This part of the Safety and Health Program, which must be kept on-site for reference, is to address the hazards of each phase of site operation, as well as include the requirements and procedures for employee protection. At minimum, it must include: • A hazard analysis for each site task and operation found in the comprehensive workplan 294


• • • • • • • • •

Employee training assignments PPE program Medical surveillance requirements Monitoring and environmental sampling requirements Site control measures Decontamination procedures Emergency response plan (further described below) Confined space entry procedures Spill containment program

EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN

Emergency Response Plan — Each employer subject to the standard must develop an Emergency Response Plan to handle anticipated emergencies. The plan is to include: • Pre-emergency planning and coordination with outside parties • Personnel roles, lines of authority, training, and communication • Emergency recognition and prevention • Safe distances and places of refuge • Site security and control • Evacuation routes and procedures • Decontamination • Emergency medical treatment and first aid • Emergency alerting and response procedures • Critique of response and follow-up • PPE and emergency equipment An employer who will evacuate employees from the danger area when an emergency occurs, and who will not permit employees to assist with the emergency, is exempt from the Emergency Response Plan requirement if he prepares an Emergency Action Plan in accordance with 1910.38(a).


Integrated Contingency Plan (One Plan) Guidance Overview The National Response Team (NRT) has developed Integrated Contingency Plan (ICP) Guidance. This guidance (also known as "One Plan" guidance) provides a way to consolidate multiple plans, which a facility may have prepared to comply with various regulations, into one functional emergency response plan. The ICP Guidance resulted from recommendation in the December 1993 NRT Report to Congress: A Review of Federal Authorities for Hazardous Materials Accident Safety. The NRT received input from representatives from state and local agencies, industry, and environmental groups prior to developing the guidance. Multiple Agency Involvement Five agencies (EPA, the Coast Guard, OSHA, DOT, and the Minerals Management Service) signed the one-plan guidance. The NRT and the agencies responsible for reviewing and approving federal response plans to which the 1CP option applies, agree that integrated response plans prepared in the format provided in this guidance will be acceptable, and be the federally preferred method of response planning. Objective The objective of the ICP Guidance is to: •

Provide a mechanism for consolidating multiple facility response plans into one plan that can be used during an emergency; • Improve coordination of response activities within the facility, and with public and commercial responders; and • Minimize duplication, and simplify plan development and maintenance. Regulatory Scope The ICP document is a guidance, not a regulatory initiative. It presents a sample contingency plan outline that addresses requirements of the following federal regulations: • OPA Facility Response Plan Regulations (EPA, Coast Guard, DOT, MMS); • EPA's Risk Management Program Regulation, Oil Pollution Prevention Regulation, and RCRA Contingency Planning Requirements; and • OSHA Emergency Action Plan Regulation, Process Safety Standards, and HAZWOPER Regulation. Plan Components A facility may use the ICP sample format, or follow its own format for one plan. The ICP sample format includes the following three sections: Plan introduction;


A core plan that serves as the primary response tool; and A series of annexes that provide more detailed supporting information and regulatory compliance documentation. The 1CP sample format is based on the Incident Command System (ICS). Integration with Existing Practices Organizing an integrated contingency plan according to the structure of the ICS will allow the plan to dovetail with established response management practices. This should promote its usefulness in an emergency The ICP Guidance supports the use of linkages (i.e., references) to facilitate coordination with other facility plans and with external plans, such as LEPC plans, and OPA Area Contingency Plans. When a facility submits a plan for federal agency review, it must provide a table indicating where the regulatory required elements can be found in the one-plan format. The NRT intends to promote the use of the ICP Guidance by regulated industries, and encourages federal and state agencies to rely on the ICP Guidance when developing future regulations. For More Information The 1CP Guidance was published in the Federal Register on June 5, 1996. For more information on the ICP Guidance, call the RCRA/Superfund/EPCRA Hotline at (800) 424-9346. For questions on the interface of the 1CP Guidance with specific regulations, call the number for that particular regulation listed below: Coast

Guard

Facility

Response

Plan

Regulation:

(202)

267-1983

DOT/RSPA Pipeline Response Plan Regulation: (202) 366-8860 EPA Oil Pollution Prevention Regulation: (703) 356-8774, or the SPCC Information Line at (202) 260-2342 OSHA regulations and standards: Regional or Area OSHA office MMS Facility Response Plan Regulation: (703) 787-1567 EPA Risk Management Program Regulation: (202) 2600030 RCRA Contingency Planning Requirement: RC Superfund/EPCRA Hotline (800) 424-9346.

