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A GREENER AND SAFER POMONA

A BIKE MASTER PLAN AND GREEN STREET INITIATIVE

David Chacara University of California Davis Landscape Architecture 2013


A BIKE MASTER PLAN AND GREEN STREET INITIATIVE DAVID CHACARA - SENIOR PROJECT THESIS - 2013 DLCHACARA@UCDAVIS.EDU - DCHACARA@GMAIL.COM

Presented to the faculty of the Landscape Architecture Department of the University of California, Davis, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelors of Science in Landscape Architecture.

A Greener and Safer Pomona

A GREENER AND SAFER POMONA

Accepted and Approved by _______________________________________ Stephen Wheeler, Senior Project Faculty Advisor

_______________________________________ Steven Greco, Senior Project Committee Member

_______________________________________ Kevin Perry, Senior Project Committee Member

_______________________________________ Sahoko Yui, Senior Project Committee Member

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A Greener and Safer Pomona


Pomona is not well known for its inter-city networks and luscious green spaces, but has potential to grow into a strong figure head in the growth of sustainable cities. The problem with most urban cities is the large, gray urban landscapes, unsafe biking conditions, and polluted watersheds. “A Greener and Safer Pomona” is made to guide the City of Pomona in its development of a bike master plan, but how it can work with an interconnected network of green spaces and green corridors. Major goals for the Plan are to improve ridership, safety, and education among riders of all ages. The Plan may also help to empower the local community, and advocate the development of healthier streets. The second phase of the project is to propose a series of green streets in Pomona to manage storm water, and create greener, safer, and more walkable corridors. The project has two major products: a bike master plan and green street initiative for the City of Pomona. The hope is to create a “green bike community” as the two plans come together. Where the two ideas overlap is the focus of this project. The two plans can work together to make the City of Pomona a bicycle friendly city, a spearhead in Southern California green street efforts, and a greener and safer place to live. The intention is to develop Pomona to act as an example of a green bike community for Los Angeles County and other cities across the nation.

A Greener and Safer Pomona

ABSTRACT

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A Greener and Safer Pomona


I want to thank Stephen Wheeler, and Gayle Totton for getting me through this project. Thank you for the pressure and motivation to get things done. I also want to thank my committee members for all their help. Steve Greco for his bikeway knowledge. Kevin Perry for his green street expertise. Sahoko Yui for her transportation and graphic knowledge. A special thank you to my friends and family that have helped me get me through it all, especially my brother Gabriel Chacara, and my best friend Kendra Pineda.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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Signature Page iii Abstract iv Acknowledgments vii Table of Contents ix List of Illustrations xi Chapter 1: Introduction 1 1.1 Setting 5 1.2 Purpose and Goals 5 1.3 Context 6 Chapter 2: Research and Analysis 7 2.1 Bicycle Planning 9 2.2 Stormwater Management and Green Streets 23 Chapter 3: Case Studies 31 3.1 Los Angeles County, California 33 3.2 Portland, Oregon 41 Chapter 4: Best Practices 45 4.1 Bike Master Planning Best Practices 47 4.2 Green Streets 51 4.3 Conclusion 56 Chapter 5: Site Analysis 57 5.1 History 33 5.2 Existing Conditions 62 5.3 Site Analysis and Mapping 64 5.4 Opportunities and Constraints 67 Chapter 6: Design Development 69 6.1 Bike Master Plan 71 6.2 Green Street Initiative 74 6.3 Green Street Pilot Project 79 References 83 Image References 85

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Table of Contents

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List of Images Chapter 1

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Chapter 2

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Chapter 3

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Pomona Valley Bike Coalition logo 1910s - Downtown Pomona Los Angeles County and the City of Pomona Context Map 1910s - Downtown Pomona Bicycle and Pedestrian Friendly Corridor

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Commuters on their way to work Bikes on public transit Riding next to a bus with no bike lane Riding in the rain Example of a Class I bike path Cyclist hit by a vehicle Cyclists riding on the freeway during a critical mass Bike to Work logo Overall growth of bike commuting Artistic interpretation of the seasons Mapping a bicycle route of a trip Riding longer distances to unknown places can be fun Example of a bike path Example of a bike lane Example of a bike friendly street “No Dumping, Drains to Ocean� Examples of Gray to Green strategies Los Angeles River Example of a stormwater planter box Example of pervious paving Example of a vegetated swale Example of a flow-through planter box Example of a rain garden Example of a stormwater curb extension Example of a green gutter

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Large group of cyclist at CicLAvia Los Angeles Green Street Pilot Project Cyclist riding along the LA River Education bicycle course demonstration Community engagement Los Angeles Green Street Pilot Project Convergence of bike planning and green street planning Green infrastructure use in a parking lot Bicycle infrastructure in Portland Example of curb extension in Portland Bicycle directional signage in Portland One of many bike cultures in Portland Obeying traffic laws on Portland streets Siskiyou Street, Portland Green Street Project

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Chapter 4

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Chapter 5

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Chapter 6

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Colored bike lanes notify drivers of bike lanes Page 47 Put bike access on public transportation Page 48 Parking removed to accommodate bikes Page 48 Examples of each bikeway type Page 49 College campus encourage students to ride bicycles Page 50 A Brief History of Traffic Engineering Page 50 Fusion of green streets, bike planning, and complete streets Page 51 Example of a green street corridor in Nashville Page 52

Downtown Pomona in the 1910s Unused space perfect for a bike lane Wide street with on-street parking Residential street ideal for a bike route City land perfect for bike path along river Parking removed to accommodate bikes Potential green infrastructure median Potential green corridor Unused space between curb and lane Downtown Pomona Third Street Potential green space if parallel parking Locations of parks and major vegetated areas in Pomona Water body locations in Pomona Locations of all schools in Pomona Other points of interests across Pomona Major transportation points in Pomona All maps combined to show relationships Competitive cycling line

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Major bike connections and thoroughways Class I Bike Lane Plan Class II Bike Lane Plan Class III Bike Lane Plan Final classified Bike Master Plan Potential green infrastructure locations Level 1 Green Street Plan Level 2 Green Street Plan Level 3 Green Street Plan Level 4 Green Street Plan Level 5 Green Street Plan Final Classified Green Street Master Plan Third Street Existing Conditions Downtown Pomona Third Street Retrofit Section Detail 1 for Third Street Retrofit Plan Detail 1 for Third Street retrofit Section Detail 2 for Third Street retrofit Plan Detail 2 for Third Street retrofit Third Street Existing Conditions 1 Third Street Redesign 1 Third Street Existing Conditions 2 Third Street Redesign 2

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A Greener and Safer Pomona

List of Images Continued

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A Greener and Safer Pomona

Chapter 1 Introduction

1 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION


A Greener and Safer Pomona

Bike friendly city Welcomes you to Pomona Greener and safer

2 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION


The focus of “A Greener and Safer Pomona� is to set up an overall bike master plan and a series of green streets to help create safe, green Pomona bikeways. The County of Los Angeles Bicycle Master Plan proposes a vision for a diverse regional bicycle system of interconnected corridors, support facilities, and programs to make bicycling more practical and desirable to a broader range of people in the County. The City of Pomona lies within the Los Angeles County, and the Pomona Bike Master plan should follow the County of Los Angeles Bicycle Master Plan. In March of 2012, the Pomona Valley Bicycle Coalition (PVBC) was formed as a chapter of the Los Angeles County Bicycle Coalition (LACBC). The

A Greener and Safer Pomona

1.0 Introduction

Image 01-01

Pomona Valley Bike Coalition logo

aim for PVBC is to create better, more bikeable, and healthier streets for the residents in the Pomona Valley area and to empower both pedestrians and cyclists to make a positive impact and change in their local communities. There are some existing bike routes and trails within the

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1910s - Downtown Pomona

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION


City of Pomona, but there is a need for an manage storm water, and create greener, overall Bike Master Plan (Plan). safer, and more walkable corridors. The green streets will be focused in areas with The first phase of this project high pedestrian and bicycle traffic. For the will be focused on research and the development of a bike master plan for the purpose of the project, only a few areas will be fully developed into a proper City of Pomona. The adjacent cities have their own bicycle plans in action, and it is green street design. The development of a bike master plan and green street initiative for Pomona can help create a greener and safer environment for cyclists and pedestrians. Through the implementation of the Plan, Pomona can become a more bicyclefriendly city, while the green street initiative can help reduce Pomona’s traffic congestion and carbon footprint.

A Greener and Safer Pomona

important for Pomona’s Plan to provide greater local and regional connectivity to surrounding cities. Major goals for the Plan are to improve ridership, safety, and education among riders of all ages. The Plan may also help to empower the local community, and advocate the development of healthier streets. The second phase of the project is to propose a series of green streets in Pomona to

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

Los Angeles County and the City of Pomona Context Map


1.1 Setting Pomona is located approximately 27 miles east of Los Angeles, and is located in between the Inland Empire and the San Gabriel Valley. Some of the bordering cities include San Dimas, La Verne, and Claremont. All of the adjacent cities are important to the new Pomona Plan to provide inter-city connections through bike corridors. A major focus area for the project is Downtown Pomona. Downtown Pomona has an art colony, antique row, and a growing music scene. Other major connection points include major parks and universities.

1.2 Purpose and Goals The purpose of the project is to increase, improve and enhance bicycling in the City of Pomona as a safe, healthy and enjoyable means of transportation and recreation. The goals laid out by the

Pomona and its Bordering Cities

A Greener and Safer Pomona

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project are increase the number and type of bicyclists in the City, make every street a safe place to ride a bicycle, and make the City of Pomona a bicycle friendly community. To accomplish the goals laid out, the project proposes to development a bike master plan and green street initiative. The two will work together to create a greener and safer Pomona. The first major goal of the project is to design a solution to connect bike ways to existing bike networks, prominent site features and adjacent cities. A successful bike plan will also reduce the dependency on vehicles for short trips, increase the frequency and amount time cyclist spend on their bikes, and to extend the range of bicycle travel through multimodal travel. The second major goal for the project is to create green corridors by connecting green spaces, parks, and areas of interest through the development CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

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of green streets. The addition of green street infrastructure in Pomona will increase clean air, reduce stormwater facility loads, reduce the urban heat island effect, and create a greener, more walkable city.

1.3 Context

A Greener and Safer Pomona

The development of the study will help produce a few items. First, best practices for bicycle planning and green street infrastructure will be recorded. Second, a viable bike master plan will be produced for the Pomona Valley Bike Coalition and the City of Pomona. Lastly, a hypothetical green street infrastructure plan will be produced, along with one fully developed area of the green street infrastructure plan.

The study begins with research and analysis of bicycle planning policy and practices, a look at best management practices for green streets, and an in depth look at some major cities on the west coast. The city must have a bike master plan, as well as a green infrastructure plan. After an assessment and evaluation of policy and practices of bike plans and greens streets, and a cross comparison of case studies is completed, a set of best practices will be produced. The best practices taken from the study will then feed into the development of a working bicycle plan and feasible green street infrastructure plan for the City of Pomona.

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

Bicycle and Pedestrian Friendly Corridor


A Greener and Safer Pomona

Chapter 2 Research and Analysis

7 CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS


A Greener and Safer Pomona

Pedal with respect The streets are for everyone Spandex shorts are not

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To develop a successful plan, it is important to examine current and past research on related material. Research and analysis ensures the work being developed is accurate and helpful. The analysis of written works from around the world helps to develop a framework for best practices. It also helps identify what works and what doesn’t work in the planning and development stages.

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Commuters on their way to work

2.1.1 Urban Planning and the Bicycle It is important to keep bicycles in mind when designing for the urban environment. There are some fundamental principles of planning for cyclists that a planner can use to help create a functional bicycle plan. It is crucial that plans to improve cycling conditions are integrated into all transportation plans (Hudson, 1982). The interaction between all modes of transportation is vital for creating a successful bicycle plan. This is especially

true between cars, bicycles, and pedestrians. Bicycles are traditionally used as a short trip mode of transportation, but the potential for longer commutes have increased dramatically (Hudson, 1982). If proper networks and facilities are available to cyclist, it may encourage riders of all types to bike more frequently. Links to public transportation are also important, which is why it is necessary to include a bicycle plan in all current transportation plans. It is important to encourage multi-modal travel, and allow bike access to busses and trains to encourage long distant riders to use bicycles as part of their commute.

A Greener and Safer Pomona

2.1 Bicycle Planning

Planning for cyclists is not a straight forward task. A bike master plan is not a product like a cycle track, but is used to ensure safe and efficient travel by bicycle in the urban landscape (Hudson, 1982). There are trade-offs between all modes of transportation that

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Bikes on public transit

CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS


are integrated in the transportation plan. Bicycle provisions will generally require the use of both existing infrastructure and the construction of special facilities for cyclists. This is where the development of bicycle networks and bicycle corridors come into play with the existing infrastructure.

A Greener and Safer Pomona

For all of it to work, there needs to be a realization that cyclists and drivers have to abide by the same rules. It helps to include education and enforcement programs in the bicycle plan to ensure that cyclists have the knowledge to be safe. Not only must cyclists have the knowledge of the rules, but also law enforcement officers. The enforcement of road rules for cyclists is a preventative measure, and increases safety.

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Riding in the rain

and fitter. Hilly environments can be intimidating for a novice rider. Climate plays a major role on cycling. A hot, cold, wet, or windy climate reduces frequency of bicycle use throughout the year.

2.1.2 Planning a Bicycle Network Bicycle planning is constantly evolving to follow new trends, regulations, and policies. It can be said that three different approaches to bicycle planning have developed over time: segregated bicycle routes, bike lanes, and integrated bicycle facilities. Bicycle Routes

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Riding next to a bus with no bike lane

The first approach is to develop a segregated bicycle route linking one part Natural physical constraints must of the city with another (Hudson, 1982). be taken into account when planning for The separated route is lined with different cyclist. The natural constraints of climate access points for cyclists. This approach is and topography play an important role the safest, but it does have limitations. It in the existing and proposed urban is hard to create separated routes when a infrastructure (Hudson, 1982). A major constraint for cyclists is the topography of city is already fully developed, and there the site. A hilly topography can sometimes just isn’t space for isolated bike routes. limit the riders to those who are younger CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS


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Example of a Class I bike path

Bicycle Lanes The second concept places bicycle lanes along secondary roads. The aim is to build up a network of cycle routes on secondary roads, avoiding main roads wherever possible, and supported by a variety of traffic management techniques (Hudson, 1982). The problem with this approach lies within the idea itself; redirecting cyclists to secondary roads. Doing so takes the cyclist off the main road, which tends to be the most direct and continuous routes for major destination points.

There are many different criteria that encourage a city to develop a bicycle network. Some of the more important criteria include safety, continuity, conveyance and directness, and attractiveness and interest. Safety, arguably the most important, is a driving factor for most new plans. Creating a separation of vehicle types on the right of way is a positive strategy to reduce traffic collisions.

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A Greener and Safer Pomona

Safety

Cyclist hit by a vehicle

Integrated Facilities

Connections and Continuity

The third and most recent approach is the integrating of bicycle facilities into the existing road system (Hudson, 1978). The changes occur on light-traffic streets that are not wide enough to allow for a bike lane. Integrated streets are used to fill in the gaps bike routes, and lanes leave behind. The three approaches to bicycle planning developed into the three classes of bicycle lanes common in urban planning today.

Continuity is also major driving factor, helping to create a well thought out bicycle plan. It is also important to identify missing links and gaps along arterial bicycle routes. Conveyance and directness are similar but both significant. Directness involves creating a route from A to B in the most undeviating way possible. On the other hand, conveyance is meant to give bicyclists access to all points of interest along the bicycle CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS

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A Greener and Safer Pomona

network. A criterion that can be easily overlooked is attractiveness and interest. Avid cyclists are not so much interested in the attractiveness of a network, because he or she will ride anyway. Attractiveness of a route is more geared towards the recreational cyclist, giving them a reason to take a ride.

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Identifying Spaces Investigation of opportunities and constraints for a site is important to know where to develop a functional bicycle plan. A few preliminary things to look at include traffic volumes and speed, right of way widths, pedestrian volumes and flows, major barriers, good and bad intersections, and lastly gradients and topography (Hudson, 1982). These particular items can help identify opportunities and constraints for a site. It is necessary to take an inventory and evaluation of existing bicycle facilities, as well as the preliminary guidelines. Danger zones can be avoided, and alternatively CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS

Cyclists riding on the freeway during a critical mass

there can be hubs and points of interests for cyclists. Facility Sizing The components of a plan may differ based on the size of the site, but it can be broken down into three levels. The city level is broad, and most suitable for master plans. From there, a city can be broken down to the district level, and eventually the subdistrict level (Hudson, 1982). Depending on the amount of detail needed, the different levels will show different components and facilities.

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Bike to Work logo


Potential use of a bike network will be mostly affected by the current use and the need for travel. Levels of bicycle use are really dependent on the purpose for riding. The purpose of bicycle journeys are dependent of five major needs to travel: work, shopping, social, education, or personal business. Three quarters of all trips made by bicycle, and all other modes of transportation are of the five types (Hudson, 1978). The need is no different between cars and bicycles. This leads to the difference between number of trips versus the distance traveled. Image 02-09

Overall growth of bike commuting

Developing a Plan

A Greener and Safer Pomona

2.1.3 Bicycle Use

The casual rider may take longer rides, but the time between rides is greater than those who have to ride every

Before anything, a plan must start with the existing conditions and street elements. Once the base plan is set, major points can be identified to create linking elements. This is important to develop directness and continuity of a site. Potential areas for segregated bike routes can be identified to create a safe and preferred ride for cyclists. Once a plan is developed, it can be beneficial for the community to increase education and enforcement. Both education and enforcement help to increase safety. Education can help guide novice riders, and enforcement of bike laws and safety will help riders of all levels.

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Artistic interpretation of the seasons

CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS


A Greener and Safer Pomona

day. Consistent riders are those riding to work and school, and variable riders are those for shopping, social, and personal business. The average distance traveled is predominately for trips between one and three miles (Hudson, 1978). If most of points of interest are within one and three miles, then it may be of best interest to develop a bicycle plan. Deterring Factors

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There are many factors that can deter novice riders from riding a certain route, or even at all. Factors affecting bicycle use include topography, weather, safety, and costs to the user (Hudson, 1982). Hilly areas must be looked at carefully or be avoided all together. Weather conditions can really affect whether a cyclist will ride, yet riders still choose to battle the elements, wearing appropriate clothing and gear. When it comes down to safety, it is fear which can prevent someone from riding.

Fear of Riding

Mapping a bicycle route of a trip

Fear can arise from different situation like: vehicle traffic, high congestion, long distances, and unsafe neighborhoods (Hudson,1978). Most of the fears that arise from riding can be overcome with experience. The more experience a person has with cars, the less they become a factor. These fears usually pertain to novice riders. On the other hand, many people ride because of the costs to the user.

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CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS

Riding longer distances to unknown places can be fun


• Routes should be as direct as possible • Routes should avoid heavily trafficked roads • Routes should have convenient access points which are clearly signed • Routes should not end at hazardous locations • Routes should be swept and vegetation cut back regularly • Routes should be continuous as possible • The destination of routes should be clearly marked • Anyone else sharing the route should be alerted to the presence of cyclists • Routes should have good sight-lines throughout • Routes should avoid areas subject to extreme climate conditions

A Greener and Safer Pomona

The Ideal Characteristics of Bicycle Routes

• Routes should be well lit • Routes should be attractive The Price of Riding Riding a bicycle is practically free, except for the initial purchase of a bicycle. Other purchases include bike maintenance and cycling gear. As gas prices increase, it seems as if people are more inclined to take the cheaper alternatives like public transportation and cycling.

2.1.4 Routes for Cyclist When conducting site visits, data should be taken on certain key features present on the right of way. Street conditions highly influence the best route for a cyclist. The data collected goes towards general improvements to the road system to help create a bikeable network. First thing cyclists notice is the surface conditions of their ride. Surface conditions include degrading asphalt,

existing unevenness, potholes, and sunken and raised utility points (Hudson, 1978). Any of these items can become a nuisance for the rider, but items like potholes can cause serious damage as well. Lighting is important along a bike route to create a safe environment for all riders. To keep routes looking great and functional, regular maintenance has to occur.

2.1.5 Designing Bicycle Facilities The purpose of this section is to provide some of the design standards used to design bicycle facilities, and understand how bicyclist operate and how their bicycles influence that operation. It is important to understand the needs of a cyclist to design high quality facilities and minimize the risks to users. Space for a cyclist can vary, but it is best to provide CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS

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Example of a bike path

a comfortable experience. In most cases, four feet is the minimum acceptable operating width, but five feet or more is preferred. It is important to keep that in mind when designing for bicyclist. Bicycle Paths Bicycle paths (Caltrans designation Class I) are great, because they allow for two-way, off-street bicycle use (“Technical design handbook,” 2010). Bicycle paths can provide a desirable facility, particularly for novice riders and children, recreational trips, and long distance commuter bicyclists of all skill levels who prefer separation from traffic. Since Class I facilities are placed along more private areas, it is recommended to include amenities such as lighting, signage, and fencing. When designing Class I facilities, major considerations include frequent access points from the local road network, and placing wayfinding signs to direct users to and from the path at major roadway crossings. CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS

Bicycle Lanes Bicycle lanes or Class II bicycle facilities (Caltrans designation) are defined as a portion of the roadway that has been designated by striping, signage, and pavement markings for the preferential or exclusive use of bicyclists (“Technical design handbook,” 2010). Bicycle lanes are the most common built and used facility in most cities, because they provide bicyclists with their own space on the roadway and enable them to ride at their preferred speed without interference from existing traffic conditions with very little infrastructure. Bicycle lanes create predictable behavior and movements between bicyclists and motorists, but on on-street parking can be a problem. Crashes caused by a suddenly

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Example of a bike lane


Bicycle routes on local streets should have vehicle traffic volumes under 1,000 vehicles per day, and traffic calming may be appropriate on streets that exceed this limit (“Technical design handbook,” 2010). The larger volume of vehicles may encourage high travel speeds, which is not safe for a bicyclist sharing the lane. Traffic calming treatments may be considered such as diagonal diverters, one-way closures, chicanes, chokers and other applicable treatments to preserve bicycle permeability and limit through vehicle access (LA Tech 54).

A Greener and Safer Pomona

opened vehicle door are a hazard for bicyclists using this type of facility (“Technical design handbook,” 2010). Having wider bike lanes may encourage bicyclists to ride farther away from parked vehicles. Although it can be safer for the cyclist, frequent signage and pavement markings are important with wide bicycle lanes to make sure motorists do not mistake the bike lane for a vehicle travel lane or parking lane. Bicycle Routes and Bicycle Friendly Streets Bicycle routes or Class III bicycle facilities (Caltrans designation) are defined as facilities shared with motor vehicles. They are typically used on roads with low speeds and traffic volumes; however they can be used on higher volume roads with wide outside lanes or with shoulders (“Technical design handbook,” 2010). Class III bikeways are intended to provide continuity and connection to the bikeway system. They are established along through routes not served by Class I or II bikeways, or to connect discontinuous segments of bikeway. Class III facilities can be established by simply placing Bicycle Route signs along roadway, but can become much more complicated with the implementation of traffic calming measures and/or pavement stenciling. With higher volume streets, it may be more appropriate to take it a step further and develop a bicycle friendly street.

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Example of a bike friendly street

CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS


2.1.6 Bicycle Signage and Wayfinding

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Pavement Markings

18 Source: Technical design handbook, 2010 bicycle plan

CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS


Description

Facility Type Graphic Bicycle Path Class I

STOP signs shall be installed on shared-use paths at points where bicyclists are required to stop.

Bicycle Path Class I

YIELD signs shall be installed on shared-use paths at points where bicyclists have an adequate view of conflicting traffic as they approach the sign, and where bicyclists are required to yield the right-of-way to that conflicting traffic.