LABELING Drums and containers which contain hazardous substances, contaminated materials, and other residues must be properly identified and marked so employees know the necessary precautions prior to handling.


PPE Employees must be provided with, and use, PPE that will protect them from the hazards and potential hazards they are likely to encounter. The applicable protection requirements must be detailed in the employer's written PPE program and included as part of the Site-specific Safety and Health Plan (see Written Documentation section in this chapter).

POSITIONS INVOLVED Qualified Person --- A person with specific training, knowledge, and experience in the area for which he has responsibility and authority Site evaluations must be conducted by such a person. Site Safety and Health Supervisor (or Official) — The individual at the site who is responsible to the employer and has the authority and knowledge to implement the Site-specific Safety and Health Plan and verify compliance efforts. General Site Employees — Workers (such as equipment operators, general laborers, and supervisory personnel) engaged in hazardous substance removal or other activities which expose or may expose them to hazardous substances and health hazards. Routine Site Employees (with Minimal Exposure) — Workers regularly on site who work in areas which have been monitored and fully characterized indicating that exposures are under acceptable limits. Non-Routine Site Employees — Workers on site only occasionally for a specific limited task, and who are unlikely to be exposed over acceptable limits. Hazmat Team — An organized group of employees expected to handle and control leaks or spills of hazardous substances. First Responders (Awareness Level) — Individuals who are likely to witness or discover a hazardous substance release, and who have been trained to notify proper authorities. First Responders (Operations Level) — Individuals who respond to releases, or potential releases, as part of the initial response to the site for the purpose of protecting nearby persons, property, or the environment. Hazardous Materials Technicians - Individuals who respond to releases, or potential releases to stop the release. Hazardous Materials Specialists — Individuals who respond with, and provide support to, hazardous materials technicians. On-scene

Incident

Commander

The

individual

who

assumes

control

of

the

incident.

EMPLOYEE NOTIFICATION Briefings - An employer must hold pre-entry briefings prior to initiating any site activity, and as necessary, to ensure employees are informed of the Site-specific Safety and Health Plan.


Notification of Risk — Prior to the start of work activities, an employer must notify employees of the chemical, physical, and toxicological properties of each substance known or expected to be present on site. Physician's Written Opinion — An employer must provide each employee subject to the medical surveillance program with a copy of the attending physician's written opinion.

REVIEWING The individual designated as site safety and health supervisor must conduct investigations to determine the effectiveness of the Site-specific Safety and Health Plan. Any deficiencies must be corrected by the employer. The Safety and Health Program must be reviewed and updated as necessary.

OTHER REQUIREMENTS Excavations — Site excavations created during site preparation or hazardous waste operations must be shored and sloped according to with 1926, Subpart P. to prevent accidental collapse. Site control — Appropriate site control procedures, as detailed in the Site-specific Safety and Health Plan, must be implemented to control employee exposure to hazardous substances. The use of a buddy system is required to assist in the rescue of an employee who becomes unconscious, trapped, or seriously disabled. Site control procedures must be modified, as necessary, as new information becomes available. Medical Surveillance — Medical examinations and consultations must be made available, at no cost, to the following employees: • Employees who are (or may be) exposed to hazardous substances or health hazards at or above permissible or published exposure limits for 30 days or more a year; • Employees who wear respirators for 30 days or more a year, or as required by 1910.134; •

Employees who are injured from possible over-exposure, as the result of an emergency response or hazardous waste operation; and • Members of the hazmat team. For all employees listed above, except those injured due to overexposure, examinations must be made available: • Prior to assignment; • At least once a year, unless the attending physician believes a longer interval is appropriate; • Upon termination of employment, or reassignment to an area where the employee would not be covered;