Where motor vehicles entering an exclusive right-turn lane must weave across bicycle traffic in bicycle lanes, the BEGIN RIGHT TURN LANE YIELD TO BIKES sign may be used to inform both the motorist and the bicyclist of this weaving maneuver.

Bicycle Path Class II

A Greener and Safer Pomona

Regulatory Signage

Bicycle Path Class I

The NO MOTOR VEHICLES sign may be installed at the entrance to a shared-use path.

Bicycle Path Class II The Bicycle WRONG WAY sign and RIDE WITH TRAFFIC plaque may be placed facing wrong-way bicycle traffic, such as on the left side of a roadway. This sign and plaque may be mounted back-to-back with other signs to minimize visibility to other traffic.

If the installation of signs is necessary to restrict parking, standing, or stopping in a bicycle lane.

Where pedestrians are prohibited, the No Pedestrians sign may be installed at the entrance to the facility.

Bicycle Path Class II

Bicycle Path Class I

19 Source: Technical design handbook, 2010 bicycle plan

CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS


Description The R9-5 sign may be used where the crossing of a street by bicyclists is controlled by pedestrian signal indications.

The R9-6 sign may be used where a bicyclist is required to cross or share a facility used by pedestrians and is required to yield to the pedestrians.

A Greener and Safer Pomona

The Shared-Use Path Restriction (R9-7) sign may be installed on facilities that are to be shared by pedestrians and bicyclists. The symbols may be switched as appropriate.

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Facility Type Graphic

Signal

Signal

Bicycle Path Class I

Where it is not intended for bicyclists to be controlled by pedestrian signal indications, the R10-3 sign may be used.

Signal

The Bicycle Signal Actuation sign may be installed at signalized intersections where markings are used to indicate the location where a bicyclist is to be positioned to actuate the signal.

Signal

The Bicycle Path Exclusion sign may be used to identify a bicycle path and prohibit motor vehicles and motorized bicycles from entering the bicycle path. If motorized bicycles are permitted, the “Motorized Bicycles” portion may be replaced with “Motorized Bicycles Permitted”.

Where it is not intended for bicyclists to be controlled by pedestrian signal indications, the BICYCLE PUSH BUTTON FOR GREEN LIGHT sign may be used.

The BICYCLE LANE sign shall be placed at the beginning of each designated Bicycle Lane and along each bicycle lane at all major changes in direction.

Source: Technical design handbook, 2010 bicycle plan

CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS

Bicycle Path Class I

Signal

Bicycle Path Class II


Description

Facility Type Graphic

If used, Bicycle Route Guide signs should be placed at the beginning and end of bicycle routes and repeated at regular intervals so that bicyclists entering from side streets will have an opportunity to know that they are on a bicycle route. Similar guide signing should be used for shared roadways with intermediate signs placed for bicyclist guidance. The M1-8 sign may be used on numbered routes.

Bicycle Path Class III

If used, Bicycle Route Guide (D11-1) signs should be provided at decision points along designated bicycle routes, including supplemental signs to inform bicyclists of bicycle route direction changes and confirmation signs for route direction, distance, and destination.

A Greener and Safer Pomona

Guide Signage

Option: The supplemental plaques may be mounted above the appropriate Bicycle Route Guide signs, Bicycle Route signs, or Interstate Bicycle Route signs. Destination signs may be mounted below Bicycle Route Guide signs, Bicycle Route signs, or Interstate Bicycle Route signs to furnish additional information, such as directional changes in the route, or intermittent distance and destination information. Guidance: If used, the appropriate arrow sign should be placed below the Bicycle Route Guide sign.

The BICYCLE PARKING AREA (D4-3) sign or BICYCLE PARKING (G93C(CA)) sign may be installed where it is desirable to show the direction to a designated bicycle parking area. The arrow may be reversed as appropriate.

Sign for Los Angeles River bikeway access. This sign may be used on all City of Los Angeles Streets that permit bicycle access to the Los Angeles River Bicycle Path.

Bicycle Parking

Bicycle Path Class I

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Source: Technical design handbook, 2010 bicycle plan

CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS


Warning Signage Description The Bicycle Warning sign alerts the road user to unexpected entries into the roadway by bicyclists, and other crossing activities that might cause conflicts. These conflicts might be relatively confined, or might occur randomly over a segment of roadway. This sign may use supplemental signs below the sign. Other bicycle warning signs such as SLIPPERY WHEN WET may be installed on bicycle facilities to warn bicyclists of conditions not readily apparent.

Other bicycle warning signs such as Hill may be installed on bicycle facilities to warn bicyclists of conditions not readily apparent. Other bicycle warning signs such as BIKEWAY NARROWS may be installed on bicycle facilities to warn bicyclists of conditions not readily apparent. Other bicycle warning signs such as NARROW BRIDGE may be installed on bicycle facilities to warn bicyclists of conditions not readily apparent.

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May be used to warn bicycle path users of pedestrian activity.

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May be used to warn bikeway users of a traffic signal ahead.

Facility Type Graphic Non Bikeways Facilities

All Bikeways

All Bikeways

Bicycle Path Class I

All Bikeways

Bicycle Path Class I

All Bikeways

Other bicycle warning signs such as BUMP may be installed on bicycle facilities to warn bicyclists of conditions not readily apparent.

All Bikeways

Other bicycle warning signs such as DIP may be installed on bicycle facilities to warn bicyclists of conditions not readily apparent.

All Bikeways

May warn bicycle path users of a playground ahead that may be adjacent to the path.

Bicycle Path Class I

In situations where there is a need to warn motorists to watch for bicyclists traveling along the highway, the SHARE THE ROAD plaque may be used in conjunction with the W11-1 sign.

Bicycle Path Class III

Source: Technical design handbook, 2010 bicycle plan

CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS


A green street initiative for Pomona can connect existing vegetated areas, while supporting a bike network, creating safer and greener streets. Green street strategies are used to mimic natural systems to manage stormwater at its source; before entering local water systems. These strategies help enhance ecosystem services that improve health and community livability, reduce energy use, and counter climate change.

2.2.1 Defining Green Streets The current urban model is filled with hardscape and impervious surfaces. The hardscape model was developed to be as efficient as possibly by quickly removing water from the site. The drawback of this approach is the significant amount runoff from hardscape surfaces that enters the city stormwater facility. Green streets work to reduce the flow rate of runoff. It is important to

Image 02-16

“No Dumping, Drains to Ocean�

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2.2 Stormwater Management and Green Streets

slow down the water in order to prevent flooding. Another goal for green streets is to hold a volume of water on site that can either evaporate or infiltrate. It is essential to watch flow and volume to ensure the right green infrastructure strategy is chosen. Just by taking a look around, many impervious surfaces can be identified. Some of the most prominent impervious surfaces in the urban

23 Image 02-17

Examples of Gray to Green strategies

CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS


Image 02-18

Los Angeles River

A Greener and Safer Pomona

landscape include roofs, roads, sidewalks, and parking lots. Although all of these examples contribute to stormwater runoff, the mitigation strategies used to manage stormwater can vary. Of the mentioned types of surfaces, roofs, streets, and parking lots have the most potential for change.

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City streets are a large contributor to the effects of runoff and flooding. Current engineering standards focus on moving water quickly off site, but why not hold that water instead? This is where green infrastructure and storm water management comes into play. Landscaping and vegetation have great potential to hold water, reducing storm facility loads. One principle of green infrastructure involves reducing and treating stormwater close to its source. Urban transportation right-of-ways integrated with green techniques are often called “green streets�.

and more livable communities, through the integration of stormwater treatment techniques which use natural processes and landscaping. Green streets can incorporate a wide variety of design elements. Although the design and appearance of green streets will vary, the functional goals are the same: provide source control of stormwater, limit its transport and pollutant conveyance to the collection system, and provide environmentally enhanced roads. Green Streets are designed to mimic local hydrology prior to development.

2.2.2 Green Street Strategies Green Street facilities manage stormwater runoff as a resource rather than a waste. Green Streets capture stormwater runoff and allow it to soak into the ground as soil and vegetation filter pollutants. This replenishes groundwater and supplies clean water to rivers and streams. Green Streets also make attractive streetscapes that connect

Green Streets achieve multiple benefits, such as improved water quality Image 02-19

CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS

Example of a stormwater planter box


Example of pervious paving

business districts, parks and schools. Green streets can also be designed to accommodate the diverse traffic needs of cars, trucks, pedestrians and bicyclists. Pervious Paving Pervious paving allows rainwater to either pass through the paving system itself or through joint openings between the pavers (Perry, 2013). Pervious pavement surfaces have great potential, but seem to lack the support and acceptance it deserves. Pervious pavements can help with water infiltration, and reduce the size of other stormwater facilities. Pervious surfaces are perfect for high density urban environment where drainage and runoff may be an issue. There are a few different types of pervious paving options. The two major alternatives are pervious hardscape systems and the other is a series of interlocking unit pavers. The benefit to using pervious concrete is the wide application range. Concrete and asphalt are highly used in the urban design, and pervious concrete and asphalt can be used anywhere from streets to parking lots.

Reinforced grid systems are great for their ease of installation and design flexibility. Different gravel color choices, and low growing plant materials allow for installing options that can add an extra effect to any design. A major drawback to the reinforced grid system is the limited choice of installation locations – a low-use area. Although it may seem as a good solution, there are not many examples to show the success of a reinforced grid system.

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Image 02-20

Pervious pavers work very similarly to the pervious concrete surfaces. The main difference is the ability to have more control over design possibilities. Pavers can be used in a range of projects where the hardscape surfaces range from small to large paving areas. A major benefit to using unit pavers is the ability and ease to perform maintenance and repairs. A third and not so common option is the use of alternative surfaces like gravel and grass.

Vegetated swales Vegetated swales are shallow landscaped areas designed to capture,

25 Image 02-21

Example of a vegetated swale

CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS


convey, and potentially infiltrate stormwater runoff as it moves downstream (Perry, 2013). Vegetated swales have become a widely accepted stormwater strategy, and the great thing is the simplicity of infrastructure compared to other stormwater strategies.

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Vegetated swales are best suited to new residential and commercial developments, but are also a great solution in a retrofit project. Once a suitable location is decided upon, the next challenge is the process of incorporating pedestrian circulation into the swale-andstreet-parking relationship. Proper access to cars and businesses is important, it can make or break a project.

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Image 02-22

Example of a flow-through planter box

Infiltration and Flow-Through Planters Infiltration and flow-through planters are contained landscape areas designed to capture and retain stormwater runoff (Perry, 2013). The difference between the two is having the ability to let water infiltrate into the native soils, recharging ground water. CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS

Flow-through planters are used in situations where there are very poor soils, underground utilities, or other restrictions. Both types of planters focus on holding large volumes of water and reducing the flow of moving water. The reduction of flow helps to prevent flooding of current storm drain systems. Planters are best used in high density urban environments, and can be used with or without on-street parking being present. The great thing about the planters is the high versatility of shape and size, including the ability to work with existing streetscape elements like signs, street lights, and parking meters. Rain Gardens Rain gardens function in a very similar way to vegetated swales. Rain gardens are shallow landscape areas that can collect, slow, filter, and absorb large volumes or water, delaying discharge into the watershed system (Perry, 2013). The difference between a rain garden and a vegetated swale is the size difference. A rain garden does not require a linear length, and can be very large. Because

Image 02-23

Example of a rain garden


Stormwater Curb Extensions Stormwater curb extensions are landscape areas within the parking zone of a street that capture stormwater and allow it to interact with plants and soil (Perry, 2013). There are openings along the edge of curb extension which allow water to move freely into and out of the curb extension. The focus of a stormwater curb extension is to reduce flow rates of stormwater runoff. As water moves through the vegetation, the water is cleaned, but the speed of flow is also reduced drastically. Additionally, stormwater curb extensions can effect right of way.

Image 02-24

Example of a stormwater curb extension

Vegetated Stormwater Swale Planter Low-Density Residential

The use of curb extensions can significantly slow down vehicle traffic on the right of way, creating a safer pedestrian corridor. Curb extensions remove some of the street area which is usually reserved for parking. Green Gutters Green gutters help capture and slow stormwater runoff within very narrow and shallow landscaped areas along a street or parking lot edge (Perry, 2013). A green gutter can easily be planted with sedum or turf grass to create a nice vegetated strip. It may not seem like a large area of space to collect water, but a long continuous strip of vegetation has the capability to hold water across its entirety. Green gutters create a great buffer between pedestrians, hardscape

Image 02-25

Curb Extension

Pervious Paving

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of its size, a rain garden can significantly green a space, and have large flow and volume benefits.

Example of a green gutter

Green Garden

Rain Garden

(site dependent)

High-Density Residential Commercial Main Street

(site dependent)

(site dependent)

(site dependent)

Arterial and Boulevard

27 Standard Bicycle Rider Dimensions

CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS


areas, and vehicle traffic, and is a low cost strategy to implement.

2.2.3 Levels of Green Streets

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Just as there are different classes of bike lanes, there are different levels of green streets. Level 1 green streets are most common and are easy to implement. On the other hand, Level 5 green streets use a combination of strategies, and require a lot of planning. Level 1 green streets can be implemented in most areas that can offer at least a little space for planting. The next level does require more planting material, but the tree canopies do offer many benefits for the environment and the community. Level 1 and 2 green streets require little effort, yet the idea of green street infrastructure has not yet caught on. Level 3 streets require more

infrastructure in chances of uptaking most of the surrounding urban runoff. It would be ideal for cities to try to and shoot for. Level 3 green streets, and maybe Level 4 wouldn’t be so farfetched. Planning and policy departments can make adjustments to account for alternative transportation. Level 5 will be the hardest to achieve in part of the contrast between public and private realms exist.

2.2.4 Benefits There are many types of green street strategies and they all provide a wide variety of benefits. Specifically, benefits along the street right of way are most important for urban runoff. These strategies provide multiple benefits along the street right of way like the development of an integrated system

Levels of Green Streets Level 1 Maximize landscaped areas along the street and minimize overall impervious areas Level 2 Significant tree canopy is added to the urban streetscape Level 3 Stormwater runoff is fully managed from the street, sidewalk, and driveway areas within a landscaped system. Design solutions area park-like, provide direct environmental benefits, and are aesthetically pleasing. Level 4 Green streets provide a direct focus on alternate modes of transportation including mass transit, biking and walking. Level 5 The building, site, and street frontage become one integrated space for stormwater management. The entire green street “envelope� manages both public and private

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runoff. Kevin Perry, Active Stormwater Design Strategies 2013

CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS


Volume reductions in stormwater reduce the volume of water discharged via pipe into receiving streams, rivers and larger bodies of water (“Low impact development,” 2008). Reducing the volume of water entering the pipe system also reduces pollutant loads and the chances of flooding. Also, The addition of more tree canopies can help improve

local air quality by providing interception of airborne particulates, and add more shade for cooling to help combat the urban heat island effect (“Low impact development,” 2008). Green streets are an aesthetic enhancement, improve economic development, and improve pedestrian experience along the street right of way (“Low impact development,” 2008). Adding a touch of green to a pedestrian corridor can improve walking experiences, and encourage repeated and longer visits. Green streets have many benefits and can become a great addition to any city or street.

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of stormwater management within the right of way (“Low impact development,” 2008). It is a major positive to have active systems close to the pollutant source compared to the standard mechanical systems. The larger a system is, the more volume reduction the system is capable of.

29 CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS


A Greener and Safer Pomona 30 CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS


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Chapter 3 Case Studies

31 CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDIES


Take a trip with me Los Angeles to Portland

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West Coast city tour

32 CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDIES


Los Angeles County has a grand vision to create a more bicycle-friendly county through the implementation of a new bikeway plan. The County of Los Angeles Bicycle Master Plan (LA Plan) proposes a vision for a diverse regional bicycle system of interconnected bicycle corridors, support facilities, and programs. The programs are implemented to make bicycling more practical and desirable to a broader range of people in the County. The last bicycle plan the City of Los Angeles adopted was the 1975 County Bikeway Plan, and the new plan provides direction for improving higher mobility and encourages bicycle ridership in the County. A greater local and

regional connectivity encourages more residents to commute to work and bicycle more often. Los Angeles County wants a more bicycle-friendly county that reduces traffic congestion and its carbon footprint, and provides improved opportunities for bicycling and active transportation. Southern California was designed and built mostly in the 20th Century, and the prevailing idea at the time was to move water quickly and directly to the ocean (Chau, 2009). On the engineering stand point, this would be an efficient system, but ecologically this method of handling runoff can be harmful and not sustainable. According to EnvironmentLA, urban runoff is the number one source of pollution in southern California (Tam, 2011). Many fluids and other toxins are released by vehicles on the right of way,

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3.1 Los Angeles County, California

33 Image 03-01

Large group of cyclist at CicLAvia

CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDIES


examples of green infrastructure in the City of Los Angeles, but there a major plans to change that. There are at least two that have been completed and two that are in construction. These pilot projects are being used as study models to help gain knowledge of its efficiency.

3.1.1 Los Angeles County Bike Master Plan

Green streets are an emerging and important stormwater management trend. Rather than focusing efforts on storm infrastructure, it would be beneficial to capitalize on the valuable services that nature can offer us: capturing, cleaning, and storing stormwater.

The Los Angeles County Bike Master Plan is divided into five major sections: Introduction; Goals, Policies, and Implementation Action; Existing Condition and Proposed Networks; Education, Enforcement, Encouragement, and Evaluation Programs; and Funding and Implementation. The overarching goal of the Bike Master Plan is to increase bicycling throughout the County of Los Angeles through the development and implementation of bicycle-friendly policies, programs, and infrastructure.

To develop a successful transportation,

Image 03-02

Los Angeles Green Street Pilot Project

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and it is usually washed up on the first rain of the season. The use of green street infrastructure can help mitigate the effects of urban runoff pollution.

There are not too many current

34 Image 03-03

CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDIES

Cyclist riding along the LA River


Goal 1 - Bikeway System: Expanded, improved, and interconnected system of County bikeways and bikeway support facilities. Goal 2 - Safety: Increased safety of roadways for all users. Goal 3 - Education: Develop education programs that promote safe bicycling. Goal 4 - Encouragement Programs: Encourage County residents to walk or ride a bike for transportation and recreation.

Image 03-05

Community engagement

enforcement is also important for night time safety.

Goal 5 - Community Support: Community

Encouragement programs are important to the Los Angeles County Bike Goal 6 - Funding: Funded Bikeway Plan. Master Plan, because they play a major The bicycle education program role in improving cycling conditions in calls for community bicycle education the County. It is important to encourage courses targeted for both young and adult riders of all ages to ride more frequently. riders. The traffic enforcement plan is There are different programs in the Plan implemented to improve conditions for all to encourage cyclist to ride to work and roadway users. It is important for cyclist to school, but to also encourage more know the rules of the road to avoid and participation in the community. While prevent any accidents, and a bicycle light the Plan is intended to guide bicycling in the County for the next 20 years, implementation will be a little slow.

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the plan calls for the following goals:

supported bicycle network.

3.1.2 Los Angeles Green Streets

Image 03-04

Education bicycle course demonstration

The City of Los Angeles does not currently have many active green street projects, but have developed a green infrastructure plan to get the City moving in the right direction. Green street strategies are also referred to as Low Impact Development (LID) strategies. The City put together a thorough document that goes into understanding Low Impact CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDIES

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the source of the problem, rather than at the end of the storm drain outlet. It is important to prevent additional pollution from entering surrounding bodies of water.

Image 03-06

Los Angeles Green Street Pilot Project

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Development, and more importantly, making LID strategies work for Los Angeles. First, understanding Low Impact Development is important to grasp to achieve the idea of a sustainable right of way Los Angeles is trying to achieve. While conventional stormwater controls aim to move water quickly as possible off-site, LID strategies aim to keep as much water on-site as possible for absorption and infiltration in order to clean it naturally. LID strategies focus on controlling urban runoff and pollution at

Green infrastructure’s benefits also include functions such as pollution removal, carbon sequestration, and groundwater recharge (Chau, 2009). Vegetation is the natural way to combat pollution, and green infrastructure aims to take advantage of the capabilities plants have. The multiple functions of green infrastructure seem like the right choice, even in areas that don’t receive a lot of rain. Best Management Practices (BMP) are strategies, devices, or techniques that help achieve the goal of an LID to remove pollutants from water. It is important to keep in mind that these best management strategies utilize natural techniques, like vegetated swales and planters, and not mechanical strategies,

Key Principles of Low Impact Development • Decentralize & manage urban runoff to integrate water management throughout the watershed. • Preserve or restore the ecosystem’s natural hydrological functions and cycles. • Account for a site’s topographic features in its design. • Reduce impervious ground cover and building footprint. • Maximize infiltration on-site.

36

• If infiltration is not possible, then capture water for filtration and/or reuse.

CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDIES


like water treatment facilities. The Los Angeles green infrastructure and low impact development guide categorizes the best management practices into four categories: landscape, building, street and alley, and site planning best management practices. Low impact development offers a wide range of community benefits. It improves flood control, relieves pressure on the sewage treatment system, prevents river and ocean pollution, reduces the demand for water use, augments groundwater aquifers, mitigates climate change, provides natural green space, increases the availability of green jobs, and saves money on the capital costs for stormwater management infrastructure (Chau, 2009). A study done by Community Conservancy International in March 2008 found that nearly 40% of L.A. County’s needs for cleaning polluted runoff could be met by implementing low

Convergence of bike planning and green street planning

impact development projects on existing public lands. In addition, each ¼-acre of hardscape in Los Angeles has the potential to collect 100,000 gallons of rainwater per year (“The green solution,” 2008).

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Image 03-07

A separate study by the Natural Resource Defense Council from January 2009 found that an increased use of LID practices throughout residential and commercial properties in L.A. County would promote groundwater recharge and water capture and reuse, reducing the county’s dependence on distant sources of water (Miller, 2001). The

37 Image 03-08

Green infrastructure use in a parking lot

CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDIES


increased use of LID in Los Angeles and the ground water recharge would result in a reduction of imported water every year. Since Los Angeles County would be pumping less water from distant locations, there are major potential energy and money savings. LIDs could also mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gases through the reduction of distant pumping and energy to do so. Low impact development can be a cost effective solution to problems pertaining to water quality and water supply, as well the other benefits noted,

such as flood control, and creation of more natural spaces. For instance, research conducted in Los Angeles has found that the City can significantly increase its water supply, improve climate change issues, and address of much of the pollution found in urban runoff by converting its paved areas from gray to green (Chau, 2009). The City of Los Angeles is well underway toward implementing the principles of low impact development into its designs for streets, sidewalks and alleys, through its Green Streets and Green Alleys program.

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Water Supply and Demand Issues

How LID Helps

Supporting Facts

In Los Angeles, the primary source of pollution in oceans and rivers is urban runoff.

Stormwater retention basins and rainwater catchment systems reduce the volume of contaminated water headed for creeks, rivers and the ocean.

Nearly 40% of polluted runoff needs in L.A. County could be met by implementing “Green Solution” projects on existing public lands.

Biological filtration by plants and soils can remove pollutants and sediments from urban runoff.

In Seattle, a green street using a series of waterfall-like bioretention features captured up to 92% of pollutants through infiltration and plant uptake.

The City’s 34,000 catch basins carry trash and contaminants from the streets straight out to the ocean, with no treatment. Five of the 10 most polluted beaches in California are in L.A. County.

Heritage Park in Minneapolis uses filtration basins and ponds to remove 70-80% of total phosphorous and 85% of sediment from local runoff. Source: Green Infrastructure for Los Angeles

38 CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDIES


Issues Heavy rains can cause flooding. “On a typical dry summer day, an average of about 24 million gallons per day (mgd) flows through the storm drain system into the Santa Monica Bay. In a heavy rain storm, this flow can increase to over one billion gallons per day.” Stormwater often leaks into aging sewage pipes, straining the capacity of our treatment facilities. During a storm, the flow into the Hyperion Sewage Treatment Plant can double.