As soon as possible following notification that the employee has developed signs and symptoms indicating possible overexposure; and • At more frequent times, if determined necessary by the attending physician. Employees injured due to overexposure must be examined as soon as possible after the incident or development of signs or symptoms, and at additional times, if determined necessary. Examinations are to be conducted in accordance with the procedures detailed in 1910.120(0. Informational Programs — Prior to beginning operations, an employer must implement the informational program (which is part of the Safety and Health Program) to inform employees, contractors, and subcontractors of the nature, level, and degree of exposure likely as a result of their participation. Illumination An employer must ensure that areas accessible to employees are properly illuminated while work is in progress. Minimum requirements are specified in foot-candies for each area and operation. Drum and Container Handling — Drums and containers used during clean-up must meet the appropriate DOT, OSHA, and/or EPA regulations for the wastes they contain. In addition, all hazardous substances, contaminated materials, and other residues must be labeled, handled, transported, and disposed in accordance with the requirements of 1910.120(j). Included in this section are provisions for ground penetrating systems, fire extinguishing equipment, container opening and handling equipment, monitoring equipment, explosion-resistant barriers, alarm systems, and communications equipment. Decontamination — An employer must develop, communicate, and implement decontamination procedures before any employees or equipment may enter areas on site where the potential, for exposure to hazardous substances exists. Procedures must incorporate the applicable requirements of 1910.120(k) with respect to location, equipment and solvents, protective clothing and equipment, unauthorized employees, cleaning establishments, showers, and change rooms. Sanitation — Each temporary worksite must have an adequate supply of potable water and be equipped with toilet facilities. Supplies of non-potable water must be clearly identified, and there must be no potential for cross-connection between systems providing potable and non-potable water. Workers who guard the site must be provided with heated, well- ventilated, and well-lighted sleeping quarters. Washing facilities for all workers must be near the worksite, within controlled work zones, and equipped to enable employees to remove all hazardous substances. All food sex-vice facilities must be licensed. Emergency Response — Emergency response procedures, as detailed in the Emergency Response Plan, must be rehearsed regularly as part of the overall training program for site operations. Implementation of the procedures must be initiated with an alarm system.

RELATED REGULATIONS 40 CFR 270.1


Provisions of paragraph (p) apply to TSD facilities required to have a permit or interim status from EPA according to this section. 49 CFR 171.3 — Hazardous Waste The transportation of hazardous wastes in interstate or intrastate commerce must be carried out in accordance with this section. 49 CFI/ 171.8 — Definitions and Abbreviations Substances defined as hazardous wastes in DOT's Hazardous Materials Regulations are considered hazardous wastes for the purpose of HAZWOPER. 49 CFR 172.101 and Appendices — Purpose and use of hazardous materials table Substances listed as hazardous materials in this section are considered hazardous substances for the purpose of HAZWOPER. 49 CFR 172 Subpart G Emergency Response Information Emergency response information must be provided and maintained during transportation and at facilities where hazardous materials (including wastes) are loaded, stored, or handled dining any phase of transportation. 29 CFR 1910 and 1926 All requirements of these parts apply to hazardous waste and emergency response options, whether or not they are covered under HAZWOPER. If conflict or overlap, the requirements more protective of employee safety and health apply. 29 CFR 1910, Subparts G — Occupational Health and Environmental Control, and Z — Toxic and Hazardous Substances Permissible exposure limits for health hazards and hazardous substances are provided in these subparts. 29 CFR 1910, Subpart I — Personal Protective Equipment PPE must be selected and used to meet the requirements of this subpart. 29 CFR 1910, Subpart L— Fire Protection Fire extinguishing equipment that meets the requirements of this subpart must be available for use at the hazardous waste site. 29 CFR 1926 Subpart P — Site excavations during hazardous waste operations must be shored and sloped in accordance with the requirements of this Subpart.


29 CFR 1910.1020 — Access to Employee Exposure and Medical Records Medical surveillance records required by the Hazwoper Standard must meet the requirements of this section. 29 CFR 1910.38(a) — Emergency Action Plan Employers who will evacuate employees during an emergency are exempt from preparing an Emergency Response Plan, if they provide an Emergency Action Plan that complies with this section. 29 CFR 1910.38(a) — Protective clothing (fire brigades) 1910.134 — Respiratory protection and 1910.1 Hazard communication Employees involved in post-emergency response operations on plant property must have completed the training required by these sections. 29 CFR 1910.134 — Respiratory Protection Employees who wear a respirator for 30 days or more a year as required by this section are subject to the requirements of the medical surveillance program. 29 CFR 1910.141 — Sanitation Showers and change rooms required for decontamination must meet the requirements of this section. 29 CFR 19I0.156(e) — Protective Clothing (Fire Brigades) PPE worn while performing fire fighting operations beyond the incipient stage must meet the criteria of this section. 29 CFR 1910.165 — Employee Alarm Systems Alarm systems must be installed in accordance with this section to notify employees of an emergency situation. 29 CFR 1910.1200 — Hazard Communication Standard Informational materials developed under this standard may be used to inform employees of the hazards posed by the hazardous substances present at the site. A written Hazard Communication Program, meeting the requirements of this section, must be implemented as part of the TSD employer's Safety and Health Program. 29 CFR 1910.1200, Appendix A — Health hazard definitions Terms used to define "health hazard" in the Hazwoper Standard are explained in this section.

RELATED STANDARDS "NIOSH Recommendations for Occupational Health Standards," 1986. Source of published exposure limits.


American Conference on Governmental Industrial Hygienists, "Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices for 1986-87," 1987. Source of published exposure

OTHER SOURCES Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.) Corrective actions involving clean-up operations at sites covered under RCRA are subject to Hazwoper. CERCLA. 101(14) Substances defined under this section are considered hazardous substances for the purpose of Hazwoper. Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (42 U.S.C. 11003) 303 Emergency response organizations that have developed and implemented programs to handle releases of hazardous sub- stances in accordance with this section will have met the requirements of 1910.120(q). OSHA Instruction DFO CPL 2.70-January 29, 1986, "Special Emphasis Program: Hazardous Waste Sites." OSHA Instruction DFO CPL 2-2.37A-January 29, 1986, "Technical Assistance and Guidelines for Superfund and Other Hazardous Waste Site Activities." OSHA Instruction DTS CPL 2.74-January 29, 1986, "Hazardous Waste Activity Form, OSHA 175." "Hazardous Waste Inspections Reference Manual," U.S. Department of Labor, OSHA, 1986. Memorandum of Understanding Among NIOSH, OSHA, USCG, and EPA, "Guidance for Worker Protection During Hazardous Waste Site Investigations and Clean-up, and Hazardous Substance Emergencies," December 18, 1980. "National Priorities List, 1st Edition, October 1984," EPA, revised periodically. "The Decontamination of Response Personnel," Field Standard Operating Procedures (F.S.O.R) 7; EPA, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response; Hazardous Response Support Division, December 1984. "Preparation of a Site Safety Plan," Field Standard Operating Procedures (F.S.O.R) 9; EPA, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response; Hazardous Response Support Division, April 1985. "Standard Operating Safety Guidelines," EPA, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, Hazardous Response Support Division, Environmental Response Team, November 1984. "Occupational Safety and Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous Waste Site Activities," NIOSH, OSHA, USCG, and EPA, October 1985. "Protecting Health and Safety at Hazardous Waste Sites: An Overview," EPA. EPA/625/9-85/006, September 1985.


"Hazardous Waste Sites and Hazardous Substance Emergencies," NIOSH Worker Bulletin, DHHS, Public Health Service, CDC, and NIOSH, December 1982. "Personal Protective Equipment for Hazardous Materials Incidents: A Selection Guide," DHHS, Public Health Service, CDC, and NIOSH, October 1984. "Fire Service Emergency Management Handbook," International Association of Fire Chiefs Foundation, 101 East Holly Avenue, Unit 10B, Sterling, VA 22170, January 1985. "Emergency Response Guidebook," DOT, Washington, DC, 1987. "Report to Congress on Hazardous Materials Training," Planning and Preparedness, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC, July 1986. "Workbook for Fire Command," Alan V. Brunacini and J. David Beageron, National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269, 1985. "Fire Command," Alan V. Brunacini, National Fire Protection Association, Battery- march Park, Quincy, MA 02269, 1985. incident Command System," Fire Protection Publications, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, 1983. "Site Emergency Response Planning," Chemical Manufacturers Association, Washington, DC 20037, 1986. "Hazardous Materials Emergency Planning Guide," NRT-1, EPA, Washington, DC, March 1987. “Community Teamwork: Working Together to Promote Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety," U.S. DOT, Washington, DC, May 1983. "Disaster Planning Guide for Business and Industry," Federal Emergency Management Agency, Publication No. FEMA 141, August 1987.


PROCESS SAFETY MANAGEMENT

PURPOSE

The purpose of Process Safety Management (PSM) is to prevent or minimize consequences of catastrophic releases of toxic, reactive, flammable or explosive chemicals in various industries such as refineries. The requirements of a Process Safety Management Program are outlined in 29 CFR 1910.119. OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. , LLC. employees will perform work at job sites that are covered by this standard. Therefore, the purpose of this written program is to ensure our employees are trained in the practices necessary to conduct their work at PSM covered work sites and to ensure they abide by the safe work practices of the employers that hire us to perform various jobs.