How LID Helps

Supporting Facts

Reduces the quantity of urban runoff and prevents flooding. Provides natural plants and soil which absorb excess stormwater.

Planted drainage swales in Seattle’s “SEA Streets” project reduced runoff volume by 99% and cost 25% less than conventional street designs. Simulated tests of curb bumpouts installed on Siskiyou Street in Portland, OR found that the vegetated swales absorbed enough water (85%) to prevent neighborhood basements from flooding.

Relieves pressure placed on sewage treatment plant during rain events because less stormwater seeps into the sewage system.

Rain gardens in Burnsville, MN retained 90% of storm runoff, even when rain was greater than the targeted 0.9-inch storm.13

The entire City of Los Angeles is approximately 47% impervious surfaces.

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Flood Control and Wastewater Management

Source: Green Infrastructure for Los Angeles

River and Ocean Pollution Issues

How LID Helps

Supporting Facts

The L.A. area regularly faces water shortages and does not generate enough water to sustain itself.

Decreases Los Angeles’ dependence on outside sources of water.

Widespread use of water infiltration, capture and reuse in L.A. County would result in the savings of 74,600–152,500 acrefeet of imported water per year by 2030.22 (Equivalent to the water consumption of 456,300–929,700 people.)

Only 13% of L.A. City’s water supply comes from local groundwater. 48% of L.A. City’s water supply originates from the Mono Basin and Owens Valley aqueducts.

Reduces the demand for irrigation water because rainwater is slowed and captured for infiltration into the ground. Some methods also capture water for reuse. Increases the supply in the local water table.

At least 30% of all the water used in the City of Los Angeles is Promotes or requires the use of used outdoors. drought-tolerant plants.

Each ¼-acre lot in L.A. has the potential to generate100,000 gallons of stormwater annually. By disconnecting 60,000 gutter downspouts, Portland diverted 1.5 billion gallons of stormwater per year.

Source: Green Infrastructure for Los Angeles

39 CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDIES


Climate Change Issues

How LID Helps

Fossil fuels are the #1 source of the greenhouse gases that cause Increasing the local water supply means that Los Angeles will use climate change. less energy pumping water from distant locations. World temperatures could rise by between 2.0 and 11.5 °F Trees and landscaping during the 21st century. counteract climate change Blacktop surfaces can elevate by absorbing excess carbon surrounding city temperatures as dioxide. much as 10°F. Shade from trees and In the summer, central Los evapotranspiration by plants Angeles is typically 5°F warmer reduce the heat island effect. than surrounding suburban and rural areas due to the heat island effect.

Supporting Facts Water systems account for 19% of the electricity used in the state of California. L.A. County could save 131,700–428,000 mWh of energy per year if less water was transported from Northern California.29 (Equivalent to electricity use of 20,000– 64,800 households.) Each shade tree in L.A. prevents the combustion of 18kg of carbon annually and sequesters an additional 4.5–11kg of carbon per year.

Source: Green Infrastructure for Los Angeles

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Green Space and Community Improvements Issues

How LID Helps

Supporting Facts

Los Angeles ranks last among major cities in per capita open space. The National Recreation and Parks Association recommends 10 acres of park space per 1,000 residents. L.A. barely reaches 10% of this national standard with a mere 1.107 acres per 1,000 residents.

Increases parks, open space and landscaping.

L.A.’s Sepulveda Basin Wildlife Refuge is used to control major floods. It also provides 225 acres of wildlife habitat and recreation opportunities.

Complements the goals of the city’s Million Trees LA Campaign. Adds more wildlife habitat and enhances wetlands vegetation.

Many LID measures, such as increased landscaping, are Many L.A. neighborhoods do aesthetically pleasing and help not have any substantial trees or to beautify communities and street landscaping. According make the city more pedestrianto a canopy analysis prepared friendly. for the City in 2006, L.A. has an average of only 21% canopy cover; in some districts, the canopy cover is as low as 7%. Source: Green Infrastructure for Los Angeles

40 CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDIES

Tree-lined streets are more walkable because they provide shade and some separation between cars and pedestrians. Attractive landscaping and plantings can increase property values by 15%. Trees and well-maintained grassy areas create a welcoming neighborhood atmosphere. Studies show this promotes social health and reduces crime and violent behavior.


Portland’s first Bicycle Master Plan was adopted by City Council in 1996, updated in 1998, and now a 20 year plan was adopted in 2010. The new plan is titled, Portland Bicycle Plan for 2030. The plan created a cost-effective blueprint for developing an interconnected bicycle network supported by innovative policies and programs to encourage bicycling (“Portland bicycle plan,” 2010). The City of Portland is trying to create a worldclass bicycle city by the year 2030, and the new plan may hopefully help make that jump. A major theme of the new plan is that the City must plan and design for people who are not yet riding, and must create conditions that make bicycling more attractive than driving for short trips (“Portland bicycle plan,” 2010). To achieve the goals bicycle plan has set, Portland must strengthening City policies in support of bicycling. To fully develop the idea of a world-class bicycle city,

Image 03-09

Bicycle infrastructure in Portland

Image 03-10

Example of curb extension in Portland

Portland must provide more and better bicycle parking, expand educational and encouragement programs and develop ongoing measures of success. To add to the success of bicycle city, the City of Portland, has increased its commitment to funding green infrastructure for stormwater.

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3.2 Portland, Oregon

Green Streets have become a huge component of the City of Portland’s efforts to manage street runoff. There are approximately 500 facilities currently installed, with an expected increase to 1,500 by the year 2013 (Kurtz, 2008). The City has developed a Gray to Green initiative that will expand Portland’s green infrastructure to manage stormwater runoff more naturally, control invasive plants, restore native vegetation, protect sensitive natural areas, and replace culverts that impede fish passage (“Portland bicycle plan,” 2010)). The Gray to Green Initiative will provide safe bike routes and help those in Portland to adapt to a changing climate. CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDIES

41


3.2.1 Portland, Oregon Bike Master Plan The Portland Bicycle Plan for 2030 sets the mood for developing a world-class bicycling city and develop a framework for bicycling policy. To build a world class bicycling city, Portland must first and foremost increase bicycle use. To increase bicycle use, Portland has set a plan to expanding their current bicycle network based on three key strategies: 1. Introduce safe, comfortable and attractive bikeways that can carry more bicyclists and serve all types and all ages of users, building on the best design practices of great bicycling cities around the world. 2. Construct a dense network of bikeways so that all Portland residents can easily find and

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access a route. 3. Create a cohesive network with direct routes that take people where they want to go (“Portland bicycle plan,” 2010).

According to Portland’s bicycle plan, bicycling creates safer streets, reduces the causes of global climate change and promotes a healthy environment, and limits the causes and health care costs related to obesity (Portland, 2010). There are many benefits for cycling, and Portland wants to take stand on bicycling to further develop Portland into a world-class bicycling city. There have been a few major changes to Portland’s identity, and for the past ten years Portland has enjoyed a vibrant transportation system that promotes bicycling, walking and transit (“Portland bicycle plan,” 2010). The Portland Bicycle Plan for 2030 builds upon what the city has done before and intends to compliment other transportation plans and efforts to develop the idea of a world-class bicycling city. There is a plan to use alternative transportation in conjunction with bicycles.

42 Image 03-11

CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDIES

Bicycle directional signage in Portland


One of many bike cultures in Portland

Portland is seeking a reduction in short distance trips by car. Portland also intends to fully integrate bicycling into the Portland Plan Project, and create conditions that make bicycling more attractive than driving for trips three miles or less and integrate support for bicycling into other Transportation System Plan policies (“Portland bicycle plan,” 2010). To develop a new bike master plan, the City of Portland examined bicycle transportation systems. The connections between destinations are most important, as well as integrating bicycling with other travel modes. There is a focus to engage with partners to improve and simplify connections and transfers between bicycling and other travel modes. Portland will put in effort to engage public and private partners into conforming to the bicycle. Portland is a leader in green infrastructure, so it was only natural for the bicycle plan to include green networks. The heart of the network is the regional connected trail system. Feeding the trail system are streets with

The Portland Bicycle Plan for 2030 also focuses on the importance of programs to support bicycling. The bicycle plan proposed to expand the City of Portland’s offering of maps, information and trip planning to encourage new bicyclists and increase convenience for those who are already riding (“Portland bicycle plan,” 2010). This change will help the city promote short and long term changes. Outreach events and classes are a great way to get residents to learn about the new bicycle plan and bicycle safety.

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Image 03-12

park-like features. Together, these green corridors connect neighborhoods, parks, commercial districts, schools, natural areas and transit. They provide vegetated connections that help improve air and water quality and contribute to a healthy environment (“Portland bicycle plan,” 2010). Green street features and bicycle transportation improvements are mutually supportive.

43 Image 03-13

Obeying traffic laws on Portland streets

CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDIES


3.2.2 Portland, Oregon Green Streets

A Greener and Safer Pomona

Portland has a great amount of rainfall each year, so it is important for the City of Portland to have a really efficient stormwater system. Portland’s average annual rainfall generates approximately ten billion gallons of stormwater runoff (“Portland’s green infrastructure,” 2010). The City had to reduce peak flow to prevent flooding, and improve watershed qualities. Portland with the help of a few pioneers, developed alternatives to reduce peek flows and water volumes. The City of Portland is a national leader in green development practices and sustainable stormwater management, and has increased its commitment to funding green infrastructure for stormwater management through the Grey to Green (G2G) Initiative (“Portland’s green infrastructure,” 2010).

The purpose of the G2G Initiative is to expand the City’s current green infrastructure projects, and focus on the benefits beyond watershed health like providing services and benefits related to community livability, health, and energy (Entrix). To capture the range of benefits provided by the G2G green infrastructure, Portland started thinking in terms of benefits that people derive from natural ecosystems. By restoring natural ecosystems and integrating natural areas into the urban ecosystem, the G2G best management practices are providing a combination of provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural services (“Portland’s green infrastructure,” 2010). The City of Portland has well established green street projects, that will help the city reach the goals the Gray to Green Initiative has placed.

44 Image 03-14

CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDIES

Siskiyou Street, Portland Green Street Project


A Greener and Safer Pomona

Chapter 4 Best Practices

45 CHAPTER 4: BEST PRACTICES


Look front, Look both ways Cyclist check your surroundings

A Greener and Safer Pomona

Right-on Red, now dead

46 CHAPTER 4: Best Practices


The purpose of the project is to increase, improve and enhance bicycling in the City of Pomona as a safe, healthy and enjoyable means of transportation and recreation. The goals laid out by the project are increase the number and type of bicyclists in the City, make every street a safe place to ride a bicycle, and make the City of Pomona a bicycle friendly community. To develop a successful bike master plan, it is important to reference the 6 E’s of Equity: equality, engineering, enforcement, education, encouragement, and evaluation.

4.1.1 Equality Bicycles must be considered and treated as equal road vehicles and bicyclists must be treated as full and equal drivers of vehicles in traffic laws

and policies. Knowing that both cars and bicycles are equals on the road creates a safer environment for cyclists. Motorists especially must realize that they are not the only ones on the road. Bicyclist must know that they do not have priority over vehicles, but just the same. When developing a plan, it is crucial that plans to improve cycling conditions are integrated into all transportation plans. There must be a sense of equality in three major categories in bike planning: streets, parking, and transit.

A Greener and Safer Pomona

4.1 Bike Master Planning Best Practices

Streets It is important for the establishment of new street standards and measurement tools which will facilitate the opportunity to incorporate bicycle lanes and other engineering enhancements in city streets. To help achieve the goals set out, the bike plan is to develop a comprehensive

47 Image 04-01

Colored bike lanes notify drivers of bike lanes

CHAPTER 4: BEST PRACTICES


transportation and recreation bikeway system for Pomona. Having a successful plan can help increase cycling, and a safe place to ride. Parking Parking is important, because bicycle parking must be provided at both the beginning and end of each bicycle trip. Safe, visible and accessible bicycle parking is essential to encourage greater levels of bicycling activity. Also, the plan is set to provide convenient and secure bicycle parking and support facilities citywide.