GENERAL

Contractors under the Process Safety Management program are those who are involved in the installation or maintenance of equipment and systems at a facility that has one of the following: • A process which involves a flammable liquid or gas (as defined in 1910.1200) on site in one location, in a quantity of 10,000 pounds (4535.9 kg) or more except for: o Hydrocarbon fuels used solely for workplace consumption as a fuel (e.g., propane used for comfort heating, gasoline for vehicle refueling), if such fuels are not a part of a process containing another highly hazardous chemical covered by this standard; o Flammable liquids stored in atmospheric tanks or transferred which are kept below their normal boiling point without benefit of chilling or refrigeration. As contractors covered under the PSM Program, we will be provided necessary information concerning the hazardous process, equipment, and procedures of the particular job site our employees are working at.

PRE-WORK REVIEW

SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS

Prior to allowing OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. , LLC. employees to commence work in a process covered under PSM, the following requirements must be completed by the PSM Company we will be doing work for: • Obtain and evaluate information regarding OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. , LLC.’s safety performance and programs (written documentation required). • Inform OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. , LLC. Site Foremen or other designated OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. , LLC. employee of the known potential fire, explosion, or toxic release hazards related to the work area and processes of the Company. • Explain the applicable provisions of the emergency action plan to OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. , LLC. employees. • Provide the Site Foremen with copies of local safety programs, safety and emergency procedures and a copy of the PSM program. • Complete all the requirements of the Company’s Contractors Liability Agreement. • Inform OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. , LLC. that a periodic performance evaluation will be conducted to ensure our employees are fulfilling our obligations. • Inform OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. , LLC .that a contract employee injury and illness log related to our work in process areas must be maintained on site for the duration of the contract work.


OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. , LLC. will provide information to the Contract Employer relating to any unique hazards presented by our employee’s work or any hazards found by our employees.

TRAINING

Prior to the start of any work at a facility covered under the PSM standard, OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. , LLC. will assure that each employee is trained in the work practices necessary to safely perform his or her job. OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. , will provide the following documentation to each PSM covered facility that we will be performing work at: •

Documentation that we have informed our employees of potential fire, explosion, or toxic release hazards may that exist at or near their work area at the facility, and that we have explained the Company’s Emergency Action Plan to our employees. Material Safety Data Sheets will be used to discuss process safety information for the particular site we will be working at. • Training documentation concerning training provided to our employees to ensure they have been informed of the safe work practices necessary to safely perform tasks. • Documentation that we have explained the Hot Works Permit Program of the Company we are working for and other permits the Company uses that will be needed during their time on company property. • Agreement to advise the Company we are working for of any unique hazards presented by our work and found during our work. • Materials, parts and equipment to be installed meet industry and engineering standards for the application used. OJ CONSTRUCTION INC.. will assure that our employees have been instructed in known potential fire, explosion, or toxic release hazards related to his/her job. The Site Foreman will be responsible for ensuring that each employee has received the required training. Training will be documented and will consist of the employee’s name, the date of training, name of instructor.

SAFE WORK PRACTICES OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. , LLC. employees will be required to abide by PSM employer’s safety work practices during operations such as lockout/tagout, confined space entry, opening process equipment or piping, and controls over entrance to the facility. Safe work practices will be covered during site-specific training courses. Training will be documented.

HOT WORK

Before cutting or welding is permitted at a work site, the area must be inspected by the individual responsible for authorizing cutting and welding operations at the Company we are performing work for. OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. , LLC. employees will not be allowed to perform hot work unless or until a hot work permit is obtained from the employer’s designated representative. The permit shall document that provisions of CFR 1910.252 (a) have been met. See the Hot Work written program for more information about safe work practices.

INCIDENT INVESTIGATIONS Employees must immediately report all accidents, injuries and near misses to their Site Foreman, who will then notify the correct Company individuals. An incident investigation must be initiated within 48 hours. Resolutions and corrective actions must be documented and maintained for five years.


INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYEE SIGNATURE PAGE Make a copy of this form and have each employee print, sign, and date the form. This copy should be kept in the personnel folder of each employee.

I have read and agree to follow the OJ Construction Inc. and Policies related to this manual. If I have any questions regarding the manual I should contact a OJ CONSTRUCTION INC. safety representative for clarification before starting on any assigned task.

Employee Name (Print) ______________________________________________ Employee Signature ______________________________________________ Date ______________________________________________


Employee Safety Manual