A Greener and Safer Pomona

Transit Alternate forms of transportation can work together with cycling, and the bike plan would work best with coordination of bicycling with all transit facilities. The development of the bike plan would help expand bicyclists’ mobility through the integration of

48 Image 04-02

Put bike access on public transportation

CHAPTER 4: Best Practices

Image 04-03

Parking removed to accommodate bikes

bicycling into the City’s transit system. Links to public transportation are also important, which is why it is necessary to include a bicycle plan in all current transportation plans. Through equity and equality, the plan and its programs will allow bike access to busses and trains to encourage long distant riders to use bicycles as part of their commute.

4.1.2 Engineering Engineering consists of all of the physical aspects of the built environment which can affect the actual bicycling experience; bicycle lanes, paths, curb bulb-out, and even the condition of the street surface. The new bike plan should help design all streets in Pomona so that they incorporate higher standards of pedestrian, bike, and vehicle relationships. Before anything, a plan must start with the existing conditions and street elements. Once the base plan is set, major points can be identified to create linking elements. This is important to develop directness and continuity of


4.1.3 Enforcement To assure a safe bicycling environment for riders of all experience levels, there must be an enforcement of rules and laws. Enforcement ensures that motorists and bicyclists alike are supported by adhering to the traffic laws. For all of it to work, there needs to be a realization that cyclists and drivers have to abide by the same rules. It helps to include education and enforcement

programs in the bicycle plan to ensure that cyclists have the knowledge to be safe. The enforcement of road rules for cyclists is a preventative measure that increases safety between cars and cyclists.

4.1.4 Education Education can help guide novice riders find comfort in riding, and teach about bike laws and safety to create a safe biking city. Education programs can help provide a physical place to inform bicyclists and non-bicyclists how to use the roads provides information to bicyclists to plan a route to work. It is also important for education programs to coach bicyclists, young and old, how to handle a bicycle skillfully. It is important to spread information and provide comprehensive education programs for bicyclists, motorists and the general public to improve bicycle safety and encourage increased bicycle use.

A Greener and Safer Pomona

a site. Creating a separation of vehicle types on the right of way is a positive strategy to reduce traffic collisions. Bicycle paths can provide a desirable facility, particularly for novice riders and children, recreational trips, and long distance commuter bicyclists of all skill levels who prefer separation from traffic. On a different not, integrated streets are used to fill in the gaps bike routes, and lanes leave behind.

49 Image 04-04

Examples of each bikeway type

CHAPTER 4: BEST PRACTICES


Image 04-05

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4.1.5 Encouragement

50

Encouragement programs lead non-bicyclists to try bicycling and current bicyclists to ride more often. Encouragement programs can include social events, and group rides to get new riders out on the road. The new Pomona Plan can help encourage and facilitate bicycle riding as an important mode of personal transportation as well as a pleasant source of outdoor exercise. Weekly rides could encourage advanced riders; while monthly rides help encourage novice riders to use their bikes. There are also large sanctioned and unsanctioned events that encourage bicyclist of all experience types to ride. Certain events like CicLAvia, bike to work day, and critical mass have been very successful.

College campus encourage students to ride bicycles

may be worth pursuing. Once the Plan is implemented, the performance and completion of policies and programs must be monitored and evaluated. The Plan provides the necessary measurement tools to review the Plan’s progress as well as improve the quantity and quality of bikeway facilities across local boundaries. Evaluations must use

4.1.6 Evaluation At the heart of any successful program is a method to monitor and evaluate success. Evaluation programs determine what is working and what is not, and identifies new directions which CHAPTER 4: Best Practices

Image 04-06

A Brief History of Traffic Engineering


A Greener and Safer Pomona

Image 04-07

modern tools and sound methodologies to measure bicyclists’ numbers/modeshare, behaviors, crashes, citations, miles/proportions of road and bikeway facilities designed to best practices, and miles/proportion at minimum standards.

4.1.7 Environment For this project we can add a 7th E of equity – Environment. Through the use of Class I bicycle lanes, the Pomona Plan can help establish and support the implementation of a green network, and identify a series of steps to evaluate the feasibility of incorporating bicycle paths City parks. The focus is to provide a safe and comfortable experience for all users. The bike plan will work in conjunction with the green street initiative to create a green network in Pomona.

Fusion of green streets, bike planning, and complete streets

4.2 Green Streets Green infrastructure is often used to refer to networks of parks and open lands that preserve habitats and ecosystem functions, but the term can also encompass small-scale natural features such as trees planted along a city sidewalk. Green streets are great because, green street strategies are used to mimic natural systems to manage stormwater at its source; before entering local water systems. It is achieved by reducing the flow rate of runoff, holding a volume of water on site that can either evaporate or infiltrate, and treating stormwater close to its source. After evaluating different levels of green street intensities, two levels stand out as reasonable and feasible. Most cities have the basic levels of vegetation CHAPTER 4: BEST PRACTICES

51


A Greener and Safer Pomona

on street right of ways, but usually do no spend the extra money to create fully water sustainable sites. Level 3 and 4 green streets stand out for their feasibility to benefits ratio. Level 3 designs create spaces where stormwater runoff is fully managed from the street, sidewalk, and driveway areas within a landscaped system. Design solutions area park-like, provide direct environmental benefits, and are aesthetically pleasing. Level 4 green streets provide a direct focus on alternate modes of transportation including mass transit, biking and walking. These different green street types can be developed with suitable green streets strategies.

52 Image 04-08

CHAPTER 4: Best Practices

Example of a green street corridor in Nashville


Green Street Strategy Pervious Concrete/ Asphalt

Description

Pros

Cons

Pervious concrete is an open void material designed to allow rainwater to filter through the paved surface into the ground rather than settling on the surface. It’s two main objectives are runoff peak flow reduction while providing stormwater treatment.

Becoming more widely used and more commonly accepted.

Prone to rutting

Can be used in both street and parking lot application. Great alternative in high density urban projects. Reduces size of stormwater treatment facilities.

Higher cost of installation compared to conventional standards Frequent maintenance to prevent clotting Little design flexibility

A Greener and Safer Pomona

Green Street Best Management Practice Matrix

Pervious Pavers Similar to the porous concrete pavement, unit pavers provide a hardscape alternative to stormwater treatment BMPs. Unit pavers, or paving stones, are impermeable blocks made of brick, stone, or concrete, set on a prepared sand base. The joints between the blocks are filled with sand or stone dust to allow water to percolate downward.

Becoming more widely used and more commonly accepted Can be used in both street and parking lot application Easily repaired Applicable in small and large paving treatments

Higher cost of installation compared to conventional standards Requires more physical labor to install More effort to meet ADA requirements

Pervious Pavers Similar in concept and function to the porous concrete pavements and unit pavers, the grass pavers are landscaped alternatives designed to allow infiltration of stormwater runoff to the underlaying soil media.

Trays reduce the amount Meant for lowof material to install. use traffic areas like driveways Offers flexibility with and parking gravel and low-growing lots. plant types. Limited realEasy to install. world examples.

53 Kevin Perry, Active Stormwater Design Strategies, 2013

CHAPTER 4: BEST PRACTICES


Green Street Best Management Practice Matrix Green Street Strategy

Description

Pervious Pavers Originally used as alternatives to cracked sidewalks from protruding tree roots, rubber sidewalks are considered as another form of porous pavers to infiltrate runoff. Typically made of recycled rubber from waste tires.

Pros

Cons

Rubber reduce the amount of material to install. Offers flexibility with color options. Useful around trees in high density urban landscapes.

Limited to sidewalk use, or light traffic areas. Limited realworld examples.

Easy to install. Easy maintenance/ repair.

A Greener and Safer Pomona

Pervious Pavers A swale is a broad, shallow channel with a dense stand of vegetation covering the side slopes and bottom. They are designed to treat stormwater primarily through filtration, and plant uptake before conveying the flow to a downstream discharge location. The vegetation helps in reducing flow velocity to prevent erosion. Pervious Pavers

They provide stormwater treatment as well as peak flow attenuation through storage and filtration/infiltration, and adsorption. Stormwater is captured and treated via filtration/infiltration through the soil media and evapotranspiration through the planted vegetation.

54 Kevin Perry, Active Stormwater Design Strategies, 2013

CHAPTER 4: Best Practices

Great for new Need long, development and retrofit continuous projects. space. Widely accepted strategy.

Difficult to incorporate on street parking.

Low infrastructure.

Low cost to implement.

Difficult to provide good pedestrian circulation.

Great for high-density urban environment.

Can be expensive.

Great for volume and flow reduction benefits.

Increased infrastructure.

Versatile in shape and size.

Most appropriate in urban environments.

Simple to construct.

Can be combined with on-street parking.


Green Street Strategy

Description

Pervious Pavers

Similar to vegetated swales in functionallity, rain gardens are shallow landscaped areas that can collect, slow, filter, and absorb large volumes of water, delaying discharge into the watershed system. Designed to treat stormwater primarily through filtration, and plant uptake before conveying the flow to a downstream discharge location. The vegetation helps in reducing flow velocity to prevent erosion.

Pervious Pavers

Curb extensions have historically been used to slow traffic and improve pedestrian safety. A landscaped curb extension version are now being increasingly used to treat stormwater runoff and provide green space. Essentially similar to rain gardens, they treat stormwater through filtration, infiltration, and evapotranspiration.

Pros

Cons

Can really “green” a space.

More maintenance Can be inexpensive depending on hardscape required. and new infrastructure. Can be hard to locate a large Greatest flow and volume benefits because enough space. of size. Versatile in shape and size.

Can really “green” a space. Inexpensive to implement. Versatile in shape and size. Reduce flow speeds on steep streets.

Requires the removal of some on-street parking. Can conflict with bicycle travel if street narrows too much.

Narrow street provides traffic calming benefits.

Pervious Pavers Used to capture and slow stormwater runoff with a very narrow and shallow strip of vegetated and landscaped areas. Filter strips were originally used as an agricultural treatment practice, and have more recently evolved into an urban practice. With proper design and maintenance, filter strips can provide relatively high pollutant removal.

A Greener and Safer Pomona

Green Street Best Management Practice Matrix

Difficult to maintain sheet flow Minimal investment Can be inexpensive Create a more walkable street environment. Provides green buffers to break the visual gray hardscape.

Requires a long, continuous space. Very shallow and do not retain a lot of water. Have to be accompanied by other stormwater strategies.

Kevin Perry, Active Stormwater Design Strategies, 2013

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55


4.3 Conclusion The purpose of the project is to increase, improve and enhance bicycling in the City of Pomona as a safe, healthy and enjoyable means of transportation and recreation. The goals laid out by the project are increase the number and type of bicyclists in the City, make every street a safe place to ride a bicycle, and make the City of Pomona a bicycle friendly community. To accomplish the goals laid out, the project proposes to development a bike master plan and green street initiative.

A Greener and Safer Pomona

The bike master plan and green street initiative will help develop an interconnected city green network of cars, bicycles, and pedestrians. The bike master plan will help connect bike ways

56 CHAPTER 4: Best Practices

to existing bike networks, prominent site features and adjacent cities. The green street initiative will create green corridors by connecting green spaces, parks, and areas of interest through the development of green streets. Where the two ideas overlap is the focus of this project. The two plans can work together to make the City of Pomona a bicycle friendly city, a spearhead in Southern California green street efforts, and a greener and safer place to live. The study helped to identify best management practices for both bike planning, and green street design. The best practices taken from the study will then feed into the development of a working bicycle plan and feasible green street infrastructure plan for Pomona.


A Greener and Safer Pomona

Chapter 5 Site Analysis

57 CHAPTER 5: site analysis


Look left and look right Streets that define a city

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Bikes and trees to come

58 CHAPTER 5: Site Analysis


“Named in honor of the Roman goddess of fruit, the City of Pomona has a history as rich as its fertile soil. The Pomona area was situated along a trade route used by Native Americans. The first recorded inhabitants were the Gabrieleno Native Americans. The valley became known in the 1700’s as Rancho San Jose. A year later it became part of the Mission San Gabriel Grazing lands. Over fifty years later, two soldiers, Don Ingacio Palomares and Don Ricardo Vejar petitioned the governor and on April, 1837 were granted rights to the land. In th e early 1800s, Pomona was known as an ‘urban garden’. Pomona quickly became an economic leader in citrus. In the 1870s, the coming of the railroad spurred agriculture. Pomona’s role in the expanding industry influenced the citrus community to name ‘Pomona’ after the Roman goddess of fruit and fruit trees. The name proved prophetic and vineyards flourished in the 1880’s,

supplying the winemaking and raisin industries. Citrus orchards and olive groves replaced vineyards in the 1890’s and, through its agricultural enterprises Pomona maintained an economic lead in the valley. On January 6,1888, Pomona was incorporated as a City and became a charter City in 1911. Today, Pomona is the fifth-largest city in Los Angeles County, with a population of over 163,000 residents. Pomona boasts a progressive economy, business opportunity, and a strong workforce with attractive shopping, recreational, and real estate offering. The Pomona Valley had been a fruitful valley in the past and is now fruitful from the strength and efforts of its people. With a vision to promote harmonious diversity and economic prosperity, Pomona is vibrant community with progressive citizens leading, testing the limits of progress, and striving to provide a high quality of life for all of Pomona.”

A Greener and Safer Pomona

5.1 History

Source: City of Pomona

59 Image 05-01

Downtown Pomona in the 1910s

CHAPTER 5: site analysis


5.2 Existing Conditions During the site analysis phase of the project, my time was spent scouting most of the city for potential bike routes, and streets to accommodate green infrastructure. There is certain criteria a street must meet to be a part of the project. Street widths, vehicle traffic, on-street parking, existing facilities, and location all played into the development of the bike master plan and green street initiative for the City of Pomona. Other factors included relationships to point of interests and destinations like parks, schools, parks, and major landmarks.

The first is a street right of way wide enough to accommodate a bike lane without the obstruction of on-street vehicle parking. This is the easiest type of street to retrofit, because it provides bicycle circulation without affecting the right of way drastically. These retrofits can sometimes be completed in one day. It is a low cost solution to get movement into the different steps of master plan. Creating bicycle lanes increases the safety factor of the right of way, motivating novice riders to notice.

A Greener and Safer Pomona

5.2.1 Bicycle Facility Scouting While looking for potential bike networks, street widths played a very important role. To reduce the amount of retrofitments, the right of way had to be wide enough to accommodate certain facilities. After conducting research and visiting the site, it seems as if there are four types of areas to look for when producing a bicycle master plan.

60 Image 05-02

Unused space perfect for a bike lane

CHAPTER 5: Site Analysis

Image 05-03

Wide street with on-street parking

Similarly, the second area of focus is a street wide enough to accommodate a bike, but does not include on-street vehicle parking. Adding a bike lane to this site is a simple procedure, and can also be completed in one day. They difference in this bike retrofit, is the safety factor. Drivers may not be observant of cyclists when opening their car door, striking oncoming riders. Safety decreases a little, but the street type is still beneficial to the bike network.


Residential street ideal for a bike route

The third focus area is also a street, but is not wide enough to provide space for a new bike lane. To develop a bicycle route, the potential street has to be in low vehicle traffic zone. Heavy car traffic would not work for the development of bicycle routes where safety is one of the biggest concerns. Vehicle speeds have to be slow, especially when pedestrians and cyclists are present. The route educates and informs drivers to share the road, and that a bicycle is just as important as a car. Bicycle routes are important to fill gaps in the bike plan.

Image 05-05

City land perfect for bike path along river

A Greener and Safer Pomona

Image 05-04

The last focus area is not a street, but an open space away from roads and highways. In Southern California streams and rivers are sometimes channeled into underground pipes or concrete waterways. They are not very appealing, but they do create spaces which can accommodate separated bicycle paths. There is a stream crossing through Pomona, and this space is one of the only areas in the city that can accept a Class I bike path. Bike paths are the ideal bike facility, but in fully developed cities it can be quite hard to find space.

5.2.2 Green Street Scouting Scouting for potential green street locations is not an easy task. The main criteria of the search was the 5 Levels of greens streets mentioned before. Level 1 and 2 green streets are easy to retrofit, and easy to locate potential sites for. It becomes a challenge when trying to find ideal locations for Level 3 and 4 green streets. Level 5 is very difficult to produce because of the public to private realm, so it has been left out for now. Possibly at a later time, can the project be revisited to accommodate Level 5 green streets. Keeping the right of way in mind is most important when trying to identify potential locations for green streets. Not only are street widths important, but sidewalks, parking, and median strips help shape the whole right of way. Existing conditions of a site help decide CHAPTER 5: site analysis

61


what green infrastructure strategies can be implemented. Some streets are more confined to space, and in those cases, a green gutter can help green a space, but also help with stormwater runoff.

A Greener and Safer Pomona

Image 05-06

Parking removed to accommodate bikes

Image 05-07 (Garey Ave) and 05-08 (Temple Ave) show a very similar design technique done when the road was built. These spaces could have easily been vegetated spaces, but were filled with asphalt instead. These are very large spaces which can accommodate, a large interrupted swale. Garey seems to be graded towards the median already, but for these to work the road needs to be regraded with an inverse crown to direct water to the center. Since Temple Ave is loped, the swale would require a series of check damns to reduce flow rates and increase infiltration. It is convenient that check damn height can be adjusted.

In this photo, there is a strip of concrete between the sidewalk and fence that can be taken out. This area can accept water from the parking lot and street through a series of runnels. Additionally, the dead space behind the fence can become a rain garden thats accepts the water from the green gutter. Image 05-08

62 Image 05-07

Potential green infrastructure median

CHAPTER 5: Site Analysis

Potential green corridor

Image 05-08 (Foothill Ave) shows a portion of the road where a bike lane was recently introduced. There is not on-street parking, so it seems that the large gap between the bike lane and curb can be used to introduce stormwater management facilities. Implementing an infiltration planter in the large length of land would be best. Infiltration planters


5.3 Context Maps To develop a successful plan, the relationship of spaces has to be taken Image 05-11 Image 05-09

hold a large volume of water, and since there are no interruptions the planter can be continuous. Boardwalks can be used for any pedestrian crossings, and sidewalk access points. The design would work better with a curb to prevent adjacent cyclist and vehicles from accidentally falling into the infiltration planter.

Image 05-10

Potential green space if parallel parking

Unused space between curb and lane

Downtown Pomona Third Street

The focus area for the green street design will be in the heart of Downtown Pomona. Third Street has a large right of way that can be redesigned into a more sustainable and pedestrian friendly site. By reducing lane widths, changing angeled parking to parallel, and using a portion of sidewalk space, Third Street can a prime example for Pomona’s Green

into account. The first step is to identify key destination points like parks, schools and universities, water, and transportation facilities. As the maps are acquired, visually they represent what connections are needed. The bike plan connects these spaces with bike paths, lanes, and routes, and creates a larger connected network of bicycle facilities.

A Greener and Safer Pomona

Street Initiative. Third street will act as a pilot design for the rest of Pomona, and if successful, the proposed green street plan can be used as a guide to implement other green infrastructure projects.

The Green Street Initiative is set to provide a greener Pomona, and it can only be achieved if there exists an interconnected network of open land. The green streets are strategically placed to create green corridors between existing parks, and green spaces. The green corridors will revitalize Pomona and increase the quality of life.

63 CHAPTER 5: site analysis


5.3 Site Analysis and Mapping Green Space Map Legend Ï !

Parks and Gardens Green Spaces Streets

Ï !

Pomona County Boundary

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Image 05-12

Locations of parks and major vegetated areas in Pomona

A Greener and Safer Pomona

Water Legend Canal/Ditch

Streets

Connector

Pomona

Underground Aqueduct

City Boundaries

Underground Pipe

County Boundary

Intermittent Stream

Water Legend

Streets

Connector

Pomona

Underground Aqueduct

City Boundaries

Underground Pipe

County Boundary

Intermittent Stream Waterbody

64 Image 05-13

CHAPTER 5: Site Analysis

Waterbody

Canal/Ditch

Water body locations in Pomona


A Greener and Safer Pomona

School Map Legend Colleges & Universities Private and Charter Schools Public Elementary Schools Public Middle Schools Public High Schools

Points of Interests Legend Points Interests Legend! Halls = Cityof ! ® h ! h !

F !

c !

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Ò !

Streets City Boundaries

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h !

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h !

! c Ò

Hospitals & Medical Centers F Fire Stations ! Libraries & Medical Centers ! h Hospitals

^ ^

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Shopping Centers Police Stations

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Libraries

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Image 05-14

Ò !

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h ! F ! Ò !

c Points !

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c Æ

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of Interests Legend ® !

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F !

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Pomona

Hospitals & Medical Centers

^

Police Stations

County Boundary

h !

Shopping Centers

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Ò& Medical Centers Hospitals! Ò !

^

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h !

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65

Ò !

F ! Ò ! Image 05-15

Ò !

F !

Other points of interests across Pomona

CHAPTER 5: site analysis Ò ! Ò !

F !


Transportation Legend

Transportation Legend i  Ã!

 à ¿ ¾

Metrolink Stations

Bus Line

Pomona

Amtrak Stations

Metrolink

City Boundaries

i !

Park and Ride Locations

Freeway

County Boundary

¿ ®

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 à ¿ ¾

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Amtrak Stations

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i !

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Image 05-16

Major transportation points in Pomona

A Greener and Safer Pomona

Combination Map Legend Shopping

Green Spaces

Streets

Event Venue

Canal/Ditch

Freeway

Schools

Underground Connection

Pomona

Medical Centers

Intermittent Stream

City Boundaries

Waterbody

County Boundary

Civic Combination Map Legend

Combination Map Legend

Shopping

Green Spaces

Streets

Event Venue

Canal/Ditch

Freeway

Schools

Underground Connection

Pomona

Medical Centers

Intermittent Stream

City Boundaries

Civic

Waterbody

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Green Spaces

Streets

Event Venue

Canal/Ditch

Freeway

Schools

Underground Connection

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Medical Centers

Intermittent Stream

City Boundaries

Civic

Waterbody

County Boundary

66 Image 05-17

CHAPTER 5: Site Analysis

All maps combined to show relationships


Recognizing walking and bicycling as healthy, accessible and sustainable forms of transportation, the City of Pomona has embarked on developing its first complete Bicycle Master Plan combined with a green street initiative. The emerging economic vitality of downtown Pomona, proximity to schools and institutions of higher learning, and transportation systems provide opportunities to expand mobility choices in Pomona, making it an even more inviting place to walk and bike. Other areas of opportunity include parks, waterways, and general points of interest like shopping centers. The update to the Bicycle Master Plan will include the development of a proposed citywide bikeway network, seeking to build safe and accessible

connections to Downtown Pomona, local schools and universities, and bicycle facilities in neighboring cities. The main constrain of the project is the connection to neighboring cities. The City of La Verne and the City of Upland both have made it a point to not develop a bike plan. Two gaps will lie in the Pomona Valley development of bike planning. Deciding where bike facilities begin and end at La Verne will be a challenge. The other constraint for the project is the lack of support and precedent for green street projects. The County of Los Angeles has only just begin to support green infrastructure projects, so the implementation of a Green Street Initiative may be hard. Overall the project does not have any large restrictions. Development and implementation lie within policy and planning of the City and County.

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5.4 Opportunities and Constraints

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Competitive cycling line

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Chapter 6 Design Development

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Implemention A green bike community

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Hope for Pomona

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Draft Bike Master Plan Bike Routes and Connections Legend Shopping

Pomona

Event Venue

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Green Spaces

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Bike Route Classification Minor

Intermediate

Major

The first draft of the bike master plan is meant to map out major corridors and arterials, and smaller network streets. First, the main arterials were mapped to show the major spines in Pomona. Second, secondary streets were mapped out to give connections between major points of interests. Lastly, tertiary streets were mapped out to fully connect the bike network across Pomona. The goal is to be able to get to all points of interests on a bicycle. Image 06-01

A Greener and Safer Pomona

6.1 Bike Master Plan

Major bike connections and thoroughways

Class I Bike Lanes Bike Master Plan Legend Shopping

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Event Venue

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Schools

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Freeway

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Bike Lane Classification Class I

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Class I Bike Lane Plan

CHAPTER 6: design


Class II Bike Lanes Bike Master Plan Legend Shopping

Pomona

Event Venue

City Boundaries

Schools

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Freeway

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Bike Lane Classification Class II

Image 06-03

Class II Bike Lane Plan

Class III Bike Lanes

A Greener and Safer Pomona

Bike Master Plan Legend Shopping

Pomona

Event Venue

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Green Spaces

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Bike Lane Classification Class III

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CHAPTER 6: design

Class III Bike Lane Plan


A Greener and Safer Pomona

Final Bike Master Plan

Bike Mast

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Medica Civic Green

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Image 06-05

Final classified Bike Master Plan

Bike Master Plan Legend Shopping

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Water Channel

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The final Bike Master Plan shows all classes of bikeways. It is a development on the first draft, with finalized connections. The determining factor for classes is mostly due to street widths. The final Pomona Plan shows connections all across Pomona, with close attention to neighboring cities. It is important to connect the new bikeways to bordering bike master plan cities.

Bike Lane Classification Class I

Class I

Class II

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CHAPTER 6: design


6.2 Green Street Initiative Draft Green Street Master Plan Green Street Master Plan Legend Shopping

Pomona

Event Venue

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Potential Green Street Green Streets

The Green Street Initiative is meant to create green corridors, connecting parks and vegetated areas together. The plan is meant to work alongside the bike master plan to create personal, walkable corridors. The plan is first approached with street widths, and wasted spaces in mind. Wide right of ways and unused spaces create opportunities for green streets. The map shows an examination of potential streets and corridors in Pomona. Image 06-06

Potential green infrastructure locations

Level 1 Green Streets

A Greener and Safer Pomona

Green Street Master Plan Legend Shopping

Pomona

Event Venue

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Potential Green Street Level 1

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Source: Kevin Perry 2013 Image 06-07

CHAPTER 6: design

Level 1 Green Street Plan


Green Street Master Plan Legend Shopping

Pomona

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Potential Green Street Level 2

A Greener and Safer Pomona

Level 2 Green Streets

Source: Kevin Perry 2013 Image 06-08

Level 2 Green Street Plan

Level 3 Green Streets Green Street Master Plan Legend Shopping

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Event Venue

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Medical Centers

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Potential Green Street Level 3

Source: Kevin Perry 2013 Image 06-09

Level 3 Green Street Plan

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Level 4 Green Streets Green Street Master Plan Legend Shopping

Pomona

Event Venue

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Medical Centers

Freeway

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County Boundary

Green Spaces

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Potential Green Street Level 4

Source: Kevin Perry 2013 Image 06-10

Level 4 Green Street Plan

Level 5 Green Streets

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Green Street Master Plan Legend Shopping

Pomona

Event Venue

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Medical Centers

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Green Spaces

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Potential Green Street Level 5

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Source: Kevin Perry 2013 Image 06-11

CHAPTER 6: design

Level 5 Green Street Plan


A Greener and Safer Pomona

Final Green Street Master Plan

Green Stre

Shopping

Event Ve Schools Medical Civic

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Potential G Level 1 Level 4

Image 06-12

Final Classified Green Street Master Plan

Green Street Master Plan Legend Shopping

Pomona

Event Venue

City Boundaries

Schools

Streets

Medical Centers

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County Boundary

Green Spaces

Water Channel

Waterbody

Potential Green Street Level 1

Level 2

Level 4

Level 5

Once the potential green streets are examined, they were divided into different levels of green streets. The spectrum of green streets can range from a strip of grass, to an intricate system between landscapes and buildings. The focus was mostly geared toward Level 3 and 4 green streets, where stormwater is managed on site. The Green Street Initiative is meant to give the City of Pomona an opportunity to become a spearhead in the green street movement.

Level 3

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6.3 Green Street Pilot Project Downtown Pomona - Third Street

Image 06-13

Third Street Existing Conditions

Third Street Pomona Existing Conditions Number of Travel Lanes/Direction: 2 lanes, two-way travel Typical Sidewalk Width: 12 Feet Travel Lane Widths: 14 Feet Parking Space Orientation: Angled - 45 degree angle Parallel Parking Stall Dimensions: Angled - 9.5’ wide, 14’ offset from curb Parallel - Not defined Green Street Strategies

A Greener and Safer Pomona

1

Vegetated Swale 4

Flow-Through Planters 7

Rain Garden

Curb Extension Pervious Pavement Boardwalk 2 5 8 3

Bike Route 6

Parking Zone Tree Well 9

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Bike Parking

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9 Image 06-14

Downtown Pomona Third Street Retrofit

CHAPTER 6: design


Travel Lane Widths: 10 Feet Parking Stall Dimensions: 20’ Wide, 8’ offset from edge of travel lane Amount of Landscaping (SF): 9451 sq. ft. Typical Sidewalk Width: 10 Feet Stormwater Strategies: There are six stormwater management strategies being used in this pilot project: flow-through planters, pervious pavements, tree wells, vegetated swales, curb extensions, and rain gardens. Mostly water flows from planter to planter till it reaches a rain garden to allow for maximum infiltration. The use of tree wells, flow-through planters, and curb extensions reduce flow rates. Additionally, rain gardens and vegetated swales allow large volumes of water to be held on site, allowing for infiltration. Pervious surfaces are used to reduce the amount of impervious area, and add infiltration and runoff benefits. Bike Travel/Parking Considerations: Bike Travel is kept along side with vehicles. The added green infrastructure will act as traffic calming efforts to create a more bike and pedestrian friendly corridor. Parking is kept at 45 degree on the north side, and parallel on the south side of the street. This allows the maximization of parking, and green infrastructure space, while retaining existing trees. Stormwater Flowline Considerations: North Side – Flow line is along the tree wells located between the angled parking. Water flows from tree to tree, till finally reaching a rain garden to let water infiltrate. South Side – The Flow line is kept along the curb and gutter. Water flows into small curb extensions to reduce flow rate. The water then reaches a rain garden where water can infiltrate into the ground.

A Greener and Safer Pomona

Proposed Third Street Retrofits

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3 CHAPTER 6: design


Detail Section and Plan

Section Detail 1 for Third Street Retrofit

Image 06-16

Plan Detail 1 for Third Street retrofit

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Image 06-15

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CHAPTER 6: design


Image 06-17

Section Detail 2 for Third Street retrofit

Image 06-18

Plan Detail 2 for Third Street retrofit

CHAPTER 6: design

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Third Street Pilot Project

Third Street Existing Conditions 1

Image 06-20

Third Street Redesign 1

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Image 06-19

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Image 06-21

A Greener and Safer Pomona

Third Street Pilot Project

Third Street Existing Conditions 2

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Third Street Redesign 2

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CHAPTER 6: design

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References (2010). Technical design handbook, 2010 bicycle plan. Retrieved from website: http://clkrep.lacity.org/onlinedocs/2010/10-2385-S2_MISC_07-11-11.pdf (2011). “US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/files/2010_place_ list_06.txt Chau, H. (2009). Green infrastructure for los angeles: Addressing urban runoff and water supply through low impact development. Retrieved from website: http:// environmentla.org/pdf/LID-Paper_4-1-09_530pm.pdf County of Los Angeles Bicycle Master Plan. (2010). Retrieved from http://dpw. lacounty.gov/pdd/bikepath/bikeplan County of Los Angeles Bicycle Master Plan. (2010). Retrieved from http://dpw.lacounty.gov/pdd/bikepath/bikeplan Grey to Green. Bureau of Environmental Services. (2010). Retrieved from http://www. portlandoregon.gov/bes/article/321331 Kurtz, T. (2008). Managing street runoff with green streets. Retrieved from www.portlandonline.com/bes/index.cfm?c=34598

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Low impact development center - green streets. (2008). Retrieved from http://www. lowimpactdevelopment.org/greenstreets/index.htm

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Miller, C. (2001). Stormwater strategies: Community responses to runoff pollution. Retrieved from http://www.nrdc.org/water/pollution/storm/chap12.asp Portland bicycle plan for 2030: A world-class bicycling city. (2010, February 11). Retrieved from http://www.portlandoregon.gov/transportation/article/289122 Portland’s green infrastructure: quantifying the health, energy, and community livability benefits. (2010, February 16). Retrieved from http://www.portlandoregon.gov/ bes/article/321331 Portland bicycle plan for 2030: A world-class bicycling city. (2010, February 11). Retrieved from http://www.portlandoregon.gov/transportation/article/289122 Portland’s green infrastructure: quantifying the health, energy, and community livability benefits. (2010, February 16). Retrieved from http://www.portlandoregon.gov/ bes/article/321331 Perry, K. (2013) “Active Stormwater Design Strategies.” LDA 191. Landscape Architecture Department. UC Davis, Davis, CA. Lecture.


Tam, W. (2011). Environmentla. Retrieved from http://environmentla.org/programs/ aboutgreeninfrastructure.htm The green solution project: Creating and restoring park, habitat, recreation and open space on public lands to naturally clean polluted urban and stormwater runoff. (2008, March). Retrieved from http://www.conservationsolutions.org/pdf/ GreenSolutionsReport/GreenSol-ExecutivePackage.pdf Williams, J. et all. (1976). Cyclateral Thinking: An Atlas of Ideas For Bicycle Planning. Urban Bikeway Design Collaborative. MIT. Cambridge, MA.

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References Continued

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Image Citations Chapter 1

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Chapter 2

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Chapter 3

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http://pvbike.wordpress.com/ http://www.downtownpomona.org/ http://www.wikipedia.com http://www.maptechnica.com/ http://www.altaplanning.com/ http://www.letssavemichigan.com/ http://www.wikipedia.com http://empowerla.org/ tumblr.com http://www.climateplan.org/ http://www.siegel-lawfirm.com/ http://www.wired.com/ http://www.edgecastcdn.net http://streetsblog.net/ http://www.tumblr.com http://www.adventurecycling.org/ http://www.adventurecycling.org/ http://www.bicycling.com/ http://calmstreetsboston.blogspot.com/ Los Angeles Technical Design Handbook, 2010 Bicycle Plan http://www.blogspot.com http://planphilly.com/ http://laundelles.wordpress.com/ http://www.portlandoregon.gov/ http://www.pavestone.com/ http://www.portlandoregon.gov/ Kevin Perry Kevin Perry Kevin Perry Kevin Perry http://laist.com/ Green Infrastructure for Los Angeles County of Los Angeles Bicycle Master Plan County of Los Angeles Bicycle Master Plan County of Los Angeles Bicycle Master Plan Green Infrastructure for Los Angeles http://www.brooklyngreenway.org/ Green Infrastructure for Los Angeles County of Los Angeles Bicycle Master Plan http://theintertwine.org/ http://www.portlandoregon.gov/ http://slotweedride.wordpress.com/ http://earth911.com/ http://www.portlandoregon.gov/


Chapter 4

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Chapter 5

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Chapter 6

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http://surreycycleguy.blogspot.com/ Los Angeles Technical Design Handbook, 2010 Bicycle Plan http://www.considerbiking.org/ David Chacara http://njbikeped.org/ http://www.copenhagenize.com/ http://www.ca-city.com/ http://www.smartgrowthamerica.org/

http://www.downtownpomona.org/ David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara http://www.nbclosangeles.com/

David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara maps.google.com David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara David Chacara Kendra Pineda David Chacara

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Image Citations Continued

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A Greener and Safer Pomona

A Greener and Safer Pomona: A Bike Master Plan and Green Street Initiative  

UC David 2013 Senior Project A look into the need for an overall bike master plan, and the possibility of a green street initiative for the...

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